Shigru from Himalaya – Natural Herbal Remedies for Arthritis and Joint Swelling

What is Shigru?

The botanical name of ‘Shigru’ is ‘Moringa Oleifera’. It is also popular by the name ‘horse radish’, ‘drum stick’. It is a medium size tree with small pendulous fruit. The Shigru tree is truly remarkable in Ayurveda and has impressive range of dietary benefits. In this plant it has all the nutrients that could be found in a perfect food. The leaf, seed, and fruit powder of Shigru are naturally rich sources of vitamins and minerals.

Shigru Himalaya herb is the most powerful source of natural anti-oxidants. Seeds of Shigru content anti-microbial ingredients. Seeds of Shigru are used as anti-bacterial, anti-choleric and anti-viral. It is used as diuretic for the treatment of edema and also used as febrifuge.

Moringa leaves and pods contain high proportion of vitamin A. Regular use of Moringa leaves can helps to prevent night blindness and also eye problem in children. Leaves of Shigru are useful in inflammatory condition of joints; also it reduces pain and swelling in the joints. Seeds of Shigru used as antibacterial and anti-choleric.

‘Shigru’ or ‘Moringa Oleifera’ herb is beneficial in inflammatory conditions of joints. It reduces pain and swelling in the joints. Shigru herb is naturally rich source of vitamins and minerals. Shigru is natural herbal remedy to treat Arthritis pain, Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid arthritis. Recent researches have shown its importance to get rid of obesity. The fat-soluble vitamins in Shigru herb help one to lose weight. Night blindness is another disease caused by deficiency of vitamin A. Being rich source of vitamin A, Shigru can be effective to cure night blindness. As it is mentioned in Ayurveda, Shigru is known for its immune boosting properties as it enhances body immunity of an individual. Shigru herbal medicine is very effective in reducing joint pain and associated swelling.


It is advised to take one capsule twice a day after meal.

Note: Recommended only at the age of 14 years and above, since the product is in capsule form, some children below 14 years may have difficulty to swallow.


  • Shigru Himalaya herbal medicine is used as an alternative medicine in the arthritis.
  • Shigru herb is very effective to reduce pain and swelling in the joints.
  • Shigru herb has fat-soluble vitamins. It is used as natural remedy to reduce obesity.
  • Due to presence of Vitamin A in Shigru herb, it is beneficial on night blindness.
  • Shigru Himalaya herbal medicine is used as a diuretic for the treatment of edema also used as febrifuge.
  • Shigru from Himalaya enhances the immunity power.

Side Effects:

No major side effects have been reported in medical journals.

What is the Definition of a Phobia?

Are you continuously being haunted by fear about anything you wish had not existed? In a clear and simple statement, phobia is not an ordinary fear. It is a persistent and intense fear towards anything such as people, situations, activities, or things. There are various forms and types of phobia and the possibility of acquiring phobia from anything is without limits. Due to such morbid fear, people who have phobias usually avoid the feared subject. In a medical point of view, phobia is one of the most common anxiety disorders. It is also considered a mental disorder capable of occurring in almost all age groups.

Phobias are sometimes mild. But in most cases, phobias are worse and too intense that it becomes uncontrollable. This morbid fear becomes too alarming to the extent that it is capable of interfering in one's daily life. Women are vulnerable to phobias than men. Studies show that American women in all age groups are more likely to develop phobias compared to men.

Phobias are categorized into sub groups namely, social phobia, specific phobia, and agoraphobia. If you have fear of being embarrassed by scrutiny of others or simply performance anxiety, then you are suffering from social phobia. Specific phobia, as the name implies, includes dogs, elevators, snakes, flying, water, spiders, waves, balloons, and lots more. Agoraphobia on the other hand is simply identified as fear of leaving home or a small specific safe area.
If you happen to have phobia yourself, do not be bothered. There are many people who are suffering from such anxiety disorder and treatments are available to cure this. But before that, perhaps you would like to know how phobias originate. In most cases, phobias are caused by a so-called triggering event such as a traumatic experience. Phobias are more likely to occur if such trauma has occurred at an early age. But all in all, it is the combination of genetics, heredity, brain chemistry, and life experiences that phobias arise.

Like all other people who are suffering from various types of phobia, you would also wish to cure away your illness. There have been various types of treatments that are proven to be effective in treating phobias. The most commonly used treatment is the Systematic Desensitization Therapy where therapists use imagery exercises to desensitize patients to the feared subject. The treatment is used to gradually reduce one's anxiety. Patients are guided in mastering their anxiety through tiny doses until they become fully capable of overcoming their fear. Other useful therapies are the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Hypnotherapy, Neuro-Linguistic Programming, and Emotional Freedom Technique.

Help Anxiety by Balancing Blood Sugar Levels

One of the often overlooked causes of anxiety, panic attacks, and mood problems is imbalanced blood sugar. Some people may see it as diabetes (hyperglycemia – high blood sugar), hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), and / or insulin resistance. As sugar levels swing high and low, the body blasts out adrenaline (epinephrine) and cortisol to balance blood sugar levels so the brain does not starve of glucose. How can balancing blood sugar help anxiety?

By balancing sugars levels, adrenal hormones adrenalin and cortisol levels are not all over the map. This also allows the adrenals to rest as well as lessen anxiety because high levels of adrenaline circulating around. Panic attacks and anxiety is very common especially when blood glucose (sugar) levels are low since it's the adrenaline and cortisol that raise levels to safe levels.

Most of the panic attacks and anxious feelings I experienced were due to hypoglycemic (low blood sugar) episodes. It only took six long months to figure this out! When I hit 39 (very low number!) During my 6 hour glucose tolerance test my doc said "Yep, you have SEVERE hypoglycemia!". Eating correctly to balance blood sugar levels and taking supplements to fill nutritional voids was how I stopped the relentless 24/7 panic and anxiety.

Because I get asked so often, I'm going to share how I eat for blood sugar balance. Everybody is different, so each individual will have to experiment to see what works for them. I also use a glucose meter to check my levels first thing in the morning, before and after a meal, in-between meals, and before bed. My system may seem simple, but it works for me.

