Causes of Cold Weather Back Pain

Whether you have chronic back pain or pain that comes and goes, you may notice that the pain is worse in cold weather. While an exact causal link between increased pain and cold weather has not been found by the scientific community, the fact of this connection is certain. Cold weather back pain is common among people with arthritis, but it can also occur due to increased muscle tension.

Muscle Tension

When we open our doors to a frigid winter day, we tend to distort our posture and tense up our muscles to cope with the cold. This is usually done unconsciously for a couple of reasons. First, when your muscles contract, they burn energy which is released as heat. Tensing up, then, is a natural bodily response to cold. Shivering occurs when muscles rapidly contract and relax to release energy (heat) fast.

You may also notice that, in the cold, you tend to drop your head and raise your shoulders, which causes your hips to tuck under and your lower back to flatten out. You’re trying to share your shoulders’ body heat with your neck and ears. This is a natural reaction, but a reaction that distorts posture throughout your back and pelvis.

Sore necks, shoulders and lower backs in the winter indicate muscular tension. If you have widespread muscle soreness when it’s cold out, this is likely a sign that your apparel is not suited to your climate. It is important to have a winter hat that covers your ears and a scarf to cover your neck. These, combined with self-awareness, will help to prevent postural distortion. Your muscles will still automatically tense up to stay warm if the rest of your outfit isn’t warm enough. If you can’t find a heavy-duty coat within your budget, rely on layering. A good pair of long underwear will help keep both your lower and upper body protected from the cold. Being conscious of your posture and muscle tenseness can help you relieve cold weather back pain.


If you tend to have joint pain and stiffness that worsens with inactivity and cold weather, you may have osteoarthritis. This form of arthritis affects various parts of the body, including the spine. It occurs when the cartilage that cushions spinal joints wears down, causing friction, inflammation and sometimes the formation of bone spurs that can impinge nerves.

Cold weather doesn’t cause osteoarthritis; it can, however, exacerbate it. Along with cartilage breakdown, osteoarthritis entails inflammation of the synovium, which lines the joint and excretes a lubricant called synovial fluid. As cartilage hardens and wears, the synovium can become inflamed. The prevailing theory on the link between cold weather and increased osteoarthritic pain is that the synovium is sensitive to barometric pressure. When barometric pressure drops, as when foul weather is coming in, the synovium becomes inflamed. This worsens the stiffness and pain surrounding arthritic joints. This theory has its issues; it has led to inconsistent results in research and barometric pressure is not necessarily low when it is cold, but does indicate precipitation and storms. More research into this is needed before an exact link between joint pain and cold weather is understood.

That said, there are still ways to alleviate the extra burden the cold places on your joints. One of the aggressors of arthritic pain, as said above, is inactivity, and one of the best ways to exercise with osteoarthritis is in the water. A warm pool can do wonders for your joints year-round, and especially when it’s cold outside. It is also important to be aware of the above muscular cause of winter back pain, as tight muscles in conjunction with stiff, sore joints will exacerbate your pain.

Take care of your muscles and joints during the cold season. Appropriate apparel, self-awareness and indoor exercise could be enough to ease your back pain this winter.

Retrain Your Brain Without the Use of Drugs

Brain Retraining is the therapy to retrain your brain and improve the creativity of brain. The NeuroAdvantage™ System uses carefully designed patterns of lights and sounds to stimulate and guide your brain to the desired brainwave frequencies associated with different states of mind. It is a simple, natural and drug-free way to tap into your innate potential and enhance your ability to think, create, heal and change.


Anxiety is the medical illness that suddenly attack to the human without any warning. There are two types of this disorder that is emotional and physical anxiety. Trembling, irritability, quick tiredness, headache, Muscles paining, trouble in concentration, sweating etc are the main symptoms of the anxiety. Brain retraining is a natural and extremely efficient way to reduce anxiety and stress. Your brain has a natural mechanism that can defeat anxiety, and you already possess all of the tools you need to live a life free of anxiety.

Memory, Focus and Attention

Brain training is the process to retrain your brain and improve memory to enhance the ability to learn faster, easier and better. To remove the mental fog and to improve the high level concentration brain retraining is the best therapy. Sometimes, students are to be failed in exam by the less focus and less concentration then, this retraining helps in exam success and peak performance by improve the concentration. NeuroAdvantage offers brainwave programs designed to help your brain stay focused and sharp, remove the mental ‘fog’ and create optimal conditions for performing complex mental tasks, brainstorming, studying, analyzing, or performing any task that requires high level of concentration. To make learning success possible and improve the learning skills are brain retraining.


Autism is disorder which is developed in the kids. The major symptoms of this disorder involve communication, social interaction and repetitive behaviors. NeuroAdvantage™ offers a number of light & sound neurotherapy (LSN) programs designed to improve mental concentration and focus in children and youth. The autistic child’s brain has trouble making sense of the world. Autism’s cause is unknown, and it afflicts about 1 in every 150 children.

Pain Management

Now a day’s numbers of people suffer from chronic pain. Sleeping problems, lack of energy, Fatigue, mood changes, fear and irritability are the main symptoms of this type of pain. Chronic pain can become a part of life as your body ages. Drugs are the most frequently used remedy for pain, and most are accompanied by numerous unpleasant side effects and inherent dangers. Managing pain, headache relief, Migraine headache reliefs are the part of this treatment.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

The Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is the part of anxiety disorder. Fainting, feeling the heart beat in your chest, night mares, loss of interest in activities and life in general are the symptoms of this disorder. Brain retraining works with your brain’s natural tendency to move towards a healthier state. It can help you relieve anxiety, worry, stress, depression, insomnia, migraines, and more. Mediations are the major part of the treatment.

Bronchitis Symptoms Treatment

Bronchitis treatment usually depends on the cause of the disease. The causes are usually bacteria or virus pathogens. Other causes are inhaling dangerous fumes and smoking. The disease is as a result of inflammation of the large bronchi of the lungs. When this happens, symptoms can be felt. These include expectorant cough, fever, fatigue, headache, shortness of breath and wheezing.

Sometimes, chest pains can be felt. This is as a result of the constant pressure to the lungs by coughing. Shortness of breath and wheezing result from blockage of the airways by mucous. The bronchitis symptoms treatment can only be effective after a proper diagnosis. This is done by a lung doctor expert. The diagnosis is done to people who have shortness of breath and an expectorant cough as their main symptoms.

