Information on Calcium

Calcium is the most abundant cation in the human body, and a very important mineral for the maintenance of neuromuscular function. It constitutes 2% of the total body weight and 26% of the dry weight of bones and teeth, as phosphates and carbonates. About 0.5 g serum calcium is exchanged with bone calcium every day.

ABSORPTION

The absorption of calcium depends on the factors listed below.

1. Body needs. In a normal person only 30% of calcium is absorbed, but in a deficient person the proportion absorbed is higher.

2. Concentration. Other factors being equal, the higher the concentration of calcium in the food, the greater the absorption.

3. Intestinal motility. Intestinal hurry diminishes the absorption of calcium. With chronic diarrhoea and prolonged use of purgatives, calcium absorption is diminished considerably.

4. Fat. When fat absorption is deficient, as in steatorrhoea, calcium .combines with fatty acids in the bowel lumen to form

insoluble calcium soaps. Decreased fat absorption also diminishes absorption of vitamin D.

5. Ingested food. Absorption of calcium from food is similar whether it is taken as whole milk, chocolate milk, yoghurt or

cheese. The absorption is also similar whether calcium is taken in milk or as calcium acetate, lactate, gluconate, citrate, or carbonate.1 The amino acid L-Iysine helps in positive calcium balance, not only because it enhances calcium absorption, but also because it improves conservation of absorbed calcium. Lactose (milk sugar) and amino acids, such as arginine and tryptophan, enhance calcium absorption. When co-administered with glucose polymer, the absorption of calcium chloride increased 1.5 to 5-fold even in vitamin D-deficient patients.

Cereals contain phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate), which combines with calcium to form insoluble calcium phytate which is not absorbed. Similarly, foods containing oxalate, such as spinach, combine with calcium to form insoluble calcium oxalate. An excess of magnesium apparently diminishes absorption of calcium. Intestinal lactase deficiency leads to decreased milk (and consequently calcium) intake, and possible also decreases calcium absorption.

6. Vitamin D. The most important factor in promoting calcium absorption is vitamin D, which stimulates the formation of a calcium-binding protein that enhances calcium absorption. When vitamin D is not consumed, as with a strict vegetarian (vegan)

diet (which excludes even milk as it is considered to be of animal origin), or if the skin is not exposed adequately to sunlight, severe vitamin D deficiency results in poor absorption of calcium.

Vitamin D3 (calcitriol: 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin 03) 400-800 IV may be of value in ensuring calcium absorption. With high doses of vitamin 0, the absorption of calcium from foods can be almost complete, and it is possible to maintain a positive calcium balance even on a low intake.

Glucocorticoids and alcohol decrease intestinal calcium absorption.

7. Calcium-phosphorus ratio. The ratio of calcium to phosphorus in food has an important influence on absorption. Most foods

containing calcium also have a proper proportion of phosphorus. Milk, eggs, and some leafy vegetables like lettuce provide these elements in the required proportions.

BLOOD LEVELS

Calcium is present in plasma but not in red blood cells. The serum level is about] 0 mg per 100 ml (2.4 mmol/l), about half

of which is ionized and the remainder protein-bound. Ionized calcium is diffusible. Its normal serum level is maintained by the parathyroid glands. Alkalosis reduces the level of ionizable serum calcium. Diminution of ionic calcium leads to increased muscle irritability and tetany.

The rest of the serum calcium is bound to proteins, mainly albumin, so that when the plasma albumin falls the level of serum

calcium is low; but since this decrease is only in the non-diffusible form, tetany does not develop.

REGULATING FACTORS

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) mobilizes calcium and phosphorus from the bones to maintain the blood level.

Hyperparathyroidism causes reabsorption of minerals together. with bone matrix, giving an X-ray appearance of cysts in the

bones (osteitis fibrosa cystica), most apparent in the skull. It may also manifest as kidney stones without detectable bone changes. PTH also stimulates the mitochondria of the kidney to increase conversion of calcidiol to calcitriol, which enhances

intestinal calcium absorption.

Calcitonin is a peptide hormone produced by the C cells of the thyroid gland. Having a very short half-life, it is secreted

continuously. The secretion increases with rising serum calcium. It helps to maintain blood level by preventing calcium release from the bones and increasing urinary excretion.

Therapeutically, calcitonin is used when serum calcium is high, as in Paget’s disease (where it decreases bone reabsorption),

and in hyperparathyroidism and breast carcinoma (where it increases urinary calcium excretion). Estrogen raises the level of calcitonin and prevents bone loss. Postmenopausal bone loss is ascribed to decreased estrogen; therefore, calcitonin rather

than estrogen therapy is suggested for the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss, as well as for the treatment of

osteoporosis.

STORAGE

Most of the body calcium (99%) is stored in the bones and teeth. The skeleton is the dynamic reservoir where calcium is continuously deposited and reabsorbed. This dynamic activity is high in the young and declines with age. About one per cent

of total body calcium is in the circulation and soft tissue.

One episode of mild to moderate malnutrition, occurring during the first year of life, is associated many years later with

increased caries in both the deciduous and permanent teeth.

At puberty, under the influence of sex hormones, girls accumulate about 200 mg, and boys 400 mg, calcium a day. Positive calcium balance occurs only if the calcium intake is over 1000 mg a day.

EXCRETION

About half the daily calcium intake is excreted in the feces, representing unabsorbed calcium and calcium from endogenous

sources. If a high dose of vitamin D is taken, the calcium content of the stools decreases.

About half the total daily calcium intake is excreted through the urine. Urinary excretion of calcium is the net result of

glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption. The urinary excretion is under the control of the parathyroid glands, and

represents mostly endogenous calcium. The normal range of urinary calcium in adults on a normal diet is 100-300 mg (2.5-7.5 mmol) per day for men and 100-250 mg (2.5-6.5 mmol) per day for women. The kidneys conserve calcium during deficiency.

