Health Benefits of Bee Pollen and the Liver

The liver is one of the most important organs in the body which performs a lot of functions like filtering the blood and making bile. Bile is a substance that helps digest fat and excrete certain fatty substances. It also helps in processing and hooking fats to carriers such as cholesterol, storing sugars, helping the body transport to save energy, making important proteins, such as most of those involved in blood clotting, as well as albumin which regulates fluid transport in the blood and kidneys, getting rid of toxic substances, and metabolizing many medications.

On top of this, it also helps with storing some important minerals and vitamins, and helping break down and recycle red blood cells.

If the liver doesn’t function very well or is infected by disease, your life is certainly at risk. Some of the health benefits from bee pollen and the liver are closely linked together. Let us discover the ways of how the pollen from the bee helps us take care of this important body organ.

Liver problems are caused by a variety of conditions including viral infections, bacterial invasion, and chemical or physical changes in the body. The most common cause of liver damage is malnutrition, especially when it is paired up with alcoholism. Even if the liver is very resilient in facing liver problems, it is still susceptible in malfunctioning if the problems insist. There are a lot of liver diseases which include cirrhosis, a wide variety of hepatitis, fatty liver, and so much more.

Bee pollen and the liver are interrelated when it comes to functionality. The pollen from the bee maintains and revitalizes the body organs, such as the liver, to be at their top notch working condition.

The liver also makes sure that it functions well so that we remain in good health. Bee pollen increases the amount of red blood cells in the body as the liver helps break down and recycles these red blood cells. This type of pollen is also known for its rich antioxidant properties just like the liver’s detoxifying processes. Liver excretes fatty substances not needed by the body just like pollen’s lecithin content which dissolves and flushes out fat cells.

The liver excretes bile for proper digestion of our food just like the pollen does for aiding our digestive system. As you can see, bee pollen and the liver work together like a team in delivering some healthy benefits for our body.

But that’s not all. The most common reason for liver problems is malnutrition, right? The greatest thing about ingesting bee pollen is the fact that it contains all the vital nutrients our body needs for survival and for longevity. Your whole system is well supplied with the needed nutrition of various vitamins, minerals, enzymes, amino acids, protein, and even loads of antihistamine properties for your allergies, as well as antioxidant properties for disease prevention.

Freeze dried pollens are the most favored of all because of its high potency. Heat dried pollens do not possess the health benefits you’re expecting from other pollens because

the heat destroys the elements and nutrients found in the pollen from the bee.

Manufacturers of high grade pollens use a freeze drying process to retain intact pollen health benefits. Your liver deserves your utmost care. What you can do is take in freeze dried supplements to keep you and your liver healthy.

Understanding Kidney Stones (Urolithiasis)

A rather painful condition known as kidney stones or renal calculi has been around thousands of years. Kidney stones (urolithiasis) are concentrations of minerals that have dissolved in the urine. The sizes can be as big as a golf ball or as small as a grain of sand. In most cases they will pass normally though urine without incident however at time it can be a painful passage. Every years there are nearly three million visits to the doctor for these and another half million end up in the emergency room with them.

There are signs that will show if a person will be more prone to these painful stones than others, one of which is a family history of them. There are blood and urine tests to find the specific factors that put a person at risk. When the factors are known they can be taken care of to cut down on the risks. At times a person will require medication in order to keep stones from forming. Should an infection be caused as a result in someone with continuous infections of the urinary tract a doctor can remove them. The infection will be followed to ensure that it is completely gone. The fact is that water is the best when it comes to the prevention.

Underlying metabolic conditions can cause kidney stones.

o Renal tubular acidosis

o Dent’s disease

o Medullary sponge kidney

o Crohn’s disease

These disorders are typically screened for when patients have frequent reoccurrences. These are usually done with the aide of urine tests.

Water fluoridation has also been linked to problem with kidney stones. A study was published in the Urological Research journal that shows an association between high levels of fluoride in water and painful stones. In this study urolithiasis was 4.6 times more prevalent in areas with high fluoride content.

There are a number of different types of stones:

1. Calcium oxalate stones – Caused from lack of calcium

2. Uric acid – Caused from to much protein

3. Sturvite – more common in women as they are more prone to kidney and bladder infections. These develop when the chemical balance of the urine is off from a urinary tract infection (e.g., bladder infection)

4. Calcium phosphate – generally occur in patients with hormonal or metabolic disorders such as renal tubular acidosis and hyperparathyroidism

5. Cystine – A rare congenital condition that keeps amino acid in protein from dissolving. This type requires life-long therapy.

There are a wide-range of symptoms that go along with having kidney stones, such as:

o Puss or blood in the urine as a result of damage to the kidney wall or urethra.

o A burning sensation when urinating

o The amount of urine produced can be cut down on due to an obstruction.

o Vomiting or nausea can also be caused along with fevers and chills.

o Back pain and spasms of pain

Where the pain is located and how bad it is will aid in the diagnosis of kidney stones. Stones can generally be discovered from the symptoms as well as taking x-rays or ultra sounds and running other tests.

Now that you have a basic understanding of kidney stones you should see your doctor if you think you might have them.

Psoriasis Relief – How to Naturally Treat Your Skin

Living with psoriasis can be painful and enduring on your body. Dealing with the skin condition definitely is something that can take a toll on you, especially when you’ve basically tried about everything in the book to either treat it, eliminate it, or just plain calm down the reaction of it.

Psoriasis is a skin condition that is chronic, so many who have it have to deal with the condition their entire lives. There are times when the disease may become dormant, and other times when it will flare up, sometimes overtaking your entire body in extreme cases. With doctors prescribing several medicines and topical creams that can help treat the symptoms, they only do so temporarily.

Creams and medicines become expensive after awhile. What you need to know about psoriasis is that you can get relief using alternative methods of treatment. And by that, I mean natural ways. That’s right – There are several natural alternatives to help treat your psoriasis, and some can even put it in remission, providing you with lasting relief that isn’t just temporary (like most prescription creams provide).

One way of treating psoriasis naturally is by checking your health and well being. You can even take certain supplements and eat a special diet that can actually help fight the symptoms of psoriasis! In all honesty, you really need to check your health and see what you can do to make a change. This can make a dramatic impact on your condition. And who wouldn’t want to make a few simple changes if you knew that it could prevent these symptoms from coming back?

See, I suffered from eczema and psoriasis for years, wasting money on all sorts of medicines, creams and treatments, until I finally found a cure. The best part? It was all natural. Learn more about how to cure your eczema at Cure Eczema

Is Hypercalcemia The Cause Of Your Heartburn?