The diagnosis tries to rule out the presence of other related diseases apart from bronchitis. Once the presence of bronchitis has been established, bronchitis symptoms treatment can commence. This largely depends on the cause of the illness. Bacteria infections are treated using antibiotics, expectorant cough syrup and bronchodilaters relieve the congestion experienced in the airways making breathing smooth.

The bronchitis symptoms treatment for virus infections is not done using antibiotics. The symptoms usually disappear in a matter of days or on their own. Virus pathogens are the most common cause of bronchitis disease. The viruses that cause the illness are rhino virus, syncytial virus, adenoviridae virus and the influenza virus. Proper bronchitis symptoms treatment is required for the full recovery from the disease. The disease can progress to pneumonia if not treated immediately.

Frozen Shoulder Syndrome and Home Treatment With Trigger Point Therapy

The Little Known Cause of Frozen Shoulder Syndrome

One of the most common, yet least often diagnosed causes of Frozen Shoulder Syndrome is myofascial trigger points in the muscles around the shoulder. Trigger points are knots or tender areas that form in overworked or injured muscles and which lead to pain and loss of mobility.

Many people do not think of Frozen Shoulder Syndrome as a particularly serious condition, but if you've actually suffered from it and have been unable to do everyday tasks such as getting yourself dressed, or have been in too much pain to sleep, it's not something to be taken lightly.

A frozen shoulder is a persistently painful stiffness of the shoulder joint, which can sometimes lead to complete loss of movement. As well as a great deal of pain, people that suffer from frozen shoulder syndrome often experience a real loss of independence; imagine not being able to reach up to put on your seatbelt, never mind actually drive a car.

What Causes Frozen Shoulder Syndrome?

The tissue around the shoulder joint is known as a capsule. This is fully stretched when your arm is above your head, and hangs down when the arm is lowered. Many doctors believe that a frozen shoulder is caused by a thickening, swelling and tightening of this capsule of tissue, perhaps caused by scar tissue, which leaves little space for the bone of the upper arm to move in the shoulder socket, restricting movement and causing pain.

Frozen shoulder syndrome occurs in three phases: An aching and stiffness that becomes increasingly painful, especially at night, which can last up to nine months. An increasing stiffness and reduction in shoulder movement, still with pain, that can often lead to complete loss of movement. This can last up to a year. A general recovery in range of movement, although complete movement may never be regained. This stage may last up to four years.

People that are at an increased risk of developing a frozen shoulder are those that have had a shoulder injury or operation, that have been immobile for some time, perhaps due to hospitalization, those that have diabetes, heart disease, Parkinson's disease, an overactive thyroid , or Dupuytren's contracture, and those that have suffered a stroke.

And people with trigger points in the shoulder can get frozen shoulder syndrome. Myofascial triggers are especially common around the shoulders, as they can be caused by poor posture and stooping forward, for example sitting over a computer.

Muscles Where Trigger Points Can Develop

The shoulder joint is very complex because it is designed to move in so many directions. There are around twenty muscles involved in shoulder movement and trigger points can develop in any of these.

A trigger point in one muscle puts increased strain on the other muscles as they try to compensate, meaning that they also develop trigger points. As each of the muscles that take part in shoulder movement develop their own trigger points, pain will spread around the shoulder area and movement will become more and more restricted.

Muscles that will most commonly develop trigger points leading to a frozen shoulder are the four rotator cuff muscles:

  • Subscapularis
  • Teres Minor
  • Infraspinatus
  • Supraspinatus

One of the difficult things about myofascial trigger points is that the pain can be referred from a muscle somewhere else in the body. With Frozen Shoulder Syndrome it would seem logical to focus on the muscles in the shoulder, but actually the pain could be caused by trigger points in muscles in the upper back, neck, chest or shoulder.

Exercises for Frozen Shoulder Syndrome

Stretching and exercising for a frozen shoulder should be done with caution, as it may just injure the muscles further, worsening trigger points and increasing pain and stiffness. Identifying and massaging out the trigger points causing the problem is essential before stretching and exercise is attempted.

Frozen shoulder syndrome is often treated with painkillers or corticosteroid injections, and sometimes even surgery. If there are active trigger points in the shoulder muscles, they need to be treated as well for pain relief to be effective.Once the trigger points causing the pain have been identified and deactivated, there are some exercises you could try:

Back Shoulder Stretch. In a standing position, try to rest the hand of the problem arm on the opposite shoulder. Place the unaffected hand on the elbow of the problem arm and very gently pull it towards you. Hold for a few seconds, release and repeat five times.

Pendulum Swing. In a standing position, place your unaffected hand on the edge of a table and lean forward, letting your problem arm hang down vertically. Swing the arm forward and backward, side to side, and around in circles in both directions. Repeat each movement five times.

Umbrella Push. Sit down with your elbows into your sides, holding an umbrella in both hands out in front of you. Use your unaffected arm to push your problem arm so it turns outwards, keeping the elbow of your problem arm tucked into your side. Return to centre and repeat five times.

Hand Behind Back. In a standing position, hold your problem arm around the wrist behind you with your unaffected hand. Gently stretch the problem arm towards the opposite buttock and then slide it gently upwards as far as possible. Release and repeat five times. This is a more advanced exercise for when movement begins to return.

Coping With Depression – andre

Regardless of age, status in the society, or profession, depression may affect anyone. It may exist at times of puberty, after childbirth and/or at mid-life. Thus, this health problem occurs at a specific period of time wherein circumstances of life may influence your mood. Immediate depression may be caused by particular events and losses such as death of a person close to you or reduction of your income. There are also other aspects to be considered, such as inherited factors associated with depression (a history of family depression) or other physical factors (abridged levels of neurotransmitters in the brain).

At various phases of our lives, we have all experienced being “down and troubled.” It is due to the changes in our day-to-day living. It also affects our environment and interaction with others. Sometimes, events apparently cause us to be more upset and we become depressed for over a long period of time.

As everyday events influence our moods, some make the misconception of depression as temporary “blues” or sadness. It might be a normal grief caused by the death of your loved one. People with the “blues” and normal grief might experience short-term symptoms of depression.


The term “depression” is used to express a depressed mood, simultaneously with other symptoms, that exist for a prolonged period of time. When depression is not cured, it may influence normal performance. It is important to recognize that depression is not a sign of frailty or a lack of determination, and not something that you can easily escape from. It is a condition that can be cured through proper treatment.