With normal kidney function, about eight per cent of filtered calcium is excreted. With the administration of the diuretics

frusemide or ethacranic acid, resorption of calcium by the kidneys is inhibited and the urinary loss is increased to 12%.

Thiazides, on the other hand, conserve calcium by increasing kidney tubular reabsorption, and the urinary loss is only three

per cent. Therefore, in older patients with high blood pressure-particularly in women-bone loss and osteoporosis occur with frusemide. Thiazide is recommended for prevention as well as treatment of osteoporosis. By decreasing calcium excretion,

thiazide is also useful in preventing recurrence of kidney stones.

High-protein diet decreases reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys and increases urinary calcium excretion.

FUNCTIONS

Calcium and phosphorus are necessary for bone formation.

Bones consist of a protein matrix (framework) in which calcium phosphate is deposited. Proteins, vitamins A and C, and sex

hormones are necessary for the formation of the matrix. The calcium in the bones is always being turned over with calcium in

the blood and other tissues, at a rate of 0.5 g (12.5 mmol) per day.

Ionic calcium affects neuromuscular excitability of both the voluntary and involuntary muscles. When the ionic serum calcium

concentration. is diminished, neuromuscular excitability is considerably increased, as in tetany.

Calcium is also necessary for clotting of blood and maintenance of capillary permeability.

SOURCE

Milk and milk products are the best sources of calcium. Calcium in milk is better absorbed than in other foods, because lysine and lactose (milk sugar) enhance calcium absorption. Fatty preparations like butter, cream and ghee are poor in calcium but contain an adequate amount of vitamin D which aids in calcium absorption.

The daily calcium requirements of a man are easily supplied by a cup of buffalo milk. Molasses and vegetables, like peas, beans, pulses, potatoes, cauliflowers, and dried figs, also supply calcium. Pumpkin leaves have a calcium content of 240300 mg (6-7.5 mmol) per 100 g. Chewing betel leaves with lime ( calcium hydroxide) augments dietary calcium. Hard water contains calcium, which can be better absorbed in tropical countries with vitamin D derived from exposure to sunlight. Those who chew fish bones are also assured of adequate calcium intake. A solution of bones soaked in vinegar for several weeks, a practice of the Indo-Chinese, is a good source of calcium.

The tropical diet of rice, wheat or millet is deficient in calcium, but body exposure to sunlight produces vitamin D, which

improves absorption and tends to compensate for the low intake. In the West, the compulsory addition of calcium (fortification) to wheat flour ensures adequate calcium intake.

Calcium carbonate is the cheapest commercial source of calcium.

REQUIREMENTS

Humans have a remarkable capacity to adapt to low calcium intake; it is compensated for by diminished urinary excretion and

increased intestinal absorption.

The daily requirement for calcium ingestion varies according to factors favorable or otherwise to its absorption. In the

tropics, with exposure to sunlight, a positive calcium balance is maintained even on a calcium intake lower than is generally

recommended. The requirement increases with physical activity, and is greater in athletes.

The current calcium intake of American girls during pubertal growth period is not adequate, and increased intake has been

recommended.

Pregnancy increases the demand for, as well as the absorption of, calcium. An infant at birth has more than 20 g (500 mmol)calcium, the major portion of which is accumulated in the last three months when the bones of the fetus are formed. Even if extra calcium is not taken by the mother, the fetus still derives calcium from the mother’s bones. When there is marked deficiency of calcium, the mother may suffer from osteomalacia. About 1.2 g (30 mmol) calcium per day is adequate for the

mother during the last trimester.

Lactation involves loss of calcium; human milk contains 20-30 mg calcium per 100 ml (5-7.5 mmol/l). If 1000 ml of milk is

secreted, 300 mg (7.5 mmol) extra calcium has to be absorbed by the mother. Even’ if the mother’s calcium intake is not

adequate, the concentration of calcium in her milk is maintained at the necessary level by mobilization from her bones. To allow for losses and daily -needs, a lactating mother requires 1.2 g (30 mmol) calcium daily.

Infants who are breast-fed require 50 mg (1.25 mmol) calcium per kg of body weight daily. Artificially-fed infants require two to three times this quantity of calcium, as absorption from artificial sources is not as efficient as from mother’s milk.

DEFICIENCY (HYPOCALCEMIA)

Low serum calcium levels are seen fn the situations listed below.

1. Hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism.

2. Vitamin D deficiency (i) due to poor diet; (ii) in regions where women do not expose themselves to sunlight; or (iii) due

to diminished absorption in steatorrhea.

3. Low serum proteins (hypoproteinemia), in which the non-diffusible fraction bound to albumin is reduced.

4. Kidney disease, in which there is retention of phosphate or failure to acidify the urine, leading to systemic acidosis and

loss of calcium.

5. Acute pancreatitis, where the pancreatic enzyme lipase is released into the peritoneum and blood, splitting fat into

glycerol and fatty acid, the latter combining with calcium to form soaps.

6. Ingestion of drugs and toxins like sodium, fluoride and viomycin.

7. Following hypothermia for cardiac surgery.

8. Following gastric surgery, probably due to deficient vitamin D absorption. These patients respond to daily oral doses of 32.5 micrograms, or weekly injections of 25 micrograms of vitamin D. Some cases of hypocalcemia after gastric surgery may be due to hypoproteinemia.

9. High-protein diet, which increases urinary calcium excretion.

10. Rheumatoid arthritis, where considerable calcium is lost early in the disease.

Measures of Preventing Hepatitis

Hepatitis is a viral disease that affects the liver and could cause serious damage to it and to the whole human organism if not treated well.

There exist hepatitis type A, B, C, D, E, non-A, and non-B, caused by A, B, C, D, E viruses.

