What Is Fusarium Fungus?

Fusarium fungus is a type of fungus that is commonly found in soil and plant material in subtropical and tropical locations. Somehow this fungus made its way into eye care products from a major United States eye care product manufacturer leading to serious complications for a number of unsuspecting patients.

If eye drop medications are not used for a period of two to three months after becoming infected with fusarium fungus, the infection can cause scarring of the cornea leading to blindness. Symptoms of an infection can include pain and redness of the eyes, sensitivity to light, excessive amounts of discharge coming from the eye, and blurry vision.

In April of 2006, a major eye care product manufacturer in the United States voluntarily stopped shipping one of its most popular contact lens solutions after federal health officials found it was linked to a fungal eye infection that caused temporary blindness. The CDC has reports of fungal infections in hundreds of patients across the United States, and health officials in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Malaysia have also received reports of contact lens wearers being affected with this type of fungal infection.

As if it were not bad enough to suffer a fungal infection of the eye, it is further complicated because the fungus can be difficult to diagnose. This is because in order to diagnose the infection, a lab culture is needed and not all doctors know how to do this or how to read it. The fungus can also grow so slowly that it can weeks for a culture to be returned. On top of all of these issues, the medication needed to treat fungal infections is not always stocked at pharmacies and many times has to be special ordered.

Fusarium fungal infections can be extremely serious and can cause a variety of symptoms such as eye strain, irritation, pain, and swelling, to more serious issues such as permanent corneal damage which can lead to permanent blindness. These issues can cause people to have to undergo serious medical procedures such as corneal transplants in order to have some of their vision restored.

The major manufacturer appears to be aware of the concern with its products, but failed to report a number of fungal eye infection cases that were linked to their contact lens solutions. Because of this failure, which was a direct violation of the law, consumers were not immediately made aware of the problem and continued to use the product as sales were not suspended as they should have been.

The FDA sent the manufacturer a condemnatory letter because the fungal infections were serious in nature, were not properly reported as is mandated, and was directly related to manufacturing conditions at one of its plants. An inspection revealed a large number of quality control problems, as well as a number of violations for the manufacturing process in general.

If you or someone you know is a contact lens wearer who developed a Fusarium fungal infection because of using a contact lens solution, you should understand that you have legal rights that need to be protected. The best way to go about doing this is to consult with a personal injury attorney who specializes in product liability. These professionals are quite skilled in this area of the law and know how to get the most compensation for your injuries.

Compensation can be sought for a variety of issues such as past, present, and future medical bills, a loss of income, loss of quality of life, for permanent disabilities and loss of vision, as well as pain and suffering. Punitive damages can also be sought since the manufacturer was negligent in reporting the infections early on and warning the general public about the imminent threat.

Personal injury attorneys who specialize in product liability will review all of the details of your case and will manage it appropriately from start to finish. This will include gathering medical information, data from other people who have suffered the same consequences, as well as talking with experts and officials to determine what was known by the manufacturer and when. Your attorney will make a determination as to who should pay for damages, and will take proper steps to make sure all those responsible are brought to justice.

Fungal infections of the eye are not something to take lightly as serious; potentially lifelong consequences are possible. When such injuries are suffered because of the negligence of a product manufacturer it is extremely important to bring forth legal action to not only protect yourself, but to also protect others from falling victim to a similar situation in the future.

Personal injury attorneys work on a contingency basis in most cases. This means that no payment is due in advance or as your case progresses through the legal system. In most instances, no payment is made until the time your case is settled. Removing the financial burden from a stressful ordeal such as this can mean so much and will allow you to focus your attention on more important matters such as your personal recovery and well being.

Since these cases are quite complex and are often based on a great deal of information and many small details, they should not be filed without the professional assistance of a qualified personal injury attorney. There are many criteria that must be followed as well as various statutes of limitations that need to be met. Missing just one detail can cause your case to become disqualified or dismissed entirely. This is not something that you should risk.

While a personal injury attorney cannot undo the harm that has been done because of a Fusarium fungal infection of the eye, they can help you to rebuild the broken pieces of your life and move forward in a more positive direction. Taking the appropriate steps to stop product manufacturers from harming innocent consumers is extremely important. Manufacturers should never be allowed to get away with knowingly harming people and must be accountable for their actions.

Ovarian Cysts Treatment – Prescription Drugs Or Natural Remedies?

An ovarian cyst is a growth or swelling on or inside the ovary. It may possibly be solid or overflowing with fluid. If it is solid, it is called a cancer. This can be frightening as it right away brings cancer to mind, but tumor is merely the health phrase in support of any swelling. There are many types of ovarian cysts, namely, functional cysts, dermoid cysts, serous & mucinous cystadenomas, endometriomas, functional tumors, fibromas and brenner tumors. Conversely, the alternative of ovarian ulcer therapy used to heal the cysts be different among the types. Fortunately, the vast majority of these ovarian cysts are not cancerous.

Many women experience no symptoms while they experience an ovarian cyst, especially if it is small. Certain cysts may well grow sizeable and cause the belly to swell up. Depending on where the cyst is and its size, it can exert pressure on the bladder or bowel, cause abdominal irritation, uncomfortable or hurting sex and random periods. Sometimes complication such as intense hurting, vomiting and heart tremor can take place if the stem attached to the cyst is twisted causing a condition called torsion or if the cyst is ruptured.

Ovarian cyst treatment often involved the utilization of prescription drugs that can affect the hormonal levels of the body. Contraceptive pills, anti-androgen drugs, fertility drugs, luteinising hormone-suppressing drugs, antibiotics or a combination of these drugs are normally used to cure these ovarian cysts. Surgery is the after that accessible option but this form of remedy be supposed to be considered merely as a last few resort. If hysterectomy is recommended, please seek a back up or third judgment rather than taking that option.

