Hepatitis A – How to Prevent It

Hepatitis A is a very highly contagious infection of a person's liver and it is caused by a virus. It is not considered as dangerous as other viral types of Hepatitis, but it does cause severe pain and inflammation that affects the human liver's abilities to function properly.

The most likely way of contracting Hepatitis A is through food or water that has been in close contact with someone who has already been infected. People that are infected may appear to be normal while not knowing that they are already sick from the virus. It is said that some people do not even develop any signs or symptoms, while others may feel like they have a severe case of the 'flu.

Some symptoms of Hepatitis A are fatigue, nausea, dark urine, muscle pains and itching. Some people even experience their skin changing to a yellowish color, also know as "jaundice". It is said that you can have the virus for a month or more before you even start noticing any types of symptoms. But, when they do appear, they come suddenly, which makes people feel like they are coming down with a case of the 'flu.

Some of the likeliest ways of contracting Hepatitis A are traveling to or working in places that are at high risk, from involvement with sexually active gay men or using drugs, whether injected or non-injected. Blood transfusions can also present a risk and have been widely blamed for some cases. Some people have been known to contract the virus from working in a research type setting with the virus present.

Practicing good hygiene is one of the best ways to protect yourself, together with avoidance of high risk situations. However, the safest way to avoid contracting the virus is to get a vaccine shot, or immune globulin. Immune globulin is said to only protect you for a short time, while the actual vaccine can protect you for up to twenty years or more. Another type of vaccine known as Twinrix is ​​specifically designed for people who are eighteen years or older. Twinrix is ​​said to be just as effective as the regular vaccines HAV and HAB. But it is noted that some side effects are included with this shot. Soreness around the injection area, headaches and fatigue often follow after the shot although such side effects are usually gone with a 48 hour time frame. Following all safety precautions when traveling to a foreign region is also a must, remembering to always peel and wash any fruit or vegetables before eating and avoiding uncooked food.

There is really no specific treatment for Hepatitis A. People are advised to receive adequate nutrition, so they can avoid any type of permanent liver damage. When nausea is a problem, they are advised to eat small snacks throughout the period instead of large meals which could make them sick. Easily digested foods are the safest bet. It is said that people who are infected usually tolerate food better in the morning than later in the day. Doctors generally advise their patients to avoid drinking alcohol at all costs during the main phases of the virus. Even after full recovery, they are told not to mix alcohol with any type of medication, mainly Tylenol, because this can cause major damage to the liver.

Experts say that sufferers should regain their energy after the signs and symptoms disappear. The liver should also heal within one or two months. It is noted that some people experience relapses over six to nine month periods.

Depression Signals – 9 Signs to Show What if You Are in Depression State

As seen from daily news, you may find suicide news happened almost everyday which most of them causing from personal depression. Moreover, this seems to be increasingly happened to anyone within this recent trouble world.

Depression is a black hole and dark state which is the emotion stage that everyone never has expected to be emerged. Depression signs may consist of feeling rather flat, tired and unmotivated which can happen to anyone from time to time due to some unexpected event occurred to your life. The emotion like depression can badly affect the ability to function appropriately which negatively distribute through almost every aspect of your activities.

Generally a person with depression will not be able to participate in social activities or hobbies that they once enjoy. Such feelings can show ups-and-downs within their life which can happen suddenly after any loss or bad happening that strongly effect through their feeling.

Are you in doubt about what if you or your family members are in the depression stages? Here we have 9 obvious signs which can basically predict that you or anyone in these certain following reactions can possibly be depressed.

1. Difficulty thinking and concentrating,

2. Difficulty making decisions,

3. Fatigue or loss of energy,

4. Feeling physically slow, agitated, or restless to the degree that others begin to notice,

5. Physical complaints such as headaches, joint pains and stomach aches,

6. Low self-esteem, feeling worthless or excessively guilty,

7. Low libido or diminished interest in sex,

8. Suicidal thoughts, or continuous thoughts of death and self-harm,

9. Show up with some Depressed Sentences such as …

…”I feel sad all the time and just don’t feel like myself.” …

…”Sometimes I feel like my life is not worth living anymore.”…

…”Even after a long day, I still feel restless.” or

…”I just feel so worthless.”, etc.

Kidney Stent – Side Effects and Complications

A kidney stent is a hollow tubular structure which is medically used to drain the kidney when there is an obstruction in the flow of urine from the kidneys into the bladder. Such obstructions can arise due to various conditions like kidney stones, tumors, blood clots, postsurgical swelling or a narrowing of the ureter which are a pair of muscular tubes connecting the kidneys to the urinary bladder. Based on the severity of the obstruction these stents are either placed for a few days or weeks or may be required for a longer time period extending to several months.

Side effects and complications arising due to the placement of a kidney stent vary randomly from one user to the other. Many patients can feel the tube inside them almost all the time while others claim to have no sensation of the inserted material in their body. Before undergoing a kidney stent placement it is vital for a patient to be aware of the various side effects and complications that are generally associated with it. A basic understanding of the symptoms will help patients to know when it is essential to contact a doctor and address health issues immediately.

