Signs And Symptoms Of Social Anxiety Disorder

Scared to go out to a meeting to speak to a client?  Need to deliver a speech but feel like fainting at the thought of going in front of the class to present?  Scared to attend a social gathering for no apparent reason?  You might be suffering from one of the many signs and symptoms of social anxiety disorder.

Social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia, is a kind of mental disorder where the sufferer experiences a severe or unreasonable fear of social gatherings where there is a possibility that one may get embarrassed or ridiculed.   Most of the time, these anxieties arise from an intense fear of being closely watched or scrutinized – from the simple things like the way they dress, talk or act, to important job functions like performing in front of a crowd, giving a presentation, or finishing an interview for a job application.  This kind of phobia gives sufferers a feeling of being trapped or shut away from the world.

They say that one of the signs and symptoms of social anxiety disorder is closely related to shyness.  However social phobia differs in the sense that this disrupts normal socializing functions.  It is true that everyone goes through a stage of shyness in their life, overcoming it is a different thing.  When it becomes too much that it interrupts your daily life and relationships to the point where you are sick with worry, it is time to seek counsel.  It is good to know the signs and symptoms of social anxiety disorder to be able to determine and treat this said condition before it worsens.

People with social phobia manifest 2 basic kinds of symptoms: emotional and physical.  The emotional symptoms include: an intense fear of being in situations in which you don’t know people, fear of situations in which you may be judged, worrying about embarrassing or humiliating yourself, fear that others will notice that you look anxious, anxiety that disrupts your daily routine, work, school or other activities, avoiding doing things or speaking to people out of fear of embarrassment, avoiding situations where you might be the center of attention.  The physical symptoms include: Blushing, profuse sweating, trembling or shaking, nausea, stomach upset, difficulty talking, shaky voice, muscle tension, confusion, palpitations, diarrhea, cold and clammy hands, and difficulty making eye contact.

Basically, social anxiety disorder  manifests itself with signs and  symptoms of being overly anxious around other people.  Sufferers think that other people are more confident that they are, that other people are better them.  They feel uncomfortable being around people that it makes it difficult for them to eat, drink, work, asking questions, asking for dates, even going to the toilet, when other people are around.

The good news is that there is a cure for this condition.  For the past 20 years, a combination of talk therapy and medications has proven most helpful to limit the effects, if not cure, this mental condition.  Certain anti-depressants (Paroxetine, Sertraline and Venlafaxine), anti-anxiety medications, and beta blockers are used to help Socio-phobic people to balance certain chemicals in the brain and minimize panic attacks during periods of heightened anxiety.  Talk therapy teaches people with social anxiety disorder to react differently to situations that trigger their anxiety.  The therapist helps the patient confront the negative feelings about social situations and the fear about being judged by others. Patients learn how their thinking patterns add to the symptoms of social anxiety disorder and how to change their thinking so the symptoms begin to lessen.

To be shy is quite normal, everybody has gone through a similar phase.  Getting past that stage is the difficult part.  Ultimately, it ends up to building your confidence to a certain level for you to be comfortable enough to move normally.  In case you’ve been diagnosed as a socio-phobic, it is nothing to be ashamed of.  With a little bit of therapy, proper medication, and enough support from people who believe in you, you’ll slowly be able to do socialize and function normally within a group without being too anxious.

Diagnose And Treatment Of Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is still a very common disease mostly encountered in low developed countries and areas. TBC localizes especially in the lungs but can also affect kidneys, bones or other tissues.

There are three main diagnosing methods regularly used in hospitals all over the world:

1. The first made in cases of suspicion is the skin testing at Tuberculin, a purified protein derivate that checks the exposure of the patient to the infection. Although he might not have developed the disease, the patient that had contact with the bacteria causing the infection has possibly developed a type of hypersensitivity. The PPD will be injected under the skin and verified after 48-72 hours to detect a possible enlarged papule. A positive result of the testing indicates the primo infection to Tuberculosis. This test is not 100% certain and cannot guide the doctor to a sure diagnose without other investigations.

2. The secondary investigation is the search for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in the sputum or other organic fluids or tissues.

3. The third but most meaningful testing is the chest X-ray detecting any kind of pulmonary injuries assembling to the ones in Tuberculosis. These three methods must be connected with significant signs and symptoms for Tuberculosis.

After a certain positive diagnose has been established, the doctor must proceed by other kind of tests to find the best treatment and the most adequate drugs to treat Tuberculosis.