Herbal remedies have proven to be valuable in the treatment of ovarian cysts. It mostly takes between two to six months in favor of the cure to be completely successful depending upon the size and amount of ovarian cysts display. Herbs such as echinacea and milk thistle are acknowledged to effectively deal with and control these ovarian cysts. Diet is in addition very critical, as selected foods can irritate the condition, and a number of foods are very beneficial in scheming the reappearance of the ovarian cysts. Foods that help relieve the ache and reappearance include enough of uncooked fruits and vegetables (especially the dark green leafy vegetables), garlic, legumes, whole grains and other total foods. Avoid caffeine, alcohol, red meats, eggs, white sugar, carbonated beverages and processed or refined foods.

Supplements have furthermore been found to be helpful in the healing and control of ovarian cysts. A fair quality multivitamins and mineral deposits will enhance the dietary changes your are making, working to balance the hormones, get better resistance, enhance liver function and defend against abnormal cell growth. A high day after day dose of Vitamin C, zinc, B vitamins and a high-quality antioxidant are identified to be advantageous in the management and control of the cysts.

If you have already been diagnosed with having a complex cyst subsequently it is up to you to decide what therapy is preeminent in support of you. A natural therapy can save you from going through surgery that is not required and it will prevent the cyst from recurring.

Depression – The Secret to Overcoming Your Depression

Dealing with depression is one of the most difficult challenges a person can face in life. Depression takes away our joy, steals our dreams and makes life heavy-laden for even simple tasks like going to the grocery store. There is hope.

The secret to mastering depression is to map your depression slide pattern. Your slide pattern is a picture of how depression starts and creeps into your life and the rate at which you descend into total darkness. Depression does not start in total darkness. Life is generally sailing along fine when all of sudden we begin feeling little joy. It’s the small things we notice first. We don’t watch our favorite TV comedy or want to meet that friend for lunch. Overall, however, life is still rolling along. This state is a grey state not totally joyless.

What we need to define is how we fall from total light (life is great) to total darkness (absence of joy and energy, a state of total paralysis) and the rate at which we fall. This is our depression slide pattern. Our depression slide pattern is unique to each of us. It is unique to our personality, our surroundings, our past experiences and our day to day activities.

As an example, in my personal case, I start in the life is great phase, 0% darkness. My relationships are stable. I enjoy my hobbies. I have big dreams for my future. I feel no depression. Then, for unknown reasons, my mood gradually declines over a period of 5-7 days until I slide into 50% darkness. Once I hit 50% I rapidly drop to total darkness in just 1-2 days. This is my unique pattern. In 100% total darkness, I am so depressed that I don’t even know the telephone exists. I absolutely can’t call a friend for help because I am not aware they exist either. What I do know is that I must catch myself before I fall into that final dark state.

The state of total darkness is analogous to being wrapped tightly in black cellophane. The cellophane is so tight you can’t see anything beyond the tip of your nose. You are not aware of anything that surrounds you. You are inwardly focused and can only experience inward pain. This is a dangerous state to be in.

So how do you prevent yourself from getting into total darkness which is full deep depression? Map and understand your depression slide pattern. I know that I must personally catch myself and seek help from others when I reach the 50% level. Seeking help pulls me out of my depressive state and helps me enjoy life again. This doesn’t happen overnight but, at least it reverses my declining mood so that I can be whole again.

So the essential prescription for overcoming your depression is:

  1. Map and understand the secrets of your depression slide pattern.
  2. Tell yourself it’s OK to reach out to others for help and reach out before you hit any precipitous drop into total darkness.
  3. And by all means talk!. Tell friends how you’re feeling ,over and over again if you have to. Friends want to help!

Fear of Heights – Self Hypnosis For Heights Fears

Phobia of heights is technically known as acrophobia. Many people experience fear of heights but not everyone develops a phobia. In order to assure that your fright doesn’t escalate into phobia, it is necessary to address your negative emotions on a subconscious level.

The first step is to determine how severe your phobia of heights really is. You may have the natural response of fear when faced with heights that lead to feelings of panic. As the condition progresses, you begin to avoid any situation that may involve high places.

Persistent thoughts of falling overwhelm you and you feel great anxiety on a regular basis. Gradually, you avoid leaving your home for fear of having a panic attack. The phobia of heights interferes with your daily life.


Traditionally, phobia of heights was attributed to negative experiences early in life. You may have had a narrow escape from a significant fall or some other unpleasant experience as a young child. You may have seen someone else fall from a high place. The basic belief was that conditioning was a factor in the development of this fear.

Non-Associative Fears

Fear of heights is now understood to be a non-associative fear. This type of fear is inborn as a naturally protective mechanism. We naturally feel negative emotions about high places and loud noises whether exposed to a traumatic event or not.

This natural fear can run wild in the psyche, developing into a phobia. This is when acrophobia enters you life, leaving you with excessive feelings of anxiety and panic. You may instinctively have fears of falling but these emotions become too much for you to handle.


People process motion and their positioning using various systems in the human body. For example, the proprioceptive system helps you maintain comfortable body positioning. The vestibular system helps you process motion. Some people may have an imbalance in the systems that can be the root of their fears.

The fear of heights may be biological or environmental but in either case, it is controllable.

Getting Help for Phobia of Heights

You may think that an instinctive reaction is beyond your control you can take control of your fear of heights with the right intervention. Self-hypnosis is ideal because it works to help you overcome thoughts that work on a subconscious level.

It is impossible to control every thought that comes into your head. Your mind can have tens of thousands of thoughts each day. The notion of consciously taking the reins on your thought processes is not going to yield great results. However, your subconscious mind can control thoughts and responses to situations automatically.

