What are the Causes of Pneumonia and How Can it be Prevented?

Pneumonia is a disease that caused a large number of deaths before antibiotics were invented. Ever since then it can be treated by taking a few pills that were prescribed by the doctor. But it still causes problems to many people and a lot of patients are diagnosed with pneumonia every year. That is because it's pretty hard to prevent it. In order to try to avoid it you need to understand what causes it.

Well pneumonia occurs when the tissue inside one or both lungs gets infected with a virus, bacteria, or another parasite. The problem is that the viruses or bacteria that cause pneumonia are in the air we breathe, so avoiding them is pretty hard to do since you can not see them. They can even be found in your food or in what you are drinking.

When a person has pneumonia, he / she starts coughing and sneezing a lot. Whenever he / she coughs or sneezes a large number of the pneumonia causing viruses are spread into the air, so either try to cover your mouth and not breathe that air directly, either ask that person to cover his / her mouth when sneezing and coughing.

There are many germs that cause pneumonia, but the ones that were most encountered by doctors in pneumonia cases are some bacteria called streptococcus pneumonia, staphilococcus, and haemophilus.

You can get infected with the pneumonia germs while doing your daily routine, at work, while shopping or at school. The risk increases if you are in a hospital because the ventilation system there can spread the virus from a patient into the whole hospital.
Also, if you breathe something that can irritate your lungs like smoke or certain chemicals and poisons you are at risk.

The risk factors increase for those that are over 60 years of age, smoke and drink alcohol, use drugs, and especially for those with a weak defense system. If pneumonia affects someone that already has another disease that has weakened his / her defense system then if it's not treated in short time it can be fatal.

Since you can acquire pneumonia while performing daily activities it's pretty hard to prevent it, but you can stay away from ill people and check a doctor if you notice that your cough can not be cured by the normal medication. If the illness is discovered in an early stage it can be cured very easily and you will not even have to spend time at home resting.

Is There A Mesothelioma Cure?

Let’s see if we can determine whether or not there is a mesothelioma cure. In this day and age it can seem absurd that there are no cures for cancer let alone a mesothelioma cure. Mesothelioma is a cancer, and as such, there is no true “cure” for it yet. However, if the disease is caught early, various treatment options can not only extend a patient’s life, but also their quality of life. While the traditional survival rate for those diagnosed with mesothelioma is often set at eight to 12 months, more recently, a five year survival rate of some has increased substantially. This goes to show that treatment and drugs to battle mesothelioma cancer has increased and improved dramatically in the last few years. This may be due to the fact that more is known about mesothelioma cancer now than it ever was before.

However, there is still much to be understood about this aggressive disease. While the common diagnosis for mesothelioma is that it is indeed a form of cancer, not all researchers are in agreement. So as of yet there are no mesothelioma cure that has been developed; however there are things that people can do to ease any symptoms that they have. Your doctor or health professional will be able to help ease the symptoms and make the last few years or months a lot easier.

Some people think that mesothelioma cancer is a viral infection that has turned malignant. Thus, their prognosis is that the asbestos fibers which cause the disease could possibly activate an already present common virus infection, and eventually cause a variety of clinical conditions for the patient. While many of these clinical conditions may appear to not be harmful, in benign pleural effusions researchers don’t typically find what is known as a pleural cavity that is then full of asbestos needles. Consequently, researchers either aren’t culturing for the right agent, or they need more time to conduct broader research about the true nature of Mesothelioma.

Finally, here are some known medical facts that are not particularly common about Mesothelioma cancer:

o It is extremely rare for the Serosal membranes to be malignant other than with Mesothelioma cancer.

o It is not asbestos dependent.

o It is not smoking related.

o It only really happens when there is evidence of pleurisy.

o The latency period is longer than any other known malignancy.

While these facts contain specific, medical, terminology which some may be unfamiliar with, it is important to present the terminology as it known; scientifically. While the personal diagnosis, or that of a loved one, with mesothelioma can already seem like a devastating occurrence, it is important for people to educate themselves more specifically about such terms. This will assist both the patient, and their loved ones, to better understand the disease they are battling, and to more effectively communicate with their physicians regarding mesothelioma.

Grow Taller With These New Methods

Have you ever wondered if there were a way in which you could naturally increase your height? Are you unhappy with your current height? Well if you no longer want to be short then you need to simply keep reading. There are many different things you can start doing at home which will help you get taller fast. All you need to do is start following a few simple methods.

The first thing you will need to do is start getting enough rest. Getting a good night sleep is a great way for you to naturally start growing taller. All you have to do is start getting around 8-9 hours every night. That is the recommended amount needed for you to get rid of that awful stress and strain from your life. And that is something you will want because stress is something that can stunt and prolong your growth.

Another simple thing you can start doing which will help you gain height quickly is exercising. Getting a little physical activity into your weekly schedule is a great way for you to effectively increase your height. All you will have to do is begin going for short walks or even performing stretches. Yoga is a great way to gain some flexibility and that is what you will want. Being flexible will help you get taller faster. So what you should do is begin trying something like yoga. It will help you greatly gain some of that height that you want.

So if you no longer want to be short then you need to start following simple tips like the ones above. They are the sort of things that will help you get those fast results you have been looking for. And the best thing of all is that it does not take a lot of time for you to begin seeing and feeling a difference.

Chest Pain During Cold Weather Exercise

Exercising in cold weather can cause chest pain in some people who have no problems when they exercise in warm weather. When cold wind blows on your face, your heart rate slows down. This decreases the blood flow to the heart and can cause pain in people with blocked coronary arteries.

The blood supply to your heart muscle comes from arteries on its outside surface. The blood that is pumped inside your heart's chambers brings almost no oxygen to your heart muscle. If you have arteriosclerosis, the fatty plaques in your heart's arteries restrict the flow of blood to your heart. Your heart has to pump rapidly to meet its needs for oxygen. A cold wind slows your heart, reducing the flow of blood. If the heart muscle is unable to get all the oxygen it needs, it starts to hurt.