As Tuberculosis infection can be caused by different strains of the bacteria, more recent genetic research has improved the speed of diagnose by using the polymerize chain reaction (PCR). Through the strain multiplication of a microscopic bacterial fragment doctors obtain the genetic material required to establish the right treatment.

Prevention methods are also available in TBC cases. The BCG vaccination during childhood decreases the risk of Tuberculin infection at children. A good ventilation of the air in public places disperses the bacteria and reduces the risk of contact. Ultraviolet rays are most helpful in closed environments as they also kill Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, but they cannot guarantee the 100% certainty of prevention.

The basic treatment of Tuberculosis is a combination of more antibiotics found to be efficient against the particular type of bacterial strain. One single antibiotic is likely to lead to resistance developing. The cure must last for at least 6 months but the duration of treatment can go up to 9 months or a whole year. Most common, the combination of Hydrazid, Rifampicin, Pyrazinamid and Ethambutol is used in treating tuberculin infection.

Lately, the entire bacterial genome of Tuberculosis has been decoded. We expect new methods of prevention and treatment in the next following years.

Food For Penis Enlargement – Can 3 Sex Foods Help Grow Your Penis?

This article aims to give an honest view on whether food for penis enlargement really does make any difference or not.

Is there any natural food for making your member bigger?

While there are not any foods to eat that will actually cause bigger penile growth, your diet can have an effect on your penis enlargement efforts and even your erection strength. That said, foods we eat can influence penis enlargement because, the nutrition is the deciding factor of correct blood flow. Your erections will be bigger and more powerful than usual if your circulatory system is in good working order and if the blood vessels are allowing more blood to pass through the penis.

The main thing to look for in food is for those ingredients in food that will increase your blood flow. The substances contained in these foods are called vasodilators and they work by relaxing the smooth muscles making up the walls of blood vessels.

Some examples of really good foods are seafood, salmon, tuna. Eggs, milk, liver and green vegetables like broccoli, carrots, sweet potatoes and tomatoes are also very beneficial in your diet.

A healthy diet for your body will be healthy diet for your penis. If you eat fatty type foods that lead to clogged arteries, not only will your heart will suffer, your manhood will also. The penis depends on blood flow to enlarge it and it will not reach its full size if the arteries that supply it are blocked.

96% of men said that dietary supplements along with the correct diet actually did the trick!

100% natural herbal pills have easy to obtain formulas and active natural ingredients. They are commonly known as male enhancement pills. Using one of the most effective and well-known herbal penis enlargement pills on the market with food for penis enlargement and a healthy lifestyle will significantly improve your male enhancement results.

What to do next?

– Fill your grocery trolley with lots of fruits and vegetables, lean meats such as fish and grains like whole wheat or oats. Stay away from processed sugar white flour products and fast foods.

– Take a quality multivitamin and mineral supplement daily.

– Consider using the number one most successful, fast acting herbal supplement for a few months.

– Quit smoking. Studies have shown that smoking may lead to a smaller penis size this habit has a lot to do with decreased blood flow.

Ovarian Fibroids – Should You Worry About Fibroids in Ovaries?

When a woman is informed that she has ovarian fibroids, she may not know what this condition entails, thinking it means cancer or a need for major surgery. Actually fibroids on the ovaries, twin reproductive organs that produce eggs and female hormones, are generally benign and only need to be treated if they are causing other complications.

These growths of fibrous tissue often are confused with uterine fibroids, which grow inside the uterus, on its surface, or within its lining tissue. Fibroid tumors of great size can sometimes grow in the uterus, weighing ten pounds or more. Ovarian growths are much smaller, being measured in milligrams and centimeters.

These benign growths may cause no symptoms at all and may never require treatment. They generally occur in women of middle age, when the hormones are still being produced but the levels may fluctuate. Although cysts may occur in adolescents, fibroids are rare in early age groups.

However, some growths are actually precancerous or cancerous tumors, which should be removed. The removal of the growths does not have to mean removal of the affected ovary, and can be done on an outpatient basis. Tissue biopsy will reveal if the growth has any malignant possibilities.

Fibroids on the ovaries can cause pain and contribute to infertility, heavy bleeding, and menstrual irregularities. They are also implicated in the rare torsion or twisting of ovarian tubes. The growths often shrink or disappear on their own, and many nutritional supplements have been found to be beneficial in getting rid of them. Green tea has been proved to help, if four or more cups a day are drunk, and sufferers have been shown to have abnormally low levels of Vitamin A.

