The Modern Medical Science: a Journey Through History

The history of Medical Science is very interesting. Centuries before the advent of Islam the Arabs had their own system of medicine in the form of herbs and shrubs (‘Aqaqir wa’l Hashä’ish) which was based on Chaldean medicine and on their own experience. Their first physician was Luqmân and the second Khuzaim. Gradually, Greek medicine attracted their attention. Harith Ibn Kaldah was the first to introduce Greek medicine to the Arabs. After that some books began to be written on the subject. Tiazauq composed a few treatises on pharmacology, and Khalid Ibn Yazid Ibn Mu’awiyah got some Greek and Egyptian books translated into Arabic. This was the condition during the rule of Banu ‘Umayyah. But the science of medicine flourished during the reign of the ‘Abbasis.1
At first the Muslims made arrangements for the translation of Greek, Indian, Persian and Chaldean medical works into Arabic, and thus gained the knowledge of the medical systems of these nations. But they did not accept as such what these systems had offered. They made researches in various branches of the medical science, and accepted what was found to be useful. Besides, they made many valuable new discoveries in the theory and practice of medicine. Then, combining their discoveries and the material sorted out of these systems, they evolved an entirely new system of medicine. When the Europeans learnt this system from the Muslims, generally through the Arabic medical literature, they properly called it Arabian Medicine, acknowledging on the one hand their indebtedness to the Muslims, and on the other putting a seal of testimony to the gigantic and original contributions of the Muslim scientists to medicine. Since the medical knowledge was primarily borrowed from the Greeks, the new system was named by the Muslims of the South Asian Sub-Continent Tibb-e-Yunãni(Greek Medicine). This act gives a proof of the Muslim spirit of liberalism.
When the Muslim world was producing most distinguished medical theoreticians and practitioners in history, the state of medicine in Europe was very poor. The Muslims who came in touch with Frank physicians during the Crusades expressed much scorn for their ignorance and barbaric practices. Thabit, a Christian physician of the Syrian prince Usãmah, observed two cases (C. 1140) ending fatally on account of the barbarous surgery of a Frank. The study of Islamic medicine was made for centuries in all the Western countries, particularly in France, and the Arabic medical writings formed the core of the European medical literature. Until the 17th century these writings were included in the syllabi of the European universities. In France the Arabian Medicine was studied from 1410 to 1789. In Vienna in 1520, and, in Frankfurt on the Order in 1588, the medical curriculum was still largely based on Ibn Sinä’s ‘Qãnun’ and on the ninth book of al-Rãzi’s ‘Al-Mansuri.’ The introduction of this science into Europe is an interesting chapter of history.
According to Dr. Robert Briffault, an eminent western scholar, the Allopathic system of medicine is the outcome of Arabian Medicine. He remarks:
“The Pharmacopoeia created by the Arabs is virtually that which but for the recent synthetic and organotherapic preparations, is in use at the present day; our common drugs, such as Nux vomica, Senna, rhubarb, aconite, gentian, myrrh, calomel, and the structure of our prescriptions, belong to Arabic Medicine”
He also discloses that the medical schools of Montpellier, Padua and Pisa were founded on the pattern of that of Cordova under Jew doctors trained in Arab schools, and the Qãnün of Ibn Sina and the Surgery of Abu’l-Qasim al-Zahrawi, remained the text books of medical science throughout Europe until the seventeenth century.2
The Arabs had a fair knowledge of anatomy as it is obvious from the names of the internal and external organs of the human and animal bodies, found in the literature of the pre-Islamic Arabia. When they became acquainted with the Greek anatomical descriptions, they made investigations on them, pointed out many errors in the work of their predecessors, and made many fresh discoveries in this field. In order to verify the Greek anatomical ideas prevailing at that time Yuhanna Ibn Mäsawaih made dissection of the apes which were supplied to him by the order of the ‘Abbasi Caliph Mutasim Billah. After this verification he composed his work on anatomy. The works of some Muslim physicians and surgeons, like Tashrih al-Mansuri by Mansur Ibn Muhammad contain illustrations of human organs, which are not found in the Greek works. These illustrations also throw light on the Muslims’ practical knowledge of anatomy.3
In opposition to Galen who thought that the human skull consisted of seven bones, the Muslim scholars held that it had eight. They believed that there were ossicles in the ear, which facilitate the hearing capacity.4 The work of the Muslim physicians in the field of physiology, too, is quite valuable. For instance, Ibn Nafis al-Qarshi of Damascus explained the theory of the minor circulation of blood three centuries before William Harvey to whom this discovery is ascribed. Al-Qarshi also suggested that food is fuel for the maintenance of the body’s heat. Abu’l-Faraj held that there are canals in the nerves through which sensations and movements are transmitted.
The contributions of Muslims in the field of bacteriology are quite revolutionary. According to Browne, Muslims were fully aware of the theory of germs. Ibn Sinã was the first to state that bodily secretion is contaminated by foul foreign earthly bodies before getting the infection. Ibn Khätimah of the 14th century stated that man is surrounded by minute bodies which enter the human body and cause disease. In the same century when the great plague ravaged the world, and the chief causes of it, based on superstition, were said to be either the Jews or volcanic eruptions or the birth of a calf with two heads, two Muslim doctors, Ibn Khatib (1313-1374) and Ibn Khätimah (1323-1369), wrote on it treatises which were based on scientific observations.5
Some Muslims also gave new suggestions regarding the treatment of diseases. In this connection Abu’1 Hasan, the physician of Adud al-Daulah introduced the process of bleeding as a treatment of cerebral hemorrhage which is often due to blood pressure. Al-Razi suggested nourishing food for the treatment of general weakness. The Muslim physicians were the first to use the stomach tube for the performance of gastric lavage in the case of gas poisoning. They were fully aware of the principles of opotherapy centuries before Browne Sequard to whom this method of treatment is ascribed. Said Ibn Bishr Ibn ‘Abdus suggested light food and cold producing medicines for the treatment of general paralysis and facial paralysis. Ibn al-Wãfid gave emphasis upon the treatment of diseases through food control. They discovered the treatment for epidemic jaundice, and suggested a reasonable quantity of opium as a treatment of mania. For epistaxis they suggested the pouring of cold water on the head.6
The investigations of Muslim physicians on the causes, symptoms and effects of some diseases are highly remarkable. Al-Razi was he first physician to differentiate between smallpox and measles. His Greek, Indian and other predecessors were unable to differentiate between these two diseases. Abu’l-Hasan al-Tabari was the first to regard tuberculosis as an infiltration, and stated that it affects not only the lungs but also the other organs. The Bright’s disease, the discovery of which is ascribed to Dr. Richard Bright of the 18th century, was in fact discovered by Najib al-Din al-Samarqandi centuries before him.7
In the science of surgery, too, much advancement was made by Muslims. They introduced the cauterizing agents in surgery. They were the first to apply the method of cooling to stop the haemorrhage, and to start the suturing of wounds with silken threads. Ibn Zuhr (11th century) gave a complete description of operation of tracheotomy, which was not mentioned by the Greeks. Abu’l-Qasim al-Zahrawi invented many surgical instruments illustrated in his book ‘al-Tasrif’. In the same book he described the methods of operations for various diseases. While describing the operations of skull and its parts, the Muslim surgeons made a mention of the operation of uvula and nasal polynus. They used the method of tonsillectomy and paracentesis of the drum of the ear. They were also the first to perform the operation of peritoneal cavity, and to use the method of Trocar and Canula for the special drainage. They made use of anesthetic substances in surgery. While performing major operations they kept their patients unconscious for long time, sometimes even for days.8
The Muslim opticians did valuable and original work in the treatment of eye diseases and in the surgery of the eye. All the operations of the eye which are performed these days were performed by the Muslim surgeons of Mediaeval Ages. The method of the operation of cataract was first described by them. They knew that cataract was due to the incapacity of the eye lens. Ibn al-Haitham described the structure of the eye. He gave the revolutionary ideas as regards the mechanism of sight, and described various types of lenses. Later on these descriptions served as the basis for the invention of spectacles used as a remedy for such eye diseases as short-sightedness and long-sightedness. The Muslims wrote valuable books on the treatment of eye diseases.
The art of midwifery was highly developed by Muslims. In this connection Abu’l-Qasim al-Zahrawi was the first to describe the Walcher’s position. He invented the method of Cranioclasty for the delivery of dead foetus and he himself applied it. A book entitled Al-Athär al-Bãqiyyah in the University of Edinburgh contains an illustration showing an Arab physician performing Caeserian operation. A number of new drugs and therapeutic agents were discovered by Muslims, and many herbs particularly those of India were included in their practice. The pharmacology of rhubarb, senna and camphor was discovered, and hyoscyamus was used by them for medical purposes.
The Muslims introduced pharmacopoeia in medical science. Ibn Sahl was the first to write a book on pharmacopoeia. The recipes contained in the writings of Da’ud al-Antaki (16th century) and others were adopted by European druggists. Arabian pharmacology survived in Europe until the beginning of the 19th century. Some of the original Arabic or Persian names of some drugs and chemicals, such as syrup from the Arabic word Sharab, rab’ for a particular mixture of honey and fruit juice, and julep from the Persian word julläb’ (a particular aromatic drink) were included in European languages.
The Muslims wrote books on those branches of medical science on which their predecessors did not. Among such books Yühann Ibn Maswaih’s book on leprosy, Al-Razi’s books on smallpox and measles, Abü Müsä Ibn ‘Isã’s book on piles, and Qusta Ibn Luqa’s book on sudden death are highly valuable.
From the time of the Banu Umayyah rule the Muslims developed the institution of hospitals. During the reign of the ‘Abbasi Caliph Harün al- Rashid, a hospital was built in Baghdad, which was the first in the history of this city. Many new hospitals were established shortly afterwards. Some of them had their own gardens in which the medicinal plants were cultivated. The large hospitals had medical schools attached to them. Beside such hospitals there were a large number of traveling hospitals in the Muslim world.9
The Muslim hospitals served as models for the hospitals established in different parts of Europe particularly in Italy and France. The establishment of hospitals throughout Europe in the 14th century was partly due to the influence of Crusades. The first hospital in Paris, Quinze Vingt, was set up by Louis IX after his return from the Crusades of 1254-60. The Crusaders were inspired by the magnificent hospitals (Bimaris-tans) of the Seljüq ruler Nur al-Din in Damascus, and those of the Mamluk Sultan Al-Mansur Qala’un in Cairo.
Practical education used to be imparted to Muslim medical students in the hospitals. It is said that there as no arrangement for such education in Alexandria before the Muslim era. According to Al-Razi, a physician had to, satisfy two conditions for selection: firstly, he should be well versed in new and old medical literature, and secondly, he must have worked in hospitals as a house surgeon.10
The second ‘Abbãsi Caliph Al-Mansür called to Baghdad from Jundishapur a Christian physician of Persian origin, named Jarjis Ibn Bakhtyishu who remained in charge of the hospital of that city until 765-6. His arrival at Baghdad with two of his pupils marked the beginning of a great activity in the field of medicine. He seems to be the earliest member of the famous Bakhtyishu family of medical practitioners. This family remained attached to the court of a number of ‘Abbãsi caliphs, and exerted a great influence on the progress of Muslim medicine in the eighth and ninth centuries. Jarjis is said to have been the first to translate some medical works into Arabic. The translations were made by the order of the Caliph. 11
In the ninth century of the Christian era the greatest medical activity was shown by the Arabic speaking peoples. Much activity was devoted to translating the Greek medical works into Syrian and into Arabic. All the translators were Christians. One of them, Ibn-Sahda translated some works of Hippocrates into Arabic. Jibril Ibn Bakhtyishu (d. 828-29) patronized the translators, and worked hard to obtain Greek medical texts. He also wrote some medical works of his own. He made a great contribution to the progress of science in Baghdad. He was the most prominent member of the Bakhtyishu family. A Christian Physician, Salmawaih Ibn Bunan. (d. 839-40) helped Hunáin to translate Galen’s medical works. Salmawaih showed that the use of aphrodisiacs, so common in the East, was dangerous. He flourished under Al-Mä’mün. Later he became physician in ordinary to Al-Mutasim.12
Another translator, Ibn Masawaih (d. 857) translated various Greek medical works into Syrian. His own medical writings were in Arabic. His treatise on ophthalmology called Daghal al‘Ayn (disorder of the eye) is the earliest work extant in Arabic on the subject.13
Another important translator of Greek medical works into Arabic was Ayyub al-Ruhawi, a contemporary of the ‘Abbasi Caliphs Al-Mutawakkil and Al-Mu’tazz (d.869). The translation of 35 works of Galen, a Greek physician, is ascribed to him.14
So far as the physicians of the ninth century ate concerned, an important one was Abu’l-Hasan ‘Ali Ibn Sahl Ibn Rabban al-Tabari. He was also a physicist, and had knowledge of the Bible. He was born in Tabaristan where he was brought up. He belonged to a Jewish family, but he accepted Islam at the hand of the ‘Abbsi Caliph Al-Mu’tasim, who made him his courtier. Ali Ibn Rabban is the author of many works, but his main work is an encyclopedia called Firdaus al-Hikmah. It deals chiefly with medicine, but also with philosophy, meteorology, zoology, embryology, psychology and astronomy. It is mostly based on Greek and Hindu sources, and contains a summary of Hindu medicine at the end. His other medical works are on hygiene, and on the use of food stuffs, drinks and herbs.15
The most illustrious physician of the ninth century was Abü Bakr Muhammad Ibn Zakariyya al-Ràzi, (Latin Rhazes). He was the greatest clinician of the middle Ages and probably the greatest Muslim physician. He was also a philosopher and chemist. He was born in Ray (Persia); hence called Al-Razi. The date of his birth is uncertain. He died in 923. In his early age Al-Razi was very fond of music, and used to play flute (‘Ud). When he was of mature age he wished to acquire the knowledge of medicine. His interest in medicine was aroused by an old druggist or dispenser whom he frequently met in the hospital. At last Al-Razi became such an expert physician that he was appointed as the chief physician at the hospital of Ray. Al-Razi regularly attended the hospital, surrounded by his pupils. Whenever any patient came to him he was first examined by his pupils. If the case was found to be complicated, it was passed on to Al-Razi.