Preventing hepatitis is better than treating it. There are some methods of prevention which you can easy apply: wash your hands every time before eating and after using the toilet; avoid unhealthy living places; when traveling to developing countries you should be very careful with what you are eating and drinking and make sure that the water you drink is not contaminated by sewage. When swimming in the pool, make sure there is good sanitation.

Teach your family members to keep a good hygiene, to practice safe sex or abstinence and to avoid needles.

Also, if one is contaminated wake sure you clean well with antiseptic cleansers the toilet.

There is a vaccine against hepatitis A and it is addressed to those who travel a lot, who work with infected persons, who change frequently their sex partners and to those who already have a liver disease.

There also exists a vaccine for Hepatitis B, but unfortunately there has not been discovered one for hepatitis C too.

The period of incubation for Hepatitis A virus lasts 2 to 6 weeks. Generally a patient who has developed this disease will recover well, without complications, and will not develop the chronic form of the disease. After recovering, the patient will not pass the virus to other persons too.

The period of incubation for Hepatitis B lasts 4 to 20 weeks, and also, 85% to 90%
Of the infected will recover well without any complications.10% to 15% can develop cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis.

For Hepatitis C the period of incubation is 2 to 26 weeks, and 75% to 85% do not recover well and develop chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, even liver cancer. They can also spread the virus to other healthy persons.

Treating hepatitis A with drugs is not necessary because the disease goes away on its own.

There are some drugs useful in treating hepatitis B and C but some are not recommended to the children.

Generally, the treatment is done in hospital, but if you only have a mild form of the disease you can stay at home. Children especially, should eat smaller, more frequent meals and liquids that are rich in calories and proteins. Call the doctor if you see any of these following symptoms referring to a worsening of the liver condition: skin rash, confusion, and itching, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

If you want to find out more resources about causes of hepatitis c or even about hepatitis c treatment you should visit this website http://www.hepatitis-guide.com

Thrush Mouth, Oral Yeast Infection and Oral Candida

Thrush mouth, oral thrush, oral yeast infection and oral candida are all names for the same medical condition which is a yeast infection in the mucous membranes of the mouth and candida albicans growing out of control is the most common cause of these fungal infections.

We all carry around yeast organisms. The problems start when the body’s chemistry becomes imbalanced. The people most often at risk for this type of infection are:

  • diabetics and others with metabolic disturbances.
  • People with AIDS/HIV.
  • newborns.
  • people that are mal-nourished.
  • people that have had oral sex with a partner suffering from
    thrush.
  • women whose hormones are disturbed because of pregnancy or
    birth control pills.
  • women undergoing fertility treatments.
  • asthma and COPD sufferers that use inhalers with steroids
  • children that fit any of the above.
  • people that consume large quantities of milk.

Diabetics, mal-nourished people, women on birth control pills, women that are pregnant, women undergoing fertility treatments and people with AIDS/HIV all have either an immune system problem or a hormonal imbalance that can make them susceptible to thrush mouth.

Newborns are constantly going through hormonal and physiological changes so they are at risk for thrush mouth and just about everything else you can think of.

Asthma and COPD sufferers can reduce the risk of getting thrush mouth by rinsing their mouths out with water after taking their medication. Reducing the amount of sugar and yeast in the diet can help all sufferers. Altering your diet, eating yogurt and taking oral medications are other treatment options.

Your body cannot process large quantities of milk fast enough to keep you from knocking your body’s natural flora out of balance. Moderation in everything is good but excess in anything is usually unhealthy.

Hepatitis C – Infections, Transmission, and Symptoms

In the United States today, it is estimated that 3.2 million people are infected with the Hepatitis C virus. The virus is a contagious liver disease that can range in severity from a mild illness, to a serious life long condition. Infections worldwide are estimated at 150 to 200 million people, many of whom are not aware they are infected.

Hepatitis C is transmitted through blood to blood contact. It is not spread through air-born or direct-contact as with some other viruses. It has been shown that blood transfusions prior to 1992, sharing of needles for the injection of illegal drugs, and accidental transmission in healthcare environments are some of the most common ways the virus is transmitted. Although not as common; tattooing, body piercing, and acupuncture in a less than sterile environment have also been suspect. At home, we do not think twice about using razors or even nail clippers; but even then, blood to blood contact can occur.

Although symptoms can vary, it has been estimated that over 70% of those infected may show no symptoms at all. If symptoms do occur; they may arise weeks after exposure or even years down the road. Some of the signs of infection may be a low grade fever, nausea, fatigue, loss of appetite, and sore joints and muscles. Yellowing of the skin and eyes can occur as the condition worsens. If left untreated; cirrhosis, cancer of the liver, and eventually liver failure may occur.

Unfortunately, public awareness of Hepatitis C is somewhat lacking. Unless you are a health professional or have been diagnosed with the disease or know someone who has, you probably have limited knowledge of the causes, symptoms, and treatments. By increasing public awareness, we can hope to reduce the transmission rates, have an increased knowledge of symptoms, and move closer to a cure.

Sample Fatty Liver Diet Menu


A fatty liver diet menu should contain the basic nutrients needed by people who have fatty liver disease, a condition brought about by excess fat in the liver. The foods needed must contain essential fatty acids and antioxidants. These foods should also not worsen the load of the liver or hinder the goal of losing excess weight.

This article provides you with a sample and basic fatty liver diet menu that you can use as a guide in your fatty liver.

Salads: Basic Green Salad
Green salad recipes are always the most advisable ones because of the fresh and raw vegetables that are in it. Try making a mixed vegetable and lettuce salad. You can choose your own variety of greens – arugula, lettuce, and Romania, for instance. After washing the greens, put them into a bowl until you are ready to eat. Do not add the dressing before you are going to eat the salad because the leaves will wilt.

For its dressing, avoid those that are high in fat. Instead, choose for a bit of olive oil and vinegar, as well as some salt, to make it into a basic tasty salad. Garlic or raspberry vinegar would also do great. A great ratio would be three parts of oil to one part of vinegar.