Some of the most common side effects observed in patients using a kidney stent include:

Bladder Irritation – Many patients experience bladder irritation which is mainly because of the sensation of the stent which gives a feeling of discomfort and an impression of emptying out the bladder incompletely.

Frequent Urination And Incontinence – Experiencing an increased frequency in urination is one of the most common side effects and is also accompanied by urinary incontinence in women.

Discomfort and Pain – A feeling of discomfort and pain is also a general side effect of having a kidney stent placement especially in the initial days of the procedure.

Bleeding – The trace of blood appearing in urine is a normal side effect which mostly disappears or decreases after the first few days of the placement. Drinking increased amount of water and avoiding intense physical activities help in eliminating this symptom to a large extent.

When one or more of the following complications arise due to kidney stent placement it is necessary to get in touch with your doctor as soon as possible:

Haematuria – While finding a few traces of blood in urine is a common side effect of a stent placement it is important to get medical advice if this symptom increases in frequency as well as in volume.

Excessive Pain – If you are experiencing excessive pain in the flank or lower abdominal area which becomes unbearable during urination it might be caused due to the dislodgment of the stent which will require immediate medical attention and readjustment.

Urinary tract infections – Patients who have a stent in their kidneys should be especially vigilant about sudden fevers and an increased sensation of pain or a burning feeling while urination. These symptoms can be indicative of a urinary tract infection which can develop due to the displacement of the stent or other secondary causes.

If you or your family member already have or are undergoing a kidney stent placement it is important to be aware of the various side effects and complications that can arise due to this procedure. While the side effects usually decrease during course of time and completely disappear after the stent is removed, make sure that you get in touch with your doctor as soon as any of the above mentioned complications surface.

Summary – Common side effects of kidney stent use include bladder irritation, urinary problems, pain and bleeding while rare complications like severe haematuria, excessive pain and urinary tract infections can also arise in some patients. While the complications need to be addressed immediately, with proper medical care the side effects reduce considerably after the first few days of the stent insertion.

The Introduction to Arachnophobia

Hollywood made a beautiful bad film about it – “Arachnophobia,” but for some, the show was excruciating – if they even went to see it. The cast sure was amazing: John Goodman (“Roseanne”), Kathy Kinney (“The Drew Carey Show”), and Jeff Daniels (“Dumb and Dumber”).

Nevertheless it doesn’t take a film to frighten people who undergo from arachnophobia. Spiders can be anywhere and everywhere. That fact isolated strikes terror into the hearts of those who view this horror in their minds.

This writer has never really had a glitch with spiders. When I see them, I find the close shoe and mail them onto spider heaven. I don’t want them crawling all over me, but if I see one, I don’t get freaked out. Now show me a snake and it’s a different anecdote. So I understand!

God did not make spiders cute and cuddly. He did not make them fun or even interesting – well, to most people. After all, they just kind of crawl around, and lurk in shadows spaces occasionally rotating a web for you to get all over your face if you toddle through it. Around Halloween, this can be great – handmade decorations! Nevertheless at other epoch, it’s just a nuisance.

Then you have to think those spiders that are lethal. Media outlets have made all of us increasingly aware of the dangers of bronzed recluse spiders and the mean scratch they can inflict on the soul body. Then you have to believe the deadly Tarantulas, and other wicked spiders that can be lurking just underneath your house.

Perhaps this is why people are terrified of spiders – because they can be everywhere. Arachnophobia is a very honestly phobia for many people. Almost half of all women undergo from an alarm of spiders and about 10 percent of men portion that alarm.

Fear of spiders, just like other phobias, is a very existent proviso for many people. It is one that they regularly fancy they could get over just for the sense of normalcy. Instead of shrieking in start at the prospect of a spider, they want they do like I do and just grab a shoe transport that spider into the great nameless. Nevertheless they’re not able to do that: at least not yet. There are customs to overcome the concern of spiders. Let’s take a good look at why people fear spiders, how phobias mature, and conduct to overcome that fear and manage a satisfying life right alongside those 8 legged creatures.

Can Gripe Water Brings Harm to Your Babies?

Gripe water is a home remedy that has been used in Europe for ages. Mother’s find it handy as it is effective in treating colic, gastrointestinal discomfort, reflux or any other stomach ailment.

Although this type of remedies has shown its effectiveness in soothing digestive problems, it can still be harmful to the infants if it is not carefully used.

The possible side effect for gripe water includes dehydration, vomiting, allergies and worst, it can even cause brain defect! Improper use of ingredients added to it can produce disastrous side effect and mothers should always pay 101% extra precaution on the ingredients picked to avoid bringing long term harmful effect to your baby.

Risky gripe waters include those that are sold in the pharmacist. There are manufactured in the factory and you may not know what is the exact ingredient added to it. You just have to be extra fussy while purchasing to minimize the risk.

Harmless ingredient may include chamomile, aloe vera, ginger root extract and also fennel. It is advisable to seek for pharmacist advice and precautions while giving it to your baby to make sure it is safe.

To be safer, some mothers would rather prepare this kind of home remedies on their own. This can produce much less of a problem as you knew the kind of ingredients that were added into it.