Vitamin A, the B vitamins, hormone balancing herbs such as vitex and black cohosh, foods such as antioxidant rich fruits and vegetables and garlic, and other health regimes have been shown to help resolve this condition and keep it from recurring. Keeping the lymph system healthy with a balanced diet of whole foods and regular exercise is important, since this cleansing system carries away dead tissue that may otherwise be stored in lumps such as fibroids.

Aspiration Pneumonia is a Serious Problem

Aspiration pneumonia occurs most frequent in patients that are in a coma or in those who are so seriously ill that they barely breathe. It affects more frequent the elders but it can also occur at other age categories.

Aspiration pneumonia refers to the problem of mouth contents entering the airways instead of going into the stomach. This can lead to an infection of the lungs, fever and breathing problems, even a bacterial pneumonia.

Generally, a person who has a malfunctioning swallowing mechanism, who does not posses a good cough reflex, could develop aspiration pneumonia. Even those patients who are fed with a tube that goes directly into their stomach could develop this problem, due to a regurgitation of the stomach contents into the throat and then into the lungs.

It is highly indicated for such persons to eat in an upright position, and stay in this position for 30 minutes after eating is done. Even the patient’s own saliva may get into the lungs, especially if he has an increased production of saliva. To prevent this, cleaning the mouth with a dry bandage and frequent suctioning of the mouth is highly recommended.

Patients who still have tracheotomy should clean the tracheotomy tube of the coughed material, this way preventing mucus and bacteria from being aspirated back into the lungs and causing a bacterial pneumonia which is a serious illness.

There are some methods of keeping the lungs expanded, and so, helping to loosen up the material that needs to be taken out: clapping or cupping the chest, breathing exercises, changing the body’s position more frequent, and using a vibrator over the chest.

Aspiration pneumonia can even lead to one’s death by chocking with the sucked materials; this is why prevention is so important.

When a lung infection occurs treating it at the right moment and with the right drugs could lead to its cure and save the patient from developing other complications like producing a partial collapse (atelectasis) of the lung.

Signs of installed complications like bacterial pneumonia are: cough with yellow or greenish sputum, high grade fever, chest pains, breathing problems, muscle aches and fatigue. Treatment consists in administering antibiotic drugs, controlling the fever, and most of all, preventing lung aspiration of mouth materials from occurring again.

The treatment of aspiration pneumonia consists in administering oxygen, aspiration of the foreign materials from the airways, and total spell. The therapy will include anti-shock medication and antibiotics.

What Causes Contact Dermatitis?

Contact dermatitis is a type of skin inflammation that appears once the skin has come in contact with certain substances. This is one of the most known type of dermatitis among common people, along with atopic and allergic dermatitis, and it affects the superficial regions of the skin. It is good to know and understand what causes contact dermatitis in order to prevent future occurrences.

To this day, the cause of dermatitis in general has not been determined, yet scientists have observed certain factors that influence every type of dermatitis. When we talk about contact dermatitis, the cause of dermatitis could be an underlying condition such as allergies, or reactions to substances, chemicals or medications. However there seems to be also a genetic predisposition to develop dermatitis.

Studies show that children who have both parents with allergies or dermatitis are at a significant higher risk of developing contact dermatitis and other allergic conditions. And although this information doesn’t reveal to us the cause of contact dermatitis, it certainly help us understand better one of the influencing factors.

It is also good to note that there are two types of contact dermatitis: allergic and irritant.

Allergic contact dermatitis appears if you have an allergic reaction to something that touches your ski, this trigger is internal, and in this matter it is different from other allergy types. Irritant contact dermatitis occurs when you come in contact with a substance that attacks your skin, they can be chemicals, perfumes or even household cleaners.

Colds and Congestion – How to Help Your Child Deal With Cold Symptoms

The first time your baby has a cold can be unnerving. Listening to your child's small cough during the night and watching discharge run down their face can make any parent feel helpless.

What can you do to alleviate cold symptoms in your baby?

Well, first off, you can not give your baby any decongestants or cough medicine. Tylenol can be used, but you should ask your pediatrician first about the proper dosage. Unfortunately, babies are just too small for most medications.