Main Course: Chicken Salsa
If you have FLD, it is always better to opt for the white lean meats over the red meats like pork and beef. Thus, this recipe involves poultry. You will need 1 lb. skinless and boneless chicken breast and cut these into one inch pieces. You will also need onion, red pepper, pepper tomatoes, kidney beans, garlic, and salt. Aside from these, you will need 1 cup of medium salsa, a bunch of broccoli, fresh cilantro, and olive oil.

Cook the chicken by first sautéing the garlic and onion, then the pepper on heated olive oil. Add all the remaining ingredients and wait for it to boil. Reduce the heat and wait until the chicken is cooked. You can pair this with brown rice or mashed potatoes.

Desserts: Fruit Selection
As for your dessert, choose for the natural option for sweets – fruits. You can try kiwi or apples, which contain antioxidants that can help the liver in filtering ammonia. A fruit is always a great way to top your fatty liver diet menu.

One Simple Step to Reverse Fatty Liver Disease

What is fatty liver disease, or steatosis? A mild liver condition where fat accumulates inside liver cells and causes them to malfunction. Over time, steatosis may lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer, and liver failure.

Do you think you may suffer from this condition?

Fatty liver is very common (up to 30% of all people in the Western world) and it causes very mild symptoms, like nausea, bad breath, rashes, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension.

But is there anything you can do to reverse fatty liver disease?

There are actually three very well known herbs that studies have shown cause a consistent reduction and reversion on any liver disease, even cancer!

These three herbs are so effective that some pharmaceuticals already have studies under way to extract the active substances in them in order to produce drugs for liver cancer and cirrhosis. But they have not yet been able to do so.

Fortunately, these herbs are very accessible and anyone with fatty liver disease can get them and start treating him or herself.

Want to know what these herbs are?

Ginger, milk thistle, and turmeric. Did not I tell you they were very well known?

There are already combinations of these on the market. They are more convenient than the three herbs separate, but if you take all three herbs there is no gain in effect from taking them as a whole pill or separate.

The studies that have shown the efficacy of these herbs used them as pills (ie true supplements). However, I suggest you also include them in your cooking to increase their effect.

Wonders of Ragi

Wonders of Ragi

The tiny deep red pearls called Ragi is an annual cereal plant which is botanically known as Eleusine coracana. It is commonly known as Finger millet in English, Kelvaragu in Tamil, Nachani in Marathi etc. Some Indian varieties of ragi are Kempu ragi, Ragalli shivalli, Pichakaddi etc.

It is widely grown in the arid regions of Asia and Africa. This monocot plant is usually intercropped with legumes like peanuts, cow peas etc. The best character of this monocot plant is that it is not bound by season and can be grown throughout the year. This crop is one among the hardiest crops which can withstand severe drought conditions and can also grow well under scanty rainfall condition. However with good irrigation facilities the yield of ragi matches with crops like rice. Ragi seeds remain free of pests and insects for a long duration extending up to 50 years hence serving as a food reserve in case of tough situations like famine.

Image of ragi seeds

Nutritional significance of Ragi plant

  • As it is a rich source of dietary calcium (344mg/100g) ragi acts as a good supplement for those people who suffer from milk allergies.
  • Women who are in their postmenopausal age are advised to consume ragi as dietary calcium provided by it checks osteoporosis.
  • When a child completes 6 months of age ragi is suggested as a best weaning food. Ragi is rich in iron content (3.9mg/100g). In comparison to milk the amount of iron and calcium are higher in ragi.
  • It is a rich source of essential amino acid – methonine (194mg/g of protein). This amino acid is lacking from the diet of enormous number of poor people who sustain only on starchy meals consisting of polished rice, cassava, plantain etc.
  • Apart from methonine, ragi is also rich in other essential amino acids like Valine (413mg/g of protein), Isoleucine (275mg/g of protein), Threonine (263mg/g of protein), and Tryptophan (191mg/g of protein).
  • Ragi is a coarse grain which is rich in fiber (3.6g/100g). It has low Glycemic index. This makes ragi a boon for people suffering from diabetes and obesity. It takes a longer time to get digested and hence keeps a check on the blood sugar levels and gives a feeling of fullness in the stomach.
  • As it is fiber rich it acts as a good laxative and prevents constipation.
  • Fat content of ragi is very less (1.3 g/100g) in comparison to rice (2.7g), wheat (2g) and maize (4.6g). This makes it a best alternative for those people who want to loose weight.
  • Ragi is rich in antioxidants and all its varieties are gluten-free serving as a best alternative for people suffering from wheat allergy.
  • The plant remnants obtained from this plant serve as a nutritious fodder for animals.
  • When the seeds are soaked in water overnight and tied in a cloth the seeds start sprouting. This process is associated with amazing increase in nutrients. There is a considerable increase in proteins, vitamins and minerals due to sprouting.
  • Ragi intake is not advisable only in cases of patients suffering from urinary calculi as it is rich in oxalic acids.

Medicinal uses of ragi plant

  • Ragi acts as a wholesome diet for diabetic and obese people.
  • As mentioned above it is rich in calcium and protein and hence serves as a cheaper alternative for milk.
  • The leaves of ragi plant are known for their diaphoretic, diuretic, and vermifuge properties.
  • The juice of the leaves of this plant promotes child birth in women.
  • The local people use ragi as a folk medicine for diseases like leprosy and liver disease.

Some mouth watering varieties of ragi dishes

  • A very simple dish using ragi is ragi java or porridge. To prepare this ragi flour is boiled and taken along with milk or buttermilk. This serves as a best weaning food for a baby 6 months old.
  • Apart from this ragi mudde is a very common dish liked by people from Karnataka.
  • Ragi dosas, ragi idlis and ragi rotis are also liked by people.
  • To make the dishes longstanding we can prepare even ragi biscuits.