While freezing your face slows your heart, freezing your fingers makes your heart beat faster. Cold hands will not cause chest pain, but a cold face can. If you have no history arteriosclerosis and have chest pain when you exercise in cold weather, check with your doctor to rule out possible heart problems. If you have heart trouble, it is always a good idea to cover your face when you go out on cold days. You can wear a scarf that you can wrap over your mouth, a knitted ski mask, or a hat with a visor that you can lower when the wind blows. Check with your doctor.

Fight Bronchitis With Vitamins And Over The Counter Products

Bronchitis is often an acute infection of the air passages starting in the nose and extending to the bronchioles. Occasionally the first symptom is hoarseness. It may be mistaken for a common cold, which has settled in the chest.

When the bronchial tubes become infected they become swollen and a thick fluid called mucus forms inside them. This makes it hard for the patient to breath and a cough develops along with a wheeze or whistling sound when you breathe.

It occurs more often among city dwellers that rural residents and about 4 times more often in men than women. Older adults, infants and people with chronic respiratory disorder or heart problem are at the greatest risk with bronchitis attacks.

There are three main types of bronchitis, acute, chronic and occupational.

Acute bronchitis develops after a sore throat or cold and can last for one or two weeks and is usually caused by viruses. Antibodies only work against bacteria and not viruses so your physician will not prescribe an antibiotic. The symptoms include a throbbing cough, runny nose, wheezing, sore throat, headaches, chills, slight fever, back pain, and muscle pain. Repeated acute bronchitis attacks can lead to chronic bronchitis.

If exposed to certain lung irritants, such as flax, hemp or cotton dust, chemical fumes then occupational bronchitis can develop. Occupational bronchitis usually clears up when you are no longer exposed to the irritants and the cough associated with occupational bronchitis is usually dry and nonproductive.

Unlike acute bronchitis, chronic bronchitis is an ongoing, serious disease that can last the rest of you life. Air pollution, dust, or toxic gasses in the environment or workplace can contribute to bronchitis. In some cases, chronic inflammation of the airways leads to asthma.

Chronic bronchitis develops when an individual has to much phlegm in the air passageway causing a prolific cough. If this cough lasts for several months then the individual will most likely be diagnosed with chronic bronchitis. The symptoms include all of the symptoms of acute bronchitis and shortness of breath due to exertion, repeated infections in the lungs and respiratory tract.

Chronic bronchitis can lead to heart failure, the skin turns bluish color because of not enough oxygen in the blood, and Edema. Edema is a condition where excessive fluid is stored in the human body. The feet and ankles are the most common sites.

People who have chronic bronchitis are more susceptible to airway and lung infections, like the bacterial infection called pneumonia. In some cases of chronic bronchitis the patients' airways become permanently infected with bacteria.

Physicians will sometimes prescribe a bronchodilator or other medication typically used to treat asthma. These medication are used help to relax and open the bronchial tubes to make breathing easer. Nebulizers and inhalers can loosen the mucus lining the bronchiole tubes, thus allowing the patient to cough up the mucus allowing air to pass more freely through the airways.

Bronchitis sufferers should always be checked for tuberculosis just in case it is masking the symptoms of the more serious disease.

Common Vitamins and over the counter products can help with treating Bronchitis such as Vitamin C, Beta Carotene, Vitamin E, Pantothenic Acid, Glucosamine, Vitamin A, Antioxidants and Allergy Aid.

Vitamin C is nature's protective nutrient, essential for defending the body against pollution and infection and enhances the bodies' immune system.

Beta Carotene protects the mucus membranes of the mouth, nose, throat and lungs. It also helps protect Vitamin C from oxidation, which enables it to perform at optimum efficiency.

Vitamin E protects the lung tissue from inhaled pollutants and aids in the functioning of the immune system.

Many find pantothenic Acid to be very helpful against bronchitis symptoms. It is another form of non toxic B vitamins.

Glucosamine is an anti-inflammatory and may give some relief from bronchitis symptoms.

A number of studies have suggested that taking antioxidants such a Vitamin A reduces the risk of bronchoconstriction. Vitamin A is stored in the liver and fat cells of the human body and can reach toxic levels. DO NOT take more than the recommended dosage of Vitamin A.

Allergy Aid supplies 9 beneficial Herb's to help provide temporary relief of respiratory allergies. The natural action of these specific Herb's help to open bronchial tubes and ease breathing.

Natural antioxidants are abundant in fruits and vegetables such as, apples, blueberries, broccoli, cherries, cranberries, grapes, spinach, and Spirulina a blue-green algae.

Always consult your doctor before using this information.

This Article is nutritional in nature and not to be construed as medical advice.

Cyberknife Treatment for Kidney and Renal Cell Cancer

Cancer of the kidney is a disease that begins in the kidneys. There are several types of kidney cancer; the most common type in most adults is renal cell cancer. Another form of cancer called the Wilms’ tumor is most common in children. Kidney cancer is usually treated by surgically removing the kidneys. The Colorado Cyberknife Facility in Lafayette offers a more modern form of treatment called Cyberknife Treatment for kidney and renal cell cancer.

Before discussing the Cyberknife Treatment for kidney and renal cell cancer, it is necessary to know more about the kidneys.

The kidneys are part of the body’s urinary system which is responsible in filtering waste products from blood and makes urine. The other parts of this system include the ureters, bladder, prostate (males), and urethra. The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs. They are almost as big as a fist. They are situated on each side of the spine just behind your abdominal organs. The main function of your kidney is to filter blood. This is done when blood goes to your kidneys; waste products and excess water are collected and excreted out of the body in the form of urine.