Congestion can be helped naturally by either raising your baby's head as they sleep, or by running a hot shower with the bathroom door closed and letting your baby inhale the steam. A warm bath might help as well. You might find that your baby spends the night in your arms as you sleep in a chair sitting up. Although this is a technique you will not want to employ often, it just might be the trick that works for the night your child is fighting to get sleep.

Consider running a humidifier at night, but make sure that it is a cool mist humidifier. Mentholated vaporizers are not recommended for young infants.

As a parent, you want to fix things. If your baby has a cold, make sure that they are getting hydrated and are not spitting up too much formula. "Baby" your baby even more than usual. Use tylenol, but only as directed by your pediatrician. Check for a fever if you think your baby might have one and call your doctor if their temperature is elevated.

Embarrassing Toes – Use A Foot Fungus Treatment

Before heading to the beach this summer is the perfect time to look into an effective foot fungus treatment. With summertime nearly upon us, you will want to drag out your sandals and flip-flops. When you bury your toes in the sand, it should be from the enjoyment of the sand between your toes not trying to hide an unsightly foot fungus!

Fungal infections of the nail are called Tinea or ringworm of the nail. The fungal infection is caused by fungi living on the outer layer of the skin or nails. Tinea is a Latin word meaning gnawing worm. The condition causes toenails to become thick and discolored. One of the most beneficial foot fungus treatment is to use an antifungal medication.

A nail infection can be caused from fungi such as Candida, more commonly known to cause yeast infections. Fungal infections also occur from not using sanitary nail equipment, especially in nail salons, where the same tools are used on numerous clients receiving pedicures.

Symptoms

Signs of a foot fungus toenail infection include pain, redness, itching, and pus in or around the nail area. Thick, unsightly and somewhat yellow nails are a sure sign of fungus. As foot fungus grows, smelly, moist fragments can be seen under the nail. Your toe may hurt from the pressure of a thickened toenail or the buildup of debris.

Fungal Infections

A variety of fungi can be found everywhere in the environment. The darkened, dampened surrounding inside footwear makes the feet especially vulnerable to fungal infections. Most fungus is not dangerous unless the skin is broken and compromised. A small cut or a foot injury is all that’s necessary for the fungus to cause a separation between the nail and the bed of the toe.

Foot Fungus Treatment

Fungus usually attacks a small portion of the nail and spreads slowly. The best foot fungus treatment is started at the earliest signs of infection. Accumulating debris underneath the nail can lead to an ingrown toenail or even a more harmful infection that may spread to other areas. Topical and oral medications may be prescribed for foot fungus treatment.

Athlete’s Foot

As the fungus that is responsible for athlete’s foot grows, it spreads out in a circle, leaving a normal patch of skin in the middle. This makes it resemble a ring. At the border of the ring, the skin appears irritated, red, and scaly. Foot fungus is often called ringworm because it looks like a worm is under the skin.

Fungal infections can be spread from person to person. Most types of fungi thrive on damp surfaces such as public shower floors or gym locker rooms. Your pets can even transmit a fungal infection to you. Livestock, dogs, and cats can be infected with funguses. In animals there will be a tell tail patch of skin where the fur has fallen out.

The moist skin between your toes is an ideal place for a fungus like athlete’s foot to grow. The skin is likely to become red and extremely itchy. The infection may spread to the toenails. Here it causes the nails to become crumbly and thick.

Foot Fungus Treatment

Oral medicines may be necessary for you to get rid of fungal infections. There are some newer medicines available that work with fewer side effects than previously prescribed medications. Rest your weary feet and make this the year of rebellion against foot fungus.

Pediatric Bronchitis – Parents' Guide To Dealing With It

Bronchitis is a respiratory problem which can be found in the lower tract. It occurs when there is an inflammation of the airway tubes that include the trachea and larger air tubes that carry oxygen to the lungs.

There are two types of bronchitis infections: acute and chronic.

Followed by viruses, acute infections usually bother the nasal passages, sinuses, and throat and then going to the larger tubes. Sometimes bacteria cause the infection.

When parents smoke around their children, the kids are likely to get sick with bronchitis much easier than those not around smoke. Children who have a pre-existing condition or heart disease are also at risk.

Chronic bronchitis is produced by an overabundance of mucus that causes a productive cough. Until the infection is cleared, it progresses into a constant inflammation that can hinder the stream of air. It can also cause serious damage of the tract.

COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is a respiratory problem that can cause long time issues for the patient in doing physical activity and normal breathing.

The main culprit for kids is the constant, long-term exposure of smoking. Sometimes allergies and environmental irritants can be troublesome for them too.