Jen Crippen's Blood Sugar Balancing Strategy:

  • BREAKFAST: It is important to eat something within a 1/2 hour of waking. If not, the body runs on adrenalin to keep blood sugar levels up until a meal is consumed. This is very taxing on the adrenals. I eat a high fat / protein meal with a tiny bit of low glycemic carbs to get me going. For example: apple (CARB) with raw almond butter (FAT & PROTEIN; eggs (FAT & PROTEIN) with carrots (CARB), tomato (CARB); low glycemic protein smoothie (CARB & PROTEIN) with added coconut oil (FAT) and raw egg (FAT & PROTEIN)
  • MID-MORNING SNACK: Something light and protein rich like a handful of almonds (FAT & PROTEIN) with Ningxia Wolfberries (CARB) or 1 hard boiled egg
  • LUNCH: Nice substantial meal with veggies, protein, and substantial fat. For example: tuna salad (PROTEIN) with celery, tomato (CARB), natural food mayo (FAT); spring green salad with 2 hard boiled eggs (FAT & PROTEIN), green peppers, scallions, carrot (CARB), sunflower seeds (FAT & PROTEIN), oil & vinegar dressing, couple of Ningxia Wolfberries (CARB); hamburger (PROTEIN) with small spring green salad
  • AFTERNOON SNACK: Again, something light and protein rich.
  • DINNER: Dinner I always have a heavy protein (seafood, meat, poultry) along with green vegetables (spinach, broccoli, chard, green beans) and a starchy vegetable for carbohydrates (root vegetables, sweet potato, squash). Very rarely will I eat any grains, but when I do it's quinoa, black rice, or teff.
  • AN HOUR BEFORE BEDTIME SNACK: This snack is very important because often my blood sugar levels would plummet overnight and give me restless sleep or nightmares. Sometimes I will have a bit of the leftovers from dinner in a very small portion or even a smoothie. I keep it very light and total volume of food is normally about a 1/2 to 3/4 cup.

As for drink, I typically have water or non-caffeinated tea (herbal). I do not drink soda of any kind and rarely drink alcohol. Alcohol creates a sugar swinging nightmare! Also, anything with caffeine creates blood sugar havoc because of the adrenaline surge. So it's best to avoid with blood sugar, anxiety, panic, and / or adrenal issues.

There is a lot more to my strategy on how to eat to help anxiety. There are many secrets such as portion size of carbs to protein and fat, getting off soda, and how to enjoy sweets without the blood sugar and anxiety consequence!

Magnesium Chloride Vs Magnesium Sulfate – The Facts

Serious health consequences await people who are magnesium deficient. Many people feel that the benefits of magnesium is nothing short of miraculous. Some of the symptoms of magnesium deficiency include vomiting, nausea, low blood pressure, insomnia, seizures, muscle spasm, and restless leg syndrome. The question that people also ask themselves is which is better, Magnesium Chloride Vs Magnesium Sulfate.

More than ninety percent of people show improvement in their health when the levels of magnesium are restored to the body. Sea water is known to have great mineral properties and many people actually pour it into their bath water when taking a bath. Miracles are known to happen when the cellular levels of magnesium are increased.

The bones, teeth function better and the immune system is strengthened in no small way with this incredible mineral. It is reported that a french doctor was able to cure a few patients who had diptheria within a matter days by administering magnesium chloride. Furthermore, the same doctor reported that he cured fifteen cases of poliomyelitis and in cases where paralysis had already set in, the symptoms had reduced significantly. Magnesium chloride was found to be helpful to people who have a variety of conditions such as mumps, rubella, gastro-enteritis, boils, measles, influenza, whooping cough, chronic fatigue syndrome and many more diseases. In the argument about Magnesium Chloride Vs Magnesium Sulfate it was found that magnesium chloride was much more beneficial. The ancient Chinese believed that magnesium was a beautiful metal that brought about beauty in people's lives. From a more practical view, magnesium chloride does for the body what very little else is available to do for the body.

Other doctors are also confirming these results. They have gone as far as to add other diseases to the list such as asthma, herpes, allergies and conjunctivitis. Again it was magnesium chloride that came through as the miracle mineral of choice. Books have been written on the topic to confirm these findings. Many women and small children have soft skin and bones and they have high magnesium and low calcium levels. Age causes bodies to become less flexible. Arteries will harden and this causes arteriosclerosis. Many other negative occurrences take place in the body due to the lack of adequate supplementation. Magnesium works in conjunction with hydrogen to keep our body structure pliable. It is believed that ovaries are one of the first body parts to calcify and this causes premenstrual tension.

The gynaecologist who made this discovery found that the premenstrual tension disappeared once the patients were placed on high doses of magnesium. Patients also found that they began to look and feel much better. They found that their drive for sex increased, they lost weight and their energy levels increased significantly. Men have been found to have better prostate health in particular to enlarged prostates. Magnesium is important in that it activates the enzymes that are needed to metabolize carbohydrates. Nerve and muscle function is also dependent on this mineral. It also has a role to play with the regulation of calcium in the body.

The heart depends on magnesium as well. It is found that many people who have died from heart attacks have been found to have low levels of magnesium. Heart patients who have been treated with magnesium have been found to live better quality lives. One reason for this is that the arteries are dilated and fat levels and cholesterol are reduced due to magnesium. The results are irrefutable that magnesium is needed for good health in all people.

Top 7 Tips To Treat And Prevent Ingrown Toenail

It seems the nail on your big toe has a very bad sense of direction. Instead of growing out straight, like a good nail should, it has taken a wrong turn into your skin. And boy oh boy, does it hurt. Just a slow walk to the corner mailbox can make your toe throb as if you dropped a bowling ball on it. Ingrown toenails are by far the most common nail problem. They usually affect the big toe, although every toe is vulnerable. They occur for any number of reasons such as too-tight shoes, fungal infection, injury, and constant pressure on the feet can all cause a toenail to dig into surrounding skin. But more often than not, an ingrown toenail is self-inflicted, the result of an overzealous pedicure. Here are some tips that you can consider to adopt to treat and prevent ingrown toenail.

1. Buy Spacious Shoes

Tight-fitting shoes can cause a toenail to bury into your skin. So you want to make sure that your footwear has a lot of room up front. You should be able to freely wiggle all of your toes. There should be a half-inch between the end of your longest toe and the end of the toe box of the shoe. The toe box should be the right height, too, so that the tops of your toes do not rub against the shoe.

2. Do not Cut Corners

Once your ingrown toenail has healed, you can prevent a recurrence by learning proper nail-trimming technique. It is recommended using toenail clippers, not ordinary scissors for your pedicure. In general, always clip the nail straight across. Do not cut close. The nail should extend over the top ridge of flesh so that it has room to grow. And do not go fishing down the sides to try to extract a portion of the nail.

3. Do not Try To Fix It

Home repairs can make an ingrown toenail even worse. People start excavating along the edge of the nail, and as they poke and prod, they nip the skin. When that happens, it opens the door and to a bad infection. Bear in mind that this is important to take note if you have diabetes or a circulatory problem. The risk is even greater. People with diabetes, for example, have decreased sensation in their feet. They might injure themselves without even realizing it.