Changing Behavior through Vision

Self-hypnosis helps you use your imagination and vision to change your attitudes and behavior. As your subconscious mind is flooded with images that show the desired outcome, you become more apt to behave and think appropriately.

Your thought processes are the driving force behind your emotions and behaviors. Self-hypnosis gives you access to thoughts in your subconscious mind in order to overcome your phobia of heights.

Baby Tongue Thrush: The Natural And Permanent Way To Cure Baby Tongue Thrush

“Oh no!” That was my reaction when I first spotted thrush on my baby’s tongue – that creamy, white yeast overgrowth that no mom wants to see. Sometimes thrush can appear on the tongue; it may also affect the gums, roof of the mouth or inside the cheeks.

Sometimes what may appear to be thrush is actually milk residue. The way you can tell the difference is to try to wipe it away – milk will wipe off whereas thrush won’t. Also, when you try to wipe away thrush on baby’s tongue, sometimes there will be a little bleeding.

If it IS thrush on your baby’s tongue, then I feel for you! I don’t think there’s anything worse as a new mom then having your baby have any kind of suffering. Sometimes thrush can be more of a minor annoyance, but it’s generally uncomfortable for your child and can cause complications, such as:

*difficulty nursing or feeding/reluctance to nurse
*baby may be irritable for fussy
*loss of appetite

Thrush can also cause more colic-type symptoms as well. The yeast candida albicans is usually responsible for the thrush on your baby’s tongue. Yeast loves the warm, moist, sugar-rich environment of babies mouths. If your baby is breastfed, the yeast can thrive on the natural lactose content of breastmilk; in formula there are added sweeteners as well.

However, all babies’ mouths have these sugars present – so why do some babies get thrush and not others? There are a number of factors that can be involved, but one of the most common is the extremely prevalent use of antibiotics in child labor. Between c-sections and strep-B prophylaxis, antibiotic use is more common than ever before. Unfortunately, antibiotics wipe out the body’s natural resistance to yeast, and this is one of the main reasons why so many babies, as well as breastfeeding moms, develop thrush.

Some other factors that might be involved:

*If mom has vaginal yeast, the baby can catch it during delivery
*Premature babies are more vulnerable due to their immature immune systems
*Use of corticosteroids can also promote thrush overgrowth.

There are two primary ways that babies’ tongue thrush is treated:

1.)    Prescription anti-fungals such as Nystatin or Diflucan (fluconazole)
2.)    Home remedies, such as gentian violet

The truth is both of these approaches are imperfect solutions and I’m going to explain why. First of all, prescription anti-fungals such as Diflucan carry the risk of serious side effects and they do absolutely nothing to keep the yeast from growing back. Nystatin is safer but has a fairly low effectiveness rate and can also cause the yeast to mutate and become more resistant to treatment.

On the other side of the coin, ironically some home remedies can be less than safe as well. This is a big concern to me because I know there are many well-meaning moms looking for safer alternatives without having all the information. For example, gentian violet is a known carcinogen and can even cause mouth sores and ulcers – exactly the type of problem you’re trying to get rid of!

I’ve also seen products advertised for baby thrush that contain things like colloidal silver, tea tree oil and oregano oil, which each have safety concerns as well.

My own personal experiences with thrush made me realize how hard it was to find good information on how to cure baby’s tongue thrush naturally and permanently! Since I have so much experience in this area and was determined not to use drugs, I ended up researching and collaborating with other health professionals to develop and comprehensive approach to treat infant thrush quickly and safely, without side effects. Well, there is one side effect: better health all around!

The secret is to kill the yeast – safely and naturally – and also to cure the imbalance that allowed the yeast to grow out of control in the first place. This second step is so crucial, not only to protect your child from developing long term yeast related health problems, but also to protect your child from all kinds of opportunistic infections.

You will see the thrush on baby’s tongue disappear and will also feel good knowing you did the best thing for your child’s health.

Anxiety Attacks in Children

Anxiety attacks are quite common in children, but they are often overlooked. Nearly half of the individuals with prepubertal onset of anxiety do not receive treatment for at least 10 years, and recent research suggests that many of these children develop chronic and persistent anxiety as adults. Both pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatments are available for children with anxiety disorders and the outcome is good, but since this remains a widely misjudged entity, treatment is only initiated when these children grow and have frequent anxiety attacks. However, in children who have received cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety, the support has been empirical. The effect of cognitive behavioral therapy appears to be relatively well maintained over time.

Manifestations of anxiety in children alters as a child grows, and it is a known fact that most chronic mood and anxiety disorders in adults were preceded by anxiety disorders as a child. The link is strong.

Children who have a fear of the dark are at increased risk of developing anxiety attacks and depression as adults. Researchers warn that fears stem from a multitude of disorders rather than a variation of a single disorder.

In what may seem as a strange correlation, children with functional constipation have been observed to have more anxiety related to toileting behavior than healthy children. Painful bowel movements can make a child fearful of pain, and these children dread sitting on the toilet. This is called defecation anxiety. Some of these children develop generalized anxiety at later stages – the greater the defecation anxiety, the greater the generalized anxiety.

Insomnia – How to Help Your Child Fall Asleep

One in four children experiences sleep problems of one type or another during the course of childhood. Helping your child to fall asleep – to conquer her insomnia – is important to both of you. Neither of you needs the stress and frustration associated with childhood insomnia. In truth, you typically are not dealing with a classic sleep disorder in getting your child to sleep. Instead, you're dealing with the problem of teaching her how to fall asleep on her own and at the appropriate time. One of more of the following techniques may be just what you need to enable both of you (or all of your family, for that matter) to have a calm, restful night.