Al-Rãzi also served as the chief physician of the hospital of Baghdad which was founded at his own advice. When Al-Rãzi was asked to select some suitable site to build the hospital there, he got some pieces of meat suspended in various localities of the city. The place where the meat deteriorated in the last was selected as the site for the hospital.
Al-Rãzi was the author of 113 major and 28 minor works and of two poems. Some of them have been published in original, and translated into Latin and vernacular languages. Al-Rãzi’s unpublished works are present in the libraries of Asia and Europe. Most of his works have been lost, but from those which are extant one can estimate the depth of his knowledge and ability. His writings are full of personal observations and valuable information. The most important of his monographs is a treatise on smallpox and measles. This work is a masterpiece of Muslim medical literature. It was translated into Latin and English, and enjoyed a great popularity in Europe. It has been published in original, with a French translation in Leyden in 1896.
One of Al-Rãzi’s treatises is on the stone in the kidney and urinary bladder. It has been published in original, with a French translation in Leyden in 1896.
The most important book of Al-Rãzi is Al-Häwi (Continens). It is an enormous encyclopedia of medicine, which contains many extracts from Greek and Hindu medical works. It was translated into Latin. The anatomical part was translated into French and published along with the original Arabic text.
Another important medical work of this author is the Kitab al-Mansüri (Latin Almansoris) named after Mansür Ibn Ishaq, the ruler of Khurasan, who patronized Al-Rãzi while he was living in Persia. This book is largely based on Greek medicine. The French translation of the first part along with the Arabic text has been published. Its ophthalmologic part was translated into German. The second part of the book deals with temperaments and physiology. This subject was of extremely great importance during the Middle Ages.
Al-Rãzi made a valuable contribution to gynecology, obstetrics and Ophthalmic surgery. He also made a considerable contribution to the development of Chemistry, both theoretical and practical. He was the first to apply Chemistry to the preparation of drugs. He is the ancestor of the European iatrochemists of the 16th century.16
Al-Rãzi made a few discoveries in the field of medical science, and invented some drugs. He stated that a sour matter is found in the stomach. He was the first to introduce wet cupping for the treatment of apoplexy and to apply cold water in typhoid. He invented the mercury ointment.17
Al-Rãzi’ was a brilliant and conscious physician. He followed Hippocrates, and was free from the feelings of prejudice and obstinacy. During the reign of the Caliph Al-Mu’tadid (829-902), his stable master, Abü Yusuf Ya’qub Ibn akhi Hizäm wrote a treatise on horsemanship which is entitled as Kitab al-Furusiyyah. It contains some rudiments of veterinary art. It is the first Arabic work of its kind.
Under the patronage of Banü Musä (the sons of Musä) and the Caliph Al-Mutawakkil a Christian physician, Hunayn Ibn Ishaq translated the medical and other scientific works of the Greeks. Banu Musä employed him for the acquisition and translation of Greek manuscripts. The Caliph also appointed him in a school established by him, and ordered him to get these manuscripts translated under his supervision. He became the foremost translator of medical works. The translation made by Hunayn and his disciples was a milestone in the history of the development of science. Hunayn also wrote many medical and astronomical worko.18
In the tenth century nearly all the creative work on medicine was done in the Muslim world, but not by Muslims alone. Some non-Muslims, too, made valuable contributions to the development of this science. But all of them wrote in Arabic. Towards the middle of the tenth century, the number of physicians grew surprisingly large. The research on medicine was carried out throughout the Muslim world. In Muslim Spain the work on medicine was of the same level as in the domain of Eastern Caliphate. Sometimes it was even superior to that.
The Fatimi Caliph Ubaid Allah al-Mahdi (908-934), ordered his physician Ishaq al-Isrã’ili, a Jewish physician and philosopher to compose some medical writings in Arabic. He wrote a medico-philosophical treatise on the elements and another on definitions. His main works are on fever, simple drugs, temperaments, dentology and urine. The last work seems to be the most elaborate mediaeval treaties on the subject. These writings were translated into Latin, Hebrew and Spanish. They exerted a great influence on the progress of medicine in Europe.l9
A great Muslim physician of the tenth century was Abü Sa’id Sinãn Ibn Thãbit Ibn Qurrah. He was also a mathematician and astronomer. He flourished at Baghdad where he died in 943. He embraced Islam in middle age. He was greatly honored by the Abbasi Caliph Al-Muqtadir who appointed him as the chief physician. At that time there were 860 persons of the medical profession in Baghdad. They were forbidden by the Caliph to practice unless they had been examined by Sinãn and received a certificate of registration from him. Besides serving Muq’tadir, Sinãn also served two other successive Caliphs, Qadir Billãh and Radi. Sinãn tried to raise the standard of medical profession, and organized a brilliant administration of the Baghdad hospitals. He is the author of many works on different subjects.20
Another great physician of this period who was one of the three greatest physicians of the Eastern Caliphate was ‘Ali Ibn ‘Abbãs al-Majüsi (Latin Haly Abbas). He was the native of Ahwãz in South-West Persia. He was a close associate of ‘Adud al-Dawlah for whom he wrote an encyclopedia called ‘Kitab al-Maliki or Kämil al-Sanãah al-Tibbiyyah. The people intensely studied it until the appearance of the ‘Qãnün’ (Canon) of Ibn Sinã, which usurped its popularity. It is more practical than the ‘Qãnün’ and more systematic than Razi’s Hawi. The Maliki is divided into 20 discourses, of which the first – half deals with the theory and the rest with the practice of medicine.
The second and the third discourses of Al-Ma1iki deal with anatomy. The French translation of this part of the book has been published along with the Arabic text. The 19th discourse is devoted to surgery. The introduction of this book consisting of three chapters of the first discourse is highly remarkable. The part of the introduction consisting of the criticism of the ancient medical works is particularly interesting. The author explains the plans of his book in which he tries to give a moderate description of the subject treated, and illustrates his method by a specimen description of pleurisy. He begins with the definition of the disease and its aetiology. Then he mentions the four constant symptoms, fever, cough, pain and dyspnoea; whence he proceeds to the prognosis and specially the indications furnished by the supta, and finally give the treatment. In his book the author describes the importance of attending the hospital regularly. He writes: “And of those things which are incumbent on the student of this Art are that he should constantly attend the hospitals and sick houses, pay unremitting attention to the conditions and circumstances of their inmates, in company of the most acute professors of Medicine; and enquire frequently as to the state of the patients and the symptoms apparent in them, hearing in mind what he has read about their Variations, and what they indicate of good or evil. If he does this, he will reach a high degree in this Art. Therefore, it behooves him who desires to be an accomplished physician to follow closely these injunctions, to form his character in accordance with what we have mentioned therein, and not to neglect them. If he does this, his treatment of the sick will be successful, people will have confidence in him, and he will win their affection and respect and a good reputation; nor will he lack profit and advantage from them. And God Most High knoweth best”.
The best parts of the book are those which are devoted to dietetics and ‘materia medica.’ It contains the rudimentary conception of the capillary system. It also includes some interesting clinical observations, and gives the proof of the theory that the womb moves during parturition i.e., the child is pushed out. It does not come out itself.21
Another physician of this period, who made pharmaceutical experiments was Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Sa’id al-Tamimi al-Muqaddasi. He was born in Jerusalem, and in 970 he went to Egypt. He wrote on materia medica and other branches of medical science. His main work is a guide (Murshid) on materia medica which supplies valuable information on plants, minerals and other things.22
A Christian physician named Abu Yüsuf Ben Issac Ben Ezra Hasdai flourished at Cordova at the court of ‘Abd al-Rahman III and Al-Hakam II. He was a translator of Greek works into Arabic and a patron of science. He was physician to the Caliph. He discovered a panacea called ‘Al-Fãruq.’ He translated with the help of the monk Nicolas a manuscript of Dioscorides. This manuscript dealing with plants was presented to ‘Abd al-Rahman III by the Emperor Constantinos VII.23
Another physician, patronized by these rulers, was Arib Ibn Sa’id al-Kãtib who died in 976. He was also a historian and wrote a chronicle of Muslim Spain and Africa. He also wrote a treatise on gynecology, the hygiene of the pregnant women and infants, obstetics and calendar. 24
Another treatise on the hygiene of the pregnant women and of babies, entitled Kitab Tadbir al-Habalah wa’l Atfal, was written by an Egyptian physician named Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Yahyã al-Baladi. He flourished under the wazir Yaqub Ibn Kils (d. 990).25
A famous physician and historian of the tenth century was Abu Jafar Ahmad Ibn Ibrãhim Ibn Abi Khalid, commonly known as Ibn al-Jazzar. He flourished in Qairawan, Tunis, and died in 1009. He is the author of many works on medicine, history and other subjects. His most important work is Zäd al-Musäfir. It was translated into Latin, Hebrew and Greek, and was extremely popular. It includes a remarkable discussion on smallpox and measles. He also wrote on simple and compound drugs, the cause of plague in Egypt and the way of treating it.26
In the eleventh century, too, real advancement in the field of medicine was made only in the Muslim world. In the same century the school of Salerno, the scientific school of Christian Europe showed some activity in this field. But the literary works produced there were far inferior to the contemporary ones written, in Arabic. Constantine, the African, made intensive efforts to translate Arabic works into Latin. These translations were helpful in the development of medicine in Europe.
An important physician and surgeon of the 11th century was Abu’l-Qasim Khalaf Ibn Abbas al-Zahräwi. He was born at Al-Zahra in the suburb of Cordova (Spain), the centre of Western Muslim Empire. He was educated in a distinguished university of Cordova. He studied medicine and other sciences with the learned scholars of his time, and increased his knowledge and experience by working in great hospitals. Due to his ability Al-Hakam II made him his court physician. He wrote a book entitled Al-Tasrif, which is an encyclopedic work comprising all branches of medicine and surgery. This book, unparalleled in the medieval times, is considered to be the only source of modern surgery. It is divided into two parts; theoretical and practical. Each part consists of 15 chapters. The last section of the book sums up the entire surgical knowledge of that time, and contains illustrations of more than 300 surgical instruments which are used even today. This section is divided into three parts. The first part deals with cauterization (of wounds) and the instruments used for that purpose. This type of treatment was very popular in Arabia. The advantages of fire have also been fully explained in it.
The second part deals with common surgical operations. It gives the methods for crushing and removing the stone from the urinary bladder, the operations of eyes and teeth, and cutting the organs of the body. It also discusses bandages and the treatment of ulcers and wounds.
The third part deals with bone fractures and the problems of joints. An account of the paralysis caused by some defect in the spinal cord has also been given. In this part the author has given a discussion on midwifery and a description of various stages of the embryo in the womb of the mother, and has mentioned the method for taking out the child from the womb of the mother with the help of instruments.
In the 12th century the book Al-Tasrif was translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona; and its various editions were published at Venice in 1497, and at Basel in 1541. In 1778 it was published at Oxford along with the original Arabic text. One copy of this edition is present in the British Museum and one in Bodleian Library. Its English translation was published in 1861, and French translation in 1881. The Arabic text of the book was published at Lucknow (India) in 1908, and to explain the difficult words and the complicated terms used in it, an Arabic-Urdu dictionary entitled Lughat-e-Qutbiyyah, was composed and published.
This masterpiece of Al-Zahrawi held its place for centuries as the manual of surgery at Salerno, Montpelliers and other early schools of medicine in Europe. The great European historians admit that for her primary advancement in surgery Europe is indebted to Al-Zahrawi. Dr. Edward Browne and Dr. Joseph Heres have recognized Abu’l Qasim al-Zahrawi as an eminent surgeon. In his book Arabian Medictne, Dr. Arnold Campbell has written a large treatise on Al-Zahrawi, which reveals, the importance of this name in the West. He disclosed that the Western scholars Roger Bacon (1214-49) and Goe De Scholeic (1300-68) gained the knowledge of medicine and surgery from the books of Al-Zahrawi and Ibn Rushd.
Roger Bacon, John Tchanning and other scholars remarked that Al-Zahrawi’s work helped in laying the foundation of surgery in Europe. For centuries the Western scholars made references to this work in their books. It has influenced Muslim scholars also, and it is still being referred to and taught at the centers of Arabian Medicine in the East.27
A great scientist of the 11th century and one of the greatest scientists of all times was Abu Ali Husain Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Sina, commonly known in the West as Avicenna. He was one of the greatest men that this world has ever produced. Although he did not belong to an influential family, and was unable to get the facilities of life, yet he became, while still a youth, the author of an encyclopedic work. His life was full of events, and circumstances often obliged him to travel from court to court where sometimes honours were showered upon him, and sometimes he was cast into prison. But whatever the situation may be, he occupied himself in reading, writing and teaching, and remained always surrounded by a group of his pupils. He was a philosopher, physician, scientist, poet, philologist, logician, statesman and thinker, who made research, and contributed to the development of all sciences, and through whose efforts medicine, recorded an unprecedented progress. He was hailed by the scholars as Al-Shaykh al-Ra’is (the Great Teacher). He possessed so many qualities that, while discussing his life history, we almost fail to decide as to what aspect of his life should be more particularly discussed.
Ibn Sinã, the ‘Prince of Physicians’ as he was called throughout the medieval times, was born in 980 at a village in the Persian Province of Balkh where his father lived. In 985 his family moved to Bukhãrã where, at the age of five, he started his education. At the age of 10 years he had already completed his basic education, and also learnt the Qurãn by heart. He was, then, sent to various teachers under whom, for the next six years, he studied algebra, arithmetic, astronomy, logic, philosophy and theology. At the age of 16 he turned to medicine. In the course of his study of philosophy, Ibn Sinã was confused by those problems which were related to metaphysics, but ultimately he got rid of his difficulties with the help of a commentary by a distinguished philosopher, Al-Färàbi, Ibn Sinä was an industrious student who never spent a whole day or a whole night in sleep or in any other occupation but study, and whenever he came across some obscure point he would go to a mosque where he prayed to Allah to remove his confusion.