Doctors haven’t really found the real cause of kidney cancer, though they are convinced that this type of cancer starts when kidney cells acquire mutation or alteration in their DNA. This results in rapid cell growth. These abnormal cells would eventually form a tumor. Kidney cancer is more common among men. Though some doctors agree that if a person is a heavy smoker, he will have a higher risk of developing kidney cancer. Obese people are also likely to develop kidney cancer. If you are receiving treatments for kidney failure, you are also more likely to contract kidney cancer.

Though the symptoms of kidney cancer will not be manifested in the early stages, the following are expected to appear during the later stages of kidney cancer:

  • Presence of blood in urine
  • Persistent back pain just below the ribs
  • A feeling of exhaustion
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Sporadic fever

Now that we know the possible causes of kidney and renal cell cancer, as well as its symptoms, it is now time to discuss how to treat the disease. Surgery is often the best treatment when the cancer has not yet spread. An alternative, state-of-the-art treatment that has recently been introduced by the Colorado Cyberknife Facility, Cyberknife Treatment for kidney and renal cell cancer gives newfound hope to patients who are afflicted with this disease. The Cyberknife VSI System offers patients what they call as the most advanced radio surgery treatment option.

The Cyberknife Treatment for kidney and renal cell cancer is non-invasive so doctors say that the risk of complications is less likely to occur. This treatment is able to treat hard to reach tumors that seem to be hard to operate. It greatly eliminates the risk of infection which is often associated with open surgery. It is relatively painless, thus the patients need not be put to sleep. Most of the treatments can be done on an outpatient basis.

The Cyberknife VSI Treatment seems posed to becoming the treatment of choice for most cancer patients.

Ankle Tendonitis – The Secret Facts About Treatments For Athletes

Exactly what is Achilles Tendonitis?

Swelling of the Achilles tendon is termed as Achilles Tendonitis. The Achilles tendon is a sizeable tendon linking two major calf muscles, gastrocnemius and soleus, to the back of the heel bone. Achilles Tendonitis is one of many sports-related injuries that results from overexertion of any type (such as excessive exercising and jumping).

Signals of Tendonitis:

  • Pain anywhere along the back of the tendon
  • Inflammation of the tendon
  • Limited ankle flexibility

Causes of Tendonitis:

Out of countless tendons dispersed throughout the human body, there are few specific tendons that have poor blood supply. These tendon areas where blood supply is low are termed as "watershed zones". These watershed zones are provided with comparatively lesser volume of oxygen and nutrients, it makes these tendons prone to tissue damage and poor healing response. Sometimes, the tendon does not have an easy path to glide upon, which results in inflammation. Other well known triggers of tendonitis are repeated, minor impact on the affected area, or a sudden critical injury. Incidentally, individuals aged between 40-60 years are known to be more vulnerable to Achilles Tendonitis. Other known causes of Tendonitis are:

  • Improper posture at work or home
  • Taking part in sports
  • Body exertion or less recovery time between physical activities
  • Change of footwear or uneven floor surface
  • Inadequate stretching or conditioning just before exercise
  • An atypical or dislocated bone or joint that stresses soft-tissue structures
  • Conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, psoriatic arthritis, thyroid disorders, or unusual medication reactions

Variations of Tendonitis:

Tendonitis may appear in almost any area of ​​the body where a tendon joins a bone to a muscle. Some of the most typical types of Tendonitis are:

Wrist Tendonitis: One of the most common problems, wrist tendonitis occurs due to inflammation of the tendon sheath. Wrist Tendonitis usually causes pain and swelling around the wrist. Wrist tendonitis rarely demands surgery as an intervention.

Achilles Tendonitis: Achilles tendonitis can lead to discomfort and inflammation in the back of heel. If it is diagnosed on time, one can avoid serious problems such as Achilles tendon rupture.

Posterior Tibial Tendonitis: Posterior tibial tendonitis usually impacts individuals with signs on the inner side of the ankle. If Posterior Tibial Tendonitis is left uncared for, it may lead to a flat foot.

Patellar (Kneecap) Tendonitis: Patellar Tendonitis (also known as Jumper's Knee) is precipitated by the swelling of the patellar tendon. Recuperation and anti-inflammatory medication are common treatments for Patellar tendonitis.

Rotator Cuff Tendonitis: Rotator cuff tendonitis is caused by the swelling of a specific area within the shoulder joint.

Top 7 methods for athletes to treat Achilles injuries:

Though tendonitis can be a significant problem, you can positively treat and protect against it from recurring. Here are the top seven ways in which athletes can take care of tendonitis:

1. Emphasize Rest: The first and most important step to treat tendonitis is to avoid activities that can exacerbate it. Avoid working out for a few days. This will help dramatically with the healing of the inflamed tendon. You may also try different exercise activities, such as swimming.

2. Administer an Ice Pack: One of the best therapies of tendonitis is to apply an ice-pack on the inflamed area. The cold temperature will control the irritation and swelling of the affected area. Using an ice-pack will help mend the tendon more quickly.

3. Anti-Inflammatory Medications: Tendonitis can be taken care of by taking non steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) such as Ibuprofen, Motrin, Naprosyn, Celebrex. These medications will lessen the pain and swelling in the affected area.

4. Cortisone Injections: When tendonitis signs continue for a long period of time, some may seek cortisone injections. Injected directly into the inflamed area, cortisone injections assist treating tendonitis that can not seem to heal after many medical therapies have been attempted.

5. Wear a heel pad: By wearing heel pad, you can lift the heel and take some stress off the Achilles tendon. This is a short-term measure while the Achilles tendon is repairing.

6. Running Shoes: Make sure you have the right running shoes for your foot type and the sport in which you are participating.

7. Consult a sports injury professional: Take advice from someone whose line of work deals with proper training, or with sports injuries specifically, and who is experienced with both healing and rehabilitation techniques.

Overview of Shoulder Injuries

This article is an overview of common shoulder injuries in work injury and personal injury cases.