There are many different reasons why people develop heartburn or the condition known as acid reflux syndrome. The most common cause of heartburn is because the muscular valve that closes between the stomach and the esophagus does not close properly, and the acid can then move up in to the throat and mouth, leaving pain and damage along the way.

However, there may be a link to Hypercalcemia, and if you have this, you may find that this is the cause of heartburn, and might be part of the reason why already existing reflux acts up for you so much.

Hypercalcemia is basically an excess of calcium in the body or blood stream. Many think you should get as much calcium as you can, but there are times when the body retains too much, and there are problems that can result from this. It usually points to something else going on in the body.

Some of the symptoms of this condition are varied, but might include tiredness, mental fog or confusion, upset stomach (vomiting and nausea), increased need to urinate, some constipation, depression, and in some cases, muscle weakness, and renal stones. This can also produce an abnormal heart rate or rhythm.

This condition is usually the result of something else. It can happen as a symptom of hyperthyroidism. This is when the thyroid works too well and the body loses mass very rapidly. It might also be a side symptom that happens with cancer or Paget’s disease. This will be diagnosed with a blood test that gives an accurate calcium level, and an EKG might be needed to test for abnormal heart rhythms. Treatment tends to happen when the underlying condition is treated.

The problems with heartburn and Hypercalcemia seem to be two fold.

One problem is that calcium is an ingredient in many of the over-the-counter heartburn medications. This can lead a person with severe acid reflux symptoms to take in too much calcium each day. On the flip side, this condition can actually lead to increased acid production in many who have GERD already, or those who have never had a problem. In turn, a person might take more OTC medications, and the problem would then compound. This is why it is important to watch for symptoms and see a doctor if Hypercalcemia is suspected. It is important to note that the acid reflux medication alone will not cause this condition in most people, but rather, it might aggravate it in those who already have it for any of the known underlying causes.

A doctor will have to do the appropriate tests to find out why the Hypercalcemia is there, and the underlying medical condition must be addressed in order to get it under control.

If a person finds out that this is the cause of heartburn for them, they will need to seek treatment for the condition causing Hypercalcemia, and then must find something to take for GERD that does not have calcium in it. That might not clear up the problem, but that might stop some of the excess acid production associated with this. Once the underlying cause of the excess calcium can be found the acid production can go down, though that does not mean it won’t go away entirely.

Understanding Food Poisoning

Food Poisoning

We all know how unpleasant and painful food poisoning can be. Even though it only lasts for around 48 hours, this type of illness can make those two days feel like some of the longest of your life. Sufferers generally experience extremely painful stomach cramps, vomiting, diarrhea and nausea. In some of the worst cases, these symptoms can lead to more serious complications such as dehydration.

Food poisoning typically arises when one ingests an infected food or beverage product. Undercooked meat, unpasteurized milk and juices, unwashed produce and water contaminated with feces are all sources of infection. It can also be transmitted from person to person.

Types of Infections

Food poisoning is not just one general type of illness. There are actually many different types of bacterial and viral infections that are all fall into this catergory of disease.

Most cases arise from a viral infection. Noroviruses, rotaviruses and hepatitis A are all viruses that cause food poisoning in their victims. While they all have similar symptoms, they tend to affect different populations. For example, noroviruses commonly target adults, while rotaviruses infect children and infants more frequently.

There is a very wide range of bacterial infections, as well. Salmonella, E. coli, botulism, traveler’s diarrhea, staphylococcus aureus and cholera are some of the more common types of bacterial poisoning.

Symptoms

No matter what virus, bacteria or parasite has caused the infection, all food poisoning sufferers will experience the same general symptoms:

· Stomach cramps

· Headache

· Fever

· Diarrhea

· Vomiting and nausea

· Weakness

Generally, these symptoms will subside after one or two days. If they are particularly bad, or if they last for a longer period of time, the victim may experience dehydration, bloody stools or even respiratory arrest. In these cases, medical attention may be necessary.

Treatment

In general, home treatment will help alleviate some of the worst symptoms. Solid foods should be avoided until the worst of the diarrhea has passed, and victims should make sure they rehydrate after vomiting and using the bathroom. Electrolyte-infused beverages are great for replenishing lost minerals and fluids, and caffeinated beverages, being dehydrants, should be avoided.

What is Toenail Fungus? – Stuart Michael M

Toenail fungus or onychomycosis, is a type of fungal infection which damages the toenail. The main cause of this disease is fungal growth, which is aided by the moist and humid conditions in the shoes. The fungal growth starts consuming keratin (protein) from the nails for their growth and thus causes swelling and uneven nail structure. The disease is more prone to adults, and estimates show that almost 50% of the people are once affected by this disease, throughout their life span. It is a transferrable condition and can spread from one person to other.

The bacterial action causes swollen, overgrown and thick nails with accumulation of bad smelling substance under them. With the passage of time the connecting tissue, weakens and the nail comes off. It is a chronicle condition and a proper doctor must be consulted before opting for a medication technique. A doctor may suggest anti-fungal medicines such as Sporanox and Lamisil, in addition to painkillers to alleviate pain. An alternate treatment method including nail polish having Loceryl or Loprox can also be used depending upon the severity of disease. These components act as an immune layer and thus reduce the action of fungus on nails.

The treatment plan including these medicines can cause serious side effects so one must consult the doctor before applying them. The treatment procedure is followed for a period of 12 weeks, under constant monitoring and a surgical removal might be necessary if there is no improvement in the condition of affected area within the specified period. Prevention is better than cure, so one should prefer comfortable shoes with enough ducts which can maintain a proper flow of air in the shoe. Also washing the feet regularly and using a anti-bacterial powder can alleviate the causes responsible for toenail fungus.

Diet For Ulcers

At present there is no specific dietary treatment to cure a peptic ulcer. Mainstream medical opinion considers that drug therapy offers the most cost-effective treatment for ulcers, with surgery as an option in only the most severe cases. Even so, studies show an association between certain foods and the risk of developing ulcers, and doctors continue to warn that unbalanced diets can make symptoms worse. A permanent cure for ulcers may yet involve a combination of medication and diet.

What Is An Ulcer?

An ulcer is a small sore or break in the lining of the stomach or just beyond the stomach in the first part of the intestine, called the duodenum. Once the break occurs it is gradually eroded and deepened by the corrosive effect of acidic gastric juices to form an ulcer. An ulcerous condition may develop quickly or over a long period of time. An estimated 5-10 percent of people suffer from an ulcer at some point in their lives. Ulcers affect people of all ages and are equally common in men and women.

Difference Between Duodenal and Stomach Ulcers

A duodenal ulcer is located in the duodenum. This type of ulcer is about three times more prevalent than a gastric ulcer which forms in the stomach. Collectively, they are known as peptic ulcers.

What Causes a Peptic Ulcer?