However, before making any start, do not just blindly add whatever you think it is correct. You should seek for recipes from experienced mother who have tried preparing this kind of home remedies on their own or search for recipes from the internet. Whatever you do, you should always try first before giving it to your baby.

Indeed, home remedy has it pros and cons. There is risk on applying it to infants but at the same time it is beneficial to treat gastrointestinal problems such as colitis, a mysterious disease where doctors could not find the cause of it. Gripe water appears to be miracle when there is no absolute medicine for colitis.

At the end of the day, all you have to be concern is the ingredients added into gripe water. Do not just blindly add whatever you think it is beneficial. If it is purchased from pharmacy store, consult the pharmacist to reduce any possible harmful effect to your baby.

Food Poisoning – The Holiday Gift You Do not Want!

Food makes the holidays more festive. At this time of year you enjoy family dinners, church potlucks, office parties, buffet lunches, cookie exchanges, and cups of cheer. Gifts are exchanged, too, and food poisoning is the "gift" you do not want.

Though it's relatively rare in the US, food poisoning can happen to anyone. That does not mean much if you're the one who gets it. You may get food poisoning at home or while traveling. Each year 60-80 million (that's MILLION) people around the globe get food poisoning.

If you've had food poisoning you know it's awful, so awful you thought you were going to die. Some people do die. The FDA says food poisoning is especially threatening to kids five years old and younger, and the elderly. E.coli can cause hemolyptic uremic syndrome, which can lead to kidney damage and, in some cases, death.

The symptoms of food poisoning are nasty: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, headaches, and weakness. Food poisoning strikes within two-to-four hours after eating contaminated food and it can last as long as 10 days. Prevetion is the best defense against food poisoning.

Mayo Clinic, in an article titled "Serve it Up Safe: 8 Ways to Prevent Food-Bourne Illness," lists some prevention tips. They include washing linens often and washing equipment, including your meat thermometer, in hot, soapy water. To be in the safe side, you should reheat leftovers to an internal temperature of 165 degrees.

Practice safe food handling during the holidays. Unsure about what to do? Follow these tips to keep your tummy safe during the holidays.


1. Wash your hands well before handling food.

2. Use paper or cloth dishcloths, not sponges.

4. Separate raw foods from ready-to-eat foods.

5. Store washed produce in a different container, not the original.

6. Keep cold foods at 40 degrees or less.

7. Keep hot foods at 140 degrees or more.

8. Double-bag leaking meat and poultry packages or seal them in plastic wrap.

9. Thaw meat and poultry in the refrigerator, not on the counter.

10. NEVER eat frozen meat, poultry or fish that has been thawed and refrozen.

11. Check internal temperature of meat and poultry with a thermometer.

12. Use a clean spoon every time you taste food.

13. Clear leftover food quickly and refrigerate.


1. Ask a knowledgable person to be in charge.

2. Refrigerate donated food immediately.

3. Wash hands before handling food. (Buy several bottles of hand sanitizer.)

4. Label foods so people know what they're eating.

5. Tell people if food contains nuts or soy.

6. Serve food in small batches, not all at once.

7. Keep mayonnaise-based foods icy cold.

8. Keep hot foods really hot.

9. Do not leave food out for more than two hours.

10. Provide clean storage containers for leftovers. Write the food and date on all containers.

11. Discard food that has not been refrigerated for more than four hours.


1. Check to see if food handlers are wearing plastic gloves.

2. Find out if the food handlers are handling money. (Money is often contaiminaed with human feces.)

3. Is there a cough shield over the food table?

4. Skip the salad bar if the ingredients are not on ice.

5. Check to see if the restaurant has a clean plate policy for additional servings of salad.

6. Do not eat salad dressing that's in open bowls on the table.

7. Make sure hot food is kept in warming pans, kettles, and hot plates.

8. Each dish should have its own serving spoon or fork.

9. Servers should bring buffet foods out in small batches.

10. Does the menu say all beef will be cooked to medium temperature?

11. Hamburgers should be cooked until the internal temperature is 160 degrees.

12. Write the food and date on your doggie bag / box.

"Everyone is at risk for foodbourne illness," according to the FDA's Food Safety Education Website. That makes food safety your business. Call the local public health department if you see unsafe food practices. And follow the FDA's advice during the holidays: When in doubt throw it out!

Copyright 2009 by Harriet Hodgson

Anxiety Disorder Symptoms – Don’t be mistaken!

It is widely accepted that, the most common anxiety disorder symptom remains frequent and unexpected occurrences of panic attacks. This particular symptom is worsened if the panic attacks are not tied to any particular event or trigger, thus occurring out of the blue. Moreover this first symptom leads to the second major anxiety disorder symptom which is constant and perpetual worrying about when and where the next panic attack would occur. This fretting and worrying in turn leads to the third defining anxiety disorder symptom, i.e. the alteration of one’s behavior to avoid places and situations where one has previously experienced a panic attack.