4. Take A Dip

Soaking your foot in warm water will soften the skin around the nail and reduce inflammation. It is recommended using an over-the-counter antibacterial solution such as Domeboro. Finish your soak by gently drying your foot, then applying an antibacterial ointment to the affected area.

5. Give It Some Room

If your ingrown nail is painful and swollen, do not confine it in tight-fittings shoes. Wear an open-toed slipper or a sandal. It is recommended to cut a hole in the toe box of an old shoe. The idea is to keep pressure off your toe.

6. Count On Cotton

You can get some relief by placing a small piece of cotton between the nail and the skin. However, you need to be cautious being overzealous with this remedy. People use toothpicks and other objects, and they do too much shoving and probing. They can end up making the problem worse.

7. Opt For Oil

Rub baby oil or olive oil on the side of the nail. It keeps the skin soft, so there is less pressure and discomfort. Also, the skin can more easily accommodate the nail.


Symptoms arising from the heart are not specific and itoften requires a careful history to differentiate them fromsimilar complaints arising from chest disease, dyspepsia oranxiety. Chest pain, breathlessness, oedema, palpitations,dizziness, syncope and fatigue can all be caused by heartdisease. Exercise capacity is limited in most forms of heartdisease, and the limiting symptom may be obvious, suchas pain and breathlessness, or much more subtle, such asexcessive exhaustion. The degree to which symptoms havebegun to limit normal activities requires careful definition,as patients may not always volunteer the information,wrongly thinking that age alone is enough to accountfor their increasing inability to exert themselves withoutdyspnoea or dizziness. Others may prevent angina or breathlessness by greatly restricting their lives. In assessingthe effectiveness of treatment it is useful to have anidea of the activities that can and cannot be performed,using relevant examples from the patients’ own lives, theease with which they can walk and talk, or how theymanage household chores. Improvements in patients’ performancemay then be judged by their own yardstick.Patients sometimes need considerable encouragement tore-establish more normal patterns of activity after beingtreated.

Chest pain Chest pain arising from the heart and great vessels maybe caused by cardiac ischaemia, pericardial inflammation,aortic dissection or massive pulmonary embolism.The history may allow differentiation between the variouspossibilities, but the severity of the symptom has virtuallyno relationship to the potential severity of the underlyingcause. Many patients suffer pains in the chest which areprobably cardiac in origin but for which no adequate explanation is possible; for example, some patients maydescribe abnormal sensations produced by ectopic beats aspain.

Cardiac ischaemic pain In a typical case the discomfort associated with myocardial ischaemia is described as a pressure or tightness in thechest, which may also be felt in the throat, producing thechoking feeling that led to the symptom being called angina pectoris. The characteristics of angina include common patterns of radiation to the arms, more commonly the left, the jaw and teeth and, less commonly, through tothe back. The pain, and its sites of radiation, are often reproducible, but incomplete or mild attacks may not havethe same full distribution of the more severe episodes. Inangina, which represents episodes of reversible ischaemia,the precipitating causes are typically those that will increase myocardial oxygen demand beyond the coronary supply. The patient may report discomfort only whenhaving to run, or when they try to walk in the face of a coldwind or after a heavy meal. Emotional upsets are powerful precipitants of angina in some patients, even withoutphysical exertion.The discomfort may be very severe and be associatedwith frightening feelings of impending death. It can alsobe a mild discomfort or ache in the chest, which may bethought trivial and ignored. Many patients do not experiencetheir angina as a pain, and feel it as a faint constrictionin the chest. Some attacks of myocardial ischaemia areunaccompanied by any discomfort (silent ischaemia}.Angina usually disappears fairly rapidly if the patientrests, or takes glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Angina buildsup over several seconds and is usually not greatly influencedby posture, unlike musculoskeletal chest pain(which may also occur with exertion). Although similar innature and radiation, the pain of myocardial infaraction lasts much longer than angina. It is more intense and doesnot pass off with rest or GTN. In an attack, a patient withcardiac ischaemia usually looks pale and sweaty, unlikesomeone with an attack of indigestion, who often appearsflushed.Other causes of chest pain

Pericardial pain  can be easily confused with thepain of myocardial infarction or angina, but is often influencedby posture, sometimes being relieved or worsenedby leaning forwards, and aggravated by swallowing. It ismore often described as a burning or dull pain, and is lesslikely to be associated with breathlessness than is myocardialischaemia.The pain of dissection of the ascending aorta isa severe, tearing pain, often starting suddenly, usually felt retrosternally at first, and sometimes radiating through tothe back or to the left shoulder.Massive pulmonary embolism can also produce aretrosternal constricting discomfort indistinguishable from myocardial ischaemia; smaller peripheral emboli may beresponsible for more pleuritic-type pains .Oesophageal spasm due to reflux can produce a severeretrosternal pain which may be confused with that ofmyocardial ischaemia, and may be relieved by GTN. Thepain of oesophageal rupture can be confused with myocardial infarction.Sharp, stabbing precordial pains are common in highlystrung patients. They may have a muscular origin, but occasionally coincide with the accentuated post ectopic contraction of the heart, which is perceived by the patientas a knife-like pain.

Dyspnoea or shortness of breath This symptom is a feeling of laboured, or unnaturallydifficult, breathing. In heart failure it is due to the lungsbecoming stiff and difficult to ventilate, owing to the risein pulmonary venous pressure. The reduced cardiac outputlimits the oxygen-carrying capacity of the circulation, precipitatinganaerobic metabolism. The acidosis producedcauses increased ventilation, which persists for longer thannormal after exertion. Thus, even minor exertion producesdisproportionate and prolonged dyspnoea. Finally, insevere left heart failure with pulmonary oedema, arterialoxygen desaturation adds to the distress.

Palpitations A careful interpretation of what the patient means by theword ‘palpitations’ is essential. It may be simply an awarenessof the normal heart beat, which may be more forcefulor faster than usual because of anxiety. It may, however,be indicative of a serious cardiac arrhythmia. It may beuseful to ask the patient to tap on the table to indicate therate and rhythm during the attack. It is helpful to determinethe following:• Onset and cessation of the attacks. Is it sudden, with athump (ectopic), or gradual?• Are there any symptoms to suggest cardiac decompensation(failure) during the attacks?• Was there irregular thumping (ectopics or atrialfibrillation)?• Was there chest pain (the occurrence of angina impliesa very fast and potentially dangerous heart rate)?• Has there been any fainting or near fainting with theattacks?True syncope indicates an urgent need for investigation, asthe arrhythmia is potentially fatal. Polyuria sometimesoccurs on cessation of supraventricular tachycardias, but isnot usually described by the patient unless a leading questionis asked.