Ibn Sinã states that at first he practiced medicine, not for the sake of money; but for his own experience and instruction. He was just 18 years old when he became so much popular as a medical practitioner that he was summoned for the treatment of Nuh Ibn Mansür Sãmäni, when the other physicians failed to cure him. When Nuh Ibn Mansür had recovered he was so much pleased with Ibn Sina that he allowed him to visit the royal library which was well stocked with rare and valuable books, and Ibn Sinã derived the fullest benefit from this opportunity.
At the age of 21 Ibn Sina was to be found at the court of ‘Ali Ibn Ma’mun, the King of Khwärizm, who’s prime minister was a man of scholarly taste. Here Ibn Sina was treated with great respect. At last he fled from there, for the king Mahmud Ghaznawi wanted him at his court, but he preferred liberty to the court of the king. Then hearing about the scholarly taste of Qabus, the ruler of Jurjan, he set out for Jürjan where he eventually reached after undergoing great hardships. But he was too late, because shortly before his arrival Qäbüs was deposed. Ibn Sinä gave expression to his misfortune in a poem which he composed at this occasion. He says: “When I became great no country had room for me; when my price went up, I lacked a purrchaser”.
At last, circumstances caused Ibn Sina to leave this country too. Turning Westwards he came to Ray where a woman named Sayyidah was ruling on behalf of her infant son, Majd al-Dawlah Daylami. Here he was treated with great respect and the young prince appointed him as his minister. The mother being angry at this appointment, Ibn Sinã was obliged to flee once more.
Now Ibn Sinã reached Hamadan and treated Shams al-Dawlah, the ruler of the country, who was suffering from colic. When he recovered he appointed Ibn Sinã as his minister. But only a short while had passed when mutiny broke out among the soldiers, which caused his dismissal and imprisonment. But very soon Shams al-Dawlah was again attacked by severe colic. He, therefore, summoned Ibn Sinã back to undertake his treatment, apologized to him, and restored him to his office of state. The death of Shams al-Dawlah led Ibn Sinä to trouble, for his successor; Taj al-Dawlah did not like him. Ibn Sinä fled and hid himself in a house. His flight gave rise to suspicion with the result that he was sought after and imprisoned. But after four months he escaped in disguise and came to Ispahan where ‘Ala al-Dawlah, often known as Ibn Käküya, was reigning.
Here Ibn Sinã was welcomed by Ala al-Dawlah, and became his confidential adviser. Thus once again he overcame his misfortune, and began to lead a very active life. During the day he attended to the matters of the state, and spent a great part of the night in delivering lectures and in writing his books. At last Ibn Sinã, who was tired of activities and was weakened by overwork, died in 1036 of colic at the early age of 58 years. His tomb lies in the city of Hamadan.
Ibn Sinã was a remarkable scholar who began to write before he was 17, and wrote almost on all subjects. Numerous works are ascribed to him, many of which are voluminous. Brocklemann enlists 99 of his extant works but he is known to be the author of 200 works. Out of these 68 are on theology and metaphysics, 11 on astronomy, philosophy and physics, four on poetry, and 16 on medical science. He wrote mainly in Arabic but his two Persian works are also known. One of them named Danishnama-e ‘Alài which was dedicated to Ala al-Dawlah, is a manual of philosophy. It deals with natural science, philosophy, logic, mathematics, music, metaphysics and astronomy. The other is a small treatise on pulse.
Among the 16 medical writings of Ibn Sinã, eight are versified treatises. They deal with such matters as the 25 signs indicating the fatal end of illness, hygienic precepts, proved remedies, anatomical memoranda, and similar other topics. Among his books the most important and popular is Al-Qãnün (Canon). This is a comprehensive book and contains about a million words. It has been excessively and beautifully divided into major and minor sections. The whole work has been divided into five parts. The first part deals with the general principles of medical treatment, the second describes the simple drugs in alphabetical order. The third part discusses the diseases of all the organs of the human body, and the fourth consists of the description of those diseases which are local in the beginning, and finally affect all parts of the body. The final part is on materia medica. The Qãnün was translated into Hebrew in 1270. It was also translated into Latin by the two Gerard of Toledo, and about 30 editions of this work were published in Europe. Many commentaries on the work were written in the 15th century. A beautiful Arabic edition of the book was published in Rome in 1593. Another edition was published in Egypt a few years ago. The translation of the first volume of the book, with the exception of the anatomical part, was made into English in 1930 by Dr. O.C. Gruner and was commented by him and by Dr. Soubiran in 1935.
Ibn Sinã surpassed both Aristotle and Galen in dialectical subtlety, and his way of reasoning appealed to the scholastics of the middle Ages. The Qãnün formed half the medical curriculum of the European universities in the latter part of the 15th century, and continued as a text book up to about 1650 in the universities of Montpellier and Louvain. It is still the reference book of the men of medical profession in the East. After the appearance of Qãnün, the study of the books of Al-Rãzi and the Kämil al-Sana’at of Al-Majusi, which were standard works, was almost completely abandoned.
Nizãmi Arüdi Samarqandi in his ‘Chahãr Maqalah’ (Four Treatises) after narrating various works, the deep study of which is essential for the acquisition of full knowledge of the medical science, remarked “Whoever has thoroughly understood the first volume of the Qãnün, to him nothing will remain hidden of the fundamental principles of medicine, and were it possible for Hippocrates and Galen to return to life it is sure that they would do reverence to this book”.
Among the other medical writings of Ibn Sinã are Al-‘Urjuzah Fi’l-Tibb, and his treatise on cordiac drugs. The latter lies probably second in importance to the Qãnün. Two other minor works, namely, Qawanin or ‘The Laws’ and the Hudüd al-Tibb (The limitations of medical science) are also known. Ibn Sinã also wrote a treatise on Colic. He is also the author of a book called Mabda’wa’l-Ma’àd, which contains an interesting chapter on the possibility of the production of exceptional psychical phenomena.
Beside Al-Qãnün some other works of Ibn Sinã have also been translated into Latin, and thus they influenced the development of science and philosophy in Europe. In his ‘Arabian Medicine’, Dr. Campbell enlists these translations in detail.28
Another Muslim physician of this period, who also had a knowledge of astronomy, mathematics and literature, was Abu’l-Salt Umayyah Ibn Abd al-Aziz Ibn Abi’l Salt. He was born in 1067-68 at Denis, and lived in Seville. He traveled Eastwards and came to Egypt where he stayed for 20 years. In the middle of this period he was imprisoned and banished by the Emperor Afzal. He went to Alexandria and thence to Mehdiya where he became an associate of Yahyã Ibn Tamim, the ruler of that territory.
About the end of the 11th century he tried to raise a ship sunk at Alexandria but could not succeed. He was the author of several medical, astronomical and mathematical works. He also wrote some treatises called Rasã’il al-Misriyyah which contains his observations on the people and things in Egypt. His main and important works include a treatise on simple drugs (translated into Latin), a treatise on Logic (translated into Spanish) and a treatise on astrolabe. He also composed some verses which are said to be very appealing. Abul-Sa1t also wrote a treatise on music which was translated into Hebrew.29
Now we mention some members of Ibn Zuhr family which was the greatest medical family of Spain. This family belonged to the tribe of Banü Azd. At the beginning of the tenth century it established itself at Shätibah (Jativa) in the East of Spain. The Spanish ancestor of this family was named Zuhr, hence the patronymic Ibn Zuhr.
The most illustrious member, except Ibn Zuhr, of this great medical family of Muslim Spain, was Abu’l-Ala Zuhr Ibn Abu Marwan ‘Abd al-Malik Ibn Muhammad Ibn Marwan al-Ishbili. Abul-Alã’ flourished in Eastern Spain. He lived in Cordova. He engaged himself in the study of Hadith and literature. Later he turned towards medicine. He was a distinguished physician, and had a comprehensive knowledge of medicine. The people of Maghrib felt proud of him and of his family. He was the courtier of Al-Mutamid, the last Abbsi king of Seville, who ruled from
1068-1091. When Seville was conquered by the Berber Murabitin (Almoravides) in 1091, he became wazir to the conqueror Yüsuf Ibn Tashfin who ruled until 1106. His usual name, Al-Wazir Abu’l Ala Zuhr was corrupted in Latin translations in many ways; such as Alguazir, Albuleizer. He died in Cordova in 1130. His body was carried to Seville where he was buried.
Abu’l Ala Zuhr is the author of many medical works. One of them is Kitab al-Nukat al-Tibbiyyah (main principles of medicine) which is a practical guide containing special references to climatological and pathological conditions in Marrakush. It supplies complementary information on deontology and various other medical subjects.30
The most famous and illustrious member of the greatest medical family of the Muslim Spain, Ibn Zuhr family is Abu Marwan ‘Abd al-Malik lbn Abi’l-Ala’ Ibn Zuhr, commonly known as Ibn Zuhr (Latin Avenzoar). He was born about 1091-1094, and died in 1161-62. He was a native of Seville (Spain), and was the greatest physician of his time, both in the East and in the West. He is distinguished from other physicians in that he devoted his entire attention to the study of medicine. He served under Al-Murabitün and when they got defeated by the Almohades (Al-Muwahhidun) he became a physician and Minister to the first Muwahhid ruler (1130-1163) Abd al-Mu’min Ibn ‘Ali. He was the author of at least six medical works. One of these is the Kitàb al-Iqtisad fi Islah al-Anfus wa’l-Ajsäd. It was written for the ‘Murabit’ prince Ibrahim Ibn Yüsuf Ibn Tashfin who was the son of the minister. As the title suggests, it deals with souls as well as with bodies. In the beginning it gives a summary of psychology. Further it deals with therapeutics and hygiene.
The second book which is the author’s most important work is the Kitäb al-Taisir fi’l Mudãwat wa’l Tadbir (Book of simplification concerning therapeutics and treatment) which was written at the request of his friend and admirer, Ibn Rushd. It deals with generalities of medicine and some special topics. It contains an elaborate study of pathological conditions and relevant therapeutics. At the end of this book the author gave an antidotory or formulary called Jämi’ (collector) in which he had collected recipes. The Taisir was translated into Latin and Hebrew.
The Taisir contains many clinical descriptions such as mediastinal tumors, pericarditis, intestinal phthisis, pharyngeal paralyses, inflammation of the middle ear and scabies. The author recommends tracheotomy and artificial feeding through the gullet and rectum. He recognized that the air coming from marshes is nocuous. He greatly advocated venesection. He was the first to describe itch-mitl. (Acarus scaliei). Thus he was the first important parasitologist since Alexander of Taralles (second half of the sixth century).
The third book of Ibn Zuhr is Kitäb al-Aghdhiyyah (Book of the food stuffs) which was written for the first Muwahhid ruler ‘Abd al-Mu’min who ruled from 1130 to 1163. This book deals with various kinds of food and their use according to seasons, with simple drugs and hygiene. It also shows the usefulness of various bezel stones.31
Until the end of the 11th century, all the medical works in the Muslim world were written in Arabic. Arabic language was the only medium for expressing religious and philosophical ideas throughout the Muslim world. Even the works of non-Muslims were written in Arabic. But for the first time, in the 11th century, medical literature was produced in Persian as well. A physician, Zain al-Din Abu’l-Fada’il Ismã’il Ibn al- Husain came to the court of Khwärizm and wrote some works on medicine in Persian. He also wrote in Arabic. Among these the most important was a medical encyclopedia, the Dhakhira-e-Khwarizm Shahi, the treasure of the king of Khwãrizm. It was written for Qutb al-Din Muhammad Shah (1097-1127).
The Dhakhira consists of about 450,000 words. It is very carefully divided into various headings and sub-headings. Primarily, it is divided into nine books. A tenth book on simple drugs had been added later. Secondarily, it is divided into 75 discourses and 1107 chapters. Six chapters of the eighth discourse of the sixth book are devoted to the local diseases of heart, and a part of the 13th discourse deals with Istisqä. The Tadhkirah was translated into Hebrew. A lithographed Urdu translation of this book is used in India and Pakistan.
The author compiled some other comparatively short books. For the wazir of Qutb al-Din successor. He composed a treatise entitled Aqhrad
ai-Tibb. He compiled another treatise on drugs and pharmacy. He also wrote a condensed edition of Tadhkirah entitled Khafi ‘Alä’i. Khafi is a derivative of Khaf, meaning a riding shoe. The book was written in two long volumes so that the traveler could take each one of these volumes in a riding shoe. Ismãil Ibn al-Hunayn is also the author of some other works.32
The greatest physician of the 13th century was ‘Ala al-Din Abu’l-Hasan Ali lbn Abi’l-Hazm Ibn al-Nafis al-Qarshi, who was born in Damascus and died at the age of 80, probably in 1288-1289 in Egypt, He wrote many works on medicine and other subjects. As the source of his writings he used his memory, experience, observations and deductions, and relied very little on other sources. He was often quoted by other writers. He set up an endowment for the Mansuri hospital in Cairo.
Ibn al-Nafis is the author of many commentaries on the Al-Hadith (the Prophetic traditions) and on the medical writings of Hippocrates, Hunayn Ibn Ishaq and Ibn Sinã. He also wrote some medical works. One of them is a treatise on eve diseases and another on diet entitled Kitab al-Mukhtar min al-Aghdhiyyah. Among all his writings the best is his commentary on the Qãnün, Kitab Mu’jiz al-Qãnün (also called Al- Mujiz fi’l-Tibb). It is divided into four sections, (1) generalities on the theory and practice of medicine; (2) victuals and drugs, simple and compound; (3) diseases of the individual organs; (4) other diseases, their causes, symptoms and cures. This book enjoyed much popularity. Many commentaries •were written on it. It was translated into Turkish and Hebrew.
Ibn al-Nafis wrote another commentary on the anatomical part of the Qãnün. It is extremely interesting from the physiological point of view. Ibn al-Nafis describes Ibn Sinã’s view on circulation in heart and lungs, and repeats the Galenic fragments as described by Ibn Sinã. He then vigorously contradicted these views. He stated that the venous blood cannot pass from the right to the left ventricle through visible or invisible pores in the septum, but must pass through the venous artery to the lungs, mingled there, with air, pass through the ‘arterious vein’ into the left vertical and form there the “vital spirit”. Ibn Nafis theory is of extreme importance. Ibn Nafis is one of the main for runners of William Harvey and the greatest physiologist of the Middle Ages in the West.33