Decline in the usage of ragi

Ragi used to be a staple diet for a wide community in India. The people of Karnataka still   consume ragi in the form of ragi mudde regularly in their diet. However with the onset of green revolution the focus of government shifted towards crops like rice and wheat. People started to shift from a ragi based diet to other cereals which decreased the usage of ragi gradually. However research has proved that ragi is much more nutritious than cereals like rice, sorghum, wheat and is available at a cheaper price. Ragi can be used to handle harsh situations like famine and large number of poor people suffering from malnutrition. Ragi can provide ample amount of calcium and protein to those people who cannot afford milk.

With so many delicious dishes made up ragi around and being aware of the nutritional and medicinal significance of ragi should we not take a decision to increase the cultivation and usage of the outstanding grain – Ragi.

References

Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962. The medicinal and poisonous plants of southern and eastern Africa: Being an account of their medicinal and other uses, chemical composition, pharmacological effects and toxicology in man and animal

Image reference – http://www.esuppliersindia.com/niladri-exports/red-ragi-seed-pr362572-sCATALOG-swf.html

The Dangerous Side Effects of a Popular Cholesterol Medicine

Lipitor is indicated for the management of patients suffering from high cholesterol. Lipitor is dosed in tablets of 10, 20, 40 and 80 milligrams. It belongs within a group of medications called HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, which are referred to as “statins”.

Patients diagnosed with hyperlipidemia, or high cholesterol should not take Lipitor if the patient is pregnant or trying to become pregnant or if the patient is breast feeding. Atorvastatin is the main active ingredient in Lipitor and therefore if the person is allergic to the drug than they should not consume Lipitor. Lipitor can cause liver disease, and therefore if the patient has a history of liver disease than of course, the medication should be avoided.

The most common side effects of the medication are; constipation, gas, bloating and diarrhea, rashes, heartburn and vomiting. Statins have been known to have side effects, mainly on the digestive system.

Serious side effects have been reported, like liver disease – in patients who have been taking Lipitor for an extended period of time. In a substantial amount of patients severe liver disease occurred, which decreased the function of the liver putting the patient in harm. Liver function has been shown to increase after the medication has been stopped, although tests are inconclusive showing that the liver returns to normal function. In any patient taking Lipitor, regular monitoring is important through the means of liver function lab testing.

Signs of liver disease that patients should watch for include; fever, severe skin rashes including aching, blistering or peeling. Yellow skin, discolored urine or stools, or even difficulty breathing and abdominal pain can mean serious liver damage.

Signs of serious muscle disease should also be watched for while taking the drug – tenderness within the muscles, weakness or discolored or blood within the urine.

Many substances and medications can interact with the drug, including; grapefruit juice, niacin, antacids, birth control pills, fibrades and macrolide antibiotics and digoxin. Some supplements can also interact with the medication causing serious side effects, these include; caffeine and nicotine.

Lipitor can cause serious side effects in the muscles of the body, and grapefruit juice can interact seriously with these side effects by increasing the chances of developing serious muscle problems. The enzymes within the grapefruit, or grapefruit juice that break down the Lipitor, increasing the potency of the drugs, and the chances of developing side effects. One study had shown that the grapefruit/Lipitor interaction increased the potency of the drug up to eighty percent in patients who consumed grapefruit juice, compared to those who did not. These increased levels increased instances of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis which can lead to kidney failure in patients taking Lipitor.

The elderly, taking the medication and those over seventy years of age should be especially careful when taking the medication, as side effects become more pronounced.

There are many things that can be done to prevent, or lower high cholesterol without the use of statins (which have been proven dangerous, and come with many side effects). Diet and exercise as well as the implementation of proper vitamins and nutrients into the diet can make a large impact on lowering the cholesterol.

A Short Primer on Foodborne Illness and Injury Legal Issues For Consumers

Foodborne illness and related economic injury has become a very large and vitally pressing national level problem. Indeed, the degree, breadth and frequency of foodborne illness and injury are quite staggering. News reports and alerts about wide-scale outbreaks of food poisoning or recalls of tainted, misbranded foods or beverages abound to the point of being commonplace. This article covers what are foodborne illnesses and the steps to take if you have been injured by a foodborne illness including when to consult with an injury attorney.

Foodborne illness and injury in recent years has long ceased being a simple mundane local public health and business-legal problem, such as when food served at local restaurant sickens a group of local patrons. Because of the speed and high degree of interconnection between domestic and foreign food supplies, the public health and resulting business-legal issues relating to a foodborne illness and injury outbreak have become extremely complex. More and more frequently a foodborne illness and injury outbreak event is one of multi-state, national and even international proportions.

What is foodborne illness?

Harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites or chemicals present in food and beverages entering the body through the gastrointestinal tract following ingestion cause Foodborne illness, injury or disease – more commonly referred to as “food poisoning”. The most commonly recognized foodborne infections are those caused by the bacteria Listeria, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7, and by a group of viruses called Calicivirus, which are also known as the Norwalk and Norwalk-like viruses.

A variant of foodborne illness is allergic reaction to a food. Injuries from allergic food poisoning often occur when a consumer unknowingly eats a food product that contains an undeclared allergenic ingredient. Since 2006 Federal food labeling law requires a number of known or suspected food allergens (eggs, shellfish, peanuts, and wheat to name a few examples) present in a food product be disclosed in the product’s label.

Fortunately, food poisoning and injury events most often cause a consumer to suffer no more harm than an annoying, mild gastrointestinal problem. Most food poisoning injury events result in two to four days of discomforting nausea, vomiting, and/or diarrhea, and perhaps a few days missed work or school. Foodborne illness and injury outbreaks, however, also can cause some devastating catastrophic and fatal bodily injuries to a consumer, especially when vulnerable populations such as children, elderly, pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals, consume the food product.