An ulcer develops when the balance between the acidic digestive juices and the protective lining of the stomach and intestines (mucous membrane) is disturbed. This leads to a corrosion of the lining, permitting ulcers to form. Experts now understand that a common cause of developing peptic ulcers is a bacterium (a germ) called Helicobacter pylori.

Researchers estimate that up to 70 percent of the world's population is infected with H.pylori. The bacteria lives in the lining of the stomach, and is found in virtually all duodenal ulcers and 8 out of 10 gastric ulcers.

Another cause of ulcers is the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin.

What Are The Symptoms Of An Ulcer?

Most ulcers cause recurring episodes of abdominal pain, sometimes radiating to the back. These episodes may be separated by periods of remission lasting from several weeks to years. The pain, often causing a burning sensation, is typically reduced by food but returns when the stomach empties. Pain experienced during the night is a common indicator of a duodenal ulcer. Other symptoms may include indigestion, nausea, vomiting, weight loss and black tarry stools. In a very small percentage of cases, the ulcer may rupture a blood vessel, causing vomiting of blood. Peptic ulcer disease can be very distressing and, if left untreated, can cause premature death in extreme cases.

How Is An Ulcer Diagnosed and Treated?

Diagnosis of an ulcer is typically performed either by endoscopy (a viewing tube passed down the throat into the stomach) and tissue sample (biopsy), or by giving the patient a barium meal and then an X-ray examination. Helicobacter pylori bacteria can be diagnosed by endoscopy, or a relatively simple "urea breath test", or by a blood test.

Where the ulcer is related to H.pylori infection, a permanent cure can be achieved through medication alone. A stomach-acid reducing drug combined with antibiotics usually eradicates the bacteria and either cures the ulcer in a matter of weeks or leads to long term remission. Where the ulcer is unrelated to bacteria, stomach-acid reducing medication may be prescribed on an ongoing basis to protect the stomach lining. Although the majority of peptic ulcers respond well to such treatment, many patients suffer a relapse within 12 months. Thus the search for a permanent cure continues.

Diet And Ulcers

In general, if you want to ease the symptoms of an ulcer, or reduce your risk of developing one in the first place, you should avoid eating large meals, as they encourage the production of excessive amounts of stomach acid to digest the food. In addition, diets which are high in fat and sugar, but low in fiber are known to cause a variety of adverse effects in the gut. Here are some specific dietary tips which may help to reduce the symptoms and formation of peptic ulcers.

Reduce Your Intake of Spicy Foods

Although there is no clear evidence to suggest these foods cause ulcers, they have been shown to aggravate symptoms. So avoid foods like: chili peppers, black pepper, mustard, curry and other strong spices.

Reduce Alcohol And Caffeine Intake

Both alcohol and caffeine can be problem foods for anyone with an ulcer, or at risk from an ulcer, and should be avoided or consumed sparingly. These items typically increase the acidity of the stomach and therefore can contribute to ulcer development or aggravate symptoms of existing ulcers.

Reduce Your Intake Of Sodium

An American study has linked high intakes of salt and soy sauce to a higher risk of stomach ulcers. So avoid adding salt to your the food on your plate and use food labels to check for low-sodium varieties. Foods commonly high in sodium include: canned soup, tortilla chips, potato / corn chips, salted nuts, salted meats (eg. Bacon), blue cheese, cornflakes. Switching to a diet containing fewer packaged or processed foods, will definitely reduce your sodium intake.

Add Oily Fish To Your Diet

Some studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acids – found in oily fish, like salmon, mackerel, sardines and herring – may help reduce the risk of ulcers. It seems that these omega-3 fats increase our production of prostaglandins, compounds that help to protect the lining of the alimentary canal, that is, the entire digestive passage, including the lining of the stomach and intestines.

General Advice About Dietary Vitamins And Minerals

The protective antioxidant effects of certain micronutrients should help to lower the risk of ulcers and ease symptoms when an ulcer has already formed. For instance, some nutritionists recommend eating more vegetables and fruit, such as carrots, kale, red / green peppers, cabbage juice, apricots and kiwi fruit, for their beta-carotene and vitamin C content, in order to help protect the lining of the stomach and intestine. Vitamin E from foods like wheatgerm, hazelnuts, cold-pressed sunflower seed oil, soybean oil, should also help, as should zinc from seafood and whole grains.

Other nutritionists are strong advocates of the healing properties of amino acids, the basic building blocks of proteins, and recommend L-Glutamine for peptic ulcers. Good food sources include: wheatgerm, cheddar cheese, almonds, sunflower seeds and sesame seeds.

Possible Herbal Remedies For Ulcers

In some tests, a tablet form of licorice root – which has been treated to remove an acid which may raise blood pressure – has been shown to protect against ulcers caused by the adverse effects of aspirin on the stomach lining. Camomile tea may also ease the symptoms of ulcers.

Lifestyle And Risk Of Ulcers

Damage caused by smoking increases the risk of ulcer formation and slows ulcer healing. Another reason to quit! The effects of stress on ulcer development are less easy to assess, although a stressful lifestyle clearly impacts on eating habits, alcohol consumption and smoking. So if you want to lower your risk of an ulcer, taking steps to alleviate the stress in your life is almost certain to be beneficial.caused by smoking increases the risk of ulcer formation and slows ulcer healing. Another reason to quit! The effects of stress on ulcer development are less easy to quantify, although a stressful lifestyle is known to affect eating habits, alcohol consumption and smoking. So if you want to lower your risk of an ulcer, taking steps to alleviate the stress in your life is almost certain to be beneficial.

The Power of the Mind

How many times have you fabricated an alibi that you are sick just to avoid attending a party, or a meeting or even going to the office? Did you not experience in one or more occasions feeling sick afterwards? That's the power of the mind working against you.

There were times in my life when I was so afraid that my son would acquire viral infections or any other ailments just because the babies of my colleagues are sick. After giving so much thought on that, I will just find my son suffering the same condition. It may be just a coincidence but it's also possible that I have invited that negative energy to come to life. Realizing that, I resolved to dump all negative thoughts as quickly as possible. I am now more determined to think good thoughts. Thereby, I have opened myself to God's abundance.

Your mind is so powerful. That is why it is important that you choose the focus of your thoughts. You are naturally drawn to whatever you focus upon. Imagine yourself in a miserable state and in no time you will feel miserable. On the other hand, picture yourself as happy, successful and enjoying the beauty of life. Instantly, you will feel refreshed, hopeful and ready to face the challenges of life.

Since our mind is powerful, why not focus yourselves in creating positive thoughts rather than draining your energy into negatives. You may be bombarded now by problems and financial burdens, but thinking more about it will not do you any good. In fact, it may be even worse when your health suffers and succumb to anxiety. Headaches, hyperacidity and even nervous breakdowns are just some of the ailments that you may develop in putting so much stress into your lives.

