How to Cure Yeast Vaginal Infections

Candida is the family name a yeast type fungus. The most common is called Candida albicans. Typically the infection is with Women, but Men can also contract Candida. The most common occurrence is Vaginitis for woman, others are oral thrush, athletes foot, jock itch, ringworm, nappy rash. Candida yeast can migrate via the blood stream which is then called a systemic yeast infection, which is rare.

The first symptom is usually the itch, which then becomes itchier and quite annoying. In the case of yeast vaginal infections a white discharge can occur, redness, swelling, with a burning pain and discomfort during intercourse. These are some other symptoms, Memory loss, sugar cravings, Headaches, Bad breath, Shortness of breath, Diarrhoea, panic attacks, Mood swings, blurred vision, Impotence, bloating, Rectal itching, Menstrual pain, Constipation, Dandruff, Severe itching, Sore throat, Abdominal pain, burning tongue, chronic dental problems, anxiety, white spots on the tongue and in the mouth, respiratory illness, diabetes, endometriosis, gas, Nagging cough, brown coloured mucus in the back of the throat, hyperacidity / acid reflux , kidney and bladder infections, Skin lesions, Canker sores, Alcohol intolerance, Food allergies, difficulty swallowing, Hypoglycaemia, tingling sensations, asthma

Systemic Yeast Infections. When the infections are left untreated, it becomes more difficult to treat. If a Candida overgrowth happens the fungus can travel via the bloodstream and tries to attack organs in the body. This is called systemic yeast infection and is a rare condition.

Causes of Candida Infections. Antibiotic drugs are good at killing infections, but in the action of wiping out the invader the side effect is they can also kill the good bacteria. These good bacteria help inhibit the fungus going into overgrowth. Fungus feed on sugar. If there is an over abundance of sugar, yeast will flourish. Hormones. For women, when there is a hormone imbalance of oestrogen and progesterone, this decreases the pH (more acid). Is a good this environment for overgrowth yeast infection. This is the reason why vaginal infections are common for pregnant women or women with other menstrual disorders. Stress and Anxiety makes the adrenal glands produce the anti-stress hormone called Cortisol. Other causes are Obesity, sugar cravings, Birth control pills containing Estrogen, high levels of mercury, lack of sleep, poor personal hygiene, excessive steroid use prolonged skin areas to water, fatigue.

Special Food Diets most of the time do not cure the problem. The general reduction in sugar and yeast based diets reduce the symptoms, and as soon as the diet changes the infection will return.

For immediate relief of Yeast Vaginal Infections using off the shelf products.
Briefly soak a tampon in the unsweetened yogurt with Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria and insert overnight until the symptoms clear. Or lightly apply Tea Tree oil to a tampon plus a lubricant like olive oil or KY Jelly, overnight until symptoms clear. For skin infections using natural antifungal agents like garlic paste upon on the skin or rub Tea Tree oil into the effected area, also good for nail infections.

For infections that are Systemic, Oxygen based therapy using Hydrogen Peroxide is a cheap product that kills Candida because it is rich in oxygen, and does not harm the beneficial bacteria. Food grade Hydrogen Peroxide can be taken orally. Your Chemist or Drug Store sells it at 35% concentration, which must be diluted first. For a do-it yourself recipe, for week one, mix 1 drops of Hydrogen Peroxide into 6-8 ounce (approx 200ml) of distilled water and drink 3 times a day on an empty stomach. For week two increase to 2 drops then 3 drops on the third week. This will detoxify your body, and cause stored toxins to come out quickly. This is usually unpleasant for the first few days (toxic flush syndrome), after this you will feel a lot better. Follow up with Probiotics after, ie not at the same time. Using Probiotics is also beneficial because Lactobacillus Acidophilus bacteria also produce Hydrogen Peroxide. There are many Probiotic products available at the grocery store or health store.

FYI: Also Candida Albicans has been spelled incorrectly color : as Candida Albican .

Heart Disease: America's leading Cause of Death – An "Equal Opportunity" Illness by Lawrence Broxmeyer MD

Inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis, especially in acute coronary syndromes such as happen with a heart attack. And it was the very inability of ‘established’ risk factors such as high blood cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia), high blood pressure (hypertension) and smoking to fully explain the incidence of cardiovascular disease that has resulted in historically repeated calls to search out an infectious cause and the specific microbe behind it. Today, half of US heart victims have acceptable cholesterol levels, including HDL and LDL fractions, and 25% or more have none of the “risk factors” associated with heart disease, including smoking, high blood pressure or obesity, most of which are not inconsistent with being caused by infection to begin with. [1,2] Cholesterol itself was on the rise in Japanese blood during the very decade (1980-1989) when its incidence in coronary heart disease was on its way down. [22] So Nieto stressed the need to continue to look for an infectious disease behind heart disease. [3}

Which Disease?

Ever since a 1988 report of raised antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae in patients with heart disease, it was hoped that this microbe might be behind heart disease and atherosclerosis [28] Hurting this was the low incidence of atherosclerosis in the tropics despite Chlamydia’s high frequency there. [29]. Also Loehe, Bittman and other groups concluded that although Chlamydia, on occasion, might be present, it was not a causative factor in heart disease [30], because there was no correlation between the severity or extent of atherosclerosis and the involvement of chlamydial infection. Recently the Chlamydial hypothesis has been subject to a flurry of antibiotic trials, with mixed results, leaving some investigators to conclude that possibly Chlamydia doesn’t even play a role in atherosclerosis. [42] Certainly this was born out in two sizeable trials, one of which [47] had 1,187 participant. In neither trial [48] could any of the commonly thought of bacterial causes of heart problems – Chlamydia pneumonia and Helobacter pylori be correlated with cardiovascular disease. Nor could a virus. Also, in those trials which did show benefit antibiotics used (Azithromycin, Clarithromycin) are first line agents against certain forms of tuberculosis (fowl tuberculosis or Mycobacterium avium). Contrary to common belief, TB infections occur as a mixed infection with “atypical” TB in up to 11% of cases, even in HIV free individuals. [41] Today the antibiotic Rapamycin is used to coat coronary stents. [45] Rapamycin enhances the killing of mycobacteria like tuberculosis by human white blood cells called macrophages. [46]

Historical Associations

The association between active pulmonary tuberculosis and Acute Myocardial Infarction or heart attack has been reported and stubbornly ignored for around four and a half decades. Certainly, TB shares a more striking connection to heart disease than its nearest competitor, Chlamydia pneumonia. CDC maps for cardiovascular disease case rates bear a striking resemblance to comparable state and regional tuberculosis maps. [4,5]

Long before there was such a thing as a ‘heart specialist’ The National Tuberculosis Association created an offshoot called the American Heart Association (AHA). In one of its first bulletins, the American Heart Association came up with a long list of similarities between tuberculosis and heart disease. [17] And Ellis’s 1977 New England Journal of Medicine article [6], confirmed that the mortality rate for TB and heart disease were curiously about the same: 200 to 300 persons per 100,000.