You need to understand that an anxiety disorder is a mental illness in which the patient often suffers from repeated panic attacks and is a victim of persistent anxiety and/or change of behavior at the thought of having further attacks. An anxiety disorder is a very serious matter since the frequent occurrence of anxiety attacks prevents the patient from leading his/her life in a normal manner. As the severity of the anxiety disorder increases, the more the person suffering from it withdraws from society and from his/her social obligations. Hence, the sooner one gets treatment, the easier the whole ordeal becomes. To get treatment through gaining knowledge about the symptoms of an anxiety disorder is crucial as only when one knows about the symptoms can one have an early diagnosis.

While a panic or anxiety attack may last only a few minutes, the effects it has are far reaching; with the memory of the attack permanently imprinted on the victim’s memory. Thinking about the intense panic and terror experienced during the attack can go a long way to completely destroying the victim’s self-confidence.

As a result, people who suffer from a panic disorder, tend to exhibit two traits. Firstly, they are a victim of Anticipatory Anxiety i.e. ‘the fear of fear’. In other words, people who have once had an attack, instead of going on with normal life after the attack has subsided, keep fretting and worrying about what the future has in store for them. This in turn leads them to suffer from Phobic Avoidance i.e. the avoidance of any and all situations which are believed by the victim as a causal factor of his/her panic disorder. In its more extreme form, Phobic Avoidance can lead to agoraphobia whereby the sufferer avoids all places where he/she might not find an escape route or feel embarrassed if a panic attack was to occur. Thus, the person may stop going out of his/her home to shop, to work, to exercise, and so on and so forth.

Hence, the seriousness of an anxiety disorder is pretty straightforward and obvious. It is for this reason that the anxiety disorder symptoms mentioned here need to be noted and looked out for. As stated before, the sooner the anxiety disorder symptoms are detected, the sooner treatment can be sought.

Treatment will usually take the form of medication, behavioral therapy, or a combination of the two. Alternatively, one can also try and cut back on things that cause anxiety. One should avoid taking on too much stress by eliminating things in one’s day which cause stress or increase anxiety levels such as caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine. Instead, it would be a great idea to make room for a regular exercise plan and make it a habit to eat lots of fruits and vegetables. Additionally, one should also try and read up on various relaxation techniques. These techniques can help one gain control over one’s anxiety levels by allowing a person to induce relaxation as and when he/she pleases.

Early Pregnancy Symptom – Know the Indicators

Any woman trying to get pregnant just can not bear to wait patiently to find out if she has achieved her objective. She wants to find out sooner than later if she is pregnant. Your body is an excellent indicator of early pregnancy symptoms. It is very important to monitor your body very carefully and be alert to even the minutest of the changes within. Though no two pregnancies are the same, some women may experience early pregnancy symptoms within just a few days of conception, while others may have no body changes till about a few weeks of conception.

Early sign of pregnancy

Monitor your body carefully to recognize early pregnancy symptoms. Advancing pregnancy week by week, gives rise to many changes in the body, both internally as well as externally. Some changes are:

Nausea: Morning sickness or frequent vomiting occurs very early in the pregnancy. Many women mistake it for food poisoning or stomach disorder.

Heartburn: Indigestion, acidity and heartburn are also early pregnancy symptoms and stay till late stages of pregnancy.

Enhanced sense of smell and taste: Lots of women become very sensitive to the taste and smell of common food items. Those items trigger nausea.

Dizziness and fainting: Enhanced smells, taste and nausea make many women avoid food and skip meals. This results in low blood sugar level and dizzy spells or fainting.

Constipation: Lack of proper diet and slow metabolism during pregnancy results in frequent constipation.

Frequent urination: This happens as early as first week of pregnancy due to the pressure of growing uterus on the urinary bladder.

Tiredness: Exhaustion and tiredness are the common symptoms of pregnancy in first trimester.

Enlarged nipples and tender breasts: As the body prepares itself for breastfeeding, the nipples enlarge and breasts become swollen, tender and sore to touch during early pregnancy.

Spotting: Some women may experience some light bleeding or spotting 8-10 days after ovulation, coinciding with the date of next due period.

Missed period: This is the clinical, classic early pregnancy symptom. Some women may experience cramping and low back pain as just before the arrival of periods feeling without any signs of bleeding.

Irritability: Nausea, tiredness, cramps, backache, enhanced smells and fluctuating hormones make many pregnant women extremely irritable.

Change in complexion: The raging hormones cause skin spotting, acne or other complexion changes in the first trimester of the pregnancy.

Weight loss: Many women lose weight during early pregnancy due to food fetishes. One must eat healthy foods at frequent intervals to maintain the nutrient level of the body.

Watch out for these early pregnancy symptoms and try to remain active and healthy for these nine months.

Natural Insomnia Remedies – How To Fall Asleep Fast

With the daily increase of people with insomnia, the need for natural insomnia remedies to help patients fall asleep fast is increasingly felt by many people. The main advantages of these aids is that they do not have side effects or cause addiction. They are also very effective, and are generally more individually adaptable than one-size-fits-all sleeping pills. Check out the free guide “Five Shocking Answers On How To Fall Asleep Fast” featured at the end of this article for more info. .In fact, the use of sleeping pills will more often than not further compound the problem if used as cure. They may be addictive. Its side effects are often enormous and in a few cases, even life threatening. .Many patients would rather use natural insomnia remedies than take sleeping pills. These aids are effective, sometimes they cost nothing and it has been proven from ancient times that they work very well, if one is patient enough to give them the time to work. .