REFERENCES
1, Wasiti, Hakim Nayyr, Tibb al-Arab, (Urdu translation of Arabian Medicine, by Edward G. Browne, Lahore, 1954, p. 368.
2. Briffault, Robert, The Making of Humanity, Islamic Foundation, Lahore, 1980, P. 201.
3. Sarton, George, Introduction to the History of Science, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1950, Vol. III, p. 1729.
4. Wasiti, Hakim Nayyr, Muslim Contribution to Medicine, Lahore, 1962, p. 2.
5. Landau, Rom, Islam And the Arabs, George Allen & Unwin, Ltd., London, 1958, p.178.
6. Wasiti, op. cit., p. 4.
7. Ibid.
8. Elgood, Medical History of Persia And Eastern Muslim Caliphate, p. 179.
9. Arnold & Guillaume, The Legacy of Islam, Oxford. 1949, p. 221.
10. Wasiti, op. cit., p. 10.
11. Al-Qifti, ‘Ali Ibn Yusuf, Tãrikh al-Hukama, Leipzig, 1903, p. 158.
12. Sarton, op. cit., p. 573.
13. Ibid. p. 574.
14. Ibid.
15. Wasiti, Tibb al-Arab, pp. 52-56.
16. Ibid., p. 609.
17. Ibid., Wasiti, op. cit., p. 65.
18. Al-Qifti, op. cit., p. 171. Vol. I, p. Sarton, op. cit.
19. Ibid., p. 639.
20. Wasiti, op. cit., pp. 56-57. A1-Qif;i, op. cit., p. 190.
21. Wasiti, pp. 73-77.
22. Sarton, op. cit., p. 679.
23. Ibid., p. 680.
24. Ibid., Haji Khalifa, Kashf al-Zunun, Istanbul, p. 949.
25. Ibid., p. 679.
26. Haji Khalifa, Kashf al-Zunun, Istanbul, 1943, VoL I p. 946.
27. Ibid, p. 411. Wasiti, op. cit. pp, 343-362.
28. Al-Qifti, op. cit., p. 413.; Elgood, op. cit., pp. 203, 205.
29. Al-Qifti, op. cit., p. 80. ; Sarton, op. cit., Vol. 11, Part I, p. 230.
30. Ibid.,
31. Ibid, pp. 231-233.
32. Ibid, p. 234 ; Wãsiti, op. cit., p. 128.
33. Ibid., p. 447. ; Sarton, op. cit., Part II, p. 1099.