Rotator Cuff Injuries

The rotator cuff (“R/C”) is a common area for injuries that involve weakness, tenderness and pain. The rotator cuff is essentially comprised of the shoulder joint. Tendons are able to slide along an empty sac surrounding the rotator cuff called the bursa. It is also made up of four muscles that surround the shoulder joint. Below are some of the most common RC injuries.

Tendonitis and impingement syndrome

Tendonitis in the RC is caused by impingement. Impingement refers to the act of being squeezed. The RC tendons and bursa can get squeezed when the space between the bone and RC narrows. The result of such an impingement is usually tendonitis.

Calcific Tendonitis

Calcific tendonitis occurs when calcium deposits form in the RC. The formation of calcium deposits in the RC usually causes inflammation of the tendons and the bursa. Thus, calcific tendonitis is essentially the inflammation of tendons and bursa from calcium deposits in the RC.

Rotator Cuff Tear

Older people are more susceptible to RC tears because the RC weakens with age. Tears can occur during activities that put stress on the tendons. It is also possible for a RC to tear in the absence of activity from degeneration.


The shoulder joint is one of the many body parts that are susceptible to arthritis. Symptoms of arthritis include pain and sometimes swelling in the shoulder.


The labrum is cartilage in the shoulder that functions to stabilize the shoulder and facilitate movement. The labrum is essential for allowing arm movement. Because the shoulder joint is an extremely shallow ball and socket joint, the labrum forms a cup inside the joint to keep the arm in place while allowing it to move freely.

Labral tear or Bankart lesion.

When a shoulder is dislocated, the labrum usually tears as the shoulder pops out of the joint. A Bankart lesion is specific type of tear when a specific area of the labrum known as the glenohumeral ligament is torn.

Treatment for Bankhart lesions varies depending on whether a patient has reoccurring shoulder instability. Aching, susceptibility to dislocation and catching are the common symptoms of Bankart lesions. Those who experience a Bankart lesion are more likely to dislocate their shoulder again in the future.

We are lawyers, not doctors, but after you’ve handled a few thousand of these cases you get a pretty good understanding of the medicine involved. You also get a good sense as to whether or not one of these injuries is related to an accident or is just the typical decline of the body over time.

Cracked and Fractured Teeth

People today live longer and dentists work a great time ensuring for many people to keep their teeth healthier than ever before. Today our teeth are exposed to longer years of crack due to our induced habits such as clenching, grinding and especially chewing hard things such as ice can result in cracks and fractures in teeth. Often, teeth with cracks do not show on radiographs (x-rays), sometimes making for a difficult diagnoses.

The patient reaches dental practice complaining of intense pain on chewing in a certain area of ​​his mouth, however its commonly seen that patients are not able to ascertain which tooth is troubling them. Are these all molars or just one tooth. It's usually a back molar teeth, which becomes an obvious rational for the dentist as the dentists would allow the patient to bite on a piece of wood placed on top of the suspected tooth. Quite often, dentist may not discern any issue with the teeth, either clinically, meaning in the mouth, or on an x-ray.

There are times when dentists would like to explore tooth with no fillings or decay. Hower at times it's likely to be a tooth with an intact filling, having no visible associated problems. Nothing appears wrong, however the patient feels intense pain whenever applying biting pressure to the top of the tooth. Sharp pain from applied pressure along with no obvious signs of a problem with the tooth is an obvious characteristics of cracked tooth syndrome.

The dentist using an instrument that rests on one part of the tooth at a time can further verify the deduction. There will frequently be severe pain when pressure is applied to only one particular cusp (the pointed parts of a back tooth), and not to the others. If the tooth does have a crack in it, movement of the affected cusp causes the pain. The other cusps usually prove to be non-painful when the same pressure is applied. The "movement" of the fragment is usually minuscule, and not visible to the naked eye.

Can a Tooth Have a Crack Without Any Visible Signs of One?

When a vital tooth, meaning a tooth with a living nerve, develops a real crack, the crack commonly does not spread all the way through the tooth. This type of crack is referred to as a greenstick fracture because, like a green branch on a tree, although the fracture is actually present, the intact sections of the branch hold it together.

The crack usually circulates through the sensitive parts of the tooth, the dentin, several times implicating the living nerve. When pressure is applied to the cracked area of ​​the tooth, a minuscule amount of movement in that area places pressure on the nerve, or other sensitive tooth structure and even though the movement is very small, the pain is severe. Teeth have no natural healing abilities, so the pain will shriek out whenever pressure is applied to the biting surface of that tooth.

Can pain in a tooth fracture subside?

The pain will not go away until one of two things happen. Sometimes, the cracked piece of tooth may break off on its own, alleviating the intense pain when pressure is applied to it. If this happens, the tooth can generally be repaired with a crown or perhaps a simple filling and the patient, along with her tooth, goes of pain free into the sunset. The other option is that the nerve may eventually die as an outcome of it being under constant attack by the moving section of tooth. If this should occur, the pain to pressure may be relived; however, the dead nerve leaves the patient susceptible to a dental abscess unless a root canal and successive crown procedure are completed.

Please Remember

Statements made in this article are for informational purposes only and are not intended to be substituted for the advice of a medical professional. Information and statements has not been evaluated by the American Dental Association or any federal regulation agency and are not intended to diagnose, or treat any disease or medical condition. I do not claim to represent the opinions of any dental or medical professionals. Its just an attempt to share my views on dental issues with all.

Motorcycle Fatality Trend Must Be Curbed

To put the brakes on the increase in motorcycle accident fatalities, we need more rider education and training, road designs that consider motorcycle dynamics, law enforcement training, and tougher standards for helmet certification labeling.

Secretary Peters is one of the many "baby-boomers" who have recently returned to riding motorcycles after years of not riding. In August 2005, she suffered a broken collar bone after a crash on a two-lane highway just north of Tucson, Arizona.