What to do if a victim of food poisoning?

When a consumer believes he or she (or a family member) has consumed a food product that has caused a serious illness or injury, appropriate measures to protect both the victim’s health and legal rights need to be immediately taken including consulting an injury attorney.

First of all, of course, is that any needed medical attention should be promptly obtained.

The consumer should also make sure that the local health department is promptly notified about the situation. Local health department investigations into reports of consumers becoming ill following eating a food product or eating at a restaurant most often provide the critical and time sensitive scientific detective work needed to establish the existence and cause of a foodborne illness outbreak. While outbreaks are sometimes discovered during inspection agency facility inspections and food sample testing, more often it is through local health department investigations into consumer reports of food related illness – some times working in conjunction with the CDC, FDA, USDA and other local or state health departments- that the existence of a widespread foodborne illness problem is uncovered.

Finally, when injured by food poisoning a consumer should immediately begin documenting the situation and collecting and preserving evidence for their injury attorney to review. If the manufacturer, supermarket or restaurant proprietor was notified about the food injury or illness in writing or e-mail, a hard copy and, if applicable, an electronic copy of what was sent should be kept and preserved. This is important in many states including New Jersey where giving notice of breach of warranty is a prerequisite to a Uniform Commercial Code breach of warranty claim.

If there are any phone conversations regarding the claim with either a public health authority or with a vendor or its claims agent (which is not recommended without the assistance of legal counsel), the dates, the names and titles with whom spoken and a summary of the conversation should be documented. Any store or restaurant/bar receipt and/or credit card bill for the subject food or beverage should be saved. If the food consumed was bottled, canned or packaged, the container or weight/price labels should be saved (and/or photographed) and any left over or remaining product preserved if possible. Names and addresses of others similarly sickened should be gathered and recorded.

If any product or sample is given to a public health authority or the vendor or any claims agent, a receipt documenting what was given, its condition and the date transferred should be obtained, and an understanding of what would be done obtained. Photographs of the product, if available and of any apparent physical injuries (such as rashes, hives) should be taken and preserved. If other packages or bottles of the same date or lot were purchased and still on hand, they should be kept intact and unopened to the extent possible. If opened, they should be preserved to the extent possible. Medical care and medication expense receipts or documents should be collected and saved. The consumer should also keep in mind that there are time limits on suing following the occurrence of an injury.

Consultation with an injury attorney with expertise in this area of the law is highly recommended.

Dog Worms Symptoms

Generally, there are five major types of worms, roundworm, tapeworm, hookworm, whipworm and the dreaded heartworm. All of these can cause light to serious complications and should never be left untreated. First, let’s look at the different types of parasite and what they do.

The most common type of infestation comes from the roundworm. This parasite is usually passed to puppies from their mothers either before birth or in her breast milk. This intestinal worm can be passed to humans. In dogs, the worm will cause weight loss and a potbellied appearance. Left untreated these worms multiply at an alarming rate. An adult female roundworm can lay up to 200,000 eggs per day for a year. This can cause an obstruction in the dogs’ intestinal tract and lead to death. It is recommended that you treat your animals with a regular schedule of de-wormer starting when they are weaned. There are commercial as well as natural treatment options available.

The hookworms are like round worms in that they are an intestinal parasite. The hookworm however is smaller and feeds on blood from the intestinal wall. Since their diet is blood, the hookworm can cause anemia and occasionally death in dogs. There are few symptoms of hookworm and they will not be visible in stool or vomit. To determine an infestation, you must see your vet who will do a stool analysis. Although this is another parasite that can be passed to humans it will not cause the same problems in humans as in canines. In humans, the worm cannot penetrate much deeper than just under the skin, this causes an itchy rash with a worm like appearance.

The tapeworm is long and flat and resembles a piece of tape. It is spread to dogs by the ingestion of an infected flea. For example, the flea feeds off of an infected animal and picks up the tapeworm egg. While grooming itself, your dog eats the flea. dog worms symptoms of the tapeworm include itching, especially around the anus, abdominal pain, itching, vomiting and weight loss. If any of these symptoms appear, get you dog checked out by your vet.

Whipworms live in your pooch’s colon and cannot be seen by the naked eye. They feed off of your dog’s intestinal wall and cause many ailments. dog worms symptoms of the whipworm include diarrhea which contains blood or mucous, flatulence, weight loss and anemia. The whipworm is the hardest worm to get rid of but both pharmaceutical and natural treatments are available. Our dog, Lucy, not only had parvovirus but was infected with whipworms, too. An oral medication was given to her.

Finally, the most serious of dog worms is the heartworm. This worm is passed from one animal to another through the mosquito. The key to survival of heartworms is prevention. People who live in warm damp climates that are prone to heavy mosquito activity should especially be concerned, and take precautionary measures. Once infected there are few good treatment options, most include giving the animal limited doses of arsenic, the treatment alone can kill the dog. The infection is so serious because the heartworm takes up residence in the heart and arteries to the heart causing it to enlarge and eventually fail. Symptoms can include coughing, weight loss and a potbellied appearance much like other dog worms symptoms. No matter which type of parasite you think you may be dealing with get some help either veterinarian or natural but be pro active for better canine health.

Foot Callus – A Big Concern For People With Diabetes

Calluses harmful to foot health? Most people assume calluses protect the body from friction.

However, when diabetes and peripheral neuropathy enter the picture, there is increasing evidence that excessive callusing may indeed be harmful to foot health. A callus may hide and even worsen inflammation that occurs under the callus. The inflammation may be an early sign of a diabetic foot ulcer.

Diabetic foot ulcers can be devastating. Ulcers often lead to amputations. There are as many as 80,000 diabetes related amputations each year (Reiber 2002). The five-year mortality rate after amputation is 39 – 80% (Singh et al. 2005). The annual cost to the US health care system alone is between $ 1 and $ 9 billion (Reiber et al 2008; Frykberg et al. 2006; Ulbrecht et al. 2004).