Because of the link between grief and depression, some make false impressions to both.
Here are some myths that needs to be cleared up.ï,§ Depressed People are Mentally Unstable and Inefficient.
As you might experience troubles in making decision and difficulty in concentration and memory, lack of knowledge and misinformation leads to the thought that depressed people are incompetent. This is certainly not true! Because depression is a treatable illness, it can be cured by your own determination and will power. It can be treated faster with the help of others.

ï,§ Someone Must Have Brought the Depression.
All of us used to admire others and set them as our role models. They might be our parents or other famous personalities. Some people have been mistaken and blamed by others for causing depression. You must understand that depression is a health problem that can only be caused by yourself and nobody is to blame.

ï,§ Depression is God’s Way of Punishing for Some Wrong Act or Misbehavior.
This is a widespread belief in the midst of sufferers. If a person can’t find the answer for his or her sufferings, then it might tend to make himself or herself more burdened by the depression, causing that person to find something wrong with himself or herself.

This piece of writing describes what depression is and looks at the common causes and symptoms, as well as some of the myths about depression.

No one should be ashamed of being depressed. It might seem so difficult and sometimes unbearable, to draw yourself out of a sinkhole of depression, but it is THE MOST TREATABLE EMOTIONAL PROBLEM. Always remember that you are not a terrible or hopeless person.

Particular self-help methods in this section will seem more suitable for you to use to cope up with your depression. You can try two or three and see if they work. If not, take a break on something else. In general, gaining some optimism about getting better, having a clear viewpoint, and getting family support, along with selected self-help methods, will lead to a better recovery from depression.


• Free Yourself from Bitterness and Hatred Each Day.
Avoid going to bed with annoyed and irritable feelings against people you have a misunderstanding with. Eliminate hatred from your heart and mind. Release all anxieties, tension, and anger on a daily basis.

• Look for Something That You Can Bring About for a Particular Person
If possible, do a nice deed each day. Stretch out to anyone in need.

• Get in Touch Frequently with Our Creator.
You must realize that His love is unconditional. You will always feel happiness and contentment if you build an intimate relationship with Him.

• Worship God Everyday.
 “Seek first the kingdom of God and His righteousness; and all these things shall be added to you” (Matthew 6:33).

• Get Something Done to Settle Family Misunderstandings.
Establish close and harmonious relationships with each member of your family. Encourage an open communication line with your spouse and children. You will feel much better inside when you share problems and secrets with people you are close with.

• Get Involved in A Small Group Religious Study or Share Group.

• Be Personally Involved in Something That You Enjoy Doing and That Will Benefit You for a Lifetime.

The known ways for coping with depression are as simple as follows: As the time comes in our lives when we most feel like doing nothing, you need to DO SOMETHING! When the future looks most bleak, you need to look forward to it with hope and courage. If you hate yourself because of a big boo-boo you have committed, you have to accept your mistakes, learn from them, and move forward. Eventually, no matter which “cure” you take, you will have to help yourself; there is no easy, effortless, and magical cure.


To completely release yourself from the sinkhole of depression, you must also be free from anger. Here are 7 fabulous tips to help you manage and control your anger:

1. Relax and Visualize.
Calm yourself down. Take a deep breath. As you exhale, imagine all those bottled-up rage come out of your nose and mouth. Release it and be free. Repeat this step over and over until you feel peace inside. Then visualize being in a place where you feel most happy, calm, and relaxed. It may be a place like a beach, garden, scenic location, or anywhere else you might think of. Just imagine being there and inhaling the essence of your serene surroundings. By doing this, you will not find it hard to attain inner peace.

2. Pour Out Your Anger to Safe Outlets.
You had a big quarrel with your former friend. He betrayed your trust. You want vengeance and you’re raving mad. You just have to let it out or you’ll feel more and more depressed. But don’t let it out on him. Try your best to get away from him as far as you can. You don’t want to hurt anyone. Anger can possess your brain into doing something that you wouldn’t dare do before. How do you then release your anger properly? Buy a punching bag, then pour out all your rage in it. Punch it, kick it, and strangle it. Imagine the punching bag as your enemy. When you’re done, you will feel a sense of satisfaction. You may even punch and kick through thin air if you desire. Another way to release it is “SHOUT!” Find a distant place where you can be alone – a place where no one can hear you. At the top of your voice, yell out loud “Aaaaaaaaarrrrrrrrrrrgggggggghhhhhhhh!!!!!.”

You can choose any word you like as long as you release all those angry demons out of your chest.

3. Forgive and Forget.
Nothing could ease your mental and emotional pains better than by forgiving someone that has hurt you in the past. It is very unhealthy to burden yourself with unnecessary torture brought about by unpleasant memories of other people’s demeaning acts.

Moreover, if they have taken something important away from you, would it make sense to also sacrifice your health and lifestyle, and feel much more depressed than ever?

Of course not!

4. Exercise.
Engaging in exercises increases your endorphins. Your angry mood could miraculously change to a happy one if you get involved in exercises that you enjoy doing.

5. Have a Circle of “Sponge” Friends.
Do you feel relieved when you voice out all your problems to close friends and relatives? That’s the power of voicing out your inner feelings. Always have someone to talk to when you’re down, when you’re depressed, when you’re mad, or in any other occasion when you feel you have to get the thorns out of your chest.

6. Listen to Soothing Music.
It calms your soul. A 20-minute session of listening to relaxing music while resting comfortably could soothe the upset spirit. Take deep breaths often.

7. Pray.
Deadly consequences arise when people could not hold back their fury. Ask for guidance that you will be able to control your temper. Prayers bring inner peace to those who ask for it.


If you are suffering the mental crisis of low self-esteem, serious action should be taken to regain it. So what can be done to revive self-esteem? Here are some remarkable remedies:

1. Satisfy or Indulge Yourself.
Eat whatever you want, play a sport you’re most interested in, go to places that make you happy.

2. Get in Touch with Your Close Friends Often.
Their encouragement and company can boost your confidence level.

3. Whatever You Do Well, Do Often.
If you have a certain skill or talent that you’re good at, develop it. If you see yourself becoming or performing better than others, that will really boost your self-esteem to greater heights.

4. Do whatever reminds you that you are a good, brilliant, capable, responsible, and caring person despite experiencing the opposite feeling.