Here is an example: Eat some cookies! Cookies are sugary in nature and that makes them sedative for many people. Go ahead. Eat a cookie before going to bed. Endeavor to brush your teeth before you lie down, though. You will very probably fall asleep fast. .Can’t fall asleep fast? Then drink a glass of milk sweetened with some honey. This pairing an acts as a powerful tranquillizer – after drinking it you will probably soon be feeling relaxed, and also amazed at the benefits of using natural insomnia remedies. .There some herbs that have been known and used for centuries for their ability to soothe your nerves, reduce stress levels and promote sleep. These can be used either as a beverage – a herbal tea – as infusions or in baths. Herbs like lavender, valerian, St John’s wort, chamomile, skullcap, oats, hops and a host of others can relieve tension and restore sound sleep to your life. You can either get them fresh or dried, or as preparations in aromatherapy products .

Here are more natural insomnia remedies for you, based on physical posture: Perform some Yoga exercises just before our bedtime and watch as you will fall asleep fast. There are several very simple poses that can be learned with little effort. These are not rigorous and can be done before going to bed. There is plenty of extra information on relaxation yoga available on the Internet. .

Another important sleep-inducing step to take is to cleanse yourself from within. Leave out negativity. Anxiety, depression, unforgiveness, as these emotional states will put sleep far from you. Be optimistic no matter what you are going through. These natural insomnia remedies will work effectively and fast if you do this. Have fun. Sweet dreams. .

No site but ToFallAsleepFAST.com gives you all the tips and info on Fall Asleep Fast Whether your issues are new or recurrent, download a free, information-packed report to learn more about Natural Insomnia Remedies and related subjects by following the links above !

How Colon Cleansing Helps Achieve a Healthy Body?

Colon cleansing has proven itself worthy of attention. According to health authorities, a healthy colon helps people achieve a healthy body.

The colon or large intestine is the last segment of your digestive tract. Even though it is not obvious, your colon plays a vital role in waste storage and sustaining fluid balance in the body. The colon does all the work after the digestion of the food components and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.

Studies show how a clogged or unhealthy colon affects the function of the other organs in the body. The organs of the body form systems which are interdependent. One organ that does not function well will have a great effect on the functions of other vital organs. On the positive side, a healthy colon helps an individual live a healthy life. Colon cleansing gets rid of the toxins harmful to the large intestine. As such, the other organs of the body like the liver and the kidney also function better.

Matters of the Intestine

One way to improve your health is through colon cleansing. There have been documented results of colon cleansing helping against constipation, acne, and colon cancer.

Here are some guidelines which can be a good reason to undergo colon cleansing:

– Colon cleansing is done if you are diagnosed with unhealthy colon.

– Bowel movement is a good indicator of the health of the colon. Prior to colon cleansing, bowel movement must be closely monitored. Irregular movement or constipation may be a sign that colon health should be a concern.

– Straining during bowel movement is also considered a sign of intestinal problem. Clogged or hampered colons may be the cause of the constipation.

– Inconsistent stool quality is also a gauge that the colon may have some problems

– Colon cleansing is still an option even if the problems outlined above do not occur since this may benefit the overall health of an individual by:

– Getting rid of food residue not needed by the body

– Decreasing chances of constipation by efficiently eliminating waste substances. Cleansing also introduces more fiber and water into one's diet.

– Preventing diarrhea by promoting normal consistency of the bowel. This is achieved by optimizing the moisture needed inside the large intestine.

– Lowering the chances of colon cancer. This is achieved because colon cleansing flushes the unnecessary bacteria and other microorganisms which can trigger the development of tumors or cancer cells.

– Improving the condition of the skin. Improved colon health leads to clearer skin and lowers the occurrence of acne.

– Avoiding other digestive system related problems like hyperacidity, flatulence, abdominal pains, and other related conditions.

– Contributing to the overall health which leads to better concentration and performance of any tasks at hand.

Good health is vital in achieving our goals in life. Unfortunately, people encounter health problems which hinder their movement towards their goals. A lot of people have been going through a lot of tests to know what is wrong with their body. They also spend a lot of money to purchase medications to alleviate their health concerns.

Surprisingly, the key to good health does not involve complicated diagnostics and treatment, colon cleansing certainly prove its worth in helping people improve their lives.

All Natural Dog Food to Help Prevent Reflux Gastritis Problems

Believe it or not, dogs can have this nasty problem, too. When a dog gets stomach reflux, vomiting is the most common symptom. You will want to take your dog to the vet, if he keeps vomiting. Vomiting is not only a sign of stomach reflux, but it can be a sign to many other stomach issues, as well. Dogs that suffer from stomach reflux are usually healthy otherwise.

It is very important to determine the source of vomiting if it continues. It could be associated with other disorders that need different treatments. For stomach reflux problems, chronic vomiting happens when the stomach is constantly inflamed and irritated.