Calm Is The Word to Remember

Part of the process of transitioning from fully awake to fully asleep is the deliberate (on your part) calming and quieting that must proceed sleep. Before bedtime, you should intentionally slow her down from the fast pace of the day. It will help if you can bring the entire household to a slower, more relaxed pace. Calming music, the TV turned off, and a generally slower pace will help her relax so that her body is preparing itself for sleep. You will also benefit if you can establish and consistently follow a routine that invariably ends in bedtime. That routine might be 15 minutes of reading to her from a favorite (not a new) book; or sitting with her and talking about the successes of the day, reinforcing the good things she's done and how quickly she's learning to accomplish new tasks; or a session of light massage to help her relax. The key thought here is to strive for consistency – this activity should take place every evening, always at the same time, always for about the same amount of time, and always ending in bedtime with no delays and no excuses.

Speaking of Consistency. . .

If you want your child to fall asleep on time and stay asleep all night, they you must be consistent in how you close out the day and in how you deal with any inconsistencies she tries to introduce. To some extent it almost does not matter what the pattern is that leads to bedtime, so long as it is consistent. If you remind her "Bedtime is in 10 minutes," be sure that bedtime follows in 10 minutes. And continue this routine every night so that it's both expected and understood. Here are some routine bedtime difficulties and some possible responses you can use to overcome them:

Your child does not want to fall asleep alone – she wants you to stay in the room or stay in bed with her until she falls asleep. This might be the result of insecurity, which may be overcome by ensuring that she has a favorite blanket or toy with her. If she's afraid of the dark, a night light can provide her with some assurance. Leaving the door open a little bit may reassure her that she is not alone in the house, abandoned to all the monsters and fears of childhood. And you can reassure her that you'll be looking in on her to make sure she's OK and sound asleep. If she's awake when you check, encourage her by praising her for staying in bed and relaxing, waiting for sleep to overtake her. Consistency being the keyword here, you must insist that she remain in bed, not get up and wander around, go to the bathroom, interrupt you for a drink of water or other services, etc.

Alternatively, if your child does not want to sleep alone, it may be because she got accustomed to falling asleep in your arms while being nursed – you need to transition her to going to sleep alone. This may be accomplished more quickly if you begin doing it during the day. Wait until you notice she's drowsy and close to nap time. Then put her into her bed alone, reassure her that you'll be in the next room, and let her fall asleep alone. Let her mind associate bed with sleep, even when she's in bed alone – and even if she's in bed alone because she's woken in the middle of the night.

Your child wants to stay awake longer, so she does not miss any of the activity going on in the home. See the earlier note about calming the entire house down prior to bedtime. If there's "nothing happening," then there is not much temptation to stay up and watch it not happen.

Your child wakes up in the night and calls for attention. First, delay your response for a minute or two – and for increasingly longer periods if the problem persists. The idea is to create a deliberate delay so that she will not expect immediate response; and to increase that delay so that she will learn that if she wakes at night the only thing to do is to lay back down and go back to sleep. If she is consistently waking during the night, she may be taking too many naps during the day; or she may be sleeping too late in the morning, so that she is not sufficiently tired at night. When you go to her after she wakes up, give her loving attention, but not too much of it. Tuck her back into her covers, remind her that it's well past bedtime and that she needs to be asleep, give her a kiss on the forehead, and leave the room. Waking in the night should not become an excuse to stay awake. Rather, it should be an occasion for brief reassurances and then a swift return to sleep.

Not all children need the same amount of sleep. If you're putting her to bed at 7:30 and she consistently falls asleep at 8:30, this might be because you're trying to give her more hours of sleep than her body actually needs. Maybe she only needs nine hours of sleep instead of the ten hours you've been told is "correct for a child her age." Rather than associating bedtime with frustration and sleeplessness, try putting her to bed at the time her body is ready for sleep. She'll get just as much sleep, but will not be frustrated and fussy at bedtime. If this proves to be an insufficient amount of sleep, you can work at returning to the previous bedtime in small increments. That is, if putting her to bed at 8:30 leaves her groggy in the morning, begin putting her to bed at 8:25 for several days, then at 8:20 for several days, then slowly move her to a bedtime that will allow her sufficient sleep while preventing the situation where she lies awake too long once she's gone to bed.

Summing It Up

Work at having a calm, soothing, and consistent – especially consistent – routine for bedtime and for dealing with the occasional nighttime wakefulness. In the absence of illness, calmness and consistency are the best means of dealing with childhood insomnia.

Copyright (c) William Johnson 2008

Complications of Hepatitis a

The good news is that most people who get hepatitis A recover completely in a matter of weeks. The disappearance of jaundice usually marks the beginning of recovery.

Within one or two months, the liver, which is the target of the hepatitis A virus (HAV), is healed. And one bout of hepatitis A will make you immune to the disease for life.

“It may be better not to take any medication at that time because the injured liver doesn’t handle drugs very well. So whereas you might use a sedative or painkiller to control the symptoms of most other illnesses, you probably should not do so with hepatitis. The best advice I can offer is to rest at home for a few days until your low-grade fever subsides, avoid alcohol, and then begin gradually to resume light activities,” according to Dr. Isadore Rosenfeld of the New York Hospital – Sloane-Kettering Cancer Center in The Best Treatment.

“During this initial period, your doctor will be monitoring your liver function by means of blood tests. As soon as they begin to return toward normal, so can you. There’s no reason for you to be hospitalized unless you develop some complication that requires treatment, like bleeding from the nose, mouth, rectum, or under the skin as a result of impaired liver function. In my experience, most patients with uncomplicated hepatitis of any variety are able to return to work full time in three to four weeks,” he added.

Contrary to popular belief, hepatitis A cannot be prevented or cured by taking vitamins, herbs or following certain diets. The only thing patients should avoid is alcoholic beverages which can put a strain on the inflamed liver.