By 1965, Rutgers investigators Livingston and Alexander-Jackson, working with sterile, post-catastrophic coronary artery and muscle specimens, established low-grade tubercular infection, staining ‘acid-fast’ (stains which did not decolorize when acid-alcohol was added) occuring in all ischemic heart specimens. [11] In that same year Russian investigators began generating their own proof that tuberculosis was causative in both atherosclerotic heart disease [18,19,20,21] and acute myocardial infarction (a heart attack) itself. [13,14,15].

Measuring Heart Trouble With Cardiac Enzymes In The Blood

Cases were soon on record of individuals with no cardiac risk factors, presenting with acute onset chest pain, ST elevation on their electrocardiogram (EKG), and elevated cardiac enzymes – all indicative of a heart attack with no other involvement than pulmonary tuberculosis [37]. As with its predecessor creatine kinase (CK-MB), today’s new enzymatic gold standard for detecting a heart attack, the troponins, are elevated in disseminated tuberculosis, an example of which can be found in TB’s role in acute pericarditis. [43]. Acute pericarditis, often not detected either until death was historically linked most commonly to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 1951, Christian [44] suggested that viral infection was more responsible for “idiopathic” (of unknown cause) or “benign” pericarditis. Such a viral cause, however, was never substantiated in many cases. Also, when it was found that the fatty substance (phospolipid) phosphatidylinositol  was not only housed itself inside TB’s cell wall, but was a potent coagulant and thrombin former as well – it further raised the question as to whether M. tuberculosis, by its very nature, lays down the conditions for the vessel clogging atherosclerosis behind heart disease and myocardial infarctions or heart attacks. [31]

Livingston and Alexander-Jackson [11] were far from the first ones to document lab evidence that TB can cause heart disease. Hektoen [7], Osler [8], and Schwartz [11], all documented lab and animal evidence to this effect. MacCallum [9] claimed that of all the infectious causes of heart disease, one one, tuberculosis, caused arteriosclerosis. At autopsy MacCallum cited 101 cases of advance tuberculous arteriosclerosis. In separate studies, Kossowsky [13], Tarakanova [14] and Ferrari-Sacco [15] all directly linked heart attacks with pulmonary tuberculosis.

Further evidence

There can no longer be any doubt that tubercular protein HSP-65 is involved in atherosclerosis. Xu [12] used it to cause experimental atherosclerosis in laboratory animals with normal cholesterol. George and Shoenfeld found it not only in atherosclerosis but fatty streak formation in cardiovascular blood vessels. [32] Mukherjee and De Benedictis showed also that the higher the antibodies against such tubercular protein in the body, the higher the possibility of “restenosis” or future closure of heart vessels. Also Afek proved that the higher the amount of tuberculoprotein (HSP-65) administered, the larger the area of vessel clogging atherosclerosis, even despite a low-fat diet. [34] Xu saw similar changes in New Zealand White Rabbits. [35] Xu’s rabbits had normal serum cholesterol, but when injected with tubercular protein, their arteries soon developed the classic features of arteriosclerosis in humans – both with regards to inflammatory cell accumulation and smooth cell proliferation. [IBID]. The only finding missing from Xu’s animals were “foam cells” – fat laden tissue white blood cells called macrophages in which tuberculosis lives and thrives. Xu remedied this by subjecting his animals to a cholesterol rich diet in addition to tubercular protein. this combination produced classic human heart disease, with foam cells. Xu continued to find sustained antibodies to HSP-65 in human subjects with the severe atherosclerosis predictive of mortality. [49] By 2004 Mandal and Xu even confirmed a positive association between high levels of antibodies to HSP-65, which are cytotoxic, and the vexing atrial fibrillation that often accompanies cardiac surgery. [50]

Present day heart disease “markers” have been suggest as indicators of possible heart disease, even in the 25 million US patients who have none of its “risk factors”. These include blood test for C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-6 and homocysteine [39] – all of which are similarly elevated in tuberculosis. [32,33,34,40,36].

Although blood cholesterol seems an imperfect criterion by itself for determining coronary heart disease, its intimate interaction with TB is unique. Tuberculosis is the only microorganism to depend on cholesterol for its destructive pathogenesis, and it relies upon cholesterol to enter the body’s white blood cell macrophages. [23] The tuberculous bacilli alone is able to produce [24], esterify [25], take up, modify, accumulate [26], and promote the deposition of, and release [27] of cholesterol. The statins, among the most popular drugs in America (Lipitor), inhibit Coenzyme-A compounds, and as such lower serum cholesterol levels. But they do more. Specifically, when macrophages were depleted of cholesterol by these agents, it hinders tuberculosis’s entrance into the body’s macrophages that TB likes to house in, thrive in, and depends upon. [23]

Nieto concludes that the introduction of antibiotic therapies in the 1940’s and 1950’s could have contributed to the decline of heart disease and heart attacks, and so, by 2000, the CDC found that 14% of the cardiologists in Alaska and West Virginia treated heart patients with antibiotics for angina, heat attacks, angioplasty or after by-pass surgery.


In Tuberculosis in Disguise, Rab and Rahman report cases of congestive heart failure and ischemic heart disease (IHD) with chest pain, raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leukocytosis (elevated white cell count) and inverted T-waves across the chest leads in an Electrocardiogram – otherwise indistinguishable from a heart attack, which turned out to be miliary (systemic) tuberculosis. [38]

Though more than 120 years have passed since its discovery Mycobacterium tuberculosis is still the leading cause of infectious death globally due to a single infectious agent. At least a staggering 1.7 million around the globe die of tuberculosis each year, while another 1.9 million are infected and at risk for active tubercular disease. [16] The World Health Organization [WHO] estimates that 1/3 of the planet has contracted TB. It would take such a disease of such magnitude to adequately explain the scope of cardiovascular disease, which affects, according to the CDC (Centers for Disease Control) about 61 million people, or almost one-fourth of the population of the US alone. Almost 6 million US hospitalizations each year are due to cardiovascular disease, which has become an equal opportunity disease that is now both the leading cause of death among women as well as the general US population.