How to Cure Sprained Ankle Naturally

Having sprained ankle is very painful! When it comes to you, you will get difficulties to walk and doing your activities. It needs more than 2 weeks to heal. Can you imagine when you get an ankle injury?

However, if the injury is not too chronic, you still have a hope to heal it without surgery. There are natural methods that can be applied safely without medicine! Interested?

At the first time, you get this pain; you have to take a rest! It is needed to heal again the tendon and tissues in your ankle. Do not do hard work at home like sweeping, washing, cleaning and other activities that will support your pain.

Prepare ice to stop pain and infection. You can apply it immediately on the strained area. Ice will reduce your pain at this point. Apply it routinely until you get well! Make sure that ice is far away from dirt.

Compression is another natural treatment to heal you from this sprained ankle. You can do this method to remove hurt easily. Based on the experience, compression is the effective way to block inflammation. You will free from bacteria that have big possibilities spread infection in the sprain area. That is awful!

Place your ankle higher than your body when you take a rest! This is a good position to avoid injury becomes worse. You can ask your family to help you get this position. Make sure that you will not make careless movements. Stay cool and think about your healing process at home.

Try to plan good nutrition! It is significant to help healing process from inside. Consume plenty of vegetables and fruits. According to the study, green vegetables have a good component to remove broken cells and change it into the new one. In addition, drink water at least 3 liters a day. It will help you to stay fresh and healthy.

Cellulite Treatments and Bruising

If you are getting bruised from the cellulite treatments you are receiving, ignore what the 'Bruiser' says about it being OK and not to worry, this is NOT OK! Start worrying. I will explain why, it is so important that you read this if you have ever been bruised badly by your cellulite therapist.

I can not stress enough just how important it is for you to be careful and not injure yourself any where that you have cellulite. Any scaring or bruising can seriously affect your cellulite and will make it worse!

Where ever there is damage on the body, the fat cells tend to move to the injury to help support and protect the area from further damage whilst your body heals itself.

If you also have cellulite it will bring the cellulite with it to the damaged area as the cellulite is stuck to the fat cell.

I have seen many women over the years that have had liposuction, and then later the cellulite forms around the scaring, more concentrated than any other areas. In most cases of liposuction not only has the cellulite come back but around the scar tissue caused by the liposuction, the cellulite is so hard it takes a lot of work to break it down and you will need a really good cellulite therapist to do that for you.

Bruising although not as extreme as scaring will still antagonise your cellulite and it will concentrate around the bruised areas.

If you are getting bruised over and over again, caused directly from your cellulite treatment, you must cease this cellulite treatment immediately.

I do not want to scare you but it really can be very harmful and these treatments that bruise ladies are not beneficial to you in any way.

The Importance of Lymphedema Compression Garments

Lymphedema is not a common word within the public nor is it a disease most will recognize. It is, however, one that can easily effect any individual. Prevalent in those recovering from surgery or even simple injury, it can quickly become a dangerous problem: skin will swell beyond the limits of its own elasticity and infections can occur, ones that may not be able to be treated later on. And, while the majority may be unaware of this disease, those who are at risk for it must realize what is to be done.

The Lymphedema compression garments must be applied.

What are these? To put it simply, compression garments are tailored for the individual and their infected area. Legs, hands or arms will be measured; then, tight fabric will be carefully placed against them. It will press firmly across the swelling, keeping further liquid from accumulating. And, while these do not force the liquid out, they do still prove vital.

Of course, compression garments will only work if the proper steps are taken with them. You must first have them crafted by a professional. Do not think that buying bandages or similar products will create the same effect. These must be made for you. Otherwise, the treatment process cannot begin.

Secondly, you will have to keep them in top shape. This means changing them every twelve hours, washing them after each use and eventually having them replaced as they lose their fit. Please note that this can also happen as the swelling is reduced. Even if you are careful with your garments, they may still need to be changed if they no longer cling to the infection.

Remember, though: the ultimate treatment is to consult with your doctor the moment you suspect you may have this disease. Waiting is not an option and, while the compression garments and other methods have been proven themselves to work, they are no substitutes for early prevention. Keep your doctor informed of any signs, symptoms or worries. Do not simply assume that swelling will disappear on its own. Take precautions and keep yourself safe. This cannot be stressed enough.

With a combination of spotting the problem as it occurs and applying the garments, there is a high chance for success; and, most importantly, for recovery. You just have to keep yourself informed and refuse to rely on assumptions.

Lymphedema may not be well-known but it is still dangerous. This is important to remember.

Back Pain, Sciatica, & Back Surgery – More You Need to Know Before You Undergo Back Surgery

In 1970, I was a normal kid, involved in everything and afraid of nothing. I had never experienced back pain in my life and couldn’t even spell sciatica! Bad back? A bad back was something old people had and complained about, not me. In other words, I was the typical fifteen or sixteen year old kid. It was at a wrestling match, before-hand actually, when my world changed forever. Prior to a wrestling match, as was always the case, our coach would crack our backs. Getting your back cracked was kind of a ritual and involved getting back to back with the coach, hooking arms, and then being hoisted upwards while hyperextending the spine. Yes, I can hear the groans from here, but it worked…and it was ritual. You see, wrestlers, like most athletes, are really big on habit, ritual, and tradition. I once knew a wrestler who wore the same socks, never washed, for an entire season. Of course, we stayed away from him after a while, particularly towards the end of the season. So, we had our backs cracked.

Ritual! Tradition! Habit! Superstition!