“Doctors used to make such a big fuss about diet in patients with hepatitis and until quite recently, routinely advised them to reduce their protein intake, eliminate fat, and abstain totally from alcohol. Only the last proscription is valid today because alcohol has a toxic effect on the liver. (As a matter of fact, it’s a good idea to avoid all forms of alcohol for three to four months, or until your liver function tests have returned completely too normal.),” Rosenfeld said.

“But as far as diet is concerned, I permit my patients to eat whatever they wish. However, since their appetite isn’t great to begin with, most instinctively reject fat and fried foods,” he explained.

Can hepatitis A cause serious problems? For most people, the answer is “No.” But in a few rare instances, the disease can be so severe to require hospitalization or lead to death. This often happens in the elderly and drug abusers with underlying liver disease.

One of the rare complications of hepatitis A is cholestatic jaundice in which the yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes may persist for several months. This is accompanied by weight loss and an increased red blood cell count. This is more likely to occur in elderly patients with sickle cell disease.

Other patients may develop relapsing hepatitis A which can last for a year. This happens in about 10 percent of hepatitis A victims.

Fulminant hepatitis A is a more serious complication which is characterized by severe jaundice, rapid deterioration in liver function, drowsiness, and coma. These symptoms are often preceded by excitability, insomnia, confusion, and severe vomiting.

HAV infection can also lead to the following complications: seizures, acute renal failure, polyneuritis (inflammation of many nerves), myelitis (inflammation of the spinal cord), hypotension (low blood pressure), and bradycardia (abnormally slow heart beat). (Next: How to prevent hepatitis A.)

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Cure Your Ingrown Toenail by Knowing How it Happens

Ingrown toenails are a pain, which those of us who have suffered from them never wish to experience again. If you want to cure your ingrown toenail, it helps to know exactly what caused it in the first place.

Most ingrowns happen because they have been poorly cut. To cure your ingrown toenail, you should make sure you do not cut your nails too short. Such bad cutting practices can mean your nail will grow back wrong and you'll eventually have a whole lot of pain to deal with.

Ingrown toenails can also be caused by picking at them. Some people will do this when they have a broken nail or simply wish to shorten the nail. Often, more of the nail than they bargained for will be pulled away, which can cause serious damage. When the nail repairs itself and starts to grow back, it can grow back at a different angle, therefore becoming ingrown. If you have a habit of picking at your toenails – stop! You will never cure your ingrown toenail problem if you continue.

Badly fitting shoes and even socks or tights can result in toenails becoming ingrown. They can press on the nail causing it grow in a restricted manner and press into the flesh of the toe making it very painful. Eventually the nail pushes more and more as it grows and with the sawing action caused by walking, it eventually cuts into the toe making way for infection to set in.

A lot of the time, all these factors will contribute to a toenail becoming ingrown. The condition can also be partly genetic, since certain people's nails grow into shapes that make them prone to becoming ingrown. Nevertheless, knowing how the condition occurs will help you in your quest to curing your ingrown toenail.

Nail Fungus – Background and Treatments

Onychomycosis, more commonly referred to as nail fungus, is an infection that results to discolored and disfigured nails. There are two types of fungus that cause nail infections.

Dermatophytes more commonly cause toenail fungus while yeast, particularly Candida, more often infect fingernails. Any of these two types of fungus can infect the nails by entering into any tiny cuts in the skin or in the space between the hard shell or the nail plate and the underlying connecting tissue or the nail bed.

Roughly 12% of the American population is infected with nail fungus. The affliction is more commonly observed on toenails rather than fingernails. A probable reason is that the toes get lesser blood circulation than fingers and therefore have minimal chances of fighting off infection.

Likewise, adults over 60 are more at risk of nail fungus due to weaker blood circulation. Nails tend to thicken and their growth decelerates with age, thus making them more susceptible to fungal attack.

Some people may be genetically predisposed to fungal infection. Those with diabetes or any other ailment that come with poor blood circulation and weak immune system are more susceptible to fungal infections in general, including nail fungus.

Nail fungus usually starts out as a yellow or white spot under the tip of a nail which may develop in time to discoloration of the entire nail plate. As the fungus continues to grow and feed on the nail plate's keratin, the nail thickens and becomes brittle. In time, it may become too overgrown that it causes pain, especially when wearing shoes. The dark-colored debris that accumulates in between the nail plate and the nail bed may also cause foul odor. In some cases, the nail may crumble off or detach from the nail bed.

Any infection, including nail fungus, should never be treated lightly. It may spread to other nails, and in worst cases, on other parts of the body as well. Those who have a vulnerable immune system due to disease or medication should take fungal infections seriously and seek immediate medical attention.

Fungal infections in general are difficult to treat completely. They often recur mostly because the cause of infection is not totally eliminated. Ointments and creams that are available over-the-counter are often not effective in treating the ailment. Doctors would most likely recommend oral medication to treat nail fungal infection. Common oral medications for treating fungal infection are Sporanox, Diflucan, and Lamisil.

Treatment of fungal infections can be long drawn. Oral medication usually takes a course of 6 to 12 weeks. Doctors may also recommend using topical solution in conjunction with the oral medication. But it may take as much as 4 months or more to completely eradicate fungus.

In extreme cases, the doctor may have the infected nail removed so as to permit direct application of a topical solution to the underlying tissue.

Doctors may also prescribe a special nail polish called Penlac to patients with mild to moderate fungal infections.

Nevertheless, nothing beats good hygiene in order to prevent the onslaught or recurrence of fungal infection. It is of utmost importance to always keep the hands and feet dry. Keep your bare feet off wet floors in public baths, pools and locker rooms. Ditch the polish and artificial nails for covering up unsightly infections. And never forget to wash hands thoroughly after touching infected nail.

Chronic Liver Cirrhosis for sine , sysmptoms and Homeopathic treatment


Liver Cirrhrosis  following signs and symptoms may occur in the presence of cirrhosis or as a result of the complications of cirrhosis. Many are nonspecific and may occur in other diseases and do not necessarily point to cirrhosis. Likewise, the absence of any does not rule out the possibility of cirrhosis.