What are the symptoms?

For children, preventive measures need to be taught earlier. Kids need to know to cover their mouths when they sneeze or cough. They also need to continuously wash their hands. Kids also need a flu vaccine to help them fight any type of breathing problems. If the parents or grandparents can stop smoking, this would be beneficial for the children too.

Both types of infections have similar symptoms:

* Tires easily
* Wheezing
* Difficulty breathing worsened by physical exertion
* Mucus filled cough (if there is any blood in the mucus, then consult in the child's physician.
* Rales (these are abnormal sounds that are found in the lungs by the doctor.)

There are several tests that can be used to diagnose children's respiratory problems. They include: x-rays, pulse oxymetry, pulmonary lung functions, arterial blood gas and sputum.

If it's left untreated, the infection can develop into more serious respiratory infections that include pneumonia, pulmonary hypertension, heart failure on the right side as well as emphysema.

When it seems there is no infections, doctors will treat the child for a common cold. This means staying in bed, drink lots of fluid. Using a humidifier can help the child get over the cold much quicker. If the child experiences dry cough, it would be necessary to use a cough suppressant for their own comfort. Aspirin is a no-no for children because of the danger of Reye's syndrome. Tylenol or Motrin should be the only two medicines parents should use.

Sometimes to get the mucus moving, doctors may suggest using expectorants. These types of medicine will thin the mucus out, which makes it easier to get rid of quicker. Before doing this, consult the pediatrician.

Antibiotics will only be prescribed for bacteria related bronchitis. Like adults, children need to take the medicine as directed to avoid recurrences. Children under age 8 will be given Amoxicillin instead of other types of medicines.

As for chronic problems, treatment depends on how far into the disease you are. Children need a healthy environment and supervised exercise. Some medications can be used to relieve the stress on the bronchial tubes thus allowing air to flow through.

Preventive measures are always better than a cure. Parents who smoke need to remember that when they smoke so do their children who in turn also face health problems.

Shoulder Therapy – What Do You Need?

If you have pain in your shoulder, it is wise not to try and self-diagnose; some shoulder pain can be referred from the neck or back. Make an appointment with a physiotherapist if the pain does not go away within a day or two.

If you are active and play sports regularly, you can sustain a rotator cuff injury. Tennis, golf and basketball players are particularly susceptible to this type of injury as they rely heavily on the shoulder muscles – imagine the muscle power needed to serve a tennis ball at the incredible speeds recorded at top level competition!

The force of such actions can also cause impingement, shoulder muscles swelling and pinching the nerves on top of the shoulder. This causes “electric shock” jolts of pain all the way down the arm to the elbow (sometimes past it). Pins and needles and numbness in the fingers can also happen. Any symptoms such as these should never be ignored as medical treatment may be necessary. Again, a physiotherapist is a good person to go to as he will refer you to a clinician if needs be.

The shoulder is a very mobile joint, but can be unstable. Some people’s shoulders dislocate very easily, as the shoulder socket is quite shallow. A fall onto the arm can also cause the humerus (upper arm bone) to slip out of the socket. If this happens to you, the pain will be considerable, the shoulder will look misshapen and you will not be able to move the arm out to the side. Medical attention is obviously paramount as an xray or MRI scan may be necessary, but a dislocated shoulder is quite easily put back in. The danger then is that it will happen again, as muscles may be damaged and ligaments torn, so shoulder therapy needs to include strengthening exercises and careful rehabilitation before a sporting activity is resumed. So many re-injuries are caused by trying to do too much too soon!

Treatment will involve the shoulder being immobilized for about one month with the arm in a sling. After that, gentle movements with the shoulder girdle kept still until mobility is regained. Exercises with light weights can then be introduced, building up to full functional fitness. The golden rule in this case is that if an exercise hurts – don’t do it!

The danger position for dislocation of the shoulder is when the arm is held out at shoulder level, elbow bent – as if you are about to return a high tennis serve. This is the point at which the joint is most vulnerable.

Athletes who rely on their shoulders in competition for throwing or racquet sports may require surgery to tighten the ligaments and muscles.

The type of therapy will depend on the injury itself, but with care and common sense, most shoulder injuries can be successfully rehabilitated.

Fingernail Fungus Cures – Amazing Ways to Treat Your Fingernail Fungus

If you want to look for fingernail fungus cures, then you have several options that you can try. Although some of them are effective, others could possibly worsen the problem when not applied properly. Among your choices are medications that should prevent the infection from occurring and operations that possibly remove the infected fingernail.