There is at least as much, and probably much more evidence that Mycobacteria, particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes cardiovascular disease than there is regarding Chlamydia Pneumoniae. Yet oddly, to this point Chlamydia has been pursued in therapeutic antibiotic trial after trial…………with not one such trial directed towards tuberculosis.


1. Benson RL, Smith KG. Experimental arteritis and arteriosclerosis associated with          streptococcal      inoculations. Arch Pathol 1931;12:924–40.

2. Thom DH, Grayston JT. Association of prior infection with Chlamydia    pneumoniae and angiographically demonstrated coronary artery disease. JAMA 1992;268:68–72.

3. Nieto FJ. Infections and atherosclerosis: new clues from an old hypothesis. Am J Epidemiol 1998;148(10):937–48.

4. CDC Map: TB case rates, United States, 2001. Atlanta Georgia: US Department of Health, Education and Welfare CDC; 2001.

5. CDC Map total cardiovascular disease – 1995 death rate. Atlanta Georgia: US Department of Health, Education Welfare CDC; 1995.

6. Ellis JG. Plague tuberculosis and plague atherosclerosis. The New England J Med 1977;296(12):695.

7. Hektoen L. The vascular changes of tuberculous meningitis. J Exper Med 1986:112.

8. Osler W. Diseases of the arteries. In: Osler W, MacCrae T, editors. Modern medicine Its theory and practice in original contributions by Americans and foreign authors, vol. 4. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Fabiger; 1908. p. 426–47.

9. MacCallum WG. Acute and chronic infections as etiological factors in arteriosclerosis. In: Cowdry EV, editor. Arteriosclerosis A survey of the problem. New York: MacMillan Co; 1933. p. 355–62.

10. Schwartz P. Amyloid degeneration and tuberculosis in the aged. Gerontologia 1972;18(5-6):321–62.

11. Livingston V. Cancer: a new breakthough. Los Angeles: Nash Publishing; 1972.

12.  Xu Q. Dietrich Induction of arteriosclerosis in normocholesterolemic mice and rabbits by immunization with heat shock protein 65. Arterioscler Thromb 1992;12:789–99.

13. Kossowsky WA, Rafii S. Letter: acute myocardial infarction in miliary tuberculosis. Ann Intern Med 1975;82(6):813–4.

14. Tarakanova KN, Terent’eva GM. Myocardial infarct in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Probl Tuberk 1972;50(4):90–1.

15. Ferrari-Sacco A, Ferraro U. Myocardial Infarct and Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Discussion of 2 cases of myocardiocoronary disease appearing during hospitalization in a sanatorium. Minerva Cardioangiol 1966;14(8):465–75.

16. Dye C, Scheele S. Global burden of tuberculosis: estimated incidence, prevalence, and mortality by country. JAMA 1999;282:677–86.

17. AHA Similarity of tuberculosis and heart disease. Bull Am Heart Assoc 1927;2(5):22.

18. Bruade VI. Cardiovascular diseases in conjunction with pulmonary tuberculosis (pathological-anatomical findings). Sov Med 1966;29(12):104–7.

19. Kamyshnikova VS, Kolb VG. Biochemical factors involved in atherogenesis in pulmonary tuberculosis. Probl Tuberk 1984;11:48–52.

20. Kazykhanov NS. Lung tuberculosis in patients with atherosclerosis. Sov Med 1965;28(8):37–44.

21. Kazykhanov NS. Arteriosclerosis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Kardiologiia 1967;7(10):137.

22. Okayama A. Ueshima changes in total serum cholesterol and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Japan, 1980–1989. Int J Epidemiol 1993;22:1038–47.

23. Gatfield J, Pieters J. Essential role for cholesterol in entry of mycobacteria in macrophages. Science 2000;288:1647–750.

24. Lamb DC, Kelly DE. A sterol biosynthetic pathway in mycobacterium. FEBS Lett 1998;437(1-2):142–4.

25. Kondo E, Kanai K. Accumulation of cholesterol esters in macrophages incubated with mycobacteria in vitro. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1976;29(3):123–37.

26. Av-Gay Y, Sobouti R. Cholesterol is accumulated by mycobacteria but its degradation is limited to non-pathogenic Heart disease: the greatest ‘risk’ factor of them all 777 fast growing mycobacteria. Can J Microbiol 2000;46(9):826–31.

27. Kamyshnikov VS, Kolb VG. Lipid metabolism and atherogenesis in tuberculosis in experimental animals. Probl Tuberk 1993;4:53–5.

28. Gurfinkel E, Bozovich G. Chlamydia pneumoniae: inflammation and instability of the atherosclerotic plaque. Atherosclerosis 1998;140(Suppl 1):31–5.

29. Stille W, Dittmann R. Arteriosclerosis as a sequela of chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. Herz 1998;23(3):185–92.

30. Loehe F, Bittmann I. Chlamydia pneumoniae in atherosclerotic lesions of patients undergoing vascular surgery. Ann Vasc Surg 2002;16(4):467–73.

31. Rota S  Rota S  Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Atherosclerosis  Acta. Med. Okayama 59:6 pp.247-251 2005

32. George J, Shoenfeld Y. Enhanced fatty streak formation in C57BL/6J Mice by immunization with heat shock protein-65 arteriosclerosis. Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:505–10.

33. Mukherjee M. De Benedictis association of antibodies to heat-shock protein-65 with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and subsequent restenosis. Thromb Haemost 1996;75(2):258–60.

34. Afek A, George J. Immunization of low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDL-RD) mice with heat shock protein 65 (HSP-65) promotes early atherosclerosis. J Autoimmun 2000;14(2):115–21.

35. Xu Q, Kleindienst R. Increased expression of heat shock protein 65 coincides with a population of infiltrating T lymphocytes in atherosclerotic lesions of rabbits specifically responding to heat shock protein 65. J Clin Invest 1993;91:2693–702.

36. Markkansen T, Levanto A. Folic acid and vitamin B12 in tuberculosis. Scand J Haemat 1967;4:283–91.

37. Bakalli A  Osmani B  Acute myocardial infarction and pulmonary tuberculosis in a young female patient: a case report Cases Journal 1: 246 2008

38.  Rab SM, Rahman M. Tuberculosis in disguise. Brit J Dis Chest 1967;61:90–4.

39. Wilson PW. Homocysteine and coronary heart disease: how great is the hazard? JAMA 2002;288(16):2042–3.

40. Bajaj G, Rattan A. Prognostic value of ‘C’ reactive protein in tuberculosis. Indian Pediatr 1989;26(10):1010–3.

41. Tsukamura M, Mizuno S. Occurrence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and strains of the Mycobacterium avium- M. intracellulare complex together in the sputum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Tubercle 1981;62:43-46.