1. Spider angiomata or spider nevi. Vascular lesions consisting of central arteriole surrounded by many smaller vessels due to an increase in estradiol.

2. Palmar erythema. Exaggerations of normal speckled mottling of the palm, due to altered sex hormone metabolism.

3. Muehrcke’s nails paired horizontal bands separated by normal color due to   hypoalbuminemia

4. Terry’s nails – proximal two thirds of the nail plate appears white with distal one-third red, also due to hypoalbuminemia

5. Clubbing – Angle between the nail plate and proximal nail fold > 180 degrees

6. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Chronic proliferative periostitis of the long bones that can cause considerable pain.

7. Dupuytren’s contracture. Thickening and shortening of palmar fascia that leads to flexion deformities of the fingers. Thought to be due to fibroblastic proliferation and disorderly collagen deposition. It is relatively common (33% of patients).

8. Gynecomastia. Benign proliferation of glandular tissue of male breasts presenting with a rubbery or firm mass extending concentrically from the nipples. This is due to increased estradiol and can occur up to 66% of patients.

9  Liiver size. Can be enlarged, normal, or shrunken.

10. Splenomegaly. Due to congestion of the red pulp as a result of portal hypertension.

11. Hypogonadism. Manifested as impotence, infertility, loss of sexual drive, and testicular atrophy due to primary gonadal injury or suppression of hypothalamic or pituitary function.

12. Splenomegaly. Due to congestion of the red pulp as a result of portal hypertension.

13. Ascites. Accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity giving rise to flank dullness (needs about 1500 mL to detect flank dullness).

14.Caput medusa. In portal hypertension, the umbilical vein may open. Blood from the portal venous system may be shunted through the periumbilical veins into the umbilical vein and ultimately to the abdominal wall veins, manifesting as caput medusa.

15.Cruveilhier-Baumgarten murmur. Venous hum heard in epigastric region due to collateral connections between portal system and the remnant of the umbilical vein in portal hypertension.

Fetor hepaticus Sweet pungent smell in breath due to increased dimethyl sulfide due to severe portal-systemic shunting.

16. Jaundice. Yellow discoloring of the skin, eye, and mucus membranes due to increased bilirubin (at least 2-3 mg/dL or 30 mmol/L). Urine may also appear dark.

17.Asterixis. Bilateral asynchronous flapping of outstretched, dorsiflexed hands seen in patients with hepatic encephalopathy.

18.Other. Weakness, fatigue, anorexia, weight loss.


As the disease progresses, complications may develop. In some people, these may be the first signs of the disease.

1. Bruising and bleeding due to decreased production of coagulation Jaundice due to decreased processing of bilirubin.

2. Itching(pruritus) due to bile products deposited in the skin.

Hepatic encephalopathy- the liver does not clear ammonia and related nitrogenous substances from the blood, which are carried to the brain, affecting cerebral functioning: neglect of personal appearance, unresponsiveness, forgetfulness, trouble concentrating, or changes in sleep habits.

Sensitivity to medication due to decreased metabolism of the active compounds.

3. Hepatocellular carcinoma is primary liver cancer, a frequent complication of cirrhosis. It has a high mortality rate.

4. Portal hypertension- blood normally carried from the intestines and spleen through the portal vein flows more slowly and the pressure increases; this leads to the following complications:

5. Ascites – fluid leaks through the vasculature into the abdominal cavity.

Problems in other organs.

1. Cirrhosis can cause immune system dysfunction, leading to . Signs and symptoms of infection may be aspecific are more difficult to recognize (e.g. worsening encephalopathy but no fever).

2. Fluid in the abdomen (ascites) may become infected with bacteria normally present in the intestines (spontaneous bacterial peritonitis).

3. Hepatorenal syndrome – insufficient blood supply to the kidneys, causing acute renal failure.This complication has a very high mortality (over 50%).

4. Hepatopulmonary syndrome- blood bypassing the normal lung circulation (shunting), leading to cyanosis and dyspnea (shortness of breath), characteristically worse on sitting up.

5. Portopulmonary hypertension – increased blood pressure over the lungs as a consequence of portal hypertension 


1. Dolichos pruriens [Dolichos] 

Chief indication for chronic cholestatic hepatitis, activity of third degree, with progressive development and hepatocellular insufficiency of second degree, with transformation into cirrhosis of liver. Syndrome of portal hypertension of first degree. Syndrome of cholestasis with intensive constant itch of skin.

The basic symptoms are:

  • The intensive, unbearable, “terrible” itch of skin which is especially worse in evening at 9 p.m. and nights hours.

  • The great general weakness.

  • The intensive pains in both hypochondriac regions, tearing, dull, burning: “As if from the nettle”. The dull pain under the angle of right scapula: “As if there the abscess under the skin”. This pain is more intensive under the scapula rather than in right hypochondrium. This pain is extending, “shooting” trough the right hypochondrium to the back and right scapula.

  • The constant yellow colour of the eyes.

  • The massive deposits of cholesterine around the eye lids – the so called “ksanthoma”, of yellow colour.

  • The bitterness in the mouth, during all the day.

  • Stool constipated. Stool of white colour, resembling white clay.

  • The intensive thirst for drinks 

2. Carduus Marianus [Carduus mar] 

The chief action of this drug is centered in the liver, and portal system, causing soreness, pain, jaundice. Has specific relation to the vascular system. Especially indicated in individuals with abuse of alcoholic beverages, especially beer. Pain in region of liver especially Left lobe very sensitive. Fullness and soreness, with moist skin. Constipation; stools hard, difficult, knotty; alternates with diarrhœa. Hyperæmia of liver, with jaundice. One of the chief remedies for Cirrhosis of liver.