Well, the season progressed, I’d felt a twinge that night but nothing to get upset about, just a twinge, certainly no back pain or sciatica. Up until then, I had only lost once, in the ninth grade, to a human wrecking machine by the name of Scott Clifford. Scott had been wrestling since birth, or so it seemed, particularly on that day! But since then, never…not once. A funny thing happened on my way to sixteen, I started to lose, and lose big. After a while, I was hearing phrases like “flash in the pan” and ” glory boy,” and “it went to his head.” Kids and high school coaches, as we all know, can be very cruel, especially when the “king” is dethroned. And I was summarily dethroned and dismissed by the end of the season.

Anyway, I went on to track, I was never so happy to start running again in my life, all fifteen and a half years of it. Well, I had a horrible time! I went from holding school records to not being able to get around the track. Kids who had never come close to beating me were blowing by me. It was a terrible season. Halfway through, disgusted and completely disillusioned, I went to see the family doctor. I described my symptoms, minimizing and denying of course. I told him about losing in wrestling and then in track, I complained of about the pulled muscle in the back of my leg. I had no idea what sciatica was…but he knew. By that time, I did know what back pain was and, in a moment, I was going to be educated about my pulled muscle.

The Doc asked me if I had injured myself, felt anything pull in my back? The rest is history! A light went on, I told the doctor about the back cracking incident, told him about the pain, I came clean and admitted it all. What a relief! I had completely removed the back cracking from my consciousness, never giving it another thought, until that moment, but in an instant it was all clear. It was also clear to Dr. Rush and he immediately sent me to an orthopedic surgeon, the next day. I learned all about back pain, sciatica, and leaned new words like spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, and spinal fusion. On June 12, 1971, I learned all about real back pain. I woke up in the recovery room at Fairview Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio…it wouldn’t be the last time.

Fast forward and it’s twenty-nine years later, the year 2000…Y2K! I am in a whole new world of back and sciatic nerve pain, sciatica, by now. In fact, I am on so much pain medication, have had so many back surgeries, many doctors wouldn’t even see me. The ones who would see me said things like arachnoiditis, chronic pain syndrome, failed back, and a whole array of terms meaning everything and nothing. By 2000, I had undergone 10 major surgeries on my spine, I was to suffer through 4 more. That’s right, fourteen major “procedures” on my lower thoracic, lumar, and sacral regions by the age of fifty.

Little did I know it at the time, and every doctor I saw missed it, I had advanced, chronic osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis may present with no symptoms at all or may have signs and symptoms so hard to separate from other conditions that doctors miss the diagnosis entirely. Osteomyelitis of the back (vertebrae/spine) or hips (pelvis) may have few overt signs and symptoms, no back pain, and no sciatica. Osteomyelitis that occurs after surgery or a fracture or deep wound may present with swelling and pain but you may attribute that to the traumatic event, not an infection. And it was the infection, in 2000, probably there since 1994, that almost took my life. Had it not been for an amazing doctor at a noted Cleveland hospital, the other one, the one attached to the noted eastside university, the really famous hospital missed it too, I wouldn’t be writing this today.

So, five surgeries and nine years later, yes, that’s a total of fifteen, I am finally getting my life back. As far along as a year ago, it was still touch and go, major complications as a result of the osteomyelitis, combined with other health issues, almost did the job that we avoided back in 2000. Yes, that’s right! The math doesn’t work. That’s because I also crushed my shoulder in 2007, a consequence of weak bones due to the infection and other problems. Now, the only metal left in me is in my shoulder and that makes fifteen!

Now, should you have surgery number one? No one can answer that for you, that’s something you must face, and answer for, yourself. Back pain and sciatica can be terrible and there comes a time where anything will do, any solution seems OK…as long as they get rid of the pain. However, before I opened Pandora’s Box again, for the first time, I would do everything humanly possible, exhaust every option, before having back surgery. Don’t open Pandora’s Box if you can avoid it! You will never be the same and, of the half a million or so who undergo surgery every year, only 30-35% have a total and complete recovery, 20% never recover and are worse off. Not the kind of odds I’d go to Vegas with, if you know what I mean. Back pain and sciatica can be terrible, I’ve been there, this isn’t just a topic I drew out of a hat. My doctoral research was on the spine and sacroiliac (hip joint, the ilium meets the sacrum or hips to tail bone), so I know the situation, inside out you might say.

Back pain and sciatica? Yes, they are a reality after so many surgeries, they really can’t be avoided. Are they as bad as they were? No, absolutely not. A program of exercise, to regain muscle tone and lose weight; ice, with the use of an ice-compression brace, to reduce inflammation; sleeping with five pillows (yes, five!) or, when I need to, in a recliner fully reclined and a pillow under the knees, try it, it really works wonders on the nights when nothing else works; and finally, and a good pair of New Balance running shoes. Yes, New Balance and, if you must wear a harder shoe or boot, orthotics for cushioning. No, another kind of running shoe isn’t as good, I’ve tried them all over the years and New Balance, for the heel cushioning, are the absolute best. And no, you can’t get the relief or the cushioning from the insoles of Doctor S, it’s not the same! Am I “spamming” you? No! Go anywhere you want buy anything you wish. But if you want relief, these are the ultimate in bad back strategies, strategies developed over three decades, give or take, for dealing effectively, and not so effectively early on, with back pain and sciatica.

How to Stop Panic Attacks – 7 Simple Tips to Prevent Panic Attacks Symptoms From Ruining Your Life

To know how to stop panic attacks, you first need to recognise the symptoms, then by understanding their causes, you learn that they cannot harm you. Once you can accept that they aren’t dangerous you are better placed to stop them occurring again. Here you’ll learn, how to recognise the symptoms, what the underlying causes are, and 7 things that you can do to help stop panic attacks, without the use of drugs.

Symptoms of Panic Attacks

First you should get to recognise the main symptoms of panic attacks. These are; tight chest and / or throat, racing heart, palpitations, difficulty breathing, hyperventilation, shaking, dizziness, tingling fingers, nausea, a feeling of detachment, a fear that something terrible is about to happen, e.g. death.

These symptoms are truly frightening, and to the victim, very real. However, they aren’t real, but just the body’s primeval reaction to a perceived dangerous situation which doesn’t in fact exist, but occurs through the sufferer’s irrational fear or fears. In other words, there’s no foundation to the symptoms, they are just symptoms, and can’t harm you.

Causes of Panic Attacks

Everyone suffers from a certain level of anxiety in their lives, this is natural in today’s world. And they handle both the anxiety and the stress that can occur due to certain events or situations. But someone who has severe anxiety on a daily basis over a prolonged period of time, may have difficulty handling these stressful events.

In this case, an everyday stressful event like being stuck in an elevator, held up in traffic, a job interview, an exam, etc., can trigger a panic attack. So you have two things going on; heightened anxiety and resultant panic attacks.

Now the causes of the general anxiety may be one or more of several things; genetics (family history of anxiety and panic attacks), gender (women are 50% more likely to have anxiety and panic attacks), medical conditions (e.g. mitral valve prolapse), medications (e.g. Ritalin), fears & phobias, and a traumatic event or events earlier in life.

7 Things to Help Prevent Panic Attacks

Apart from mainstream medications like tranquilizers and antidepressants, which can have some nasty side effects, there are several natural things that you can do to try to stop panic attacks happening again. Here are 7 things you can do to help stop panic attacks…

1. Get to know the symptoms: You’ve already made a good start by getting to know what the symptoms and underlying causes are, and, you now know that panic attacks cannot cause you harm. But continue with your research and also talk to your doctor.

2. Get plenty of sleep: It’s very important to get 8 hours uninterrupted sleep during the night, so that your body can recover and recharge after your energy-sapping days. Here are some tips to help; don’t go to bed on a full stomach; don’t take caffeine before bed; don’t drink alcohol before bed; don’t read too long in bed; ensure your mattress is the most comfortable for you; ensure the bedroom is completely darkened; shut out all extraneous noise, etc.

3. Use known techniques to help relax: Learn how to meditate, attend yoga classes, what about self-hypnosis? Practising these techniques can reduce stress and improve your sense of overall well-being.

4. Cut-out stimulants: Stimulants are believed to be a trigger for panic attacks. So anything with caffeine in it, e.g. coffee, tea, etc., should be avoided. Avoid, or seriously reduce, smoking and alcohol too.

5. Eat a healthy diet: Cut-out preserved and processed foods. Stick to natural and organic if you can. Eat your 5 portions of fresh fruit and vegetables a day. A healthy, well balanced diet, is conducive to your overall health and helps to build-up your immune system to ward off illnesses and infections. If you know you are overweight, this may be playing a part in your anxiety, so a well balanced diet can help here too.

6. Exercise daily: This helps to improve your overall health position both in body and mind. Choose the exercise that suits you best and that you will enjoy, it shouldn’t be a drudge: for example running, power walking, walking the dog, swimming, pilates, dancing, home workouts, etc.

7. Reduce stress wherever you can: With higher levels of anxiety, a relatively small stressful event can trigger a panic attack. So get to recognise typical stressful situations that affect you, and either avoid them or learn how to deal with them better. Many times it’s just about putting value on your health above other things.

For example; don’t take more work on than you can reasonable handle; do take more time off, but use it to relax, not to take on other stressful stuff; if driving to work everyday is stressful, can public transport take the strain?; when shopping, can you go outside the busy times when there are less crowds? etc.

All of the above can help to prevent further panic attacks. However, a key determinant in recurring panic attacks is the very ‘fear’ of having another one. This fear is imprinted in your psyche because the panic attack symptoms you experienced were so terrifying.

The fear builds on your already heightened anxiety so that a relatively small stressful event can trigger another panic attack.

This is the ‘cycle of anxiety’ (anxiety > fear > panic attack > anxiety > fear > panic attack, etc.) that has to be broken if you are to stop panic attacks and cure your general anxiety.

To discover just how you can break this vicious cycle of anxiety in order to stop panic attacks and cure your anxiety, please go to http://eliminatepanicattacks.blogspot.com and get your life back on track again.

The Reef Aquarium With Low Magnesium – What Can Happen?

Hopefully you will understand that keeping corals is a huge responsibility and can become very expensive to yourself and the environment. Corals are very interesting animals and unless you are willing to nurture them properly, you should find another hobby.