Syncope and presyncope (dizziness) Sudden collapse with loss of consciousness during exertionalmost always has a cardiac cause. It is due either to anobstruction to outflow from the left or right ventricle,which prevents an adequate increase in cardiac outputon exertion, or to a cardiac arrhythmia induced by the exertion. Both may result in a sudden fall in blood pressureand cerebral perfusion. Some mental confusion dueto cerebral anoxia is common.Syncope after exertion is not uncommon and may simplybe due to blood pooling in the legs and a poor venousreturn. However, syncope under other circumstancesmay be cardiac, and an eyewitness account is invaluable.Cardiogenic syncope usually occurs without warning; thecollapsed patient is vasoconstricted and grey, and the pulseis either absent or very slow.

Other forms of syncope ‘Vasovagal’ syncope. The common faint, often triggeredby pain or an unpleasant sight, gastrointestinal upset,haemorrhage or pyrexial illness, is a vagal phenomenon,and the syncopal episode is followed by profuse cold sweat,a feeling of sickness or actual vomiting, and bradycardia.Micturition syncope and cough syncope are rarely cardiogenic,but are probably triggered by a Valsalva manoeuvre,the first when initiating micturition with a full bladderand the latter after repeated bouts of coughing, whichinhibit venous return.Presyncope or dizziness is a common and much less welldefined symptom, and has a variety of causes as well asheart disease. It may result from a cardiac arrhythmia, buteven then is much more common in elderly patients withassociated cerebrovascular disease.

Oedema Right heart failure causes pitting oedema of the feet andlegs, worse at the end of the day and relieved by rest andelevating the legs. Unlike other causes of oedema it maybe associated with other symptoms of heart failure, such asdyspnoea and fatigue. The oedema may spread to thethighs, abdominal wall, sacrum and back. There may beascites and hepatic congestion, with abdominal distension.The hepatic congestion may be worse on exertion, withpain over the liver (usually epigastric) during exercise andfor several minutes afterwards – hepatic angina.The differential diagnosis of cardiac oedema includesfluid retention from other causes, such as nephrotic syndromeand cirrhosis of the liver, oedema of one or bothlegs from venous insufficiency, or lymphatic insufficiency.

Fatigue Fatigue is a non-specific and often neglected symptom. Itis, however, a very real feature of heart disease, a result ofthe reduced effort tolerance and lactic acidosis producedby anaerobic muscle metabolism and changes in the skeletal muscle. It is a prominent symptom in low cardiac outputstates, e.g. severe left ventricular failure.

How to Rid Toenail Fungus

Toenail fungus can cause some pretty unsightly damage to your toenails, and can cause embarrassment and in extreme cases it can cause some discomfort. You can, and should rid toenail fungus as soon as possible to avoid it either becoming worse, or perhaps spreading to other toes or even to your fingernails. While it is not very common to have the fungus grow under your fingernails, it is surely possible. The hand does not provide as good of an environment for the fungus to grow as the food does.

If you have to wear shoes for any length of time, and most of us do unless we live and work in an environment where it allows us to wear sandals or open toe shoes on a regular basis, you will want to make sure that you wear shoes that are able to breathe and socks that absorb the sweat from your foot. Keeping your foot dry and allowing it to breathe will retard the fungus and help to rid toenail fungus from your foot. If you wear toenail polish, even though it helps to cover over the visible effects of the toenail fungus, you will want to discontinue it’s use until after the fungus is gone.

Most people go to the doctor in order to be able to get rid of the toenail fungus, and they generally will snip the toenail and give you some medication. This generally helps, but there are some side effects to almost any medication so I generally look for a natural method of healing when dealing with any problem with the body. Some of the methods that people have found to be effective are tea tree oil, oregano and lavender oil. Many types of food have antifungal properties as well.

Sprain Vs Strain – The Difference Between the Two

Hello, Today I am going to explain the difference between a sprain and a strain. Most people do not know the difference between the two.

A sprain is when a ligament is stretched or torn. A ligament is a fibrous tissue that attaches a bone to another bone. (Think LBB ligament = bone to bone). The medial collateral ligament in the knee connects the upper thigh (femur bone) to the lower leg (shinbone or tibia). It helps stabilize the joint and keeps things connected.Most sprains occur inside or outside a joint (Ex: knee, ankle, elbow, wrist, finger etc ..).

A Strain is when a muscle or tendon is stretched or torn. A tendon attaches muscle to bone. (Think MTB = muscle to bone). A strain usually occurs along the the long muscles of our body. The front (Quadriceps) and the back (Hamstring) muscles that run along the thigh bone are common sites for a strain. If you are running fast and suddenly feel a "pull" or tightness you may have strained a muscle.

Both a sprain and strain are graded in their severity:

A grade 1 = Mild, Mild stretching / tear

A grade 2 = Moderate stretching / tear

A grade 3 = Severe stretching or complete tear

In cases of a grade 3 tear, surgical intervention may be needed to restore the integrity of ligament, tendon or muscle involved. Remember, always seek a licensed professional to diagnose and treat an injury!

Basically a sprain involves a ligament and a joint and a strain involves a muscle and its tendon. I hope this information helps you understand a little bit more about our amazing body. So tell your friends. Let them know.They will think your smart. Enjoy today and everyday! Be well and smile 🙂

Ball of Foot Pain Metatarsalgia

Regularly wearing high heels can cause hammertoes, ball of foot pain metatarsalgia, Morton's neuroma, bunions, degenerative diseases of the knee and many other medical conditions. Some of those conditions are permanent and may require surgery.

If you enjoy wearing heels, because they make your legs muscles look more defined or because they make you look taller, podiatrists recommend that you switch into more practical shoes whenever possible. Luckily, practical shoes have become more attractive and there is always the option of an insole.

Hammertoes, bunions and degenerative diseases of the knee occur after many years of constantly ignoring minor pain, small blisters or calluses. Morton's neuroma and metatarsalgia may be acute. In other words, the pain is severe enough that it can not be ignored.

Both of the latter two conditions affect the metatarsal region of the feet. This is an area that consists of five long bones and a number of joints, extending from the tips of the toes to the tarsal region, near the front of the ankle.

In ball of foot pain metatarsalgia, the affected area is between and behind the first and second toes; the first toe being the "big" toe. The ball-of-the-foot is the fleshy thick area, between the toes and the arches.