3. Magnesium Muriaticum [Mag mur]

Mag mur is chiefly a liver remedy with pronounced characteristic constipation. It has chronic liver affections like cirrhosis with tenderness and pain, extending to spine and epigastrium ad the pain is worse after food. Pressing pain in liver; worse lying on right side. Liver is enlarged with bloating of abdomen; yellow tongue.

4. Ptelea Trifoliata [Ptelea]  

Is a remarkable remedy in stomach and liver affections. The aching and heaviness in the region of the liver is greatly aggravated by lying on the left side. Liver sore, swollen, sensitive to pressure. Indicated in end stages of cirrhosis.

5. Nux Vomica [Nux vom]

In liver affections occurring in those who have indulged to excess in alcoholic liquors, highly seasoned food, quinine, or in those who have abused themselves with purgatives, Nux is the first remedy to be thought of. The liver is swollen hard and sensitive to the touch and pressure of clothing is uncomfortable. The first remedy in cirrhosis of the liver. Colic may be present. In the enlarged liver of drunkards, Sulphur, Lachesis, Fluoric acid, Arsenic and Ammonium muriaticum must also be borne in mind, together with Nux.

6. Lycopodium. [Lyc]
Lycopodium acts powerfully on the liver. The region of the liver is sensitive to the touch, and there is a feeling of tension in it, a feeling as if a cord were tied about the waist. Cirrhosis of liver. The pains are dull and aching instead of sharp and lancinating, as under Chelidonium. Fullness in the stomach after eating a small quantity. There are no real icteric symptoms, but there is a peculiar sallow complexion.

7. Chelidonium Majus [Chel]
The liver symptoms of Chelidonium are very prominent. There is soreness and stitching pains in the region of the liver, but the keynote for this drug in hepatic diseases is a pain under the angle of the right shoulder blade, which may extend to the chest, stomach, or hypochondrium; there is swelling of the liver, chilliness, fever, jaundice, yellow coated tongue, bitter taste and a craving for acids and sour things, such as pickles and vinegar. The stools are profuse, bright yellow and diarrhoea; they may be clayey in color. Taken altogether, Chelidonium is perhaps our greatest liver remedy; it causes the liver to secrete thinner and more profuse bile than any remedy; it is a useful remedy to promote the expulsion of gall stones, and to prevent their formation. It affects the left lobe of the liver much less than does Carduus marianus. 

 Remedies For Cirrhosis of Liver are-

Apoc., Ars., Ars. iod., Aur. m., Aur. mur., Calc. ars.,Cascara sag., Cinch., Fel tauri, Fluor. ac., Graph., Hydr., Iod., Kali bich., Kali iod.,  Merc. d., Merc., Nasturt. ag., Nat. chlor., Nit. ac., Nit. mur. ac.,  Phos., Plumb., Pod., Quass., Senec.

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Effective Ankle Sprain First Aid

Everybody will experience an ankle sprain. It's not a question of if but a question of when. Sometimes, ankle sprains happen in the most unexpected circumstances. Simply crossing the street or getting out of bed can cause an ankle sprain if you land badly.

Losing balance is the usual culprit causing the ankle to twist and damaging the ligaments. There are several causes of ankle sprain that can be avoided. Fights can lead to physical conflict. Slips and falls may result from uneven pavement or slippery floors.

Risks of Ankle Injury

Every year about 2 million individuals either sprain or fracture their ankles. Of these two, ankle sprains are more common.

Even if you're not active in sports, you're still at risk of getting ankle sprain. However, those engaging in sports are increasing their risk.

Basketball players, for example, report 45% of injuries suffered are ankle sprains. In the US alone, 2500 people sprain their ankles everyday.

First Aid For Ankle Sprain

Most physical therapist will recommend the PRICE method. This method is very effective in laying the foundation for rehabilitating ankle sprains quickly. Use the PRICE method in the first 48 to 72 hours of injuring your ankle.

P. stands for protection. You can use crutches and splints to protect the injured limb.

R stands for rest. Refrain from using the injured ankle as much as possible during the first 48 to 72 hours after the injury.

I is for ice. Icing the injured ankle can help prevent swelling and can help minimize pain. A word of caution: do not put ice directly on the sprained ankle. You can use a towel to wrap the ice. This is to prevent ice burns.

C. stands for compression. Compression is also good for removing excess fluid from the sprained ankle. Bandages can be used to compress the sprained ankle. Use wide bandages. Make sure to cover the entire foot and the lower leg.

E. stands for elevation. During the first 48 to 72 hours of the injury, you want to minimize the flow of blood to the injured limb as much as possible. Elevating the ankle above the level of the heart can help you accomplish this.

Remember that it's best to consult a health professional after injuring your ankle. Although ankle sprains are the most common ankle injury, fractures are also possible. An x-ray might be needed to make sure that there are no fractures. The PRICE method is a good first aid but does not replace the care provided by professionals.

How Do I Treat Bruises Homeopathically?

When a blood vessel becomes damaged by an injury or other means and a seepage of blood follows, it will show as a blue-purplish colour under the skin, this is known as a bruise. Also if the area is large, there will probably be considerable swelling and pain at the site. Consider the following remedies before choosing one that most closely resembles your symptoms.

1. HYPERICUM – For severe crushed parts, where there is a shooting pain which is excruciating and an extreme sensitiveness to touch. Pain like this happens after a fall on the coccyx.

2. LEDUM PALUSTRE – If bruising is very slow to subside.

3. ARNICA – This is the famous remedy for all bruises. Effective in all but some internal deep bruising.

4. ARNICA LOTION – If the skin is bruised but not broken (Do not use ARNICA on the skin if the surface is opened.) Treatment details for ARNICA LOTION. Take 10-15 drops of the lotion and mix into 250mls of clean water (preferably previously boiled) and apply as a compress.