42. Pislru S Van de Werf F  Editorial: Antibiotic Therapy for Coronary Artery Disease. Can Wizard Change It All? JAMA. 2003;290: 1515-1516

43.  Imazio M Demichelis B  Cardiac Troponin I in Acute Pericarditis  Journal of the American College of Cardiology Vol.42, No. 12 pp. 2144-2148  2003

44. Christian HA Nearly ten decades of interest in idiopathic pericarditis  Am. Heart J. 42:654 1961

45. Li YL  Wan Z  Comparison of Sirolimus- and Paclitaxel-Eluting Stents in Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials. Clin Cardiol. 2010 Sep;33(9):583-90.

46. Floto AF  Sarkar S Perlstein EO Addendum: Small Molecule Enhancers of Rapamycin-Induced TOR Inhibition Promote Autophagy, Reduce Toxicity in Huntington’s Disease Models and Enhance Killing of Mycobacteria by Macrophages. Autophagy  Landes Bioscience 3:6, 620-622; November/December 2007.

47. Haider AW Wilson PW  The association of seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumonia, and cytomegalovirus with risk of cardiovascular disease: a prospective study. J. Am Coll Cardiol. 2002 Oct 16;40(8):1408-13.

48.  Ridker PM Kundsin RB Prospective study of Chlamydia pneumonia IgG seropositivity and risks of future myocardial infarction. Circulation 1999 Mar 9;99(9):1161-4.

49. Xu Q Kiechl S Association of Serum Antibodies to Heat-Shock Protein 65 With Carotid Atherosclerosis – Clinical Significance Determined in a Follow-Up Study Circulation 1999;100:1169-1174.

50. Mandal K Jahangiri M  Association of Anti-Heat Shock Protein 65 Antibodies With Development of Postoperative Atrial  Fibrillation.  Circulation 2004;110:2588-2590.


© 2010

3 Dangerous Effects Processed Foods Have For People With GERD, Heartburn, Or Acid Reflux

Dangerous, but subtle and crafty in a way.

A regular consumption of processed foods in the long run has a tremendous negative effect in one's digestive system, giving way to some diseases such as GERD, acid reflux, constipation, gastritis and many more. These kinds of "foods" have become quite popular and have been treated more of a necessity over the last decade. Technology has caused us great advances in every facet of our lives, although that would be excluding our eating habits. The concept of getting one's meal fast, quick and hassle-free has created a mindset and a culture that is far from the basics, and their results can clearly be seen:

1. Processed foods have no nutrients. – You can end up overly consuming a lot of these foods, but still end up under nourished. In actuality, they provide no usable stuff for your body, and even use up a ton of digestive energy, which then simply turns to nothing but waste. That's why whenever you finish that box of chocolate chip cookies, or pack of tortilla chips, you still end up hungry. Zero nutrients.

2. Processed foods have no water. – In one of my articles, I stressed the value of having high-water content foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables. The water contained in these foods is used to carry nutrients into your body and cleanse your digestive system as well in the process. In the opposite end, water is not a present and popular ingredient in processed foods, and the result is they just add to your waste pile, making you even more toxic.

3. Processed foods leave you hungry again and again. – I partly touched on this in my first point. That hunger feeling that your body has is triggered by a need for real food, specifically nutrients from real food. It is not for something to occupy that space in your stomach. Because processed foods have no real nourishment, even though your stomach may be physically full, your body thinks it still needs more food due to the fact that it has not received any real nourishment from what you put into your stomach.

Keep making this a habit and the vicious cycle will just continue. You feel hungry, then you'll eat more. You'll feel hungry again, and you'll eat more again. If you have a digestive disorder right now, I'm sure you know one of the major reasons why it got there in the first place. If you want to look for a natural cure for your GERD, acid reflux, or any stomach problem you have, you can try doing yourself a favor by spending the majority of your time in the grocery story where the real, fresh foods are located.

Post-operative Recovery in Heart Attack Patients

The general notion that a heart attack survivor needs to remember is that the operation was successful and if he takes care of himself more, the heart will heal nicely by itself. Once all of the post-operative tests have been done and the doctor has deemed the patient well on his way to recovery, he will most likely not require further treatment and life can begin for him again. Restricting activities could inhibit real recovery, particularly on the psychological level. After operation, some men could think that if exertion in any way will bring them back in the emergency room. The challenge now becomes dealing with the anxiety and fear which plague men who have had heart surgery.

Life After a Heart Operation

A post operative heart attack survivor may return to his job; start playing bowling again and simply enjoy the activities he enjoyed in the past, without the excess. Keeping in mind all the precautions that the doctor told him, he may list the activities he wants to return to and start engaging in them one at a time.

There are some things that a heart surgery patient definitely needs to avoid, such as smoking and binge eating. A list of the exercises that will improve circulation must be followed. Spending 30 minutes a day leisurely swimming or walking around the park is a good start to keep that heart rate up. His family and friends could show most of their support by eating sodium-free, fat-free and cholesterol-free dishes with him.

Heart attack survivors may have sex again, after the mandatory 6 weeks to 2 months of rest. If the doctor gives the go signal, post operation heart surgery patients who experience libido problems could take medication to give them back the healthy intimacy that they have always enjoyed with their partners.

After the heart operation, a man could be dealing with a lot of shock, so it’s normal to feel hesitant about doing even the most menial activities. However, the stress brought about by inactivity and fear could invite more heart trouble. Keeping optimism high and stress low is the key to fully recovering from a heart attack.

Best Treatment For Lymphedema – Tips and Ideas

The importance of the lymphatic system for human health is tremendous. Viruses, bacteria and waste are collected by the lymph and transported to lymph nodes where they are filtered. Anything that interferes with the functioning of the lymphatic system can lead to weakened immune response, swelling, shortness of breath and pain.

Lymphedema is one condition that affects the functioning of the lymphatic system. Knowing what it is and getting accurate diagnosis will help for the selection of the best treatment for lymphedema.

What is Lymphedema?