If the pain is between and behind the third and fourth toes, it is commonly described as Morton's neuroma, although it may not be a "true" neuroma. The term neuroma is usually used to describe a nerve tumor. In many cases of Morton's neuroma, no actual tumor exists.

People sometimes underestimate the value of well-designed shoes that fit well. Going barefoot on a sandy beach is good for your feet. But, for walking around on any other surface, except maybe plush carpeting, good footwear is essential.

Some people, such as those that suffer from diabetes should never go barefoot, regardless of how soft the carpet or warm the sand. Diabetics sometimes have reduced sensation in portions of their feet, such as the toes, combined with ball of foot pain metatarsalgia. Supportive and protective footwear should always be worn.

Our feet are like the foundations of a building, except that we are not rooted in one location. The pressure and shock that the feet absorb on a regular basis is more than is placed on any other part of the body. It's no wonder they get sore and tired.

If you suffer from ball of foot pain metatarsalgia, look at your shoes first. If you normally wear practical heels with a wide toe box that does not put pressure on the toes, then you may need an additional arch support or insole to support and cushion the metatarsal region.

The pain could also be a symptom of an injury; something that occurred while running or participating in a sport or when jumping down on a flat surface with bare feet. An injury like that is commonly referred to as a stone bruise.

If the ball of foot pain metatarsalgia is due to a stone bruise, it will just take a little time and a little extra cushion to resolve the problem. Forefoot insoles are among your options for cushioning the area.

Make Back Pain Management Part of Your Life

It's great knowing how to treat back pain and having a great back pain management system, but if you can prevent getting it in the first place, I'd rather that would not you.

Lower back pain can be caused by straining the muscles, tendons or ligaments of the lower back. This is often caused by heavy or awkward activity, especially if you are not used to it.

Here are some valuable tips to help you prevent it:

Be careful when lifting heavy objects

When lifting heavy objects it is important the heaviest part is close to the body. Keep your back straight and hold objects close to your body. It is important to avoid twisting your body while lifting, which is the most common cause of a slipped disc. You want to be balanced and be able to move in a straight line, if you need to move. Think back pain management at all times.

Try to avoid standing flat footed while bent over

Activities such as housework or gardening can cause this problem. To avoid standing flat footed while bent over try placing one foot on a small stool or book while washing dishes or ironing this can reduce the strain on your back. When vacuuming, try to use your whole body pushing with your legs.

When moving heavy objects pushing is less stressful than pulling

Try to use your whole body pushing with your legs

A sedentary lifestyle will contribute to back problems

If you are a couch potato, this can cause you to suffer back problems. Regular exercises will benefit you greatly. As part of your back pain management regime you need to have flexibility and strength exercises. These should include abdominal, legs and back exercises, which will all help to support your lower back. There needs to be an aerobic component to your back pain management program, as obesity is a common cause of back pain.

Regular exercise

Aerobic exercise can help manage weight, swimming jogging and even walking. Be sure to warm up before engaging in any vigorous activities.

Proper diet to help manage your weight

To ensure weight loss you need a proper diet, you may also make sure you get these two nutrients, calcium and vitamin D. These give you strong bones and prevent osteoporosis, which can lead to bone fractures of the spine leading to back ache. If you do not have a diet element within your back pain management program it is not complete.

Weekend warriors

Everything in moderation! Avoid injury by not over doing the exercise at the weekend and be sure to warm up and warm down.

Proper techniques for lifting

When lifting heavy objects it is important the heaviest part is close to the body. Keep your back straight and hold objects close to your body. If you need reminders, post them around your house or attach your back pain management program to your fridge.

Having a desk job

Make sure if you drive or sit at a desk for long periods of time that you take regular breaks, getting up or out of your vehicle and moving around. Stretching your muscles and improving blood flow to your lower body will help prevent back ache and also keep you alert.

Long distance driving

Take a rest at regular intervals, incorporate some stretching within your routine. This would be a great place to put your back pain management program, so you can remind yourself of the flexibility exercises you need to do.


Smoking has been shown to increase your risk of developing low back sciatica. Smoking may lead to pain by blocking your body's ability to deliver nutrients to the discs of the lower back.

You need to make sure you look at all aspects of your back pain management life program, if you follow these tips you will have a good chance of avoiding non-specific ache.

Facts About Heart Disease You Need To Know

Basically, heart disease is a disorder affecting the ability of the heart to function normally. There are many forms of heart disease of varied etiology.

The most widespread form of heart disease is high cholesterol. In the initial stages of the disease, lesions and cracks will form in the walls of blood vessel walls, usually close to the heart itself. The body will repair the damage by depositing fatty substances such as cholesterol and lipoproteins to fill the cracks.

If the body does not get adequate vitamin C that are vital for keeping the blood vessel walls from cracking, the repeated deposition of fatty substances can clog the blood vessels and thus cause a stroke or heart attack.

Types of Heart Diseases

The common forms of heart disease are: coronary heart disease, ischaemic heart disease, pulmonary heart disease, hereditary heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, inflammatory heart disease, and valvular heart disease.

Heart diseases may also occur due to congenital reasons, heart valve malfunction, electrical rhythm of the heart going out of sync, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, aortic regurgitation, heart attacks and heart failure.

Causes of Heart Disease

The major causes of heart disease include obesity, smoking, hypertension, diabetic and a sedentary lifestyle. Others include menopause in women, getting on in age, especially after reaching sixty-five years of age and finally, the arterial walls being struck down with infections.

Damage to the heart muscle or valves due to a congenital defect, as well as inflammation and damage associated with various viral, bacterial, fungal or parasitic diseases can also cause heart disease.

Disease can also cause heart disease, for example atherosclerosis, dermatomyositis, Friedrich’s ataxia, hemochromatosis, Kawasaki disease and Paget’s disease of bone. Rheumatic fever and syphilis can also cause heart disease, as can genetic or autoimmune disorders in which cellular proteins in the heart muscle are deranged or which disrupt enzymes affecting cardiac function.

Common Symptoms of Heart Disease

The most common symptoms of heart disease include heaviness or pressure on the chest; dizziness; nausea; shortness of breath; back or shoulder pain; irregular or fast heartbeats and excessive heart palpitations. If one encounter any of these problems, it would be prudent to consult a doctor as soon as possible.

Diagnosing Heart Disease

Everyone should be concerned with heart disease and should discuss testing for heart disease with a doctor especially if one have a family history or aggravating lifestyle choices. High blood pressure, frequent loss of breath, heavy smoking or drinking, obesity, high cholesterol, inactivity and diabetes are sound reasons for heart disease testing.