How to Check for Fungal Infection

Most people suffering from fungal infections will notice a certain discoloration in their fingernails. It usually starts as a small white, yellow, or brownish spot and soon enough it will grow along with the nail and infect the entire nail. Once you notice this sign, then seek treatment right away. Without the proper fingernail fungus cures applied, the infected finger could get worse and the infection could spread to your other fingernails. Once you do an early cure, this could help minimize the treatment period and increase the possibility of completely curing your fingernail.

Types of Treatment for Fingernail Fungus

As treatment, you can opt to use antifungal pills or topical ointments. Oral medications as fingernail fungus cures are also effective. However, intake should be closely monitored as they normally pose harmful side effects. Topical creams, on the other hand, are more ideal since they can be bought almost anywhere and are also effective with little or no side effects. These are usually applied to the infected nail and then to the surrounding area of the nail. They are also known to help prevent the reoccurrence of the problem.

But if you’re in search for that all-natural solution that has minimal or zero side effects, then you should try out this amazing all-natural cure that has completely eliminated my nail fungus problems. Made from a great combination of natural oils, this product should top your list when it comes to the best of fingernail fungus cures.

Signs of a Hip Replacement Infection to Be Aware Of

An infection can occur in some cases after a hip replacement procedure is handled. It will help to know about the signs of an infection. This is because if they are found early it will be easier to treat the infection before it can become worse in its intensity. A fever is a common sign of an infection. This is a condition that occurs when a person’s oral temperature is greater than a hundred degrees Fahrenheit on a consistent basis.

In addition to a fever chills can occur in the body if it is infected. These chills can be ones that can cause the body to shake. They can also make the body feel unbearably cold. The area of the hip that was handled in the process should also be checked. An infection can be visible if the area is red or swollen. An infection can also be present if the treated area is one that feels tender to the touch.

In some cases pains can be felt in the hip area after the hip replacement procedure is handled. This is a natural effect of the procedure. The body will need to have some time to adjust to the new hip. In cases where an infection takes place the pains may not go away. In addition to this the pains can get to be even more intense as a person is active or rests for a longer period of time.

A good thing to know is that when an infection is found early it will be easier to get the damage of an infection reversed. This is done by working to help with getting the new joint to be altered quickly. Doing this can be done as a means of making sure that the effects of an infection will be less intense.

Stress Fracture Foot Diagnosis

A stress fracture is a hairline crack in the bone which can take the form of a single fracture or multiple cracks. Whilst the problem can occur suddenly, it is most common that patients experience pain on exercise, which subsides at rest. Over time the pain becomes more intense and rest fails to completely remove pain. In some cases small fractures can cause no pain at all, until the fracture develops further.

A problem arises when trying to diagnose hairline fractures in bones, as X-Ray photographs lack the resolution to accurately diagnose the problem. Whilst there are other tests which can be used, the expense often makes them appropriate for top athletes. With a limited arsenal of tests, a stress fracture foot diagnosis becomes more difficult. Timescale is a key factor, the exact location of pain, and when the pain presents itself. A doctor will be able to make a fairly accurate assessment based on the nature of the pain and from a brief history.

Stress fracture foot injuries occur mainly in athletes or those with an active lifestyle and are usually the result of repetitive strain on the foot. Those who have just started an active lifestyle are at risk if the body is not given time to condition to the new activity. When training programs become intense, the body cannot initially cope with the strain. In these cases a stress fracture foot injury occurs when the muscles become fatigued. With the musculature and he plantar fascia working inefficiently the brunt of the strike force is taken by the bones, and fractures can develop.

A look at certain risk factors helps to determine if a stress fracture is likely, and whether extra precautions need to be taken. Fractures occur more commonly in women, and are exacerbated by irregular periods, eating disorders, bad nutrition and osteoporosis. A diet which is low in calcium or vitamin D can lead to the poor development of bone, a common problem among women who are trying to control their weight. Avoidance of the fatty dairy products can lead to calcium deficiencies causing weakened bones which are prone o fractures.

The bones which are most commonly subject to stress fracture foot injuries are the second and third metatarsals of the foot, and also the heel. The heel takes the full force of the body, and is prone to fracture from overuse. The metatarsals are made to take more of the body weight when the muscles and plantar fascia become fatigued. Pain in the ball of the foot, pain on the top of the foot and pain in the heel could be indicative of a foot stress fracture. A combination of stress fracture foot symptoms is usually enough for an accurate diagnosis, with X-rays only showing up stress fractures which have started to heal.