When sending the proposed legislation to Congress, Secretary Peters commented: "As an avid motorcycle enthusiast myself, I know first hand the joy and the pain that can come with the freedom of the open road. In August 2005, I suffered a broken collar bone in a motorcycle crash. Had it not been for my protective gear – including my helmet – I am convinced I would have suffered severe injury, or even death. Unfortunately, many motorcycle crash victims are not so lucky. While we have been successful in reducing automobile deaths in recent years, our progress is being negated by a rise in the rate of motorcycle fatalities – which have more than doubled in the last decade. I believe that overcoming this tragic trend is the greatest highway safety challenge our nation faces today. "

As a lawyer who has represented motorcycle drivers and their families, I have seen first-hand the fallout from the "tragic trend" cited by Secretary Peters. There is no way to eliminate risk in driving a motorcycle and we fully realize that serious accidents occur to even the most skilled bikers, because most often it is the other driver who is to blame.

State laws define what rights a biker has if involved in an accident. Michigan law, for instance, does not consider a motorcycle to be a motor vehicle and so motorcycle accident victims have significantly different rights than automobile accident victims do.

Some motorcycle accidents are not caused by motorists but by a road defect. These defects could be the result of faulty road design, disrepair, inadequate maintenance, or failure to remove a road hazard. A claim against a public entity for defective road repair or inadequate design is often subject to complex filing requirements.

In Michigan No-Fault benefits generally are available to Michigan motorcycle accident victims if a motor vehicle is involved with the accident. No-Fault benefits are intended to provide medical benefits, wage loss, attendant care and replacement services to injury victims. No-Fault benefits can be critical to the economic survival of the seriously injured. The most obvious claim available to those seriously injured in Michigan motorcycle accidents is that arising from the negligence of the at-fault vehicle in the collision – usually a passenger car.

I fully embrace Secretary Peter's campaign to make biking a safer experience in America and to lessen the tragedy that often needlessly falls upon bikers and their families. Once an accident occurs, it is very important that the victims or family members contact an attorney to make sure justice prevails. While I can not stress enough the need for legal counsel, I also can not stress enough that America needs to do everything it can to reduce the number of motorcycle accidents and fatalities in our country.

American Fruit Trees, Nut Trees, Berry Plants, Grapevines, And Native Plants Promoted By Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson was the United States minister to France following the great American, Benjamin Franklin in 1785. While acting as the French minister to the United States, Jefferson surveyed crops of agriculture in France searching for fruit trees, nut trees, grape vines, berry plants, and many other potentially useful crops that might be commercially grown in the United States. Many of these seed plants and trees were exported to the American colonists and planters for experimental growing on United States farms and plantations. In exchange to the French, many native plants of the United States were exported to France and Europe for testing. Plants and trees such as red, and black raspberries, scuppernong grapevines, muscadine grape vines, pecan tree seed, Citrus seed, and plants such as mutated cultivars of orange, lime, grapefruit, kumquat, lemon, and tangerine, that centuries before had been introduced by the Spanish colonists into Florida from Europe and Africa. Grains such as corn and the famous American tobacco products were also favorite imports to Europe. The Indian Blood peach tree produced exceptional fruit, even from planted seed, and American grapevines, wild plum and cherry trees were used as root stock for grafting fruit trees and grapevines. Mulberry trees, pawpaw trees, and strawberry plants were also exciting new plant introductions into Europe. American native nut trees such as the American chestnut, Castanea dentata, and the Chinquapin nut, Castanea pumila, as well as many species of Hickory trees, Pecan trees (Carya illinoinenis), several species of walnut trees including Juglans nigra, and the American filbert, Corylus americana (Hazlenut) were all received for commercial agricultural testing in European countries.

Thomas Jefferson made a note on his plant interests to the State of Virginia in the year 1787 #VI, “A notice of the mines and other subterranean riches, its trees, plants, fruits, etc.” with his interests in “the orchards produce apples, pears, cherries, quinces, peaches, nectarines, apricots, almonds, and plumbs.” Thomas Jefferson was also a learned botanist who could intelligently discuss the fruit trees, berry plants, grapevines, and nut trees in the Latinzed, scientific language with the agricultural elite authorities of his time. In his writing to the state of Virginia, he wrote: “Scarlet strawberries, Fragaria Virginiana of Millar; Whortleberries, Vaccinium uliginosum; Wild gooseberies, Ribes grossularia; Cranberries, Vaccinium oxycoccus; Black raspberries, Rubus occidentalis; Blackberries, Rubus fruticosus; Dewberries, Rubus caesius; Cloud-berries, Rubus chamaemorus.”

About native wild and escaped plants, trees, and vines, Jefferson reported on wild fruits like Elderberry, Elder, Sambucus nigra; Papaw, Annona triloba” and the mulberry, proper for its food, grows kindly, pomegranates and figs. Wild cherry, Prunus Virginiana, Cherokee plumb, Punus sylvestris fructu majori, Wild plumb, Prunus sylvestris fructu minori, Clayton, Wild crab-apple, Pyrus coronaria; red mulberry, Morus rubra; Persimmon, Diospyros Virginiana.

Thomas Jefferson had a great interest in timber trees from which lumber was made into dwellings, furniture, tools, fuel, etc. He reported: “Black birch, Betula nigra; White birch, Betula alba; Beach, Fagus sylvatica; Ash, Fraxinus Americana; Fraxinus Novae Angliae, Millar; Elm, Ulmus Americana, Willow, Salix Query species?; Sweet Gum, Liquidamber styaciflua. Plane-tree, Platanus cooidentalis; Poplar liriodendron tulipifera; Populus heterophylla; Black poplar, Populus nigra; Aspen, Populus tremulus; Linden or lime, Tilia Americana; Red flowering maple, Acer rubrum; Horse-chestnut, or Buck’s-eye, Aesculus pavia; Catalpa, Bignonia catalpa; Umbrella, Magnolia tripetala; Swamp laurel, Magnolia glauca; Cucumber-tree, Magnolia acuminata; Portugal bay, Laurus indica; Red Bay, Laurus borbonia; Dwarf-rose bay, Rhododendron maxiumum; Laurel of the Western country, Qu. species?”