5. Imagine yourself as being famous and successful if you feel that others are not paying attention to you.

6. Safeguard and maintain good health.

7. Set yourself attainable goals.


A stress-free lifestyle could very well do wonders in eliminating depression. Here are some practical methods to combat stress:

1. Express Amusement And Be Happy.
Laugh hard and loud. If you don’t have a sense of humor, find someone else who has. Laughter releases endorphins (happy chemicals) from the body, and it helps boost your immune system.

2. Take Control Over Your Time and Schedule.
You’ll be much more able to deal with stress if you have a good handle on your job, relationships, and other activities. When you are in control, you are more inclined to stay focused and calm. Plan your time wisely.

Remember to leave room for unexpected events – both negative and positive. Be adaptable in rearranging your agenda. Get up 15 minutes early in the morning. Allow an extra 15 minutes to get to all appointments.

Avoid procrastinating on important or urgent tasks. Whatever needs doing, do it immediately. Do the unpleasant tasks early, so that you won’t have to worry about them for the rest of the day. Keep an appointment or record book. Don’t just rely on your memory.

Do your tasks one thing at a time at a time. Focus your attention on the present moment, whether it’s the person talking to you or the job at hand. This helps you to avoid making errors – which lead to more tension and anxiety. Be patient in waiting. Anxiety caused by impatience can rise up your blood pressure.

Say “no” to requests that you cannot accomplish. Delegate trivial tasks. You must remember that you don’t have to do it all yourself. Crack a job into separate tasks and assign them to people with the suitable skills.

3. Work Out
Strive and get some habitual exercise such as brisk walking, swimming or whatever appeals to you. Play a sport you’re interested in. Aerobic exercises can considerably reduce the stress factor. Work out also improves sleep and gives you time to think and focus on other things. It also promotes the release of natural soothing chemicals in your body. Do not result to excessive exercise, however, as this may have an adverse effect and might cause more depression.

4. Search Out For A Support Group.
You’ll be able to manage stress much better if you have other people helping and supporting you. Did you know that married people and people who are outgoing (always meeting with friends), have considerably low levels of stress in their lives?

Choose positive friends who are not worriers. Friends who continually put you down or talk gloomily about life will increase your anxiety. Invite a good friend to help you talk out a problem and get it off your chest. A long-distance call to an old pal can be great therapy.

Pardon others instead of holding grudges. Slow down your standards – for yourself and others. Don’t expect too much. Perfectionism is not the means to happiness. Become more flexible and adaptable to your environment. Communicate clearly with your co-workers and boss. Ask questions. Repeat instructions that you are given. Clarifying directions at the start of a project can save lots of time later rectifying out misunderstandings. Be honest in your dealings with others. Lying and cheating leads to stress.

5. Take Breaths Deeply and Slowly.
Calm down your muscles, escalating your stomach and chest. Exhale slowly. Do it again several times. Follow your breath as it flows in and out. Do not try to have power over it. This is a good way to relax in the midst of any activity. This practice allows you to find a breathing pattern that is natural and relaxing to you.
Make use of this yoga technique: Inhale slowly, counting to eight. Exhale through your mouth, even more slowly, counting to sixteen. Make a sighing sound as you exhale, and feel tension dissolve. Do it again 10 times.

6. Consume Healthy Foods at the Appropriate Time.
Never skip meals, especially breakfast. Get time out to eat heartily no matter how busy you are. Take nutritious snacks to the office, or even the shopping mall. A nutritionally balanced diet is essential to your health and lifestyle. For example, researchers have found that even small deficiencies of thiamin, a B-complex vitamin, can cause anxiety symptoms. Pantothenic acid, another B-complex vitamin, is critical during times of stress. Avoid caffeine, alcohol, and large amounts of sweets, which can worsen symptoms of stress.

7. Live Optimistically.
Count your blessings, particularly when everything seems to go wrong. Believe that many other people are living in worse conditions than you are. Don’t exaggerate the complexity of your problems. Every problem has a solution. All you need to do is find that solution. Learn to be happy and to enjoy life’s blessings. Live one day at a time.

8. Put Off Problems Earlier Than They Occur.
This takes some preparation. If you are going to another city for an valuable meeting, carry your presentation materials and dress suit on board the plane.

Acquire gas for the car before the tank is unfilled. Get usual oil changes and checkups. Keep food ready anytime at your house so you can fix a fast meal without going to the store. Keep food, medicine, and toiletries on hand so you never have to feel tensed when they run out.

9. Enjoy The Good Things That Life Has to Offer.
Grant yourself some physical pleasure and enjoyment to help your stress slip away. Indulge yourself to a professional massage, or trade massages with a loved one. Give yourself consent to enjoy a movie, watch a concert or sports event, listen to music, or read a book. Take pleasure in a soothing cup of chamomile herb tea with a little bit of honey. Chamomile has long been used to relieve nervous tension.

Arrange a day of beauty with a friend. Do each other’s hair, or paint your nails and chat.

Make a simple steam facial at home by boiling water. Remove the pan from the stove. Cover your head with a large towel so that it creates a tent over the pot. Steam your face for five or 10 minutes. Add aromatic herbs to the water for a sensual touch. Center your attention on any of the senses – hearing, seeing, eating or body movements – for a few minutes. Even washing your hands can become a sensual experience.

10. Possess a Definite Goal or Purpose in Life, and Strive for it..
Plan ahead to meet your most desired goals in life. You should always wake up with a sense of purpose.

Time management experts highlight the importance of writing down your important goals. Break big projects down into a series of small steps that you can work on every day. Want to change jobs? Contact one prospective employer today. Is writing a book your dream? Commit to writing one page a day. Inch by inch, slowly but surely, you will get to your ultimate destination.

Knowing that you are striving toward your dreams relieves frustrations that mount when you feel stuck in a situation that seem to have no direction.

11. Move Away to Recharge Your Spirit.
Make a schedule for a private time alone every day. You deserve it. Unplug the telephone and enjoy a quiet evening alone or with your family, or even 15 continuous minutes in the shower or bathtub. You may want to spend a few minutes writing your feelings out in a journal. It can help you find a new viewpoint in life and relieve internal conflicts.

More Tips to Recharge Your Spirit
• Have on earplugs for instant peace anytime, anyplace.

• Be taught of a meditation technique. Two methods: Observe your thoughts as they pass through your mind. Or, repeat a word or phrase with an uplifting meaning.