Cure for Heart Disease

On diagnosis of heart disease, the doctor will probably recommend that a patient adopt a healthy lifestyle such as having frequent exercise, a healthy diet, avoiding alcohol and cigarettes. The next treatment will more than likely involve medications and finally surgery.

Although there are many different forms of treatment for heart disease, there is no cure for heart disease. There are promising theories, however none yet have been perfected yet.

Cellular therapy is promising as a possible cure for heart disease. Cellular products have been shown to hold great potential for the treating of damaged and diseased tissues in the body. The sources for cellular product also come in a variety of sources, such as bone marrow stem cell and peripheral blood, as well as from myoblasts from skeletal muscle cells.

Cellular therapy is a growing field for clinical research. It is of growing interest to medical researchers as potential treatments for congestive heart failure and ischemic heart disease, for instance.

The research to date has shown positive results. There are also various other forms of promising treatment. So a cure for heart disease may be a reality in the future.

All treatment for heart disease should be discussed with a doctor but most of the medications will be available on prescription. If the medication is not effective, then the last option may be surgery. There are wide ranges of surgeries and many of them are less invasive so recovery time is shorter.

One should also understand that heart disease is preventable by living a healthy lifestyle such as regular exercise, having low salt and low fat diets as well as abstaining from alcohol and smoking. After all, prevention is much better than cure.

Mastocytic Enterocolitis or Mastocytic Inflammatory Bowel Disease (MIBD), A New Epidemic?

Mastocytic enterocolitis is a new clinical entity characterized by increase mast cells of 20 or more per high-powered field in the duodenum or colon. Jakate et al. described 47 patients with intractable diarrhea and abdominal pain without other cause who had elevated mast cell numbers in intestinal biopsies and responded to therapy directed at mast cells. The patients generally met criteria for diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Normal subjects had much lower levels of mast cells of an average of 12 per HPF. My experience indicates that this condition may be another hidden epidemic that should be added to the that of celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). My colleague Dr. Rodney Ford has suggested the term 'gluten syndrome "for the broader problem of non-celiac gluten sensitivity and I agree that this may be a more appropriate term. Now, I am suggesting that mastocytic inflammatory bowel disease (MIBD) be considered as a better term for the newly recognized mastocytic enterocolitis. I review my reasons below.

Until recently the presence of increased mast cells was either missed due to lack of ability to see mast cells on biopsies in the background of normal cells or was only noted in association with inflammatory bowel diseases and celiac disease. A few pediatric studies have noted increase mast cells in the esophagus in association with eosinophilic esophagitis or "allergic esophagus". Systemic mastocytosis has been known for years and has been associated with bowel symptoms such as abdominal pain and diarrhea. Now two new studies are shedding more light on this covert cell and its role in postoperative ileus and association with stress. Mast cells have been linked to diarrhea predominant IBS in a few studies but it was not until the Jakate article that a distinct entity defined.

The problem with linking mast cells with IBS and other digestive symptoms has been hampered by the difficulty seeing these cells in intestinal biopsies. However, now commercially available special stains utilizing immunohistochemistry for the enzyme tryptase allows the mucosal mast cells to be seen and counted in intestinal tissue obtained from routine random intestinal biopsies. Over the past year I have been asking the pathologists to perform mast cell stains on intestinal biopsies in my GI patients with diarrhea and abdominal pain. Recently, I began expanding this to include as many patients as possible as well as requesting these stains be done on biopsies performed previously in patients who I suspected might have this condition.

I have now accumulated fifty patients meeting criteria for mastocytic enterocolitis or mastocytic enteritis. These patients are in various stages of evaluation and treatment. I am collecting and analyzing the clinical information with the intent to submit the data for publication. What I have observed on initial review is that appears to be a higher than expected prevalence of the celiac disease risk genes DQ2 and DQ8. In particular, DQ8 appears to be overrepresented compared with the incidence in the general population. There also appears to be an association with celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and multiple food intolerance.

The latter finding of multiple food intolerance determined by mediator release testing abnormalities (MRT, Signet Diagnostic Corporation and Alcat) makes sense. The principle of these tests is the detection of changes in cell volumes that occur due to chemical mediator release from cells present in the blood. The tests are not specific for the mediator or mediators released but is assumed that the greater the reaction the greater the number of mediators released and more likely a particular food, chemical or food additive can cause an adverse reaction.

The laboratories that provide mediator release testing report great success in treating a variety of symptoms commonly attributed to food intolerance or chemical / additive sensitivity. It is my belief that mast cells are heavily involved in this process. This would make sense since success with conditions now being associated with mast cells are reported to respond favorably to dietary elimination of foods or substances with abnormal MRT reactions. Classic examples include IBS, headaches, and interstitial cystitis that have been linked to mast cells as well as stress that is now linked to increase mast cells and mast cell degranulation releasing mediators.

Mediator release tests are criticized by some US doctors, in particular as being unproven or not validated for "food allergy" evaluation. However, they are not food allergy tests. Food allergy is an IgE mediated type I immediate immune response known as allergy. MRT tests for non-immune delayed type reactions resulting from mediator release from immune cells. The point is that mediator release testing is not a form of food allergy testing. MRT is a form of non-immune food intolerance or sensitivity reaction.

New articles published in the January 2008 issue of the journal Gut reveal exciting new associations of mast cell degranulation with postoperative ileus and a link to a stress hormone. The first study may be the first to show that mast cells in human bowel release mediators when the bowel is handled during surgery resulting in temporary bowel paralysis known as postoperative ileus. The minimally invasive surgery technique of laparoscopy results in less mechanical stimuli to the bowel and has a lower incidence of postoperative ileus.

Stress association with IBS and inflammatory bowel diseases (Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease) has been long known but a mechanism had not been determined definitely. In the same issue of Gut investigators showed that the stress hormone corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) regulates intestinal permeability (leaky gut) through mast cells. The investigators even identified specific receptors on mast cells. This new information sheds new light on the possible link of leaky gut and mast cells with IBS, IBD and celiac disease.

So, how do I believe this new information may help us? Since stress can increase mast cells in the bowel and these cells can release mediators that cause gut injury and symptoms, stress reduction important. These cells can cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation as well as other symptoms outside the gut so they are important. Yet, the significance of these cells is generally not recognized because most doctors, including gastroenterologists and pathologists are unaware of their presence and importance.