A group of smaller trees reported by Jefferson was “Holly, Ilex aquifolium, Cockspur hawthorn, Crataegus coccinea; Spindle-tree, Euronymus Europaeus; Evergreen spindle tree, Euonymus Americanus; Candleberry myrtle, Myrica cerifera.”

Oak trees were valuable to the early colonists for use in building houses, furniture, tools and fuels, Jefferson listed these as: “Black Oak, Quercus nigra; White Oak, Quercus alba; Red oak, Quercus rubra; Willow Oak, Quercus phellos; Chestnut Oak, Quercus prinus; Black jack Oak, Quercus aquatica, Clayton, Query?; Ground Oak, Quercus pumila, Clayton; Live Oak, Quercus Virginiana, Millar;

Many flowering trees were planted in Thomas Jefferson’s garden estate at Monticello, such as Dogwood trees, Grancy Greybeard, Redbud tree and Locust trees listed as: “Wild pimento, Laurus benzoin; Sassafras, Laurus sassafras; Locust, Robinia pseudo-acacia; Honey-locust, Gleiditsia la; Dogwood, Cornus florida; Fringe or snowdrop tree, Chionanthus virginica; Redbud, or Judas-tree, Cercis, canadensis.”

The importance of evergreens was obvious to Thomas Jefferson, and he listed them as: “Black or pitch-pine, Pinus taeda; White pine, Pinus strobus; Yellow pine, Pinus Virgincia; Spruce pine, Pinus foliis singularibus, Clayton; Hemlock spruce fir, Pinus Canadensis; Aborvitae , Thuya occidentalis; Juniper, Juniperus virginica (called cedar with us) Cypress Cupressus disticha; White cedar, Cupressus Thyoides.”

Jefferson reported that many cash agricultural crops of America were of native or mysterious origin that included: “Tobacco, Nicotiana; Maize, Zea Mays; Round potatoes, Solanum tuberosum; Pumpkins, (Squash) Cucurbita pepo; Cymlings, Cucurbita verrucosa; Squashes, Cucurbita melopepo”

Besides the production of crops from native plants, Jefferson wrote that American farms produced: “wheat, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, broom corn, and Indian corn, rice, tobacco, hemp, flax, cotton and indigo.”

Long and the round potatoes, “turnips, carrots, parsneps, pumpkins, ground nuts.” Ground nuts were today’s peanut, Arachis hypogaea.

Thomas Jefferson listed many grasses and grains in his report to include: “Lucerne, St. Foin, Burnet, Timothy, ray and orchard grass, red, white and yellow clover, greenswerd, blue grass, and crab grass, Panic, Panicum of many species; Indian millet, Holcus laxus; Holcus striosus; Wild oat, Zizania aquatica; Wild pea, Dolichas of Clayton; Lupine, Lupinus perennis; Wild hop, Humulus lupulus.”

Thomas Jefferson reported that American gardens were producing in the year 1787; “Musk melons, water melons, tomatas, okra, pomegranates, figs, and the esculent plants of Europe, Jerusalem artichoke, Helianthus tuberosus; Long potatoes, Convolvulas batatas;”

Various ornamental plants such as flowering Sweetshrub, Poke Weed Salad, Passion Flower, Jerusalem Artichoke and Tuckshoe were: “Upright honeysuckle, Azalea nudiflora; Calycanthus floridus; American aloe, Agave Virginica; Sumach Rhus, Qu species?; Poke, Phytolacca decandra; Itea Virginica; Granadillas, Maycocks, Maracocks, Passiflora incarnata; Tuchahoe, Lycoperdon tuber.”

Thomas Jefferson reported useful vines: “Ivy, Hedera quinquefolia, Trumpet honeysuckle, Yellow jasmine, Bignonia sempervirens.” and the seemingly insignificant “Long Moss, Tillandsia Usneoides”

Medicinal herbs such as Datura, Marshmallow, Ginseng and Jimson Weed were reported along with: “Senna, Cassia Ligustrina; Arsmart, Polygonum Sagittatum; Clivers, or goose-grass, Galium spurium; Lobelia of several species; Palma Christi, Ricinus; James-town weed, Datura Stramonium; Mallow, Mallow rotundifolia; Syrian mallow, Hibiscus moschentos; Hibiscus virginicus; Indian mallow, Sida rhombifolia; Sida abutilon; Virginia Marshmallow, Napaea hermaphrodita; Napaea dioica; Indian physic, Spiraea trifoliata; Euphoria Ipecacuanhae; Pleurisy root, Asclepias decumbens, Virginia snake-root, Aristolochia serpentaria, Black snake-root, Actaea racemosa; Seneca rattlesnake-root, Polygala Senega; Valerian, Valeriana locusta radiata; Gentiana Saponaria, Villosa and Centaurium; Ginseng, Panax quinquefolium; Angelica, Angelica sylvestris; Casava, Jatropha urens.”

Thomas Jefferson was an amazing man with a genius and intelligence that helped to make the United States a great nation, not only because of his political contribution as a formulator of the United States Constitution, as a great United States minister to France and the third President of the United States, but Jefferson also was an accomplished writer and farmer.

Cerebral Palsy In Children

For many parents today having their child diagnosed with suffering from cerebral palsy can be extremely devastating for all concerned. In this article, we take a look at what may be the causes of cerebral palsy in children and the ways in which it can possibly be treated.

Cerebral Palsy is in fact not a disease but a disorder, which affects a child's posture and the way in which they move and has been caused by damage to a particular area of ​​the brain as the child is developing. However, with this particular disorder the damage that has been caused to the child's brain is not progressive. But even so just because no further damage is caused to the brain the symptoms associated with it do and as they grow older they become more evident.