Generally a dog will vomit yellowish, bile-stained fluid or foam early in the morning. The stomach is usually empty. This stomach disorder happens when the stomach lining is injured because of chronic reflux or back flush of things, such as bile and pancreatic enzymes.

Other symptoms include:

Appetite loss

Weight loss

Abdominal pain

A veterinarian will have to run tests to be sure your dog has reflux gastritis. A biopsy of the lining of the stomach will need to be performed. Sometimes a veterinarian will try symptomatic treatment first to see if the problem can be fixed without having to do surgical or endoscopic techniques.

Treating reflux gastritis is not difficult. Simply changing your dog’s food to an all natural dog food that contains vitamins and minerals needed for health is a great first step. Flint River Ranch or Life’s Abundance are good healthy dog foods to consider. They are packed full of all natural ingredients and vitamins and minerals.

If you are not already feeding your dog a healthy dog food, you will need to slowly introduce it to your dog. If you do not introduce it slowly, you take the chance of making your dog’s stomach feel sicker. The next very important thing you can do is to feed your dog smaller meals throughout the day.

If you are a human that suffers from acid reflux, you have probably been told that you should not eat late at night. This is true for humans, but for a dog, it is actually helpful to your dog to feed him a small amount of food right before bed. This is because the food acts as a buffer and neutralizes the duodenal contents, such as bile and pancreatic enzymes.

Lymphedema Leg: Causes and Treatment

Primary lymphedema, a hereditary condition, is one among the many causes of leg lymphedema. The genetics of the individual are usually responsible for this condition. In such instances, the lymphatic system is deformed at birth, leading to the accumulation of lymph fluid in the lower part of the body, resulting in a swelling. Family history of swelling in the legs is also apparent.

Any injury to the lymph glands like a radiation treatment for cancer in the pelvis, abdomen or groin area may be a causative factor for leg lymphedema. Breast cancer is a common cause for lymphoedema in the upper limbs while it is generally present in the legs in case of cancer treatment for the lung, liver or the prostrate. Excess fluid generation in the stomach area may be another factor to cause a swelling in the legs.

Immediate treatment is advisable once the first symptoms are visible. The most obvious sign is a lump-like, painful swelling. Some other symptoms include a swelling or an accumulation of fluid behind the inner knee area or heaviness in the ankles. You must ensure that you consult with your doctor at the earliest opportunity if you see any suspicious-looking swellings in the leg region. Initial treatment of lymphadema prevents the disease from progressing and getting out of hand. The swelling can be reduced with some simple treatment in the early stages. Keeping the feet elevated and the use of elastic stockings is essential to reduce the swelling. In order to encourage the lymphatic flow at night, you can cover the legs with elastic wraps and keep the foot elevated with the help of pillows.

Exercising the leg even with simple exercises helps to keep leg lymphedema under control. An exercise routine or a daily walk can assist in circulation of the fluids and help to keep lymphedema in check. Just like in any other lymphedema condition, skin hygiene is a must in this case as well. Special care must be taken to wash the legs and feet thoroughly and dry out the creases between the toes to prevent infection. You must take immediate precautions to treat any infection for an ingrown toe nail, so as to avoid complications.

It is essential for leg lymphedema patients to wear comfortable footwear with soft padding to avoid foot injuries. While cutting toenails, utmost care must be taken to avoid injury. Wearing tight clothes, socks, or undergarments with tight elastic are a strict no-no.

This may squeeze the limb, increase the blood pressure and cause a swelling due to water retention, complications which a lymphedema patient cannot afford to have. While travelling by air it is essential to have on compression stockings. There may be no cure for lymphedema leg condition, but with proper care, the symptoms can be reduced and the onset of the disease, delayed.

Look For Signs & Symptoms Suggestive of Heart Disease BEFORE Starting an Exercise Program

There are several "eye-catchers" that a personal trainer should look for as you consider working with a client. Several of these would warrant examination and then permission from a doctor before the fitness assessment or training. All would require further conversation as a part of the trainer / client relationship.

After securing the medical history form, look for the following signs and / or symptoms that are suggestive of coronary artery disease or heart disease. These absolute contraindications to exercise testing are conditions that must be stabilized or adequately treated before testing. If any of these are evidenced, the client should be referred to appropriate medical personnel prior to assessment or training by you as a personal trainer.

– Pain or discomfort in the chest (angina pectoris), neck, jaw, arms, etc.

– Shortness of breath at rest or mild exertion

– Dizziness or reports of syncope (temporary loss of consciousness with full recovery)

– Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea or difficulty breathing appearing suddenly at night, usually waking the client after an hour or two of sleep; caused by pulmonary congestion that results from left-sided heart failure

– Orthopnea or difficulty breathing which is brought on by lying flat

– Ankle edema

– Cardiac arrhythmias, palpitations or irregular heart pulsation of the heart, usually only perceptible to the client

– Tachycardia or rapid beating of the heart (usually rates over 100 BPM)

– Intermittent claudication or limping

– Known heart murmur

– Unusual fatigue or shortness of breath with usual activities

– Acute infections

– Suspected or known dissecting aneurysm (weakening of a blood vessel wall)

– Severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (narrowing of a blood vessel wall)

– Recent significant change in an resting ECG (heart scan) that is indicative of ischemia (vessel blockage), MI (heart attack) or other acute cardiac event

– Acute myocarditis or pericarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle or sac around the heart)

– Acute pulmonary embolus or pulmonary infarction (blood clot)

Individuals exhibiting any condition in the preceding list would automatically be considered high risk or likely to suffer some coronary event with exercise.