Once diagnosed, the problem is treated with rest, with casts rarely used however crutches are highly beneficial. Leg or foot splints can be used to ensure the foot and lower leg remain straight to give the bones the maximum chance of a quick recovery. The recovery time and method of treatment will depend on the location and the severity of the fracture, with surgery reserved for only the most severe cases and full breaks.

Ladies, Don’t Fall Into the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) Testing and Osteoporosis Medication Trap

Remember that commercial where the graceful but aging woman is talking about

how she got shorter? And that if you had the same problem you should ‘talk to your doctor’.

Well I don’t recommend talking to your doctor for any reason unless you are really sick.

But what about my bone mineral density (BMD) test, you protest? What if I have hidden

osteoporosis and my leg snaps off while I am pirouhetting across the skating rink?

The most disabling of fractures occur in the elderly, in the hipbone, specifically

the femoral neck, which is associated with considerable loss of mobility.

More commonly, fractures occur in the vertebral body (bones in your spine), which usually

are not associated with pain; they may cause a bowing of the back, and shortness.

Bone density, or how thick your bones are, is currently tested using a bone mineral density test (BMD).

Normal values for these tests are based on how far off the patient’s results are from those of

the average healthy young woman, using something called t scores. However bone density normally declines with age, and therefore there is no reason to think that this is necessarily a cause for concern.

For example, if you are a woman who gets BMD testing and follows the WHO criteria, there is a 50% chance you will be diagnosed with osteoporosis at the age of 72 (t score less than -2.5), and a good chance your doctor will recommend medication treatment. Your risk of having osteopenia (t score less than -1.0), for which your doctor may recommend medication to “prevent” osteoporosis, is 50% by age 52. In other words, according to the guidelines, at least half of postmenopausal women should be taking medication for osteoporosis. And even more women have “osteopenia” (i.e. loss of bone mineraldensity that is not severe enough to qualify for osteoporosis) and are taking medications to “prevent” osteoporosis. However, recommendations for

so many women to take bone medications don’t make any sense.

Osteoporosis is commonly treated with bisphosphonates like Fosamax (alendronate), Actonel (risedronate), Boniva (ibandronate), Didronel (etidronate), Skelid (tiludronate), Aredia (pamidronate), and Zomeda (zoledronate).Bone turnover is regulated by cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts. While the osteoblasts are building up bone in area, the osteoclasts are breaking down bone in another. This leads to a balance in normal bone. What the bisphosphonates drugs do is turn off the osteoclasts, so that bone isn’t broken down, thereby slowing the loss of bone

density with aging. But they also turn off the osteoblasts, so that if there is a fracture, it won’t heal. All of the studies have shown that bisphosphonates increase BMD and reduce the risk of

vertebral fracture in women with osteoporosis (t score of less than -2.5). But what is the significance of a vertebral fracture? Vertebral fracture is merely defined as a reduction of the height of the vertebra by 20% on radiological tests like MRI. To have a vertebral fracture defined in this way, you don’t have to have pain, change in posture, or anything at all

that would make you aware of any problem. In fact, most of the time the only person who knows you have a vertebral fracture is your radiologist.

What about fractures that matter? Most of the studies, including the Alendronate Phase III Osteoporosis Treatment Study, the Fracture Intervention Trial (FIT), the FOSamax International Trial (FOSIT), and the Vertebral Efficacy with Risedronate Therapy (VERT) studycollectively performed in thousands of women with osteoporosis based on BMD, did not show a reduction in hip fractures, the kind of fracture most clearly associated with lasting disability. In terms of fractures in other parts of the body, referred to collectively as nonvertebral fractures (in places like the clavicle or the wrist) the findings are more mixed, with differing findings depending on whether there is a prior history of fractures and other factors.

The Hip Intervention Program (HIP) Study assessed the effects of three years of risedronate or placebo in 9331 women over age 70 with dramatic losses of bone mineral density (t score less than -4), with -2.5 being regular osteoporosis) or t score less than -3 with a risk factor for hip fracture, like propensity to fall. Overall 2.8% of women on risedronate suffered hip fracture versus 3.9% on placebo, a difference of 1.1% that although statistically significant was not very impressive. In the only study of men to date, bisphosphonates did not prevent painful vertebral fractures or nonvertebral fractures, including fractures of the hip.