• Put into practice progressive relaxation for 20 minutes twice a day to relive high blood pressure and other physiological responses to stress. Make tighter and release each muscle group in turn, starting with the soles of the feet and slowly working up to the scalp.

• Schedule a weekend activity that is a change of your usual routine. If your week is a lot scheduled, relax and enjoy noncompetitive activities. If you are never able to finish anything during the week, choose a project that you can complete in a few hours on weekends.

•  Take time out for a little entertainment in the middle of your workday. When the pressures of completing a project are too great, your productivity can drop. Take a walk or eat lunch outside the office.

12. Use Visualization and Affirmation Techniques.
You can conquer a circumstance you fear by going over the event in your mind. Imagine the scene in clear detail and visualize the best possible result that may happen.

You can also reduce an imagined fear down to size by picturing the worst possible outcome. Visualize describing this worst case to your best friend the next day and the sympathy you receive. Imagine telling a group of friends the next month, who contribute to their similar experiences. Finally, imagine joking about your unpleasant experience with a complete stranger a month later. If you carry this exercise through to the end, your stress will become something to laugh about.
Replace negative self-talk with affirmations. Don’t let your mind be filled with gloom: You’re too ugly… you’re too old…you’ll never achieve anything. And things like: What if I fail the exam? What if she doesn’t like my gift? What if we get lost? These things haven’t even occurred yet. Nourish your mind with a constant stream of “I can; therefore, I will.”

13. Get Sufficient Sleep.
Settle on how much sleep you require for best possible performance. Lack of sleep worsens the body’s responses to stress and lowers the immune system.

14. Don’t Be Self-Centered.
Always remember that you don’t have to attain all the money, fame, and success in the world. Today’s society forces us to build up as much accomplishments as we can, while trying to balance our own personal and family life. There’s just not enough time to do all these things. Start from the most important task and focus on one thing at a time.

Is Your Dog Suffering With Hip Dysplasia? – What Should You Do?

Hip dysplasia is a painful and debilitating condition in dogs that can sometimes result in the animal becoming completely crippled. There is no cure for it.

The best thing a dog owner can do is to choose a pet carefully. Hip Dysplasia is a genetic condition. That is to say it is passed on from the parents to the offspring. In some cases it can be the result of injury to a dog's hips while it is a puppy or while it is being born. But this is a comparatively rare cause.

While there may be some genetic component in most diseases hip dysplasia is in effect 100% genetic. You must therefore make sure that you examine the parents dogs when you buy a puppy. If they have sound hips the puppy is less likely to suffer from hip dysplasia. Question the vendors carefully about the pedigree of the puppy. Ask if there is any history of hip dysplasia in the family line.

Responsible breeders will have breeding dogs x-rayed to check for any sign of hip dysplasia. They should not breed from a dog that shows any signs of hip dysplasia. A dog may not exhibit any outward symptoms but have a tendency to hip dysplasia that only manifests itself in its offspring. A dog that shows signs of hip dysplasia should be neutered or spayed to make sure that it does not pass on the trait.

Some breeds of dog seem more prone to hip dysplasia then others. German Shepherds, in particular, often suffer from it. This may be because they have been bred for a stance that places the back hip at an unnatural angle.

Hip dysplasia may not show up in a puppy. It often only develops as the dog matures. This is because the back hips are misaligned and malformed. The joint is loose and that may lead to difficulty in walking and running or discomfort and pain.

Wear and tear on the joints gradually produces dislocation and damage. A hip joint that is damaged in this way can become arthritic. An owner may not know about the hip dysplasia and think that the dog has developed arthritis as it got older. But the root cause of the arthritis is the damage that the weak joint has suffered during the dog's lifetime. Large dogs are especially susceptible because of the weight that their joints must carry.

Your veterinarian can not offer any treatment for the dyplasia but will be able to prescribe pain killers. In bad cases the dog will have pain when walking and running. Its mobility may become limited. This can be a contributory factor in other health conditions because the dog can not take normal exercise. Swimming may be one means of maintaining mobility and ensuring that the dog can exercise. The dog's weight is taken by the water and it experiences less pain.

In extreme cases the dog's hindquarters may become completely immobile. The dog will have a very poor quality of life and chronic pain.

Metatarsal Fracture And Football

One of the most common injuries in the history of sports is the metatarsal fracture. This kind of injury has been very arresting in the history of sports in the past 5 years. Several high- profiled athletes suffered from the same injury- David Beckham, Wayne Rooney, Ashley Cole, and Steve Gerrard. The anatomy of the foot will however help us understand this injury better and deeper.

Metatarsal bones are long and slender bones found in between the Tarsal bone and the Phalanges. There are 5 Metatarsal bones in each foot. These bones act like a rigid lever in the propulsion of the ankle and the foot. It also acts like a flexible structure that will help in balance and holding up the entire body.

The fractures are caused by direct trauma, overuse and excessive rotation. Bone injuries like this are very common since there is a very little soft tissue that protects the top of the foot.

Four anatomic segments divide the fifth metatarsal. These are the base, the junction, the shaft, and the neck. Several fractures can be made out of these segments.

Fracture of the fifth is the most common injury. This results from the twisting of the ankle. This kind of fracture doesn’t need to be surgically repaired. Walking immediately in a removable plastic cast is usually advised.

They can be caused by overuse. It is common in new army recruits and athletes. A stress fracture will eventually turn into full fracture when the pain in the groin region worsens. The stress fracture of the 2nd metatarsal heals well while the healing of the stress fracture of the 5th metatarsal can be a lot of problem.

How Do We Know Its Metatarsal Fracture?

A severe foot pain and difficulty to walk usually entails metatarsal fracture. Swelling may also be common and bruising will be evident after1-2 days.

How Do We Treat Metatarsal Fracture?

The patient should be headed directly to the emergency room for treatment if the fracture is suspected. The doctor will confirm the diagnosis with an X-ray. Ice therapy is a good help in dealing with pain and pain medications are necessary. The Aircast Ankle and Foot Cryo/ Cuff is the best way to give ice packs effectively by providing continuous compression for 6 hours.

The terminal treatment for this injury varies on the type and condition of the fracture. Alignment and treatment with an immobilization cast is greatly appreciated in fractures caused by direct trauma.

A removable plastic cast is used for stress fractures of the 2nd metatarsal and rotational fracture of the 5th metatarsal. However, many orthopedist advocates surgical repair of the fracture. This method will allow the patient to resume sports activities possibly after 6 weeks.