Along with having problems with their posture and movements, some children may suffer from other problems because of their brain not functioning correctly. For around 60% of all children who suffer from this disorder they will have learning difficulties. Whilst around 20% of all children who suffer from this disorder will have a problem with their hearing including a complete loss of it. Then 30% of these children will suffer from a problem known as squint, which because of some of the problems mentioned will result in them suffering from language and speech problems.

As well as the problems, we have mentioned above in relation to cerebral palsy of those children who do suffer from this disorder, around 40% of them will suffer from epilepsy. So life for these children is going to be extremely difficult and will need constant care and attention.

Today one in every 500 babies will be affected by this particular disorder and those who are born premature or they weigh less than they should when being born at a higher risk of suffering from Cerebral Palsy. But also, children whose birth is completely normal but who unfortunately do not develop whilst in the womb may be at a higher risk of being diagnosed with Cerebral Palsy.

The biggest problem with Cerebral Palsy in children is that it can not be cured. However, there are medications and treatments, which can help to improve the child's quality of life. For some children who suffer from the more severe form of cerebral palsy known as "Spastic Cerebral Palsy" the doctors may choose to carry out surgery in order to treat the problems associated with the muscle spasms that these children will suffer from.

In all cases of Cerebral Palsy in children today, a team of specialists will work along side the parents to help the child cope with the disorder. Through their work, a child who suffers from either moderate or mild case of this disorder should then hopefully be able to lead a relatively normal life, which should last as long as most other children.

Astrology of Lungs Diseases

Astrological Significator for lungs diseases:

Ascendant: general physical and mental capabilities.

Sign Cancer /4th house: represents blood, heart and chest region.

Sign Virgo/6th house: house of sickness.

Moon: body fluid, chest region,pericardium.

Mars: muscular tissues, inflammation of lungs, haemorrhage from lungs,, spitting of blood, inflections and contagious diseases.

Mercury: breaths, air cells, asthma and bronchitis.

Saturn: endocardium, ribs, cold, bronchitis and asthma.

Gemini/Libra/ Aquarius: windy sign governs breath.


  • Moon, Saturn or Jupiter in Leo, Gemini or Aquarius heavily afflicted by Mars or Ketu may give rise to tuberculosis.
  • Moon placed in sign Leo and Sun placed in sign Cancer indicates venerability for tuberculosis.
  • Moon posited in the navamansa of Sun and Sun posited in navamansa of Moon.
  • Moon and Sun combined in sign Cancer/Leo indicates tuberculosis.
  • Moon in cancer and Sun in Leo indicates rakkt –pita in which a   person frequently vomits blood.
  • Jupiter and Moon placed in 8th house in watery sign and aspected by malefic indication for T.B. is noted. Placement of Jupiter in 8th house make very difficult in diagnosing tuberculosis.
  • Jupiter, Saturn and Sun combined in 7th/8th house.
  • Mercury and Mars combined in 6th house aspected by Venus and Moon.
  • Mars and Rahu combined in 4ht /5th house.
  • Venus combined with lord of ascendant in 6th/8th/12th house.
  • Venus as lord of ascendant placed in 6th/8th/12th house and influenced by malefic.
  • Lord of ascendant and moon combined in 6th house.
  • Weak Moon combined with a malefic in watery sign of 6th/8th house.
  • Ketu combine/aspect with 6th house lord.
  • Ketu combine/aspect with 7th house lord.
  • Mars and Rahu combined in 4th/5th house.
  • Mars and Mercury placed in 6th house aspected by Sun and Moon.


  • Sun, Jupiter or Mars during transit when coming in Gemini, Leo or Aquarius if afflicted by malefic may give rise to Pneumonia.

Lung cancer:

  • Gemini/3rd house/Mercury severely afflicted by Saturn and Rahu indicates lung cancer.


  • Mars placed in ascendant/4th/7th/8th/12th cause allergy.
  • Sun is debilited/paced in inauspicious house/hammed between malefic/aspected by malefic/combined with malefic causes allergy.

Whooping cough:

  • Mercury afflicted at birth-chart at Taurus or Gemini may cause this trouble.
  • Placement of Moon in 6th/8th/12 house indicate contagious cold and cough.


  • Moon combined with Sun in sign Capricorn and aspected by Saturn and Mars indicates Asthma.
  • Mars and Saturn placed in 6th house and aspected by Sun and Rahu.
  • Jupiter combined with Mercury.
  •  Jupiter combined with Rahu.
  • Sun and Venus combination indicates asthma and tuberculosis.


  • Moon placed in 6th house sandwiched between Saturn and Mars also Sun in the horoscope posited in Sign Capricorn indicates possibility of bronchitis.
  • The transition of Mars/Sun to sign of Gemini/Leo/Aquarius and being afflicted by Saturn/Rahu causes bronchitis to the native.




New Surgical Treatment Options for Hernias

Hernia repair is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures worldwide. In fact, there are over 600,000 hernia repair surgeries performed each year in the U.S. alone. A hernia is a weakness or defect in the abdominal muscles which can result in the protrusion of tissue through an opening in the outer layers of the abdominal wall. Hernias can develop at any part of the abdominal wall, but generally occur in areas that have a natural tendency to be weak. These areas include the groin (inguinal hernias), umbilicus (umbilical hernias), hiatus (hiatal hernias) and incisions from previous surgeries (incisional or ventral hernias). While hernias generally do not pose serious long-term health problems, they can cause severe pain and discomfort for those suffering from this condition.

Hernias may be present from birth, or can be caused by strain on the abdominal muscles. In either case, hernias do not go away by themselves and depending on the degree of bulging or pain, generally require a surgical procedure to be repaired. Hernia repairs are usually done on an elective basis, which means that the patient and physician decide whether or when the procedure should be performed. Emergency procedures are only done for strangulated hernias, which are hernias that have become pinched to the point that the blood supply is cut off. These hernias require immediate medical attention since they can become infected and lead to a life threatening condition very quickly.