Foot ulcers are difficult for the non-afflicted to understand. When the average person's foot hurts – when a blister forms for example – she or he hobbles and tries to stay off it. Pain is an effective communicator. For many people with diabetes, however, they have lost some or all sensation in their feet due to peripheral neuropathy. This compromised sensation can lead to excessive loading of and damage to the foot.

Callus formation precedes ulcer formation in over 82% of patients with diabetic foot ulcers (Sage et al. 2001). Murray and co-workers reported that a callus is "highly predictive" of ulcer development (Murray et al. 1996). Therefore the link between calluses and ulcer formation seems clear.

A group at the University of Tokyo recently looked at signs of inflammation under calluses on diabetic and non-diabetic feet (Nishide et al. 2009). The Tokyo group used ultrasonographic and thermographic imaging techniques to find evidence of traumatized tissue and elevated temperature. Even though the non-diabetic feet had more calluses, there were no signs of inflammation under the calluses on the non-diabetic feet. On the other hand, 10% of the calluses in the diabetic group had inflammation (Nashide et al. 2009).

Perhaps most concerning is that inflammation under calluses may be very hard to detect. In the Nishide study, experienced wound care nurses and specialists could not identify the latent inflammation in the calluses, even though three of the five inflamed calluses had tissue damage reaching down to the muscle layer.

If calluses obscure developing ulcers, it is even more critical that calluses be managed. One common way for calluses to be managed is shaving the calluses. The American Diabetes Association strongly recommends a professional caregiver such as a podiatrist perform any shaving or "debridement" procedure. Moreover, the procedure must be repeated regularly.

Can callus formation be prevented? Calluses form because of friction. This is well established in the scientific literature (Sanders et al. 1995; Carlson 2006). A reduction in friction should slow callus formation. One way to reduce friction is to lower the coefficient of friction (COF) between surfaces – ie, to make surfaces slide more easily in relation to each other.

Lubricating agents have been used to lower the COF in footwear. Lubricating agents such as oils, silicone, and powders may initially decrease the COF in footwear. However, in studies conducted by the US military, after 3 hours of use the lubrication agents an increase in COF of 35% above baseline occurred (Knapik et al 1995). Therefore lubricating agents can be very counterproductive in fighting the friction that causes calluses.

Materials such as moleskin have been used for a long time. However, the COF of moleskin when paired with commonly used materials such as a cotton sock is very high. (Carlson JM 2006). Socks can potentially reduce friction but the friction-relief is not targeted to the problem area.

ShearBan® and ENGO® patches provide long-lasting, targeted relief from the harmful effects of friction. They are patented products, developed and manufactured by Tamarack Habilitation Technologies, Inc. Unlike the typical bandage, however, ShearBan and ENGO apply to footwear or other pieces of equipment. ShearBan and ENGO have a surface made of a material of specially formulated material resembling Teflon® – the most slippery, friction fighting material known. ENGO or ShearBan's slippery surface should be placed opposite a callus, blister, or other hotspot to reduce friction and prevent harm to the skin.

How to Cure Hyperhidrosis Naturally – Do Such Techniques Exist?

How to cure hyperhidrosis naturally is not by using dangerous chemicals, but by using natural remedies and herbal medications. When you consider the dangers and side-effects of the techniques used today by modern medicine, it becomes quite clear that these unnatural means of "curing" are actually only very risky temporary fixes which provide only the slightest of effects until you need more treatments.

But in seeking to discover how to cure hyperhidrosis naturally, there is a need to educate one's self on all of the causes and effects of how and why hyperhidrosis has come to be in our lives. You'd be surprised to realize that, contrary to somewhat popular belief, it is not anything genetic or something we are "born with".

Hyperhidrosis, to one degree or another, depending on the person you are or the lifestyle that you lead, can actually be brought about by our environments; the foods we eat, those that we do not, the things we drink, other medications we may be on, the clothes we wear and other things we may have come into contact with in our daily lives. Once we educate ourselves with this knowledge, we can begin to see how to cure hyperhidrosis naturally, and finally be permanently rid of this problem once and for all.

For nearly every case, mild, intermediate or serious cases, a large part of it can be diet. We tend to not realize a lot of the foods we eat, such as fast food types, can be quite toxic for some more than others. Hyperhidrosis is very often a reaction to this, and what's more is that there are actually some natural foods which can oppose this effect as well. There are also natural antiperspirants you can make from ingredients found in the home which surprisingly actually have a permanent curative effect. Using these techniques is how to cure hyperhidrosis naturally.

How Can Acupuncture Help You?

Acupuncture is the practice of sticking hair fine needles into the body at various points in order to relieve symptoms or cure illnesses and diseases. It is a practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine. When the needles are put into the body, they are said to work by realigning the yin, yang, and xi (or ki or chi) of a person. Yin and yang are the balances of nature and xi is the life force of a person.

Some Western doctors acknowledge that acupuncture works. However, there are others that criticize the practice. This is because there is no physiological base or facts that show acupuncture should work. The biology of the human body does not contain these acupuncture points. However, there are some neuro-imaging studies that show acupuncture does affect the outermost layer of organs and can cause relief to many symptoms related to illnesses.

Western doctors do not recommend acupuncture to try to heal ailments. However, while it may not be recommended to cure illnesses (although it is claimed to have done so for various ailments), it is recognized as relieving many symptoms.

One of the diseases that acupuncture has been known to help is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). This is great news for women who have PCOS and like to get pregnant. PCOS messes with the body and the hormones causing the reproductive system to not behave as it should and causing infertility.

PCOS is an endocrine disorder, so of course, there are many other things to do such as following certain eating habits, keeping weight down, and avoiding alcohol. Acupuncture will not cure PCOS. However, it can help the body by affecting the different glands and releasing hormones. This way a woman may be able to get pregnant.