Lymphedema is a condition characterized by the inability of the lymph nodes to drain the lymph adequately. It commonly occurs in the limbs. Lymphedema can occur on its own, in which case it is called primary. Secondary lymphedema is caused by another medical condition like cancer or an infection.

The problem is characterized by a wide range of symptoms. Individuals that suffer from primary or secondary lymphedema could experience any of the following:

  • Swelling and pain in the area where lymph accumulates.
  • The swelling will affect the range of motions.
  • Heaviness and a feeling of tightness in the arm or the leg.
  • Asymmetry between the two arms or legs.
  • Inflammation resulting from the long-term accumulation of lymph.
  • Thickened skin.
  • Suppressed functioning of the immune system.

A thorough medical examination will enable a physician to diagnose lymphedema adequately. A physician will also ask for the patient’s medical history to identify a cause of secondary lymphedema. Secondary lymphedema is the one that occurs most commonly, which is why doctors will try to identify the health problem or the procedure (surgery is one example) that led to the accumulation of lymph in the arm or the leg.

Treatment Options for Lymphedema

The best treatment for lymphedema depends on the severity of the condition.

Elastic sleeves or stockings and compression pumps are commonly used by people who suffer from lymphedema. A compression pump comes with a sleeve and it delivers sequential compression. The best aspect of such devices is that they can be used both at medical facilities and at home.

Exercise is also incredibly beneficial for people that suffer from lymphedema. The gentle contraction of the arm and leg muscles enables the lymph to flow through the lymphatic system more efficiently.

In more severe cases, a physician may recommend surgery. Surgery will be needed in the case of a limb that has swollen excessively and that affects the patient’s quality of life. The liquid buildup will be removed from the tissue but lymph could possibly start accumulating there once again.

Talking to a physician and understanding what the causes of lymphedema are will help you pick the best treatment for lymphedema. Lifestyle changes and the use of a compression pump can deliver great results. You can also rely on massages and exercise to improve lymph drainage and to feel better.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome and the Candida Diet – Should You Take Antibiotics?

This article tells you about an experience of a friend who has Irritable Bowel Syndrome and also does the candida diet. Today, she is getting down. It is another bad morning in the bathroom. She is afraid that not many investigations are being done. She keeps getting the party line, it is probably IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) and "you really do not want to go through all those investigations, do you?"

Though, blood tests for Celiacs were negative, lowish white cell count (only one reading though), no obvious nasty things in stool culture. Meanwhile, she gets better, she gets worse.

She has been on the candida diet for two months and it has made things a lot better. In the last 2 weeks the bowel problems have come back.

As much as it would be good to have tests for parasites done, she can not find anyone who will bother. They just keep telling her to take antibiotics and that will prove or disprove whether or not she has a bug. It is hard to stay positive sometimes.

Well, having been misdiagnosed (in my opinion) for years and years by Medical Doctors, I would read a lot before making a decision to take antibiotics.

One of my friend is having diet. The diet is making her feel so much better. She is still tired, but not desperate! She is not crying anymore, her cravings for sugar has diminished. No antibiotics, or antidepressant (including St. John's Wort) that has made her this much better this soon.

There are Medical Doctors who acknowledge that Candidiasis exists and treat it in a holistic manner including dietary advice. Just my two cents based upon my limited experience with this treatment.

Various Heart Problems and Their Treatment


Heart disease is a general term that refers to a variety of acute and chronic medical conditions that affect one or more of the components of the heart.. Diseases affecting the heart may be structural or functional. Anything that damages the heart or decreases the heart’s supply of oxygen, makes it less efficient, reduces its ability to fill and pump, will disrupt the coordinated relationship between the heart, kidneys, and blood vessels and will harm not only the heart but the rest of the body as well.

Heart disease is any disorder that affects the heart’s ability to function normally. The most common cause of heart disease is narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart itself.

Heart Failure- Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can’t pump blood the way it should. In some cases, the heart can’t fill with enough blood “Heart failure” doesn’t mean that your heart has stopped or is about to stop working. However, it’s a serious condition that requires medical care. Heart failure is also called congestive heart failure, or CHF. “Congestive” means fluid is building up in the body because the heart isn’t pumping properly.


Treatment of the Cause: If the cause of heart failure is a narrowed or leaking heart valve or an abnormal connection between heart chambers, surgery can often correct the problem. Blockage of a coronary artery may require treatment with drugs, surgery, or angioplasty Antihypertensive drugs can reduce and control high blood pressure. Antibiotics can eliminate some infections. Treatment of a stomach ulcer or use of an iron supplement may correct anemia. Drugs, surgery, or radiation therapy can be used to manage an overactive thyroid gland, and thyroid hormones can be given to manage an under active thyroid gland.
Heart Tumor

Heart Tumors that arise from the normal tissues that makes up theheart. This is in contrast to secondary tumors of the heart, which are typically either metatastic from another part of the body, or infiltrate the heart via direct extension from the surrounding tissues.


A single small noncancerous primary heart tumor can be surgically removed, usually resulting in a cure. If a large noncancerous primary tumor is significantly reducing blood flow through the heart, removal of the part of the tumor that does not grow into the heart wall may improve heart functionabout half of newborns who have noncancerous rhabdomyomas, tumors regress without treatment; in the other half, the tumors do not grow any larger and do not require treatment. In infants and children, a fibroma may be successfully removed if it does not affect the wall between the ventricles (septum). Tumors that affect this wall usually also affect the electrical conduction system of the heart and cannot be surgically removed.

Angina pain-Chest pain that originates from the heart muscle is called angina pectoris. Angina is a signal that the heart muscle is not getting sufficient blood flow, specifically sufficient oxygen. Lack of oxygen is termed ischemia. Blood flow is most often reduced by coronary artery disease (CAD), which causes a narrowing of the arteries that carry blood to the heart muscle. Narrowing in the coronary arteries occurs as a result of calcium and fatty deposits, called plaques. In more severe cases, heart attack (myocardial infarction), heart failure, or rhythm abnormalities can cause sudden cardiac death.

Severe atherosclerotic narrowing of one or more coronary arteries is responsible for myocardial ischemia and angina pectoris in most patients with stable angina pectoris. The coronary arteries of patients with stable angina also contain many nonobstructive plaques, which are prone to fissures or rupture resulting in presentation of acute coronary syndromes (unstable angina, myocardial infarction, sudden ischemic death). In addition to symptomatic relief of symptoms and an increase in angina-free walking time with antianginal drugs or revascularization procedures, the recent emphasis of treatment has been to reduce adverse clinical outcomes (coronary death and myocardial infarction).