These cells can not be seen in the intestine without special stains done on intestinal tissue obtained during upper endoscopy or colonoscopy. Those stains are not routinely done but generally require the doctor performing the biopsy to request them. If no biopsy is performed then obviously these cells can not be found. There may be a genetic predisposition for what I think may be better termed mastocytic inflammatory bowel disease (MIBD) rather than mastocytic enterocolitis. There also may be the same genetically determined white blood cell protein patterns that are associated with Celiac disease playing an important role in MIBD.

As note above, stress reduction and probiotic therapy may be helpful to reduce mast cells and leaky gut but what about once the mast cells are increased in the gut. Once elevated mast cells are present, treatment may include medications and dietary interventions. Antihistamines, both type I (eg Claritin, Allegra, Zirtec) and type II (eg Zantac, Tagamet, Pepcid) to block histamine effects have been used successful in reducing abdominal pain and diarrhea in people with mastocytic enterocolitis. A very specific mast cell stabilizer, sodium Cromalyn (Gastrocrom), also has reduced symptoms. It is an accepted therapy for the more severe condition of generalized mastocytosis.

Searching for food allergies and food intolerance (by mediator release testing) followed by dietary elimination of problem foods until leaky gut resolves and mast cell numbers in the bowel reduce is also helpful in my experience. Food allergy testing consists of skin testing and IgE RAST antibody tests. These tests do not exclude non-allergic food intolerance and sensitivity. Antibody tests for IgG in blood or IgA in stool or saliva have been used for food sensitivity. In my experience MRT tests are much more helpful as they look for any abnormal mediator release to a variety foods, chemicals, or additives, regardless of the nature.

Stay tuned for new developments about the role of mast cells and look for more interest in mastocytic enterocolitis in the future. I propose that the GI community should adopt the broader term mastocytic inflammatory bowel disease since there is information indicating mast cells have an important role in allergic esophagus and stomach problems.

Selected References:

The, FO et al. "Intestinal handling-induced mast cell activation and inflammation in human postoperative ileus." Gut 2008; 57: 33-40

Wallon, C et al. "Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) regulates macromolecular permeability via mast cells in normal human colonic biopsies in vitro." Gut 2008; 57: 50-58.

Jakate, S. "Mastocytic Enterocolitis: Increased mucosal mast cells in chronic intractable diarrhea." Arch Pathol Lab Med 2006; 130: 362-367.

Copyright 2008 Dr. M. Lewey scot Http://

Celiac Disease Versus Gluten Sensitivity – New Role For Genetic Testing and Fecal Antibody Testing?

Celiac disease (CD) has a prevalence of 1/100. Between 90-99% of Celiacs are HLA DQ2 and / or DQ8 positive. Every individual has two DQ serotypes. Because the molecular HLA nomenclature can be confusing DQ serotyping is a method for simplifying the results. There are four major types and 5 subtypes: HLA DQ1, DQ2, DQ3 and DQ4; DQ1 has two subtypes; DQ5 and DQ6 whereas DQ3 has three subtypes; DQ7, DQ8 and DQ9. Each individual has two copies of HLA DQ. One DQ type is inherited from each parent.

Though 35-45% of individuals of Northern European ancestry are DQ2 & / or DQ8 positive only 1% have classic CD as defined by abnormal blood tests and small intestine biopsies. Several autoimmune conditions also occur more frequently in DQ2 and DQ8 positive individuals.

There is accumulating scientific evidence that many individuals are gluten sensitive and respond to a gluten free diet though they have normal blood tests and / or normal intestinal biopsies (fail to meet strict criteria for CD). This is more commonly being referred to as non-Celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). Many individuals who have NCGS are relatives of confirmed Celiacs and were previously referred to as latent Celiacs. Electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry studies of individuals with normal biopsies but suspected of or at risk (1st degree relatives of Celiacs) have revealed ultrastructural abnormalities of the intestine and those who chose a gluten free diet usually responded and many who did not ultimately developed abnormal biopsies on long term follow-up. Seronegative Celiac has also been recognized, that is blood tests are negative, but the biopsy reveals classic abnormalities of Celiac and the individual responds to gluten free diet.

Testing for DQ2 / DQ8 has been suggested as a way to exclude CD. That is, if you are negative for DQ2 and DQ8, then you are very unlikely to have CD. However, well documented cases of CD and Dermatitis Herpetiformis (DH) have been confirmed in DQ2 and DQ8 negative individuals. Moreover, we now have the clinical experience that other DQ patterns predispose a person to gluten sensitivity because these individuals frequently have elevated fecal antibodies to AG or tTG and respond to a gluten free diet.

Why some people develop Celiac Disease or become gluten sensitive is not well understood. Risk factors include onset of puberty, pregnancy, stress, trauma or injury, surgery, viral or bacterial infections including those of the gut, medication induced gut injury or toxicity (eg NSAIDs), immune suppression or autoimmune diseases, and antibiotic use resulting in altered gut flora (dysbiosis). The severity of the sensitivity is related to the DQ type, pre-existing intestinal injury, degree of exposure to gluten (how frequent and large a gluten load an individual is exposed to), and immune status. Once initiated, gluten sensitivity tends to be lifelong. True CD requires lifelong complete gluten avoidance to prevent serious complications, cancers, and early death.

Serotypes can be determined from blood or buccal mucosal cells (obtained by oral swab) from several commercial labs including Prometheus, Labcorp, Quest, The Laboratories at Bonfils, and Enterolabs. Fecal IgA anti-gliadin and IgA tissue transglutaminase antibody testing is only available in the US commercially through Enterolabs. The fecal AG and tTG testing may be helpful in those with normal blood tests for Celiac and / or a normal small bowel biopsy but suspected of being gluten sensitive. Though the fecal antibody results are not widely accepted by many "Celiac experts" numerous testimonials of individuals testing positive only on fecal tests who have responded to gluten free diet can be found in support groups, web postings, personal communication from Dr. Fine and this physician's clinical experience.

Fecal antibody testing for gliadin (AG) and tissue transglutaminase (tTG) by Enterolab in Dallas has revealed elevations in 100% of Celiacs tested and up to 60% of symptomatic individuals without Celiac disease (NCGS) even if not DQ2 or DQ8 positive. The only DQ pattern he found not associated with gluten sensitivity is DQ4 / DQ4, a pattern typically found in non-Caucasians who are known to have a low prevalence of Celiac disease.


Abrams Seronegative celiac disease: increased prevalence with lesser degrees of villous atrophy. Dig Dis Sci 2004; 49: 546-550.

Alaedini A. and Green PHR Narrative Review: Celiac Disease: Understanding a Complex Autoimmune Disorder. Ann Intern Med. 2005; 142: 289-298.