And what about treatment beyond three years? The implication of the educational campaigns about osteoporosis is that this is a disease for which you need to be treated for the rest of your life. But is there evidence of added benefit of long-term treatment, or perhaps harm? The studies I reviewed above showed that after five years there is no benefit.

In other words after five years they seem to stop working. How could this be?

Again, bisphosphonates act by inhibiting osteoclasts, the cells that act to break down bone. So although they increase BMD for a few years, in the long run they decrease bone turnover. Animals treated with bisphosphonates have a decrease in bone turnover. Women on alendronate were found to take up to two years to heal after a fracture, and had markedly suppressed bone formation on biopsy. In the long run bisphosphonates may decrease the ability of bones to resist fracture, making bones more brittle. They also are not metabolized, meaning that they bisphosphonates you are taking now will be in your bones for life, resulting in a long term reduction in bone turnover.

This decrease in bone turnover underlies the scariest potential side effect of bisphosphonates: osteonecrosis. Osteonecrosis is a degeneration of the bone in the jaw that may require surgery. Osteonecrosis was seen in “Fossy Jaw” or “Phossy Jaw”, which developed in workers in 19th Century match making factories exposed to phosphorus. The phosphorus would get into the bone of the jaw, much like the bisphosphonates do, and stop bone turnover, leading to death of the bone tissue. The outcome was so painful and disfiguring that it sometimes led people to kill themselves.

Although most of the cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw have been reported in patients with bone metastases or myeloma treated with intravenous bisphosphonates, there are now emerging cases in patients who took the medication only for the “prevention of osteoporosis.” This shows there are those out there for whom there is little potential benefit and unfortunately much to lose in taking bisphosphonates.

A total of 15 cases of osteonecrosis have been reported with oral alendronate, one with oral risedronate and one with ibandronate, taken for the treatment of osteoporosis or Paget’s Disease (a disease of that makes bones weak and fragile).

Bottom line? If you don’t have a history of fracture these medications don’t help much. Better to exercise and stop smoking– those interventions work better at preventing fractures.

Diagnose And Treatment Of Femoral Hernias

The femoral hernia is the protrusion of an abdominal content or an intestine fragment through the femoral channel. Due to a formed pressure the hernia appears in the natural tube-shaped channel forming a grape size bulging.

Femoral hernias can show no actual symptoms and may cause severe complications if left untreated. The actual surgical maneuver is pushing the hernial content back into the abdomen and repair the problem causing the weakening of the abdominal wall. If the hernia consists out of an intestinal fragment, it must return to its proper place to avoid complications such as a bowel obstruction.

The femoral canal is a potential spot for a hernia formation as it lies next to the orifice where vessels and nerves pass from the abdomen into the inferior member. This weak spot can easily be filled with different abdominal contents in case of an increased abdominal pressure.

In the existence of a weakened abdominal spot, bowel fragments or covering tissues are more likely to protrude through the femoral canal. In cases of high pressure caused by coughing, sneezing or suddenly standing-up, the actual hernia appears.

Risk factors in femoral hernia development are obesity, smoking as it causes a chronic cough, carrying or pushing heavy objects and constipation.

Most cases of femoral hernias appear in old persons as the abdominal wall weakens in time. Also susceptive to developing a femoral hernia are women that have had one or more pregnancies, as has been proven that the pressure exercised during pregnancy tends to deteriorate the abdominal linings and tissues.

A femoral hernia is harder to observe and diagnose than an inguinal one. It creates a lump in the groin area the size of a grape-grain. It can be difficult to notice especially if the patient shows no clinical symptoms and signs.

At the beginning hernias are usually reducible; the hernial content can be pushed back into the abdomen by a finger pressure. As time passes, the hernial bag gets stuck inside the femoral channel and can not be reduced. This is when patients usually seek medical help; irreducible hernias create discomfort and continuous pain and may cause dangerous complications.

When a hernia becomes very painful and tender at touch, surgeons presume a strangled hernia and an emergency operation is required. It may lead to difficult damages as the blood supply is restricted inside the femoral canal and the contained fragments have no source of nutrients and oxygen.

Many persons avoid seeing a doctor when they observe typical hernial changes and symptoms as they fear surgery. Few of the patients know that wearing a truss, a support corset assembling a belt, might expose them at risk of developing a strangled hernia.