More About Eschemic Stroke

The main symptom of ischemic stroke is an immediate or sub-acute occurrence of neurological deficits following prodromal symptoms. This kind of stroke usually attacks when the patient wakes up in the morning or when the person has no physical activity.

Ischemic stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain is blocked and blood flow is stopped. The blockage may be from a blood clot. A clot that forms in artery is called a thrombus. A thrombus usually does not occur in healthy brain artery, but tends to form at or adjacent to an area of a vessel damaged by atherosclerosis. A stroke caused by thrombus in brain artery is called cerebral atherothrombosis or atherothrombotic stroke.

A clot that forms in the heart or a blood vessel leading to the brain is called an embolus. This vessel may be the carotid artery in the front of the brain or the vertebral or basilar artery in the back of the brain. A stroke caused by embolus is called an embolic stroke. An embolus tends to form in the heart because of some diseases, e.g. atrial fibrillation (irregular heart beat), atrial septal defect (small hole in the heart chamber wall), and acute myocardial infarction (heart attack). An embolus occurs in the carotid artery because the vessel was narrowed.

The third form of ischemic stroke is called a lacunar stroke. This stroke results from occlusion of arterioles (small arteries) that penetrate deep into the brain. The small size of the vessel sometime makes lacunar stroke more difficult to diagnose than two types above.

Risk Factors in Coronary Heart Disease

There seem not to be one single cause of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), but medical research have however, shown that a whole range of things can make you more likely to develop Coronary Heart Disease and these are the risk factors. Just like a very high speeding car is more likely to hit and crash into another car than a slower speeding car. So a person with one or more risk factors will be more likely to develop heart disease than someone without any. Though not every very high speeding car crash and not every with Coronary Heart Disease risk factors gets a heart attack, but the chances are undeniably greater.

These risk factors are divided into two groups: the non-modifiable and the modifiable factors.

The non-modifiable risk factors: are as the name implies, are those risk that we can not do anything about. They can not be altered by our lifestyle changes or medical treatments. And they include:

Age and gender: Coronary heart disease becomes more common with older age and it is the strongest predictor of coronary deaths in women. Two third of women who die from heart diseases are ages between 55 and 65 years old. Below the age of 65, it is much more common disease among men then women. This is because after menopause (a period when women menstruating).

Coronary Heart Disease becomes more common among women. It does seem likely that age different among men and women with CHD is related to estrogen hormone that disappear once menstruation stops, this hormone has a way of regulating and maintaining the effects of the Coronary Heart Disease in women. But test carried on women who are undergoing hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have shown some evidence that this can protect against heart diseases. Many doctors are recommending HRT for this reason as well as, of course for other reasons.

Family history or Genetic factor: as with age and gender, we do not choose our parents so we are stuck with our genetic history. If your father or mother had a heart attack below the age of 65, this may increase your own risk significantly, but getting it from a second or third degree relative is less likely. The reason being that the gene we inherit from our parents may make us more liable to have high cholesterol or less insulin production in our body.

It is advisable to have a medical check up from time to time with your doctor in order to reduce or treat the risk on time.

The modifiable risk factors: are the ones that can be influenced by changes in our various lifestyles such as diet, physical exercise and medical treatment. The major risk factors include smoking, raised blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, lack of exercise. While the contributory risk factors are obesity, stress, alcoholism, raises insulin level, fibrinogen, homocysteine ​​and some others.

The risk of you developing Coronary Heart Disease becomes greater the more risk factor you have. Some risk however has much greater effect on your chances of developing Coronary Heart Disease, for instance a smoker with high blood pressure and a raised cholesterol level has a much higher risk than a non-smoker who has these factors.

In general, Coronary Heart Disease is a disease of the affluence, it is rare in the tropics and developing countries but common in North America, northern Europe and Australia and it is more related to lifestyle.

Learn more about To risk Factors in coronary heart DISEASE click here

Knowledge is power, so Learn and Live !

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Factors That Leads To Night Sweats

A medical condition in which an individual suffers from extreme sweating during sleep is known as night sweats. The sweating may be present even in the case when the temperature in the room is cool enough and the person is not in too many bed sheets. Moreover, flushing that is redness on the neck and chest may be experienced.

The sweating may take place to such an extent, leaving the sufferer completely drenched in it. It is a common problem that several people may suffer from and does not count as a serious medical condition.

A number of causes might be responsible for its onset, varying from person to person. To point out one specific cause it is important to have an in-depth examination of the person’s medical history.

Factors that may be responsible include side effects of medications, infections and cancers. Menopause may also be a cause for women, and hot flashes may accompany night sweats.

Idiopathic hyperhidrosis may be another reason of night sweats, as this is a condition in which a person goes through excessive sweating, exceeding the requirements for regulating body temperature.

Tuberculosis, AIDS and cancer are the most commonly linked factors with night sweats. The type of cancer that is usually the most responsible for night sweats is Lymphoma.

In case there is an absence of other conditions that can be interrelated to night sweats, such as infections or the growth of tumors, there is a likelihood that some drug has caused side effects. Such drugs that can lead to night sweats due to a side effect that has taken place include anti-depressant and drugs being used by people on psychiatric help. Drugs such as aspirin may also be responsible, which is usually taken by people who are suffering from high fever, so that it can be brought back to the normal temperature.

Recent Trends in Indian and Global Capital Market

Recent trends in Indian & global capital markets.

Dr. Piyush prakash (Reader: D.A.V. College Kanpur)

and Sandhya Dubey


Overview of Indian Capital Market

The Indian capital market is more than a century old. Its history goes back to 1875, when 22 brokers formed the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE). Over the period, the Indian securities market has evolved continuously to become one o the most dynamic, modern, and efficient securities markets in Asia. Today,

Indian market confirms to best international practices and standards both in terms of structure and in terms of operating efficiency .Indian securities markets are mainly governed by a) The Company’s Act1956, b) the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act 1956 (SCRA Act), and c) the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) Act, 1992. A brief background of these above regulations are given below

a) The Companies Act 1956 deals with issue, allotment and transfer of securities and various aspects relating to company management. It provides norms for disclosures in the public issues, regulations for underwriting, and the issues pertaining to use of premium and discount on various issues.

b) SCRA provides regulations for direct and indirect control of stock exchanges with an aim to prevent undesirable transactions in securities. It provides regulatory jurisdiction to Central Government over stock exchanges, contracts in securities and listing of securities on stock exchanges.

c) The SEBI Act empowers SEBI to protect the interest of investors in the securities market, to promote the development of securities market and to regulate the security market.