After checking the usual, Salinity, Nitrate and Phosphates. You should be checking Magnesium, Alkalinity and Calcium. These three parameters are very important when keeping short polyp stony, and long polyp stony hard corals, SPS and LPS respectively.

So what effects will low magnesium have on your reef aquarium?

You will find it very difficult to maintain high alkalinity and calcium levels if magnesium is low.

Corals will slow in growth and will cause some corals such as Duncans and torch corals to recede, and in some cases die. You may as many other reefers do, think you have something unseen and / or unheard of eating your corals, because branching heads or receding one by one. Do not get fooled by this, it more likely be the case of the weakest dies first as normally the case in nature. Confirm this by checking the level of Magnesium in your aquarium or even better have a list of checks to be carried out on set days.

So what should you do?

If you have not already, go out and invest in a magnesium test kit and confirm that magnesium levels are low. Then simply use a buffer such as Seachem Magnesium buffer. Be sure to follow the instructions and do not overdose. Like everything in this hobby, do it very slowly. You will most definitely notice an improvement in a matter of days in the appearance of your corals.

As soon as you have adjusted your magnesium level to between 1200ppm and 1400ppm you should then work out the consumption rate of magnesium from your aquarium. This is simply done by checking magnesium over two to three days. For example check Monday and then Wednesday, if your Magnesium as dropped by 30ppm then it is safe to say that your aquarium is consuming 10ppm per day. At this low level in this example i would say it would be safe to adjust once every five days. If consumption is higher i would try and dose daily or every other day.

This is a simple guide and technology advances and chemical advances offer procedures such as dosing pumps and balling lite, these methods can be learnt with experience into this amazing hobby.

What is contraindications ultrasonic scaler

Ultrasonic cleaning works by using a special dental tooth powder blasting, head, wherein the tooth surface by sand blasting to remove plaque and pigments. For easy cleaning ultrasonic scaler to reach the gap in the teeth of plaque and pigment spots, pigmentation of the tooth surface for cleaning efficiency is much higher than other ultrasonic scaler.

Any person suffering from gingivitis and periodontitis need scaling. But there are many ways of scaling. Currently used ultrasonic therapeutic apparatus. The high-frequency ultrasonic vibration effect by removing tartar and plaque, with high efficiency, high-quality, time-saving features in the correct operation, minimal damage to the tooth surface. Scaling is one of the basic treatments of periodontal disease, it can remove risk factors to reduce gum inflammation, tooth appearance, oral comfort. Ultrasonic cleaning teeth for periodontal health of the population should be every six months to a year to a regular hospital ultrasonic scaling to prevent periodontal diseases.

Ultrasonic Scaler contraindications what

1. People with acute infectious diseases, such as acute active hepatitis, tuberculosis, etc., these people should wait until the disease has stabilized before reaching the hospital for scaling. Scaling the disease should be clear to Causes yellow teeth and whitening the doctor, the doctor should do good job-related aspects of the protection and use of the equipment must be disinfected or discarded. On the one hand because of their condition, addition also to avoid infecting others.

2. People with bleeding disorders, such as patients with thrombocytopenia, leukemia, blood clotting mechanism in these patients is not good, after scaling bleeding more easily. Uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, after scaling the mouth as easily lead to local infection. For these patients, the amount should be pre-application procoagulant drugs to control blood clotting speed, in order to avoid scaling when the bleeding and infection.

3. Ultrasonic Scaler contraindications in patients with malignant tumors gums should not accept the conventional scaling, in order to avoid local spread and distant tumor spread.

4. Local hard and soft oral tissue inflammation in patients in the acute phase should be over after the acute phase of scaling, in order to avoid aggravating local inflammation or spread through blood diffusion.

5. With active angina pectoris, myocardial Not to hurt the teeth whitening methods infarction within six months and the attack had failed to effectively control hypertension and heart failure patients not receiving conventional scaling treatment. As the ultrasonic stimulation and discomfort when scaling, may lead to illness. Ultrasonic Scaler contraindications installed artificial cardiac pacemaker if more is not suitable for ultrasonic cleaning teeth.

How to Read Forex Quotes Correctly

Reading forex quotes correctly is essential to forex trading but it can be quite confusing for the new comer. Actually, they are quite simple to read and understand. Here is a guideline to reading forex quotes correctly.

Let us look at an example of how a forex rate quote looks like:

EUR/USD = 1.2526

The above looks simple enough, right? This is an example of a foreign exchange rate between the Euro and the US Dollar.

Do not forget that in all forex quotes, there are always two currencies quoted. The forex quote is displayed such because when you make a trade in forex trading, you are always buying one currency and selling another at the same time.

In all forex quotes, the first currency listed is known as the base currency while the second is known as the quote currency. Forex quotes are meant to show us the price relationship between the two currencies.

The foreign exchange rate gives us an indication of how many units of the quote currency we have to pay to get one unit of the base currency.

The above example shows us that the base currency is the Euro and the quote currency is the US dollar. The forex quote tells us how each currency is trading relative to the other. In order to purchase one unit of Euros you will have to sell 1.2526 units of US Dollars.

It should be easy to understand so far. Now let’s add an additional thing to our example and that is the bid ask spread.

Forex brokers are paid not on the trades placed in the forex market but on the bid/ask spread instead.

We shall add the bid/ask spread to our example above:

EUR/USD = 1.2526/1.2528

This can be simplified to:

EUR/USD = 1.2526/8

Forex brokers make their commissions by selling currencies at a slightly higher rate than they buy them. This is perfectly legal and all forex brokers do it, though the amount of the spread may vary.

As a forex trader, you will be buying at the bid price, which is the first price quoted. You will then sell at the ask price which is the second price listed. This difference between the two prices is called the spread which is retained by the forex broker as their profit on the trade.

In our above example, you will buy at 1.2526 and sell at 1.2528. The 0.0002 (2 pips) will go to the forex broker as a payment for executing the trade for you.

The bid/ask spread is an easy to understand and clear-cut way for calculating trading fees and expenses.

With a good understanding of how to read forex quotes correctly, it can go a long way in helping you achieve success in forex trading.

The Theory Behind Massage Therapy

Massage therapy is the practice of manipulating the soft tissues and muscles. Its goal is to provide the receiver with physical and psychological benefits. By manipulating the soft tissue and muscles with a series of orchestrated movements, massage is thought to result in relaxation and pain relief. Massage has been practiced in most cultures and since the beginning of recorded time.

The literal meaning of massage is friction of kneading. Kneading is one of the more famous movements. It is performed by making a side to side squeezing action. This is similar to the kneading action for making bread dough.

The use of massage can be found in the writings of many ancient civilizations. There are references in Chinese medical books and even references to massage in the Bible. There were references to the ancient Romans using it to treat some forms of illnesses.

Clearly, massage therapy has been used throughout the world to help restore health to the body. Many of these civilizations develop very distinct types of massage techniques. Each technique brings about slightly different benefits.

Some of the more famous techniques are Swedish massage, shiatsu, reflexology, acupressure and many more. Many of these techniques can now easily be found being offered in most spots around the world. They are also being integrated into massage chairs.

The practice of massage is about applying direct pressure to certain points in the body. When this is done correctly, it will bring relief to those areas. In scanning the techniques offered by massage therapy schools, there are approximately 200 variations of massage technique. These are constantly evolving and subject to interpretation by the therapist.

A new study was published in September 2004 that used a need for analysis of peer reviewed scientific journals using massage therapy and the adult population. The conclusion of the study is that massage therapy provides a wide range of physical and psychological benefits.

This study monitored the blood pressure, heart rate, negative mood, anxiety state and the immediate assessment of pain levels. The patients were given a single massage treatment once a week. According to the research, the average participant experienced a reduction and anxiety was greater than 64% over the control group.

The study also showed that it was effective in reducing blood pressure and heart rate. As results of this study, researchers theorize that massage may provide a benefit that parallels a model of psychotherapy. However, researchers do not believe that the benefits derived from massage are slowly psychological.

Another study conducted in May 2004 and published by the national Center for complementary and alternative medicine showed that massage was the ninth most popular form of alternative medicine. It also showed that 5% of the adult population used therapy at least once in the past 12 months. The popularity of massage treatments continues to rise.

So far, there have been very few studies the benefits of massage. The main problem with connecting clinical studies is the cost involved. Most companies have little incentive to fund massage therapy studies as there is no way to control the methods in order to profit. This is perhaps the biggest hurdle to getting thorough studies conducted. Unfortunately, most clinical studies are driven by the profit motive. These procedures need to be protected by intellectual property or there is little incentive to fund them.

Heart disease – Prevention is better than Cure

Heart disease is the number one cause of death for both men and women surpassing the deaths caused by AIDS and Cancer combined together. It is estimated that by 2020 Cardiovascular disease will be the cause of over 40 percent of deaths in India as compared to 24 percent in 1990. Globally, it causes 17.3 million deaths annually. Keeping in view the increasing prevalence of the disease and associated increase in incidence of risk factors, India is all set to be the “Heart Disease Capital of the World” in few years time. The prevalence of Coronary artery disease in rural India is estimated to be up to 7 percent as compared to the urban areas where incidence is up to 12 percent.

There are almost more than 250 risk factors for coronary artery disease that include the non modifiable factors like age, sex, family history, ethnicity and the modifiable ones including high blood pressure, smoking, abnormal lipids, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes, unhealthy diet, alcohol etc. Not much can be done about the non- modifiable risk factors but the modifiable risk factors need to be periodically checked, assessed, modified and treated so to avoid the long term morbidity and mortality. The more the accumulation of risk factors, the greater is the likelihood of developing the disease unless some prompt measures are taken to alter and/or stop the occurrence of such factors.