High Risk Individuals should always have a medical exam or medical personnel involved in testing them BEFORE any tests or training from the personal trainer. It is HIGHLY recommended that these conditions be met BEFORE working with him / her.

Providing a safe environment for our clients is paramount to personal training. Completing and then discussing a person's medical history with them prior to fitness assessment or training exhibits that precautions have been taken to ensure a safe environment. In this age, when 2/3's of our population is overweight and / or so many individuals are taking some medication for a disease, disorder, or a condition, it is prudent on the trainer's part to know what s / he is "getting into . "

To learn more about "reading" a medical history, see the article, "BEFORE A Fitness Assessment or Personal Training a Client … Look at the MEDICAL HISTORY for Known Diseases."

Nail Fungus (onychomycosis) Treatment Tips

Fungal infections of the nails are common. Fungal infections can also be a problem for people wearing acrylic nails. Fungal nails usually begin with an opaque white or silvery area at the distal (outside) edge of a nail. Onychomycosis usually begins as a white or yellow spot under the tip of your fingernail or toenail. Fungal infections are not commonly contagious nor do they spread easily between people. The nail provides a safe place for the fungus and protects it while it grows, since fungus like dark and damp places. Nail fungus grows more often in people with weaker immune systems, which rather than suppress it, allow the fungus to become established. Nail fungus is made up of tiny organisms (Tinea Unguium) that can infect fingernails and toenails. Toenail fungus also known as onychomycosis is caused by a group of fungus called dermatophytes. These infections usually develop on nails continually exposed to warm, moist environments, such as sweaty shoes or shower floors. The main problems identified were embarrassment, functional problems at work, reduction in social activities, fears of spreading the disease to others, and pain.

Nail fungus is becoming more common in the US. The nails of our fingers and toes are very effective barriers. This barrier makes it quite difficult for a superficial infection to invade the nail. Once an infection has set up residence however, the same barrier that was so effective in protecting us against infection now works against us, making it difficult to treat the infection. The rise in nail fungus is thought to be due to a combination of increased detection as well as increased risk of infection. Factors that contribute to this increased risk include aging of the population, spread of HIV/AIDS, tight footwear, vigorous physical activity, and use of communal swimming pools, locker rooms, etc. Nail fungus is more than a cosmetic problem. It can be painful and interfere with daily activities such as walking, playing sports, writing, typing, and other activities that require manipulating small objects or repetitive finger use. An international study conducted by dermatologists found that nail fungus had a significant impact on the quality of life of people with the disease. prevalence in America is about 2-3%, but some have reported it as high as 13%. Even at a low estimate of 2%, this accounts for 6 million Americans with toenail fungus. Toenail fungus affects men twice as often as it affects women.

Fungal nail infection is diagnosed from a sample of the debris under the nail. Nail fungus can be difficult to treat, and repeated infections are common. There are a number of treatments for onychomycosis. Prevention of injuries to the nail is very important. Medications for onychomycosis fall into two categories; topical and oral. Topical medications are most helpful in treating early, small infections and for maintaining clear nails. Topical medications do have a limited ability to penetrate the nail to reach all of the fungal elements. Topical medication inhibit the growth of the fungus allowing for faster growth of the nail. Oral anti-fungal medications are Itraconazole (Sporonox and Terbinafine (Lamisil. Both medications can be quite expensive as they need to be taken once daily for 3 months. With both medications there is a long list of benign side effects including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, rash, headache, taste disturbances and dizziness. Serious adverse events are very rare, less than 0.5%, but do include hepatitis and acute hepatic necrosis. The effectiveness of the medications ranges from 60 to 80%, with a recurrence rate of 15%. Lamisil appears to be more effective and has fewer drug interactions than Sporonox.

Tips of Nail Fungus

1.Wash your feet regularly with soap and water.

2.Remember to dry your feet thoroughly after washing.

3.Properly fitted shoes are essential; an astonishing number of people wear shoes that don’t fit right, and cause serious foot problems. A shoe with a firm sole and soft upper is best for daily activities.

4.Shower shoes should be worn when possible, in public areas.

5.Shoes, socks, or hosiery should be changed daily.

6.Toenails should be clipped straight across so that the nail does not extend beyond the tip of the toe.

7.Use a quality foot powder — talcum, not cornstarch — in conjunction with shoes that fit well and are made of materials that breathe.

8.Avoid wearing excessively tight hosiery, which promotes moisture.

9.Wear socks made of synthetic fiber, which tend to “wick” away moisture faster than cotton or wool socks, especially for sports activity.

10.Disinfect home pedicure tools and don’t apply polish to nails suspected of infection. Signs of an infection include toes that are red, discolored, or swollen.