The Indian securities market consists of primary (new issues) as well as secondary (stock) market in both equity and debt. The primary market provides the channel for sale of new securities, while the secondary market deals in trading of securities previously issued. The issuers of securities issue (create and sell) new securities in the primary market to raise funds for investment. They do so either through public issues or private placement. There are two major types of issuers who issue securities. The corporate entities issue mainly debt and equity instruments (shares, debentures, etc.), while the governments (central and state governments) issue debt securities (dated securities, treasury bills). The secondary market enables participants who hold securities to adjust their holdings in response to changes in their assessment of risk and return. A variant of secondary market is the forward market, where securities are traded for future delivery and payment in the form of futures and options. The futures and options can be on individual stocks or basket of stocks like index. Two exchanges, namely National Stock Exchange (NSE) and the Stock Exchange, Mumbai (BSE) provide trading of derivatives in single stock futures, index futures, single stock options and index options. Derivatives trading commenced in India in June 2000

Other leading cities in stock market operations

Ahmedabad gained importance next to Bombay with respect to cotton textile industry. After 1880, many mills originated from Ahmedabad and rapidly forged ahead. As new mills were floated, the need for a Stock Exchange at Ahmedabad was realized and in 1894 the brokers formed “The Ahmedabad Share and Stock Brokers’ Association”.

What the cotton textile industry was to Bombay and Ahmedabad, the jute industry was to Calcutta. Also tea and coal industries were the other major industrial groups in Calcutta. After the Share Mania in 1861-65, in the 1870’s there was a sharp boom in jute shares, which was followed by a boom in tea shares in the 1880’s and 1890’s; and a coal boom between 1904 and 1908. On June 1908, some leading brokers formed “The Calcutta Stock Exchange Association”.

In the beginning of the twentieth century, the industrial revolution was on the way in India with the Swadeshi Movement; and with the inauguration of the Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited in 1907, an important stage in industrial advancement under Indian enterprise was reached.

Indian cotton and jute textiles, steel, sugar, paper and flour mills and all companies generally enjoyed phenomenal prosperity, due to the First World War.

In 1920, the then demure city of Madras had the maiden thrill of a stock exchange functioning in its midst, under the name and style of “The Madras Stock Exchange” with 100 members. However, when boom faded, the number of members stood reduced from 100 to 3, by 1923, and so it went out of existence.

In 1935, the stock market activity improved, especially in South India where there was a rapid increase in the number of textile mills and many plantation companies were floated. In 1937, a stock exchange was once again organized in Madras – Madras Stock Exchange Association (Pvt) Limited. (In 1957 the name was changed to Madras Stock Exchange Limited).

Lahore Stock Exchange was formed in 1934 and it had a brief life. It was merged with the Punjab Stock Exchange Limited, which was incorporated in 1936.

Indian Stock Exchanges – An Umbrella Growth

The Second World War broke out in 1939. It gave a sharp boom which was followed by a slump. But, in 1943, the situation changed radically, when India was fully mobilized as a supply base.

On account of the restrictive controls on cotton, bullion, seeds and other commodities, those dealing in them found in the stock market as the only outlet for their activities. They were anxious to join the trade and their number was swelled by numerous others. Many new associations were constituted for the purpose and Stock Exchanges in all parts of the country were floated.

The Uttar Pradesh Stock Exchange Limited (1940), Nagpur Stock Exchange Limited (1940) and Hyderabad Stock Exchange Limited (1944) were incorporated.

In Delhi two stock exchanges – Delhi Stock and Share Brokers’ Association Limited and the Delhi Stocks and Shares Exchange Limited – were floated and later in June 1947, amalgamated into the Delhi Stock Exchange Association Limited.

There are two major indicators of Indian capital market- SENSEX & NIFTY:

What are the Sensex & the Nifty?

The Sensex is an “index”. What is an index? An index is basically an indicator. It gives you a general idea about whether most of the stocks have gone up or most of the stocks have gone down. The Sensex is an indicator of all the major companies of the BSE. The Nifty is an indicator of all the major companies of the NSE. If the Sensex goes up, it means that the prices of the stocks of most of the major companies on the BSE have gone up. If the Sensex goes down, this tells you that the stock price of most of the major stocks on the BSE have gone down. Just like the Sensex represents the top stocks of the BSE, the Nifty represents the top stocks of the NSE. Just in case you are confused, the BSE, is the Bombay Stock Exchange and the NSE is the National Stock Exchange. The BSE is situated at Bombay and the NSE is situated at Delhi. These are the major stock exchanges in the country. There are other stock exchanges like the Calcutta Stock Exchange etc. but they are not as popular as the BSE and the NSE. Most of the stock trading in the country is done though the BSE & the NSE . Besides Sensex and the Nifty there are many other indexes. There is an index that gives you an idea about whether the mid-cap stocks go up and down. This is called the “BSE Mid-cap Index”. There are many other types of index.Unless stock markets provide professionalized service, small investors and foreign investors will not be interested in capital market operations. And capital market being one of the major source of long-term finance for industrial projects, India cannot afford to damage the capital market path. In this regard NSE gains vital importance in the Indian capital market but if we see the sensex & nifty graph there is a great variation.

Down fall or variability in returns. To measure all these crisis FM (Finance  minister) of India has done some measures which are following  :

FM says state-run banks ready to provide credit to small, medium business sectors

RBI to keep a close watch on liquidity

Finance Minister P Chidambaram today said the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) will keep a close watch on liquidity and state-run banks are ready to provide credit to the small and medium business sectors. The finance minister today met the chiefs of state-run banks.

Exports growth slumps to 10.4% in September 2008

Exports up by 30.9% in April-September 2008

Indian   merchandise exports during September 2008, recorded meager 10.4% growth at US $ 13.75 billion, taking the toll from recessionary tendencies in major export destination in US and Europe. On the other hand import growth remaining buoyant surged 43.34% to US $ 24.38 billion, causing the trade deficit to more than double to US $ 10.63 billion in September 2008 compared to US $ 4.55 billion in September 2007. Global financial crisis and recessionary tendencies in major economies have severely impacted India’s export growth, though import surged rampantly.