How Do We Prevent Metatarsal Fracture?

Very little thing can be done to this kind of injury especially when force is applied to the foot during a traumatic injury. Yet, it is very necessary to wear suitable footwear to provide protection to the foot.

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Claustrophobia – Another Limb On The Anxiety Tree

There are many phobias that stem from an Anxiety Disorder, Claustrophobia is another limb on the Anxiety tree, and is one of the more common phobias. Claustrophobia is a fear of enclosed spaces or confined areas, or even a crowded room where the exits aren’t easily assessable. Being in one of these situations can bring on a Panic Attack, which in turn may lead to the sufferer avoiding similar situations in the future.

If in a room or building, Claustrophobia sufferers may constantly be checking for doorways and exits or standing close to exits even in large rooms, and feeling fear when doors are closed. Smalls spaces like cars, planes and lifts ca also bring anxious feelings. In some cases being in these situations can bring on panic attacks, in extreme cases just seeing a closed door may cause a Panic Attack.

Claustrophobia, can develop from a childhood trauma such as being locked in a small space for long periods of time, or a near drowning experience can cause this phobia. As with all Anxiety disorders the cause of Claustrophobia can be genetic or bio chemical. Whatever the cause many Anxiety Disorder sufferers will develop some type of phobia, in my case I developed more than one.

There are many things you can do to help yourself control your fears and thoughts, you can start with small goals to overcome your phobia. If you try and rush your recovery by reaching for larger goals, you may get overwhelmed and your condition may get worse, on the other hand not acting at all with just intensify your phobia. Self help programs and relation techniques can also be very helpful.

Try to keep positive when confronting your fears, tell yourself your are stronger than your thoughts and give yourself the power to overcome them. Becoming involved in a hobby, sport or course that helps you feel more confident, can also help you empower yourself against your phobia.

It’s very hard getting your head around having an Anxiety Disorder and or Phobia, and even more difficult to take that first step to recovery. I found as soon as I learned that my Panic Attacks and Phobias couldn’t hurt me physically, it was much easier to get on with life and control my mind and body once again. The human mind is an amazing and complex piece of machinery, and once you can understand and control your thoughts, your Anxiety Disorders and Phobias will soon be under control too.

How Much Compensation for a Knee Injury?

How much compensation for a Knee Injury?

Have you had an accident playing football damaged your knee? Maybe you were in a car accident and your knee was damages? Would you like to know what compensation you might be entitled too?

Well for a start damage to the knee can be quite serious, we all need our knees functioning properly to be able to walk and go about our daily routine. Depending on the extent of your injury will depend on how much compensation you will get. The amount of compensation for any knee injuries falls between a few hundred pounds for a simple twist to up to £ 50,000 for more serious injuries.

The amount of compensation you could receive from a serious knee injury where the injured had lengthy treatment, a considerable amount of pain and loss of function, arthrodesis or arthroplasty has taken place or is inevitable the amount would be in the region of £ 40,750 to £ 56,000.

For a less fracture extending into the knee joint causing constant pain, limiting movement, loss of agility with the possibility of osteoarthritis the amount of compensation you might receive would be in the region of £ 30,500 to £ 40,750.

A less severe knee injury resulting in less severe disability where there is still continuing symptoms of pain and limitation of movement could result in a award of £ 15,500 to £ 25,000.
Moderate knee injuries involving dislocation, torn cartilage or meniscus which might accelerate symptoms from a pre-existing condition which result in minor instability, weakness or other mild future disability the amount you could receive in compensation would be in the region of £ 8,400 to £ 15,500 .

Less serious moderate knee injuries where there maybe some pain and discomfort, the amount of compensation would be in the region of £ 8,150. Where there has been complete recovery the award is unlikely to exceed £ 3,500.

These amounts are from the judicial studies board as of 2006. For more accurate information about your injury and how to go about making a claim you will need to find a competent accident solicitor. Companies that specialises in offering free impartial advice that can explain the no win no fee agreement in simple terms are the ones to go for. There are so many no win no fee accident solicitors in the UK and they are all competing for your cases. Unfortunately it can be big business for solicitors as they demand huge fees. The best solicitors are the ones that put you and your needs first.

You may have heard of the term 'no win no fee'. It is often used and rarely understood. It basically means that the solicitor is working for free until the case is won. When the case is one your solicitor will claim its own expenses back from the person who was responsible. If the negligence was on the part of your employer then your employer should have insurance to cover this. There maybe a chance that you may loose you case in which case you will be offered insurance to protect you from the costs also. Generally a good solicitor will only take on a case they believe they can win.

Remember claiming compensation for accidents is your legal and civil right. If the accident was not your fault and you have suffered because of the injury then you have every right to pursue a claim and you should.

Diagnosis and Treatments of Cerebral Palsy

Before a child can be appropriately diagnosed with cerebral palsy, their doctor must first have to look closely at both the child and the mother’s medical background to see if there are any known causes of cerebral palsy present in the case. The doctor will very carefully check the baby’s motor skills and the reflexes, and then will be tested by a physician, also they will try to determine the Childs hand preference often a child with cerebral palsy will use the hand that is not always the most practical to them due to the fact that depending on the brain damage one side of the body will be much stronger than the other side that is affected.

When cerebral palsy has been diagnosed doctors may go on to do x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging, ct scans and MRI, to determine the possible cause or causes of the cp. Here are just some of the signs that may be present in a child with suspected cerebral palsy: Weakness, early hand preference, abnormal postures, irritability, feeding difficulties, delayed or impaired speech, excessive or feeble crying, slow to gain weight, very slow or failure to develop motor skills.

Cerebral Palsy – Treatments and Alternative Approaches

When a child has been diagnosed with cerebral palsy they will generally need different types of treatment. Physical therapy – this will help to build up the strength of the Childs muscles working on their walking and keeping their balance. Speech-language pathology-this is to help the child learn to communicate mainly working on trying to teach the child to talk. Occupational therapy-this is to help the child with skills they need for everyday living to give them some independence like feeding themselves and dressing. There are also some alternative therapies that can help to control and manage the condition.

Conductive education – This is to help the child become more independent. Their day will be planned out with physiotherapists, speech therapists and what is called their conductor who will oversee all the tasks to see day to day how the child is progressing and set new more tasks for them, which when achieved will increase the Childs self-esteem. The conductor will form a very close bond with the child, which is vitally important for how successful this treatment will be. The conductor will look at the child not the special need and help to bring out the Childs personality and use their interests to help them learn and achieve more.