Why not focus on the solutions instead. Acknowledge the problem but quickly shift your thoughts into the possible solutions. In case of marital conflict, for example, think of ways on how you can remedy the problem. Do you need to consult a marriage counselor, or just sit down and talk about it, or just set up a romantic date and rekindle the fire in your relationship? In case of financial concerns, you may start by letting go of the things that you can do without like dinner outs and fancy gadgets. Some issues may look deeper than what I have cited, but the point is that you have to use the power of your mind to your advantage.

Believe that you have the power to better your life. Think positive. Focus on your dreams. Have high hopes. Trust in God and make a fresh start.

Can Acupuncture Cure Your Allergies?

Acupuncture is Helping People Say Goodbye to Allergies

Our immune systems fight anything that is seen as being out of place or abnormal. Allergies cause the immune system to react to substances that aren’t usually a problem for the human body. This triggers watery eyes, sneezing, wheezing, respiratory problems, difficulty swallowing and other reactions which can include the loss of consciousness if the reaction is serious enough.

Because of these unpleasant reactions along with the possibility of death that comes with severe allergic reactions, most people will do everything they can do to stay away from the things they are allergic to. Simple allergies caused by dust, pollen and other substances in nature are nearly impossible to avoid at all times. These have to be treated when exposure happens.

Ways to Treat Allergies

The number of medications to treat allergies is always growing and still few treat severe allergies caused by ingesting allergens, especially food items. Ideally the causes of these allergies are either avoided entirely or medication is taken prior to exposure. Remembering to take medications and complete abstinence from favored foods often does not occur.

Acupuncture has been shown to have remarkable results in reducing allergies in allergy sufferers. This ancient Chinese practice works by using thin needles into specific points in the body to stimulate specific body systems.

Allergens are in the environment and will remain a threat; allergies are not curable and can only be held at bay for so long with one acupuncture treatment. Acupuncture may be required on an ongoing basis to control allergies. These treatments are for temporary relief and not for a cure; you will need to continue acupuncture as a form of relief as long as you continue to be exposed to allergens. Continued treatments will not cause the immune system to become tolerant and stop triggering allergic reactions when you are exposed to allergens.

Is Acupuncture Painful?

Some people are worried that acupuncture may be a painful way to treat allergies because of the needles that are involved. The good news is that this treatment doesn’t hurt. People who have a fear of needles can close their eyes during a session, which is often relaxing, and the therapist does the work while you relax and reap the benefits.

Tips for Those Who Choose to Use Acupuncture for Allergies

Acupuncture is a highly skilled treatment that requires needles to be placed in an exact area and to be moved in a highly specific way. Only experienced, trained acupuncturists who are certified to administer this treatment should treat your allergies with acupuncture. You should never trust an amateur to administer treatment. Viewing credentials of these who offer these treatments for your allergies is an important way to protect your health.

If you suffer from allergies, acupuncture may hold the cure for you. Its important of course that you check with a qualified acupuncturist so as not to put yourself at risk. You may walk away with not only your allergies still intact, but with even more problems.

Probiotics – A Solution for Bloating, Gas, IBS, Skin Infections, Tooth Decay, Diarrhea and More

If you experience bloating, gas, irritable bowl syndrome, skin infections, vaginal infections or diarrhea, you will want to read more about probiotics and the benefits of taking a probiotic supplement every day.

Probiotics are live microorganisms – bacteria in most cases – that are similar to beneficial microorganisms in your stomach. They are also referred to as “friendly bacteria” or “good bacteria”. Probiotic bacterial cultures assist your body’s naturally occurring gut flora to reestablish themselves.

Ideally, the microflora colony in the digestive tract should be made up of 85 percent friendly bacteria to 15 percent harmful bacteria. This balance is affected by the use of antibiotics, oral contraceptives, steroids, exposure to radiation (X-rays and radiation therapies), consumption of chlorinated water, refined sugars and other refined foods, and by poor digestion, poor elimination of waste, stress and an unhealthy diet.

When the balance of good and bad bacteria is adversely altered, your body becomes overloaded with toxins, which causes chronic diseases and illnesses. Taking a probiotic supplement and eating foods that include probiotics will help buffer your stomach acid and intestinal bile, increasing the chance of good bacteria surviving.

Benefits of probiotics:

  • Improve digestion of food
  • Enhance absorption of vitamins
  • Produce enzymes
  • Increase availability of vitamins and nutrients, especially Vitamin B, Vitamin K, lactase, fatty acids and calcium
  • Help kill viruses and parasites
  • Increase resistance to infection
  • Inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria
  • Regulate pH value by producing lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide. Increase the acidity of intestine (lower pH value) and inhibit reproduction of many harmful bacteria and yeasts

Probiotics treat the following:

  • Infectious diarrhea and traveler’s diarrhea
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Vaginal infections
  • Skin infections
  • Tooth decay
  • Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a bacterium that causes most ulcers and chronic stomach inflammation
  • Reduce symptoms of lactose intolerance
  • Reduce cholesterol levels when high

Foods containing probiotics:

  • Yogurt*
  • Fermented and unfermented milk
  • Miso
  • Tempeh
  • Sauerkraut
  • Some juices and soy beverages

*Not all yogurt contains active bacterial culture. L acidophilus, L bulgaricus and S thermophilus are the most common bacterial strains added in yogurt. These bacteria are on the ingredient list. More labels are stating “live cultures” or “active cultures”, which you want to look for. Avoid yogurt that is heat treated after culturing. This means the added bacteria was pasteurized, which can destroy live cultures.

Why you need probiotics:

  • Drinking chlorinated water destroys your intestinal flora
  • Farm animals are fed antibiotics to keep diseases down. When you eat meat, you take in these antibiotics
  • When the ratio of good bacteria to bad is lowered, problems begin to arise such as excessive gas, bloating, constipation, intestinal toxicity and poor absorption of nutrients
  • Alcoholic beverages kill probiotics, encouraging harmful bacteria and yeast overgrowth
  • The use of antibiotics directly kills all bacteria in your intestinal tract. That is why probiotics is recommended while taking antibiotics
  • Birth control pills and many other drugs cause damage to the intestinal flora and to the tissue in the intestinal wall

How to choose probiotics:

You do not need a prescription to take probiotics, as they are available in grocery stores and health food stores. Taking probiotics when your body does not actually need them won’t cause you any harm.