The most common symptoms of Coronary artery disease is Angina or Chest Pain. Angina is a discomfort, heaviness, pressure, aching, burning, squeezing, fullness or painful feeling in chest usually mistaken for indigestion or heartburn. The angina pain can be felt in shoulder, arm, neck, throat or back. This pain can be felt from lower jaw up to umbilicus anywhere and is usually a nonlocal sing pain often shown by the hand on chest (Levine’s Sign). Other symptoms of Coronary artery disease includes shortness of breath, Palpitation, Weakness, nausea, sweating, diaphoresis usually called as Angina Equivalent. During heart attack, any of these symptoms typically last 30 minutes or longer and are not relieved by rest or oral medications. Some people, however, have a heart attack without having any symptoms which is known as Silent Myocardial Infarction and occurs more often in diabetics.

It is an old saying, ” Money is lost, nothing is lost: Power is lost, something is lost: Health is lost, everything is lost.” To maintain healthy heart and health we should try to avoid and/or delay the onset of various modifiable risk factors.

Quit Smoking: Heart disease is not related to the quantity of smoke as does the lung disease like COPD, lung cancer etc. Even a single puff of smoking is enough to have a disastrous effect.  The risk of Coronary artery disease reduces to half within six months after one quits smoking and almost comes to a nonsmoker level within 2 -5 years after stoppage.

Healthy Diet: It included more of vegetables and fruits, avoidance of red meat, dairy products, coconut and palm oils, using less salt, avoid added sugars, limit solid fats and refined grains and drinking alcohol in moderation. In short, it is good to fill half of our eating plates with fruits and vegetables.

Physical Activity: It is one of the vital activities to reduce the accumulation of almost all other risk factors. It has been seen that a vigorous walking for about 30 minutes on almost 5 days a week reduces the high blood pressure, improves good cholesterol (HDL), reduces bad cholesterol (LDL), lowers risk of new onset diabetes, improves sugar level in diabetics and shuns the extra weight.

Maintain a Healthy Weight: A Body Mass Index (BMI) of less than 25 kg/m2 and waist circumference of less than 40 inch in male (< 35 inch in female) are the goal for preventing and treating coronary artery disease.

Stress and Good Sleep: A minimum of 8 hours sound sleep during night and a short nap during day is considered to be the beneficial for heart. A sudden surge in extremes of emotions like anger, depression etc should be avoided as it can trigger a heart attack by altering the hormonal balance and causing a plaque to rupture and block the whole vassal. A holistic approach and meditation techniques should be practiced to calm down such extreme emotions.

Blood Pressure: After proper consultation and requisitive investigative tests the medicines prescribed for prevention and treatment of particular risk factors should be followed religiously. A normal or near normal value of the risk factor has a tremendous impact in avoidance of coronary artery disease. Even a few mmHg drops in blood pressure reduces the incidence of angina and heart attacks by manifold.

Diabetes: The stringent control of blood sugar by lifestyle modification, dietary control and medicines is of utmost importance for delaying the onset of CAD. More the duration of diabetes, stricter should be the control.

Dyslipidemia: Proper care should be taken while evaluating the lipid profile of the person with more focus on LDL and non HDL cholesterol and definitive treatment should be started only after a strict lifestyle modification.

Natural Health and natural Heart is the precious possession one can have and it is possible to keep this possession healthy only when we think of our health first, avoid the risk factors for disease and more importantly priorities our health by regular Health Checkups. Whatever we as Interventional Cardiologists do, we only mend the Broken Hearts. Let’s take our best and healthier foot forward, work to prevent our hearts from being broken. Let’s spend on Health rather than Disease because if Health is lost, everything is lost.

The Truth About Thrush in Men

The term thrush refers to the more commonly known problem as a yeast infection. This is known to be caused due to a candida fungus that is found in the body. This is known to show up as white patches in the mouth, tongue and other affected areas. It is more common to be found in babies but can affect anyone at any age.

Thrush in men is usually found around the penile area in the form of swelling. It is also common for one to suffer from redness and light pain. Thrush in men is also commonly known to produce a white discharge. Like most yeast infections this is also due to excess moisture in the affected area.

You need to understand the reasons behind why thrush in men occurs. One of the main causes is being exposed to excess moisture. Another reason why thrush in men occurs is due to being unhygienic towards the affected region. This is why one should always take extra care.

Recent research has shown that it is more common for one to suffer from thrush that is already suffering from some sort of problem. These problems are mainly linked with the immune system of a person's body.

Some common health problems such as HIV and diabetes are known to case thrush in men. It is also known for thrush to develop due to consuming certain types of medication on a regular basis. For this reason it is important to make sure you consume those medications that will not promote the problem.

It is common for men to suffer from thrush due to sexual activity. Having sexual relations with someone that suffers from thrush is also another cause for men being infected. For this reason it is urged that men take extra precaution when having any for of sexual relations to minimize their risk.

Many feel that dealing with thrush is a complicated procedure however this is not the case. If treated properly you will realize that it is quite a simple process. You can simply buy and over the counter tropical cream that can be applied t the penile region. You can expect to see positive results within a matter of days.

It is common for one to be fully cured within in a three to eight day period while using the cream. However not all men react positively towards the cream. This is where you are better of being prescribed antifungal pills by the doctors. These are also known to be very effective as well.

It is very important that after curing your problem, you make sure that you make the necessary changes so that the problem does not reoccur again. This would mean making dietary changes that does not involve yeast. Also it is a good idea to become a bit more hygienic by making sure that you washing your genital regions properly and regularly.

Olive Leaf Extract Helps Control Hepatitis C Virus

I have recently come across a new product which is all natural. I found out about this product when a friend was told that he had been infected with the deadly Hepatitis C Virus. He was informed that he would be a candidate for a liver transplant in 2 to 5 years. He was also told that the drug Interferon would be the next on his agenda. After he researched alternative solutions, he found East Park Research Inc. where he met with the Founder and CEO Gordon Melcher. After hearing about East Park Research's product D-Lenolate which is a patented extraction and delivery system of the olive leaf, he had nothing to loose by trying it.

He started his journey with his ALT levels at 141 and climbing. These levels should be 9-50. These elevated levels show that there is a battle going on within the liver itself. After 2 months of being on this all natural regime, he was retested and to the doctors surprise his ALT levels dropped to an amazing ALT level of 20 which was now in the normal range. No one could say for sure why this happened and his medical doctors were left speechless. The blood tests do not lie and he contributes the miraculous drop of his ALT levels to the all natural D-Lenolate that he was taking.

D-Lenolate can be used to help many people where antibiotics have failed. Only now has scientific research shown that the active ingredient in Olive Leaf Extract (d-leno late) has vast therapeutic properties that stops the overgrowth of Candida Albicans which cause a range of health problems and contributes to depression and chronic fatigue. The olive leaf helps the immune system to fight off what the body was not able to do by itself. That means there is a new hope for people experiencing mysterious systems that will not go away.

Understanding Congenital Heart Disease

Congenital heart disease is the form of heart disease that a person is born with. The affects of any form of heart disease can be deadly, but for the person with congenital defects making lifestyle change such as diet and exercise will not prevent or reverse the effects of their form of this disease. Getting diagnosed early in life is the best defense against this kind of heart condition.

Congenital heart disease is an actual defect of the heart or large blood vessels that connect to the heart. This type of defect is something that people are born with. Other forms of heart disease form over time, and in most cases are caused by unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyles. Most people are diagnosed with a congenital heart defect a week or two after they are born. Considering it is one of the most common birth defects all doctors are trained to recognize the signs and symptoms that a new born infant will present if they have this type of defect.

For the unborn baby this type of defect is not life threatening because they are still using their mother’s cardiovascular system, through their attachment to the placenta, to pump blood and nutrients through their own circulatory system. Their heart is beating and there are times that a defect can be seen with an ultrasound but the majority of defects remain undiagnosed until after the baby is born and their own heart takes over.

There are many different forms of congenital heart disease so the treatments for these forms can vary. For some people surgery to fix the defect is recommended, for others prescription medications along with a strict diet and exercise program will keep any problems in check. Anyone with this type of heart problem must follow the advice and program laid out by their cardiologist. Their life depends on it.

For those who suffer from congenital heart disease it is a condition that they will spend their life time fighting. While it is a disease to be wary of with doctors able to detect it early in life those who suffer from it can lead long productive lives. Medical science and technology is constantly making inroads into the treatment of congenital defects and this along with patients who take responsibility for living a healthy life style can effectively manage their condition.

End Stage Alcoholism – The End Of The Battle

One of my best friend’s father died from end stage alcoholism. His liver finally just shut down. He was only 54 at the time. What makes this even sadder is that even though he knew he was dying, he still drank every day until he passed away at home.

For the longest time when I thought of an alcoholic, I thought about their family. In my mind a alcoholic was a violent person who beat their family. I thought about the beatings that might have been handed out. I never really thought about what the alcoholic was doing to their body. Up until my friends father, I never knew anyone who died from alcoholism. I knew plenty alcoholics but I never knew the damage it could do to your body.

Some of the more common problems in end stage alcoholism deal with your liver. There is fatty liver which is a build up of fat in your liver cells. There is also alcoholic liver disease or Cirrhosis of the liver. Alcoholic cirrhosis can happen after over a decade of drinking. With cirrhosis of the liver, scar tissue starts to replace normal and healthy tissue. This scar tissue blocks the flow of blood through the liver which means it will not work as it should. Cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death by disease.

A majority of the time there is no symptoms of Cirrhosis in the early stages but as time goes on and you continue to drink you may start experience exhaustion, loss of appetite, abdominal pain and spider like blood vessel on your skin. As the disease progresses and your liver loses more and more of its healthy tissue you may find yourself experiencing jaundice. Jaundice is the yellowing of the skin and eyes and occurs when the liver does not absorb enough bilirubin. You might also start bruising and bleeding easier because you liver is not producing enough proteins needed for blood clotting.

Another complication that comes from Cirrhosis is the risk of toxins in the blood or even the brain. Your liver can not remove the toxins from the blood and it can travel to your brain. The risk of toxic build up could be fatal if it is not treated. These are just some of the complications that can come from cirrhosis.

One of worst things about liver damage is that it can not be reversed. Cirrhosis can not be reversed. Once the damage is done, it is done. The good news is you can stop or at least prolong further progression and ease some of the complications. In order to do that, you would simply have to stop drinking. For some people, it is not that easy. This is the reason why most people in end stage usually wind up dead. They literally drink themselves to death and their liver can not handle it anymore.