Hernias are typically repaired through a surgical procedure called herniorrhaphy, in which the surgeon repairs the hole in the abdominal wall by sewing surrounding muscle together or by placing a patch called “mesh” over the defect. Most surgeons make an incision at the site of the hernia in order to gain access to the defect, although some surgeons prefer to do these procedures laparoscopically.

During a laparoscopic hernia repair, the surgeon makes very small incisions to pass through specialized instruments and an endoscope, a device that allows the surgeon to see the abdominal area without opening the patient up. Laparoscopic hernia repair generally results in less postoperative pain and recovery time than open surgery. There is still a great deal of controversy over the long-term benefits of laparoscopic hernia repair, however, and it is by no means an option for every patient.

The use of surgical mesh to repair hernias is gaining in popularity with surgeons. Most meshes currently on the market are made from synthetic materials such as polypropylene, polyester, silicone or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), commonly known by the DuPont brand name Teflon®. While these meshes have good strength characteristics, they remain in the body as permanent implants and sometimes can cause adverse reactions when the surrounding tissue identifies these materials as foreign bodies.

In order to avoid adverse reactions to synthetic materials, some surgeons prefer to use meshes made of biomaterials which are gradually resorbed by the body over time and are then eliminated through biological processes. Since these meshes are not permanent implants, they generally only offer temporary repair of abdominal wall defects and additional surgical procedures are sometimes required to replace the absorbed mesh.

An alternative to synthetic and absorbable mesh is human tissue. There are a handful of companies that are now marketing processed, freeze-dried human dermis for soft tissue repair and augmentation. This material is implanted using the same technique as other meshes and provides for revascularization, cellular ingrowth and “remodeling” into the patients tissue. While this option generally provides a permanent repair with few adverse reactions, the processing and distribution of human tissue is not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as are most other products that are implanted in the human body. In fact, there have been a number of recent cases of serious infections and even deaths resulting from the implantation of human cadaveric tissue during surgical procedures.

New technologies have recently been developed to solve the problems associated with the use of synthetic substances, absorbable materials and human tissue in hernia repair procedures. Scientists in Europe have been conducting research and development into alternatives to these products over the past two decades and have made major breakthroughs in this area over the past several years. New ways of collecting and processing natural materials have led to a series of products that offer the strength of synthetic compounds, the biocompatibility of biomaterials and the regenerative properties of human tissue.

What material can offer all of the benefits of the previously mentioned products without the corresponding disadvantages? Porcine dermal collagen has an architectural structure very close to human tissue, and is therefore readily recognized as friendly by the human body. A leading medical technology company in Europe has developed a patented process by which a sheet of porcine dermis is converted into a safe and effective surgical implant for soft tissue repair and augmentation. The process, which takes several weeks to complete, removes all non collageneous material from the sheet except elastin, and stabilizes the material through a cross-linking process. The result is an acellular, non reconstituted, non allergenic membrane which has excellent strength characteristics, is completely biocompatible and provides a permanent solution for the repair of abdominal wall defects. Since the material itself is a byproduct of the meat packaging industry, it is more readily available than human tissue. In addition, the harvesting and processing of the material is strictly regulated by local government, as well as international directives and quality standards.

This collagen surgical implant has been used in Europe for these types of procedures for several years and there is strong clinical evidence of the safety and effectiveness of the product. In fact, the implant has been approved for sale in the U.S. by the FDA and there have not been any adverse reactions reported after several thousand implantations in Europe. Not only is it safe, since the structure of the collagen is so similar to human tissue, once it is implanted the sheet provides the basis for cellular ingrowth and revascularization. This results in a permanent fix in even the most difficult cases. In addition to the positive clinical outcomes, surgeons like the fact that they do not need to change their surgical technique to use this product. They can use the same exact same steps they would use for synthetic or absorbable surgical mesh in both open and laparoscopic procedures.

Only physicians can properly diagnose and appropriately treat hernias. However, patients have the right to actively participate in decisions that affect their health or quality of life. Information about the various treatment options that are currently available can play an important part in the discussions between patients and their physicians regarding the best surgical treatment option for them.

Back Injuries in the Office

Perhaps one of the most common injuries that people tend to associate with being hurt at work would be a back injury. Because the back is used in so many movements of the body, especially in lifting, it can be injured often. This is even more likely to happen when people are lifting heavy objects or are not used to lifting things or are not in very good physical shape.

Back injuries can result from a variety of causes. The back can be injured by a single act of lifting an object that is too heavy or lifting something the wrong way. This seems to be what most people think of when they picture back injuries at the workplace. Certainly, lifting one extremely heavy object can lead to a bad back problem.

Back problems do not have to result from a single act, though. Repetitive action can lead to back problems over time, and this is often overlooked. Most people think that if they are asked to do something at work that does not hurt the first few times they do it, that they will be safe from injury. This is not necessarily the case. Repetitive motion, like lifting lighter objects, can lead to significant back injuries as well.

Some companies say during interviews or on applications that an employee in a certain position would be required to lift objects of a certain weight. Not all companies do this, though, and often these kinds of tasks arise unexpectedly and are not planned. When people who are otherwise unprepared to lift heavy things are required to do so, injuries are likely.

In addition to lifting, slipping and falling can result in back problems. Landing on your back after slipping on a wet surface or tripping over an uneven surface at work can cause back problems as well.

Some of the most common types of back injuries include a herniated disk, broken vertebrae, and arthritic conditions. They are all quite serious because they are very painful and the back is used in so many bodily movements. Also, the spinal cord is in danger anytime the back is injured, which is an extremely sensitive area that is crucial for the rest of the body.

Back injuries can be quite serious, and depending on the circumstances, the employer may be held liable for these kinds of injuries when they occur at work. More information For, contact the Philadelphia back injury lawyer of Lowenthal & Abrams, PC by vBulletin® calling 215-329-3511 or visiting Www.philadelphiaworkerscompensationattorneys.com .