Consider the following when looking for a probiotic:

  • The type of bacteria, including the genus and species
  • The potency or number of bacteria per dose
  • The purity
  • Natrol BioBeads is one of the most effective probiotic acidophilus on the market. It doesn’t have to be refrigerated and only needs to be taken once a day

Start by taking at least 1-10 billion viable L. acidophilus or B. bifidum cells daily divided into 3 or 4 doses. Take them on an empty stomach or at least 30-60 minutes before eating. Take 15-20 billion viable organisms daily to prevent diarrhea from antibiotics.

Maintaining proper pH balance within the gastrointestinal tract is critical to probiotic growth and health. The pH inside the small intestine should be slightly alkaline (7.5-8.0) and the colon should be slightly acidic (6.0-6.8). Without the correct pH, probiotics won’t function properly. In order to achieve and maintain pH balance, it is important to eat the appropriate foods.

Vitamin B6 Benefits, Sources and Deficiency

Vitamin B6 is one of the eight water-soluble B vitamins. It was originally isolated in the mid-1930. Vitamin B6 has the maximum number of chemical structures – all begin with the letters “pyr,” and include pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxamine (PM), pyridoxine phosphate (PNP), pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), and pyridoxamine phosphate (PMP). PLP is the most active coenzyme form, and has the maximum importance in human metabolism

This vitamin was initially not known by this name, but was referred to as the “antidermatitis factor.” This was because, it was noticed that skin inflammation (dermatitis) increased whenever there was a decrease in intake of foods containing Vitamin B6.

Benefits of vitamin B6

* Pyridoxine helps in the proper functioning of the cells of the nervous and muscular system.

* Pyridoxine is also known as a “woman’s vitamin” because it helps relieve symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) such as pre-menstrual fluid retention, severe period pains, emotional PMS symptoms, premenstrual acne, and nausea/vomiting in early pregnancy. It also helps balance hormonal changes in women.

* It aids in the production of DNA and RNA, the body’s genetic material.

* B6 also helps in the movement of sulfur-containing molecules around the body, as that is very important for hormonal balance and elimination of toxic substances through the liver.

* It is essential for the proper absorption of vitamin B12; as well as for the production of red blood cells (haemoglobin). Vitamin B6 also helps increase the amount of oxygen carried by haemoglobin.

* B6 is also an “anti-stress” vitamin because it improves the activity of the immune system, and develops the body’s ability to resist stressful situations.

* Pyridoxine is considered beneficial for children with difficulty in learning, as well as assisting in the
prevention of dandruff, eczema and psoriasis.

* It helps maintain sodium and potassium balance in the body. Supposed to provide immunity against cancer and resist the formation of the toxic chemical homocysteine, which increases the risk of cardio-vascular diseases.

* Mood swings, irritability, depression as well as loss of sexual drive may be at times linked to B6 deficiency.

* It helps maintain the health of the lymphoid system (thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes) that produces white blood cells in the body. A vitamin B6 deficiency can decrease a person’s antibody production and suppress immune response altogether.

* Vitamin B6 is also very important for the conversion of tryptophan (an amino acid) to niacin (vitamin B3).

* Hemoglobin within red blood cells carries oxygen to tissues. Your body needs vitamin B6 to make hemoglobin. A vitamin B6 deficiency can result in a form of anemia that is similar to iron deficiency anemia.

* Vitamin B6 also helps maintain the blood glucose (sugar) within a normal range. When caloric intake is less, the body uses vitamin B6 to help convert stored carbohydrate or other nutrients to glucose to maintain normal blood sugar levels.

Dosage of Vitamin B 6

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamin B6 (in milligrams) is –

* 1.3 mg for men and women under age 50

* 1.7 mg for men and 1.5 mg for women over the age of 50

* 1.9 mg for pregnant women, and

* 2 mg for lactating women.

Vitamin B6 can be found as multivitamins, B complex vitamins.

People who eat a balanced diet containing good sources of vitamin B6 should be able to meet the daily requirement without taking a supplement.

Vitamin B6 supplements should always be taken with water, preferably after a meal.

Deficiency of vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 deficiency symptoms are quite similar to those of B2 and B3, as B6 is needed by the body to manufacture its own B3 vitamin.

* The skin is among the first to show up deficiency of Vitamin B6. Many skin disorders have been associated with B6 deficiency, such as eczema, acne, allergies and seborrheic dermatitis. . Symptoms may include nails that are uneven, a sore tongue (glossitis) as well as changes in bones – which can include osteoporosis and arthritis.

* Kidney stones may also appear.

* Irritability, nervousness and insomnia as well as general weakness are other associated symptoms.

* Neural problems also erupt when there is a lack of Vitamin B6. Symptoms can include convulsions, confusion, and seizures in the case of severe deficiency.

* Other deficiency related problems include anemia, depression, and fatigue. When anaemia is entirely related to B6 deficiency, it is usually classified as pernicious anaemia.

Who are at risk of Vitamin B6 deficiency?

Vitamin B6 deficiency usually occurs in individuals who eat poor quality food that is scarce in many nutrients. Symptoms usually occur during later stages of deficiency, when the poor intake has prolonged for quite some time.

Alcoholics and older adults are more likely to have inadequate vitamin B6 intake. Alcohol promotes the destruction and loss of vitamin B6 from the body.

Some asthmatic children treated with a particular drug, may need to take a vitamin B6 supplement.

Rich dietary sources of Vitamin B6

Good dietary sources of vitamin B6 include chicken, tuna, salmon, shrimp, brewer’s yeast, lentils, soyabean, nuts, peas, walnuts, bananas, peanut butter, carrots, brown rice, bran, sunflower seeds, wheat germ, and whole-grain flour.

Pyridoxine is sensitive to sunlight; cooking and processing, so watch out while cooking!
Exercising may aid the production of the active form of vitamin B6.

Do medications affect vitamin B6?

Some prescription medications lead to depletion of the body’s B6. These medications include birth control pills and oral estrogens; diuretics, anti-epileptic drugs, asthma-related drugs, tuberculosis drugs and anti-fibrotic drugs.

Lymphedema Massage Treatment

Any damage to the lymph vessels and pathways due to their removal or surgery causes a blockage in the flow of the lymph, resulting in an accumulation of the fluids. This pooling usually happens in the arms or legs and a swelling develops in the area. A lymphedema massage can be beneficial in this case as the process helps to stimulate the fluids to move in the right direction towards the blood stream. The body is thus able to function normally to process these fluids and dispose the excess along with the waste materials.

The term ‘massage’ as we know it aims to relax the muscles and loosen out the ligaments and tendons. A normal massage tends to increase the blood flow in the arteries with firm strokes and loosen the muscles. Manual lymph drainage is a kind of massage therapy that is used to treat lymphedema. Here the difference is that the massage is done with light strokes to gently stimulate the flow of lymph in the desired direction. Combining it with other types of therapy like compression bandaging, use of compression garments, exercise and skin care, it is a proven method of treatment for lymphedema.