Arranz et. al. Jejunal fluid antibodies and mucosal gamma / delta IEL in latent and potential coeliac disease. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1995; 371B: 1345-1348.

Dewar D. and Ciclitira P. Clinical Features and Diagnosis of Celiac Disease. Gastroenterology 2005; 128: S19

Kappler Detection of secretory IgA antibodies against gliadin and human tissue transglutaminase in stool to screen for coeliac disease in children: validation study. BMJ 2006; 332: 213-214

Kaukinen HLA-DQ Typing in the Diagnosis of Celiac Disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002; 97 (3): 695-699.

Fine KD and Rostami K. Do not throw the baby out with the bath water. BMJ February 13, 2006 rapid response editorial

Fine K. Early diagnosis of gluten sensitivity before the villi are gone. Transcript of presentation to Greater Louisville Celiac Support Group, June 2003.

Picarelli Antiendomysial antibody detection in fecal supernatants: in vivo proof that small bowel mucosa is the site of antiendomysial antibody production. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002 Jan; 97 (1): 95-98

Sbartati A. Gluten sensitivity and "normal" histology: is the intestinal mucosa really normal? Dig Liver Dis 2003; 35: 768-773.

Sollid L. and Lie B. Celiac Disease Genetics: Current Concepts and Practical Applications. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2005; 3: 843-851.

WGO-OMGE Practice Guideline Celiac Disease. World Gastroenterology News. 2005; 10 (2): supplement 1-8.

Pedicure Infections Can be Deadly!

A pedicure infection can become a very serious thing and any unusual symptom noticed immediately after a pedicure should not be taken lightly. In recent years many people have had amputations and even died as a result of infections contracted while receiving pedicures. Yes, it’s that serious!

Although pedicures can be very beneficial to your feet, contracting an infection while getting one can be very detrimental to your health. If the pedicure tools used are not properly disinfected, most notably vessels used to soak the feet, bacteria can be allowed to build to dangerously high levels.

The bad part is that any break in the skin can help harmful bacteria get into your bloodstream. It could be a scrape from scratching a bump too hard, a nick from shaving or even an insect bite. All of these can lead to a pedicure infection by allowing germs to enter your body.

It is very possible also, to contract bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics. The usual kind of bacterium associated with pedicures that is resistant to antibiotics is MSRA or Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This strain of staph bacterium is resistant to all of the penicillins and as a result is extremely difficult to treat.

If this strain is contracted, the infected area may have to be amputated in order to save the rest of the body from an untreatable infection. If left to progress and spread too long, it will most likely lead to death.

Symptoms of pedicure infection include, small red bumps (resembling spider bites), (deep) pus filled boils, rashes and usually fever. If you notice any of these symptoms after getting a pedicure, please see your doctor immediately!

It is so important that when receiving a pedicure that all equipment and implements used are properly disinfected, especially foot soak vessels that circulate water. Units that circulate water usually have crevices for bacteria to hide and build up.

If someone else is performing the pedicure don’t be afraid to ask them what they used to disinfect the equipment. Also don’t be afraid to ask them to disinfect everything in the front of you and show you the cleaning agents they are using to disinfect. If you’re not sure if a pedicure tub or other pedicure tools have been properly cleaned and disinfected – don’t use them or let them be used on you!

The best way to disinfect pedicure equipment, is by using an EPA registered fungicide bactericide and viricide. Look for this designation on the label of cleaning agents used to disinfect equipment used on you. Also, if you have any nicks or scrapes on your legs or feet, its best to wait at least 24 hours before getting a pedicure that involves soaking the feet. And remember to always use the proper methods of how to do a pedicure .

Following this advice could literally save life and limb!

Premenstrual Syndrome: Plagued with Premenstrual Syndrome? Try Calcium!

At last, there's hope for millions of women suffering from Premenstrual Syndrome. Researchers have found that a regular intake of calcium may reduce premenstrual syndrome be as much as 60 per cent.

It's a problem that has baffled doctors and worried women. Symptoms that occur a week or two before a woman's monthly periods. While these symptoms usually disappear after your period starts, PMS or Premenstrual Syndrome often interferes with the women's normal activities at home or work.

Despite ongoing studies, the cause of Premenstrual Syndrome are not yet clear. Of course, some women may be more sensitive than others to changing hormone levels during the menstrual cycle. While some believe that stress does not seem to cause Premenstrual Syndrome, it could make it worse. Studies have revealed that Premenstrual Syndrome can affect menstruating women of any age and that Premenstrual Syndrome can affect menstruating women of any age and that Premenstrual Syndrome often includes both physical and emotional symptoms.

Now, the latest on the Premenstrual Syndrome front is that a diet rich in calcium appears to reduce the risk of developing Premenstrual Syndrome by as much as 40 per cent.

Most women experience mild Premenstrual Syndrome, but for about 20 percent, the symptoms can be severe. These symptoms define Premenstrual Syndrome and can interfere with daily activities and relationships, according to a report published in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

Calcium supplements and Vitamin D, which aid the absorption of calcium are believed to reduce the occurrence and severity of Premenstrual Syndrome. To find out the effect of dietary Calcium on Premenstrual Syndrome, data on women with and without Premenstrual Syndrome was collected. The comparison showed that calcium intake had a profound effect on whether women developed Premenstrual Syndrome. "We found that women with highest intake of Vitamin D and calcium from food sources did have a significantly reduced risk of being diagnosed with Premenstrual Syndrome," Elizabeth Bertone-Johnson of the University Of Massachusetts, said.

The largest result was seen in women who consumed about 1,200 mgs of Calcium and 500 IU of vitamin D per day. "We found the women who consumed four servings per day of skin or low-fat milk, fortified orange juice and low fat dairy foods, had approximately a 40 per cent lower risk of being diagnosed with Premenstrual Syndrome, than women who only consumed these foods about once per week, "she said.

Levels of calcium and vitamin D fluctuate across the menstrual cycle, and this might define women with and without Premenstrual Syndrome, she added. The findings should encourage them to eat more foods rich in calcium and vitamin D, she said. What's more, these nutrients have also been associated with other health benefits, such as the reduced of osteoporosis and some cancers.

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Calcium Tips and Benefits:

. When purchasing calcium supplements, look for the elemental Calcium content.

. Studies have shown that it is the intake of dairy products with the natural combination of calcium, magnesium and potassium that helps to prevent and control hypertension

. Calcium can help you maintain proper pH levels, and to reverse acidic conditions.

. Calcium is fat burner. Studies have shown that the people with the highest calcium intake overall weighed the least

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