5. BELLIS PERENNIS – For deep injuries to muscles and also joints when ARNICA does not appear to be relieving the symptoms.

6. RUTA GRAVEOLENS – Bruises of the periosteum (covering of bones). It lies on the surface of bones and is easily injured where the bones lie just below the skin, eg elbow, shin, kneecap.

7. SYMPHYTUM – For a hit in the eye by a blunt object (a "black eye"). Also in trauma to a cartilage or periosteum (useful where RUTA GRAV has not relieved any pain by 24 hours).

Diverticula – What are Diverticula?

A diverticulum (plural: diverticula’s) is medical term for an out pouching of a hollow (or a fluid filled) structure in the body. It usually implies that the structure is not normally present, i.e. pathological. However, embryologically, some normal structures begin development as a diverticulum arising from another structure.

Diverticular disease is common in the Western world but is extremely rare in areas such as Asia and Africa. Diverticular disease increases with age. It is uncommon before the age of forty, and is seen in more than fifty percent of people over the age of sixty in the United States. Whereas most patients with diverticular disease have no or few symptoms, some patients will develop bleeding, infection (diverticulitis), constipation, abdominal cramps, and even colon obstruction.

Diverticula are thought to be caused by increased pressure within the lumen of the colon. Increased intra-colonic pressure secondary to constipation may lead to weaknesses in the colon walls giving way to diverticula. Other causes may include a colonic spasm which increases pressure, which may be due to dehydration or low-fiber diets; although this may also be due to constipation. Fiber causes stools to retain more water and become easier to pass (either soluble or insoluble fiber will do this).

The large intestine is a long tube-like structure that stores and eliminates waste material. During normal lower intestinal function, the waste material (stool or feces) is slowly pushed along the large intestine to the rectum by the muscular bands in the colon. As a person ages, this continuous pressure can cause a bulging pocket of tissue or sac (called a diverticulum) that pushes out from the colon wall. More than one sac is called diverticula’s.

Many people have small pouches in their colons that bulge outward through weak spots, like an inner tube that pokes through weak places in a tire. Each pouch is called a diverticulum. Pouches (plural) are called diverticula. The condition of having diverticula is called diverticulosis. About 10 percent of Americans over the age of 40 have diverticulosis. The condition becomes more common as people age.

Diverticulitis occurs when there is inflammation and infection in one or more diverticula. This usually happens when outpouchings become blocked with waste, allowing bacteria to build up, causing infection.

No one knows for certain why diverticulosis develops; however, a few theories have been suggested. Some experts believe that abnormal contraction and spasm (resulting in intermittent high pressure in the colon) may cause diverticula to form in a weak spot of the intestinal wall. Low fiber diets may play a role in the development of diverticulosis. In rural Africa where the diet is high in roughage, diverticulosis is rare.

Female urethral diverticulum is a localized outpouching of the urethra into the anterior vaginal wall. Most often present in the mid or distal urethra, it results from enlargement of obstructed periurethral glands.

Although urethral diverticulum is often difficult to diagnose, it has been identified with increasing frequency over the past several decades because of increased physician awareness of the condition. The most common associated symptoms are urinary frequency, urgency, and dysuria. Occasionally, urethral carcinoma and calculi may be present.

Symptoms are due to the muscle abnormality and consist of pain, usually in the left lower part of the abdomen, often abdominal distension, an irregular bowel habit with pellet-like stools, and sometimes small quantities of blood passed with bowel actions. These symptoms are similar to those of the irritable bowel syndrome which is not surprising because both disorders, at least in part, are due to abnormal muscle function.

The 5 Big Questions About Lower Back Pain

There are 5 big questions you should ask about lower back pain. These questions will tell you what is wrong and what you should do to change it. Low back pain and back pains in general affect over 80% of the adult population – yet most adults do not understand what you can do.

So what are the 5 big questions?

1. Where is your lower back pain? Important as this tells you this is the most likely area to target. Is your pain central to the spine, is it out from the spine, into the buttock or referred down the leg. The location of pain generally tells you how severe it is. The further your pain travels from your spine, the more likely you have a greater injury.

2. How did your low back pains occur?

If you have had a fall or injury then it is best to seek help. Pain levels do not always indicate the severity. Many people wait for weeks before they consult a practitioner, only to find out they have fractured a joint, injured an area and it is potentially serious. So with all injuries seek help first, rule out the bigger problems and then address your lower back pain issues.

3. What makes it better? If you find the activity makes your lower back pain better, then it is more likely muscular and not too serious. If activity makes it worse, then it is either a joint problem or the injury is more severe – seek help.

4. What makes your lower back pain worse? This is the big question. Does straining, coughing or deep breathing make your pan worse? If so seek immediate attention. If straining of any type makes pain worse then you may have a disc injury or a severe spinal condition, such as a fracture. Straining will aggravate the area and increase the lower back pain – seek help !!

5. What other symptoms occur? This is also as important as question 4. If you lose bowel or bladder control then you may have spinal cord problems or a severe injury. If you start to get headaches, referred pain, fever or any other changes in your general health then seek immediate medical help. Bypass your Chiropractor, Physiotherapist etc and go directly to medical help or your local hospital. Rule out the serious first and then aim to remove your low back pains.

Although over 90% of all lower back pain issues are usually minor and easily correctable. There are times when your lower back pain is more serious. This is when you need to be aware of the issues that make your lower back pain more serious.

The world is full of people who have said "if only I had sorted this out sooner". Do not become one of them. If your low backpain is indicating a serious problem, seek help. If it does not fit the warning signs then use the many self help techniques to help yourself remove your lower back pain. Low backpain can be easily solved if you know what and where to target.