Usually manual lymph drainage is performed by a trained therapist who has the knowledge of using lymphedema massage for treating the condition. If too much pressure is applied on the skin, it may lead to an increase in blood flow and water retention in the tissues. This would defeat the whole purpose of the exercise and instead cause more complications. Therefore, a lymphedema massage must be performed by an expert who is familiar with the contraindications as well.

If a trained massage therapist performs manual lymph drainage, it can be helpful to the patient. It is extremely important for the therapist to have experience in dealing with lymphedema patients, especially with the technique for directing the fluids towards the bloodstream. The patient can perform a self-massage to keep the swelling in check. However, any improvement in the condition or a decline should be noted. In case there is a negative impact, the patient must review his options and make the necessary changes.

A massage therapy by itself is very soothing and helps a person relax and deal better with the stress of surgery or an illness. A massage may assist in alleviating the swelling and the accompanying pain, thus enabling the body to heal quickly. The question many people have in mind is whether a massage can prevent lymphedema. Skilled therapists who have experience in dealing with lymphedema patients can make a difference. Lymphedema massage can be used as a preventive measure and as a treatment for controlling the condition. Apart from massage, high risk patients must be alert to early symptoms and begin treatment at the first opportunity.

How to Stop Panic Attacks – 7 Simple Tips to Prevent Panic Attacks Symptoms From Ruining Your Life

To know how to stop panic attacks, you first need to recognise the symptoms, then by understanding their causes, you learn that they cannot harm you. Once you can accept that they aren’t dangerous you are better placed to stop them occurring again. Here you’ll learn, how to recognise the symptoms, what the underlying causes are, and 7 things that you can do to help stop panic attacks, without the use of drugs.

Symptoms of Panic Attacks

First you should get to recognise the main symptoms of panic attacks. These are; tight chest and / or throat, racing heart, palpitations, difficulty breathing, hyperventilation, shaking, dizziness, tingling fingers, nausea, a feeling of detachment, a fear that something terrible is about to happen, e.g. death.

These symptoms are truly frightening, and to the victim, very real. However, they aren’t real, but just the body’s primeval reaction to a perceived dangerous situation which doesn’t in fact exist, but occurs through the sufferer’s irrational fear or fears. In other words, there’s no foundation to the symptoms, they are just symptoms, and can’t harm you.

Causes of Panic Attacks

Everyone suffers from a certain level of anxiety in their lives, this is natural in today’s world. And they handle both the anxiety and the stress that can occur due to certain events or situations. But someone who has severe anxiety on a daily basis over a prolonged period of time, may have difficulty handling these stressful events.

In this case, an everyday stressful event like being stuck in an elevator, held up in traffic, a job interview, an exam, etc., can trigger a panic attack. So you have two things going on; heightened anxiety and resultant panic attacks.

Now the causes of the general anxiety may be one or more of several things; genetics (family history of anxiety and panic attacks), gender (women are 50% more likely to have anxiety and panic attacks), medical conditions (e.g. mitral valve prolapse), medications (e.g. Ritalin), fears & phobias, and a traumatic event or events earlier in life.

7 Things to Help Prevent Panic Attacks

Apart from mainstream medications like tranquilizers and antidepressants, which can have some nasty side effects, there are several natural things that you can do to try to stop panic attacks happening again. Here are 7 things you can do to help stop panic attacks…

1. Get to know the symptoms: You’ve already made a good start by getting to know what the symptoms and underlying causes are, and, you now know that panic attacks cannot cause you harm. But continue with your research and also talk to your doctor.

2. Get plenty of sleep: It’s very important to get 8 hours uninterrupted sleep during the night, so that your body can recover and recharge after your energy-sapping days. Here are some tips to help; don’t go to bed on a full stomach; don’t take caffeine before bed; don’t drink alcohol before bed; don’t read too long in bed; ensure your mattress is the most comfortable for you; ensure the bedroom is completely darkened; shut out all extraneous noise, etc.

3. Use known techniques to help relax: Learn how to meditate, attend yoga classes, what about self-hypnosis? Practising these techniques can reduce stress and improve your sense of overall well-being.

4. Cut-out stimulants: Stimulants are believed to be a trigger for panic attacks. So anything with caffeine in it, e.g. coffee, tea, etc., should be avoided. Avoid, or seriously reduce, smoking and alcohol too.

5. Eat a healthy diet: Cut-out preserved and processed foods. Stick to natural and organic if you can. Eat your 5 portions of fresh fruit and vegetables a day. A healthy, well balanced diet, is conducive to your overall health and helps to build-up your immune system to ward off illnesses and infections. If you know you are overweight, this may be playing a part in your anxiety, so a well balanced diet can help here too.

6. Exercise daily: This helps to improve your overall health position both in body and mind. Choose the exercise that suits you best and that you will enjoy, it shouldn’t be a drudge: for example running, power walking, walking the dog, swimming, pilates, dancing, home workouts, etc.

7. Reduce stress wherever you can: With higher levels of anxiety, a relatively small stressful event can trigger a panic attack. So get to recognise typical stressful situations that affect you, and either avoid them or learn how to deal with them better. Many times it’s just about putting value on your health above other things. For example; don’t take more work on than you can reasonable handle; do take more time off, but use it to relax, not to take on other stressful stuff; if driving to work everyday is stressful, can public transport take the strain?; when shopping, can you go outside the busy times when there are less crowds? etc.

All of the above can help to prevent further panic attacks. However, a key determinant in recurring panic attacks is the very ‘fear’ of having another one. This fear is imprinted in your psyche because the panic attack symptoms you experienced were so terrifying.

The fear builds on your already heightened anxiety so that a relatively small stressful event can trigger another panic attack. This is the ‘cycle of anxiety’ (anxiety > fear > panic attack > anxiety > fear > panic attack, etc.) that has to be broken if you are to stop panic attacks and cure your general anxiety.

Frequency of Depression in Migraine Headache

FREQUENCY OF DEPRESSION IN MIGRAINE HEADACHE

.

AUTHOR:BHURGRIGHULAMRASOOL,BILAWAL,SHAMIM-UR-REHMAN,RAJ KUMAR,ANISREHMAN.

SUMMARY:

In this prospective study migraineous patients were enrolled who wre manifested the symptoms of depression.There was considerable psychiatric morbidity there was necessay find out all migranes aand treated them symptomatically.It proved that we should not bypass the chaces of dpression in cases of migraine especially female patients.

Key words:migraine, depression,psychiatry,males, females,cluster ,tension.