Infective Endocarditis

Clinical Presentation:
Infective endocarditis refers to a bacterial or, rarely, a fungal virus from the cardiac valves. Virus of extracardiac endothelium is termed "endarteritis" and can cause disease that is clinically similar to endocarditis.

One of the most typical predisposing aspect for infective endocarditis is the presence of structurally abnormal cardiac valves. Consequently, sufferers with a history of rheumatic or congenital heart illness, mitral valve prolapse with an audible murmur, a prosthetic heart valve, or a history of prior endocarditis are at increased chance for infective endocarditis.

Infection involves the left side of the heart (mitral and aortic valves) almost exclusively, except in patients who are injection drug users or, less commonly, in sufferers with valve injury from a pulmonary artery (Swan-Ganz) catheter, in whom virus of the correct side of the heart (tricuspid or pulmonary valve) might occur.

The most typical infectious agents causing native valve infective endocarditis are gram-positive bacteria, including Streptococcus viridans, S aureus, and enterococci. The particular bacterial species causing endocarditis can often be anticipated on the basis of host elements.

Injection drug users generally introduce S aureus into the blood when nonsterile needles are utilized or the skin is not adequately cleaned before needle insertion. Sufferers with recent dental work are at chance for transient bacteremia with normal oral flora, particularly S viridans, with subsequent endocarditis.

Genitourinary tract infections with enterococci may lead to bacteremia and subsequent seeding of damaged heart valves. Patients with prosthetic heart valves are also at elevated risk for infective endocarditis resulting from skin flora such as S epidermidis or S aureus.

Prior to the availability of antibiotics, infective endocarditis was a progressively fatal illness. Even with antibiotics, the case fatality rate for endocarditis approaches 25%, and definitive cure often requires both prolonged antibiotic administration and urgent surgery to replace infected cardiac valves.

A number of hemodynamic factors predispose patients to endocarditis: (1) a high-velocity jet stream producing turbulent blood flow, (2) flow from a high-pressure to a low-pressure chamber, and (3) a comparatively narrow orifice separating the two chambers that creates a pressure gradient.

The lesions of infective endocarditis tend to form on the surface of the valve within the cardiac chamber with the lower pressure (eg, about the ventricular surface of an abnormal aortic valve and on the atrial surface of an abnormal mitral valve).

Endothelium damaged by turbulent blood flow results in exposure of extracellular matrix proteins, promoting the deposition of fibrin and platelets, which form sterile vegetations (nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis or marantic endocarditis). Infective endocarditis occurs when microorganisms are deposited onto these sterile vegetations during the course of bacteremia.

Not all bacteria adhere equally well to these websites. For example, E coli, a frequent trigger of bacteremia, is rarely implicated as a trigger of endocarditis. Conversely, virulent organisms for example S aureus can invade intact endothelium, causing endocarditis within the absence of preexisting valvular abnormalities.

Once infected, these vegetations continue to enlarge through further deposition of platelets and fibrin, providing the bacteria a sanctuary from host defense mechanisms for example polymorphonuclear leukocytes and complement. Consequently, as soon as virus takes hold, the infected vegetation continues to grow in a largely unimpeded fashion.

Prolonged administration (4-6 weeks) of bactericidal antibiotics is needed to penetrate the vegetation and cure this illness. Bacteriostatic antimicrobial agents, which inhibit but do not kill the bacteria, are inadequate.

Surgical removal of the infected valve is sometimes required for cure, especially for infections with gram-negative bacilli or fungi, if there is mechanical dysfunction from the valve with resultant congestive center failure, or in prosthetic valve infections. A hallmark of infective endocarditis is persistent bacteremia, which stimulates both the humoral and cellular immune systems.

A variety of immunoglobulins are expressed, resulting in immune complex formation, elevated serum levels of rheumatoid aspect, and nonspecific hypergammaglobulinemia. Immune complex deposition along the renal glomerular basement membrane might result within the development of acute glomerulonephritis and renal failure.

Clinical Manifestations:
Infective endocarditis is a multisystem disease with protean manifestations. For these causes, the signs can be nonspecific and the diagnosis might not be initially included in the differential diagnosis. Cutaneous findings suggestive of endocarditis consist of Osler's nodes, painful papules about the pads from the fingers and toes thought to be secondary to deposition of immune complexes;

and Janeway lesions, painless hemorrhagic lesions on the palms and soles caused by septic microemboli. Signs and signs of endocarditis may be acute, subacute, or chronic. The clinical manifestations reflect primarily (1) hemodynamic changes from valvular damage; (2) end-organ symptoms and indicators from septic emboli (right-sided emboli towards the lungs, left-sided emboli to the brain, spleen, kidney, and extremities); (3) end-organ symptoms and signs from immune complex deposition; and (4) persistent bacteremia with metastatic seeding of virus (abscesses or septic joints). Death is generally triggered by hemodynamic collapse or by septic emboli to the CNS, resulting in brain abscesses or mycotic aneurysms and intracerebral hemorrhage.

Chance elements for a fatal outcome consist of left-sided valvular virus, bacterial etiology other than S viridans, medical comorbidities, complications from endocarditis (congestive heart failure, valve ring abscess, or embolic disease), and, in one study, medical management without valvular surgery.