The Bobath concept – This concentrates on helping the child physically using play to increase muscle control, improve the Childs posture and reduce stiffness. The therapist involved in this use key points of the body when handling the child at all times. This can greatly improve the Childs mobility.

Patterning – This works on teaching the undamaged parts of the brain to takeover what the damaged part should be doing. This is quite an intense therapy for the child as rhythmic stimulation is used on the limbs for up to eight hours a day to help the child gain complete balance and control of their movements which may distress the child greatly and is very time consuming for the parents.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Treatment & Cure

Generalized anxiety disorder or GAD is characterized by excessive, exaggerated anxiety and worry about everyday life events. People with symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder tend to always expect disaster and can’t stop worrying about health, money, family, work or school. In people with GAD, the worry often is unrealistic or out of proportion for the situation. Daily life becomes a constant state of worry, fear and dread.

Generalized anxiety disorder often begins at an early age, and the symptoms may develop more slowly than in other anxiety disorders. Many people with generalized anxiety disorder can’t recall when they last felt relaxed or at ease.

You may find it impossible to banish your fears and worries, even when you’re trying to relax or unwind. This anxiety can go on for months and months. You may feel you’ve lost control over managing it. And it may interfere with your ability to carry out daily routines. You may feel anxious and worried about things both large and small.

People who suffer from anxiety disorder seldom seek help as they either feel embarrassed about their problem, or they are unaware of even having a problem.  Safe to say, if you are reading this article then you probably have an idea that you need help, and that there is help available.  There are many symptoms that people who suffer from anxiety disorder experience, ranging from the physical to the psychological.

It is important to understand as much as you can about your problem, and the possible treatment and cure before you speak to your doctor or health care provider.  This will help you to ask the right questions and understand the treatment options that are at your disposal.  Anxiety disorder is a serious problem as it can affect your life.

Natural herbs are less costly than medication, and consist of herbs, vitamins and botanicals.

Below are some common herbs used in anxiety disorder treatment.

  • Passion Flower
    This is a natural plant that is used to treat anxiety, amongst other ailments. Its has unique calming properties, and can also reduce body tremors from fear. It promotes better sleep, and can act as a painkiller. It also contains anti depressants, and is used for high blood pressure and epilepsy.
  • Lavender
    This is a more popular alternative than the passion flower, and is also known for its calming properties. It is also one of the more effective treatments for panic attacks, and is a tonic for the nervous system.
  • Lemon Balm
    This is used to calm the digestive and nervous system, and also reduces blood pressure. It is uncertain if used alone, lemon balm is effective for treating anxiety attacks. It is usually taken with Valerian, Chamomile or Passion flower.
  • Kava
    It is an effective tranquilizer, and whilst it is not an addictive substance, research suggests that it may be linked to liver problems.
  • Valerian
    This is another natural plant used for treating anxiety. It also promotes better sleep, allowing for the body to rest and recuperate.
  • Chamomile
    Chamomile flower leaves are used to make tea, and is a natural alternative for treating anxiety. It also reduces fever, encourages sleep and enhances the body’s metabolism.
  • Dandelion
    The roots and leaves are used to treat the body’s internal systems, and through it, provide relief for some of the symptoms of anxiety. It is commonly used in salads and tea, and can also be used as a substitute for coffee.

Warning: Diarrhea Can Induce Paralysis or Cause Death

Arlenroy had acute diarrhea. The problem was that he was in a public place when he had to use a toilet.

This is how it went…

“I ran into 7-11 because I couldn’t hold on much longer. The feeling of unleashing that toxic foam was incredibly relieving, but I had pinched a nerve in my lower back when I sat down so fast (I have a moderate disc hernia).

This hurried diarrhea squat rendered me paralyzed from the waist down. I couldn’t relieve the pressure on my nerve that caused the paralysis because that requires standing up, and I couldn’t stand up because I was paralyzed. The EMTs came to lift my naked ass of the toilet and I regained feeling in my body.”

Diarrhea is bad for Seniors:

Two weeks ago I helped myself to an avocado smoothie that’s been in my ref for three days. It was already a bit rancid but, being an avocado junkie, I took it just the same.

As soon I downed everything, I felt my stomach groan in protest and immediately knew that I will be visiting the toilet more often than I want to.

For wanting to stretch my food to their shelf-life limits, I paid a very high price – diarrhea – something I, or any person my age can hardly afford to have.

Why? Because diarrhea can cause dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, vitamin and mineral deficiencies which, if untreated, can lead to weakness, or even death, according to Anil Minocha, M.D. in his book, “The Encyclopedia of the Digestive System and Digestive Disorders.”

And seniors are particularly susceptible because of the deterioration of their digestive and immune systems due to aging. They can easily get it from viral infection, lactose intolerance, contaminated water, too much beer, anxiety, and side-effects of some drugs they are taking for other medical issues.

In case your loose bowel movement episode is similar to that of Alrenroy’s, you can easily deal with it at home using these steps to help you avoid serious complications:

1. Stay home, don’t go out:

Diarrhea can sap your energy and can be embarrassing if you had to rush to the toilet each time you need to discharge.

So stay home and near your toilet. With your wobbly legs, poor balance, and poor eyesight, you can experience a fall while if you have to cover some distance to relieve yourself, especially at night.

2. Hydrate yourself:

Drink lots of water after each discharge to make up for fluid loss.

Take electrolytic drinks, like Gatorade, to replenish the loss of your body’s electrolyte through frequent discharge.

Dehydration is one of the main causes for seniors to end up in hospital emergency rooms.

3. Eat the right kinds of foods:

Eat lots of fruits like bananas, or white rice, applesauce, and white bread.

In between, eat baked potatoes, plain crackers, pretzels, baked chicken (without the skin and fat).

Avoid fatty foods like milk, butter, ice cream, cheese, alcohol, caffeinated drinks, artificial sweeteners, and foods that can produce excess gas like cabbage, beans, broccoli, and cauliflower.

Stick to a soft diet, avoiding oily foods.

4. Take some medicines:

Most doctors would suggest that you just ride out your diarrhea. Instead of taking medicines, they suggest you take electrolytic drinks, like Gatorade.

But for faster relief, take Diatabs or Lomotil. They work every time. But they induce constipation, too.