INTRODUCTION:

"Migraine is a mysterious disorder characterized by pulsing headache (feeling of weightage,fullness over forehead),usually restrictedto one side,which comes in attacks lasting 4-48hours and is often associated with nausea,vomiting,sensitivity of light, and sound, vertigo,loosemotions and other symptoms."(Tripathi-2006)

"Migraine is very common type of headache,with a prevalance of 10-12%,migraine ranks 19th among disease" (cephalalgia 2004)

"migraine is a complex disorder inwich many psychological,inviromental,biochemical,neurophysiologic,and genetic factors play a role to tiger attacks. The diagnosis is based on headache characetrized and associated symptoms specified internationl headache society" (westermanCJetal 2003)

"The typical headache is unilateral,throbbing and may be severe.If untreated, the migraine attacks typically lasts 4 to 72 hours. The attacks are usually associated with nausea,vomitting, or sensitivity to sound,light and or movement.In addition to this, migraine with aura is characterized by transient focal neurological symptoms,which are usually visual,and may precede,accompany, or flow the headache attacks."(stewart WF et al 1994)

"Thereare two types of migraine headaches.The first migraine without aura(previously called common migraine) is severe,unilateral,pulsating headache that the typically lasts from 2 to 72 hours.These headaches are often aggrivated by physical activity and accompanied by nausea,vomiting,photophobia(hypersensitivity to light) and phonophobia (hypersensitivity to sound.Approximately 85% of patients with migraine do not have aura.In the second type migraine with aura (previously called classic migraine),the headache preceded by neurological symptoms called auras which can be visual, sensory,and or cause speech or motor disturbances. Most commonly these prodromal symptoms are visual, occuring, approximately 20 to 40 minutes before headache pain begins. In the fifteen percent of migraine patients whose headache is proceded by aura,the aura itself allows diagnosis.The headache itself in migraine with or without auras is similar.For both typesmigraines,woman are three folder more likely thanmen to experience either type of migraine.

Migraine-there is chance for family tenency,females are more affected than male,it develops unilateral,variables in onset,characterized by pulsating,throbing.Cluster-ther in family chance,males are more than females it develops during sleep,at behind or around head,characterized by sharp,steady.

Tension-Type-there is family history,it develops understress,bilateralcharacterized by dull,persistentent type.(Richard D etal 2006)

" Depression may means the symptom of feeling of said, meloncholic or low in spirit, or it may mean the syndrome of depression as characterized by low mood,lack of enjoyment, reduced energy and changes in appetite, sleep and libidpolic.(A.W.CLARE 1998)

"Clinically significant depression is often reffered to is as major cause of disability and of succide.Medically unexplained symptoms that may result from depression include chronic fatigue,chronic wide spread pain,weight loss and conginitive impairment (deprssive pseudodementia).Dpression comorbid with a medical condition magnifies any associated disability,diminishes adherence to medical treatment and rehiltation, and may even shortet life expectancy.Recent research suggests that patients who have a major depressive disorder soon after myocardial infarction or stroke die sooner than who do not even when disease severity is controlled.(lloyd& sharpe MC 2002).

"It is widely accepted that the limbic system has a role in control and expression of emotion.These structures from a reverbrating (papez) cercuit inwhich inputs from various cortical areas,especialy those involving in perception, are fed in together with other inputs from the brain system and spinal cord.Output is mainly from the hypothelmus,through releasing hormone, and the reticular formation and autonomic nuclie of the brain stem. The hypothelmus plays a part in hormonal disturbabce in depression.The reticular formation and autonomic nuclie contol aroused and autonomic function,both of which are often altered in depression.The limbic system also contains sructures involved in the control of memory,depressed patients often express their disorder in terms of adversely disorted recollection of past events.The limbic system may act as a regulatory system for emotional states.Noradrenergic and 5HT neurones abuond in these areas of the brain,and the system’s close link with the LHRA axis provides a pictures how disturbance of these systems might be linked in depression."(cantopher1991).

‘Types of depression.Major depression-It is probably one of the most common forms of depression,lack of interest,walk around with weight of world on his or her shoulder, hopeless atate,lack of interest in sexual activity and less appetite and weightloss.

Atypical Depression-individuals somtimes experience of happiness, but fatigue,oversleeping,overeating weightgain.typical depressio can last for months or a suffer may live with it forever.

Psychotic Depression-Individual of psychotic dpression begin to hear and see imajinory things-sound,voicesand visual that donot exist.

Dysthymia-Individual characterized by sad,blue,or meloncholic.it is a condition that people are not even aware of but just live with daily,feel life is unimportant,dissatisfied,frightened and simply donot enjoy their lives.

Manic depression:It is highly exuted,emotional disorder people who suffer from manic depression have an extremely high rate of succide."(Any Berhman 2004)

METHODS:

We interwiewed after informed consent one hundred and two patients reporting atMedical and the psychiatric outpatients Department at Muhammad Medical College Mirpurkhas sindh,between March 2007 to to April 2008.These patients were screened for presence of depression symptoms in concomittently with migraine/half headache in head.Depressive symptoms were measured through depression scale and clinical interview,weeping,lonlelessness,sadness,confusion main questions were asked during interviewed in cases of migraine.

RESULTS

:There were thirty seven males (36.27%)and sixty five females (63.72%)who were examined during attacks of headache,17(45.9%)patients were manifested depressive symptoms and 43 (66.1%)females were developed symptoms of depression in cases of migraine.

Case Processing Summary

Cases

Included

Excluded

Total

N

Percent

N

Percent

N

Percent

Total cases of study * Presence of depression in migraineous female patients

43

42.2%

59

57.8%

102

100.0%

Femal patients in study * Presence of depression in migraineous female patients

43

42.2%

59

57.8%

102

100.0%

Male patients in study * Presence of depression in migraineous female patients

37

36.3%

65

63.7%

102

100.0%

Total cases of study * Presence of depression in migraneous male patients

17

16.7%

85

83.3%

102

100.0%

Femal patients in study * Presence of depression in migraneous male patients

17

16.7%

85

83.3%

102

100.0%

Male patients in study * Presence of depression in migraneous male patients

17

16.7%

85

83.3%

102

100.0%

DISCUSSION:

It was proved that females were more than male in our study.There were 66.1% females,45.9% male depressive symptoms in diagnostic cases of migraines.Majority females patients were malnourished and weeping during taking history and these were main parameters considered depressive symptoms in cases of migranious patients.From summary tables and diagrames it was proved that females were more affected than male in this study.It means that depressive symptoms were more presence in females during interview in this stydy.