Acupuncture has also been shown to relieve tension headaches, arthritis, and back pain.

The American Academy of Medical Acupuncture recognizes acupuncture as a complimentary therapy for all of the following conditions:

  • Abdominal distention / flatulence
  • Acute and chronic pain control
  • Allergic sinusitis
  • Anesthesia for high-risk patients or patients with previous adverse responses to
  • anesthetics
  • Anorexia
  • Anxiety, fright, panic
  • Arthritis / arthrosis
  • Atypical chest pain (negative workup)
  • Bursitis, tendonitis, carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Certain functional gastrointestinal disorders (nausea and vomiting, esophageal spasm, hyperacidity, irritable bowel)
  • Cervical and lumbar spine syndromes
  • Constipation, diarrhea
  • Cough with contraindications for narcotics
  • Drug detoxification
  • Dysmenorrheal, pelvic pain
  • Frozen shoulder
  • Headache (migraine and tension-type), vertigo (Meniere disease), tinnitus
  • Idiopathic palpitations, sinus tachycardia
  • In fractures, assisting in pain control, edema, and enhancing healing process
  • Muscle spasms, tremors, tics, contractures
  • Neuralgias (trigeminal, herpes zoster, post herpetic pain, other)
  • Paresthesias
  • Persistent hiccups
  • Phantom pain
  • Plantar fascitis
  • Post-traumatic and post-operative ileums
  • Premenstrual syndrome
  • Selected dermatoses (urticaria, pruritus, eczema, psoriasis)
  • Sequelae of stroke syndrome (aphasia, hemiplegia)
  • Seventh nerve palsy
  • Severe hyperthermia
  • Sleep disorders
  • Sprains and contusions
  • Temporo-mandibular joint derangement, bruxism
  • Urinary incontinence, retention (neurogenic, spastic, adverse drug effect)

Acupuncture can be a great complimentary therapy for those people who can stand needles and are not afraid of having any side effects. Sometimes minor side effects such as minor bleeding after the needles are taken out of the skin (even less than a cut received from shaving), bruising, and dizziness may occur. But compared to the typical side effects of most modern medicines, these possible side effects from acupuncture are a cake walk.

How to Stimulate the Clitoris – Tips to Pleasure Your Woman All Night Long With Mind Blowing Orgasms

Women are real discreet when it comes to the subject of sex. This is the reason why men struggle with lack of information over this matter. But it doesn’t take a genius to find out how to stimulate the clitoris. When you look around you would see tons of web pages dealing with this topic.

What many people don’t know is that the clitoris looks a little like the penis. Of course, it’s very small, but when your partner is aroused, this miniature thing stretches upward and you will notice a shaft a hood that are very much like your member.

You can’t just go directly to touching it. To most women, it is painful when not aroused. So you must make it your goal to bring her to the state of arousal. How to do this, you may ask. It’s a rather lengthy process, actually, but something very pleasurable to both of you. It entails striking small conversation with her, whispering in the dark, touching and kissing and necking.

When you have done substantial foreplay, reach out to her clitoris and gently ease into it. Now it is very important that you don’t press too hard into it because it can be very sensitive bordering on painful. This is where open communication comes in. As you touch the clitoris, ask your girlfriend what she feels about it. If she doesn’t feel any pain, you can now slowly go down to officially work on it.

There are thousand of nerve endings in this tiny button but they are all concentrated on one spot only. Generally, it is on the upper right quadrant when you’re facing her. Roll your tongue around this area and check out if she responds. If not, you may try the other quadrants until you have found the holy grail.

The speed and pressure that you apply on the clitoris should depend on her comfort level. Some women are not really comfortable with their clitoris being pressed too hard. Again, open the lines of communication so you can maneuver things smoothly.

There are several positions that you can try during penetration where the clitoris is not completely left out. The first one is the doggy style. With you humping on her back, try to reach out to her vagina and play around with the clitoris. Or she may do it herself while you’re doing your thing behind her.

The other position is getting her on top so that she can adjust the angle with which her clitoris is hit. This is favorable to many women because they are in control and can easily detect the angle that gives them the most pleasure.

Proven Peptic Ulcer Treatment for Instant Relief

Peptic ulcers or gastric ulcers can be defined as ulcers originated in the stomach. These types of ulcers are generally more painful and often experienced while eating something. It lasts for about one to one and a half hours. Normally this time is required for the proper digestion of food. Because of peptic ulcers, the person becomes afraid of eating anything and there are more chances of under nutrition.

Mainly there are two types of peptic ulcer issues occur in humans – acute and chronic ulcers. Acute ulcers may occur surprisingly in the digestive tract. The pain during such types of ulcers is extremely harsh and can be felt during the intake of any juicy or spicy food. These types of ulcers generally cause nausea and vomiting. Another type of ulcers is chronic ulcer – is a long lasting condition and often considered as incurable in most of the cases. A patient experiences regular pain during the intake of any type of food. The common symptoms include burning sensation, nausea and vomiting.

Although there are many remedies for ulcer treatment but one should always go for proven peptic ulcer treatment. Peptic ulcers are mainly caused due to pitta corruption. In particular, when the digestive fire of the body, known as the agni, is vitiated, peptic ulcers may arise. The Ayurvedic peptic ulcer treatment is found to be very effective is relieving the pain causes during the ulcers.

Black Nightshade is an effective herb in treating peptic ulcers and commonly known as sunberry or wonder cherry. The raw juice of its leaves is taken either separately or in association with other advantageous juices.

Indian Gooseberry is also known as amalkai in Ayurvedic medicine and regarded as the important part of the effective peptic ulcer treatment. Licrorice is helps is soothing the pain causes during stomach ulcers and often included in any peptic ulcer treatment.

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