When we were kids, my Grandma’s favorite was the horrible-tasting Kaopectate. Makes you wish you didn’t have diarrhea at all.

5. Get plenty of rest:

Acute diarrhea can make you weak. Lose your appetite. It makes you want to jus to lie down and do nothing. And you should conserve energy.

Last year I had an episode of acute diarrhea. It woke me up early morning and lasted until late afternoon. During that span of time, every hour on the hour, I had to go to the toilet to discharge nothing but fetid water.

It was so bad and so frequent, my anus started hurting from kissing all those toilet papers.

Twelve hours later, my daughter, who is a doctor, decided to intravenously feed with me saline solution to prevent dehydration.

That stopped my ordeal.

What about you? When was the last time you had a case of acute diarrhea? I hope you did not have to rush to a 7-11 – not to buy but use their toilet.

Current Treatment Of Abdominal Hernias

Hernias tend to enlarge in time and a quick medical consult could in some cases exempt the patients from surgery. But many persons with typical symptoms of hernia choose to wear a truss bandage instead of seeking professional help. The truss assembles a belt and supports the abdominal wall keeping the hernia from protruding. Hernias are caused by heavy lifting and high physical stress on the abdomen so all patients refusing surgery must consider avoiding strenuous activities.

In time, worse symptoms like nausea, vomiting and continuous pain appear and the hernial bag can not be pushed back into the abdomen anymore. The patient is now forced to seek medical help and requires emergency operation.

The intra operator procedure in case of hernias is pushing the content back into the abdominal cavity, sewing the adjacent muscle and sometimes adding a nylon support material over the abdominal lining. Such supplementary materials are needed when the hernia is old, the abdominal wall is weakened or in case of elderly persons.

If patients with severe hernia symptoms do not seek immediate medical help, severe even life threatening complications may occur. In cases when the hernial content is an intestinal strain, the intervention becomes an emergency due to the existing danger. The trapped bowel fragment will cause an intestinal obstruction with potentially lethal damages to the entire body. A prompt surgery is most important as to prevent the stopping in the blood supply of the intestines. The involved bowel fragment could actually die.

In case of hiatus hernias, surgical operations are only performed in very severe situations. The common treatment is changing the eating, drinking and life schedule: patients should avoid lying down after meals, eat small and frequent meals, avoid alcohol and spicy foods, stop smoking and enhance many fibers in their diet.

Hiatus hernia's symptoms can also be relieved by medication. Antacids neutralize the gastric acid and lower heartburns. Other assembling products decrease the acid production or some medicines even increase the efficiency of the esophageal muscles. When the stomach is rapidly emptied, the risk of heartburn is reduced.

Homeopathic medicine recommends products like Deglycyrrhizinated licorice for its action of reducing the effect of gastric acids.

Alternative medicine shows the benefits of visceral manipulation meaning restoring the stomach on its normal position.

About 85% of the hiatus hernias are successfully controlled with diet changes and medication. All abdominal hernias have a 10% rate of recurrence.

To avoid developing an abdominal hernia, do not lift heavy objects, keep your body weight under control and take moderate physical exercises.

Best Insomnia Cure- Treating Insomnia

Best insomnia cure- treating insomnia.  Can insomnia really be treated?  Do you struggle for hours to get to sleep?  Does the very thought of “bedtime” cause you to get anxious?  Insomnia is a very common sleep problem.  Insomnia affects your energy, mood and ability to function during the day.

The best insomnia cure is diet and lifestyle changes and understanding insomnia.  Insomnia is the inability to get the amount of sleep you need and usually stems from another problem.

Wha is causing your inability to sleep?  Visit my blog to check out my sleep quiz

* Is your sleep environment quiet and comfortable

*Are you consistently anxious or stressed

*Are you under any stress

*Have you had any big changes in your life such as job loss, death of a loved one.  Have you moved?

Overall, anxiety and depression are two of the most common causes of insomnia.

We all know that exercise is known to help you sleep better.  Diet and mindset are good also key factors.  What is good for maintaining and fitness and a healthy weight is also good for your sleep

Foods that contain tryptophan are known to allow to sleep well.  Trytophan is an essential amino acid.  Other foods that contain this essential amino acid are

Turkey, Milk, Yogurt, Bananas, Fish, Red Meat, Eggs and Poultry

Never eat later than 3 hours before bed

Also, keep the other common factors in mind-  Use the bedroom for sleeping and making love only. The bedroom needs to be a relaxing place in your mind and have a bed that is comfortable.

Visit my blog at for more help on overcoming insomnia and to take a free quiz to rank your own insomnia

Back Injuries and the Healing Process

Back injuries are serious health concerns. With a bad back, it is hard to go to work, do average household tasks, or even stand up. Back injuries can also manifest as lifelong pain since our spines take so much wear and tear throughout our daily activities. First, what kinds of back injuries are there? There are a few types that affect different areas of the back. But the most common types of back pain can be felt more acutely in the lower back. These pains can be caused by muscle spasms, strains, or even a slipped disk.

What causes back injuries?

Back injuries are usually caused by activities that are stressful on the back. These activities can range from heavy lifting, falling, or participating in sporting events.

Back Injury Relief

The most comfortable position once you have hurt your back is to lie flat on your back on a straight surface. Elevating your legs helps with a chair or on top of some pillows will help take the stress off supporting your back on your own.

If your back is swelling that means it's in the acute healing stage. This stage in the back injury will happen after the injury has occurred. It will last up to four days from the start of the injury. The inflammation is due to your body trying to heal itself. Rest is strongly suggested while you are trying to heal and wait for the swelling to minimize. The less movement that takes in this initial stage, the better.

The next stage is the subacute healing stage. This stage will last four to twenty one days. This is one your body is growing new tissue and capillaries. The scar tissue that had begun to grow in the acute stage is still growing to repair your injury. The swelling should go down but care should still be taken when touching your lower back. Minimal exercise is suggested. But try to keep the exercises down to a minimum.

If your back injury lasts any longer past the sub acute stage then it is a chronic back condition and you may need to speak to your health care provider about a solution.

Back pains are the number one reason why people stay home from work. And around fifty to seventy percent of Americans suffer from lower back pain.

For More Information

If you are suffering from back pain that was caused at work then you may be able to receive workman's compensation. More information on For back pain please visit the website of the New Jersey workers' compensation lawyers of Levinson Axelrod today.