"A recent research findings indicated that treatment for both migraine and major depression may benefit patients with both disorder.Astudy was conducted on people with migraine or sever headahes aged between 25to 55.When their psychiatric combordity was assed,resaercher found that the risk of migraine in individuals with pre-existing mjor depression was three times highet than in individuals with no history of major depression.More ever major depression the risk of major depression in people with pre-existing migraine was more than fivefold hiher than in people with no history of headaches.However there were no relation between major depression and other types of severe headaches"(MrMARY Ayres2003)

"Many migraines sufferes have noticed that at times,migraine and depression seems to go together and there is strong evidence to support this,However it is not known whether treating migraine affects depressive symptoms or treating depression affects migraine symptoms"(MMA2008)

"Throbbing migraine headaches and major depression may be related.Infact having one may increase the occurance of other.Migraine sufferers were five times more likely that the headache-free individuals to develop major depression in the study conducted by the Henrry ford Health system.Those who started the study with depression were three times more likely to develop migraines.With major depression was more at risk of suffering a first time migraie than non-dopressed individuals. And people who live with migrains seems to br more at risk for an initial bout of depression.Both disorders are biological linked,possibility with brain chemical or hormones."(PT Staff 2007).

"The overall frequency of recurrent headaches didnot very significantly with age, but girls had headaches are common soatic complaints among Norwegian adolescents,especially among girls"(ZwartJA etal 2004).

"Researchers survey 949 woman with migraine about their history of abuse,deprssion and headaches characteristics,forty percent of woman had chronic headache more than 15 headaches in month,and 72%reported very severeheadache related diability.Physically and sexually abuse was reported in 38%of the womanand 12%reportedboth physical and sexual abuse in the past.The association between migraine and depression is well established, butthe mechanism is un certain.The study found woman with migraine who had major deprssion were twice as likely as a child.If thebabuse coninued age 12 ,the woman with migraine were five times more likely to report depression"(science dily2007).

"Major depression increased the risk of depression,migraine as well same.This bidirectional association,with each disorder increasing the risk for onset of other,was not observed in relation to other severe headaches,both were considered direcly proportional to eachother."(NBreslaw,et al 2003)

It was proved that migraine type of headache bases of depression if it untreated,same mechanism follow the severe cases of depression could lead to migraine type headache.Females were more affected than males.No doubt migranous corelated to depression.

REFERENCES:

  • Any Behrman (2004)electroboy:a memoir of mania;published by Random House ,16sep2004 types of depression,medical review board.

  • Nbreslau,schultz,stewart,RBS lipton (2000)’headache and major depression is association specefic to migraine? Neurology 2000 54,308.American Academy of neuology.

  • Mrs marry ayres ;to relieve the burden of headache by facilitating informed awareness and encouraging resaerch’

  • Mary kay betz ;having headache-advisor.

  • N breslau RB lipton stewart 2003,;comorbidity of migraine and depression investigating potential etiology and prognosis,neurology 2003,60-13-12 American Acadamy of neurology.

  • Science daily(sept-6-2007)’childhood abuse is more common in woman with migraine who suffer depression than in woman with migraine alones’American Acadamy of Neurology.

  • Zwart JA,Dyb,Hotman TZ,Stovener LJ,SandT 2004’The prevalences of migraine and tension-type among adolsent in Norway.Cephalalgia2004 May,24(5).373-9

  • K.Dtripathi2003’migraine drug therapy,essentials of medical pharmacology,5th edition,

  • DP Headache classification subcommittee of the international headache society.2nd edition cephalalgia 2004,24:1-160

  • Western CJ,Rosina AF,Deveris vde coteau pa,’The prevalences and manifestation of hereditory hemmorrhage telangiectasia,a family screening.AM J Genet A2003 116 324-28.

  • Stewart WF, Schechter,AR rasssmussin BK’migraine prevalence, a review of population-based studies-neurology 1994-44 817-23.

  • Richard .Dhowland,marry j,mycek,2006’drugs used in treatment of migraine’,pharmacology,lipponcottes illustered.

  • A.W,Clare 1998’clinincal medicine,parveen kumar 4th edition psychological medicine

  • Lloyd GG SHRPEMC Davidson’s priniples and practics of medicine 19th edition 2004 affective mood disorder

  • T Cantopher Neurology of depression neuroanatomy of depression medicine digest 1998 7-8.
  • Coronary or Ischaemic Heart Disease

    Coronary Heart Disease is also known as atherosclerotic heart disease, coronary artery disease, and ischaemic heart disease. It comes about as the result of atheromatous plaques clogging the arteries that supply the heart's muscle, which is known as the myocardium. The symptoms of coronary heart disease often do not reveal themselves until several decades after the fact, oftentimes in the result of a severe heart attack. After years of accumulation the plaques can rupture, and thus limit the amount of blood that flows to the heart muscle, resulting in the heart attack. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of sudden death. For men and women of advanced age, it is the most common cause of death.

    When it comes to heart disease, atherosclerotic heart disease entails a wide spectrum. At one end you have asymptomatic people whose disease is characterized by atheromatous streaks inside the walls of the coronary arteries. The streaks do not obstruct the blood flow, but rather represent the earliest stage of atherosclerotic heart disease. During this phase of the disease, a coronary angiogram may or may not show any signs that it is present. This is due to the fact that the coronary artery's lumen has not decreased in caliber.

    As the years pass, the streaks will increase, becoming thicker and thicker. First the atheromatous plaques expand into the artery walls; then they expand in to the lumen of the vessel. This affects the blood flow through the arteries. Initially, it was thought that atheromatous plaques grow via a slow process. But in recent years, it has been learned that the buildup of plaque might be complimented by small ruptures that cause a sudden increase in plaque owing to the accumulation of thrombus material.

    When less than seventy percent of the vessel's diameter is obstructed, symptoms of obstructive coronary artery disease will rarely appear. It is when over seventy percent of the vessel's diameter is obstructed by atheromatous plaques that the person will begin developing symptoms. This stage is called ischemic heart disease. These signs start to make themselves felt during times when the heart is given an increased workload. Exertional angina and decreased exercise tolerance count among the chief symptoms.

    As the disease wears on, it may result in an almost total obstruction of the coronary artery's lumen. This limits the flow of blood carrying oxygen to the myocardium. Usually, when afflicted with this phase of the disease, individuals will have suffered from one or several heart attacks. They will also display signs of chronic coronary ischemia. These include symptoms of flash pulmonary edema and angina at rest.

    We should be clear that there exists a difference between myocardial infarction and myocardial ischemia. The term "ischemia" refers to the disorder wherein the amount of oxygen that is supplied to a tissue is not sufficient for that tissue's needs. When the myocardium is afflicted with ischemia, it is unable to function properly. When it afflicts large portions of the myocardium, the organ's relaxation and contraction can be impaired. "Infarction" implies that the tissue has died because of a lack of oxygen rich blood.