Soaring crude oil prices placed immense pressure on import bill during the month of September 2008. The share of oil import in total imports surged to 37.31% in September 2008 compared to 34.05% in the corresponding period last year. Oil imports during September 2008 surged 57.1% to US $ 9.1 billion, whereas non-oil import increased 36.2% to US $ 15.28 billion. Cumulative oil import during April-September 2008 stood 59.2% higher at US $ 55.06 billion, while non-oil imports surged 29.3% to US$ 99.68 billion over corresponding period last year.

Exports during April- September 2008 expanded 30.90% to US $ 94.97 billion (36.7% to Rs.405118 crore) while imports advanced 38.6% to US $ 154.74 billion (44.9% to Rs 661208 crore).

In rupee terms, exports scaled up 24.7% to Rs.62641 crore, while imports increased by 61.9% to Rs 111085 crore, in September 2008 compared corresponding period last year.

Trade deficit in April-September was estimated at $59.77 billion as against $39.1 billion in the same period the last fiscal.

PM says govt will take all steps to protect growth

Govt working closely with other countries for coordinated policy action

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh told top business leaders on Monday, 3 November 2008, that the government will take all the necessary monetary and fiscal policy measures to protect growth. The Prime Minister also said the government was working closely with other countries to ensure coordinated policy action for the containment of the global financial crisis.

RBI slashes CRR and SLR by 100 bps each and Repo rate by 50 bps

CRR revised to 5.5%, Repo rates to 7.5% while SLR stands reduced to 24%

RBI has cut CRR by 100 basis points to 5.5%, SLR by100 basis points to 24% and repo rate by 50 basis points to 7.5%, in a surprise move on 1st November 2008. Though the market was expecting a cut, the market is surprised by strong dose of cut in all the three rates in one go.

The cut in CRR will be implemented in two phases of 50 basis points each. CRR will come down to 6.0% effective from the fortnight beginning 25th October 2008 and further down to 5.5% effective from the fortnight beginning 8th November 2008. Incidentally, this is in addition to 250 basis points cut in CRR effective from the fortnight beginning 11th October 2008. Thus, in October 2008 alone, we are seeing 300 bps cut and another 50 bps cut in November 2008. The latest 100 basis point cut in CRR will bring in Rs 40000 crore into the banking system. Together, the 350 basis points cut across October and November 2008 will bring in Rs 140000 crore into the banking system

Since 16 September RBI has been offering an additional liquidity support for banks to the extent of 1% of NDTL under the Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAF) along with waiver of penal interest. Now, RBI making this reduction permanent has reduced the Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) by 100 bps to 24% of NDTL effective from the fortnight beginning 8th November 2008.

Other Measures

RBI has also introduced a special refinance facility for all scheduled commercial banks (excluding RRBs) to provide refinance up to 1% of the relevant bank’s NDTL as of 24th October 2008 at the LAF repo rate up to a maximum period of 90 days. RBI said that during this period, refinance could be flexibly drawn and repaid.

In addition to the cut in SLR and special refinance facility, RBI also extended the limit of liquidity support for banks from 0.5% to 1.5% of NDTL under LAF through relaxation in the maintenance of SLR and the coverage is extended to NBFCs also. Further, RBI said that banks can apportion the total accommodation allowed between Mutual funds and NBFCs flexibly as per their business needs. But RBI directed that this relaxation in SLR should be exclusively used for the purpose of meeting the funding requirement of NBFCs and Mutual funds.

RBI has asked the entities with bulk forex requirements to approach it through their banks. Accordingly, RBI will sell foreign exchange through agent banks to augment supply in the domestic foreign exchange market or intervene directly to meet any demand supply gaps.

RBI has also allowed non-deposit taking NBFCs (NBFCs-ND-SI), as a temporary measure, to raise short-term foreign currency borrowings under the approval route. However, this will be subject to their compliance with prudential norms on capital adequacy and exposure norms.

Further, in the context of forex outflows in the recent period, RBI has decided to conduct buy back of MSS dated securities so as to provide another avenue for injecting liquidity of a more durable nature into the banking system. RBI indicated that this would be calibrated with the market-borrowing programme of the Government of India.


On the growth front, it is important to ensure that credit requirements for productive purposes are adequately met so as to support the growth momentum of the economy. However, the global financial turmoil has had knock-on effects on our financial markets; this has reinforced the importance of focusing on preserving financial stability. The Reserve Bank has reviewed the current and evolving macroeconomic situation and liquidity conditions in the global and domestic financial markets. Based on this review, RBI has taken slew of above measures, including cut in CRR, SLR and repo rate. The total liquidity support provided through the latest reductions in the CRR, SLR and temporary accommodation under the SLR is likely to be in the order of Rs.1,40,481 crore. With RBI announcing slew of liquidity boosting measures overall interest regime in the country is likely to ease in the near term. Some of the banks have already announced interest rate reduction and more are likely to follow soon. The reduction in SLR would release much needed liquidity into the system and signals reduction in the interest rates.

The Reserve Bank will continue to closely monitor the developments in the global and domestic financial markets and will take swift and effective action as appropriate.

Rate cuts at corner

In the wake of the stress on our financial markets as a result of the global financial crisis, the Reserve Bank announced a series of measures starting mid-September 2008 to ease both domestic and foreign exchange liquidity. The task of monetary policy has always centered on managing a judicious balance between price stability, sustaining the growth momentum and maintaining financial stability. The relative emphasis across these objectives has varied from time to time depending on the underlying macroeconomic conditions. At this juncture, the apex bank of the country has focused on financial stability thanks to ease in inflation.

India witnesses the effects global meltdown through liquidity crunch, which reflected in significant growth in call rates- the rate at which banks borrows from each other. The month started with 16.51% weighted call rates which further moved up to18.53% as on 10 October 2008. On review of the liquidity situation, the RBI announced a reduction in CRR by 250 bps to 6.5% effective from fortnight beginning on 11 October 2008. As result of reduction of the reduction in the CRR around Rs 1,00,000 crore was expected to be released into the banking system. The RBI also decided to open a special 14-day fixed rate repo window for a notified amount of Rs 20000 crore with a view to enabling banks to meet the liquidity requirement of mutual funds.

Reflecting the impact of these measures, the average call rate declined to 9.92% as on 13 October 2008 and further tanked to 6.6% as on 17 October and slipped below reverse repo rate to 4.16% on 18 October 2008. However we have seen pressure mounting on inter bank call money rates since 25 October, as banks scrambled to borrow at call money market to meet funding requirements in a holiday-shortened week, while fresh debt auctions also weighed. The RBI has conducted the auctions of Rs 7000 crore worth of treasury bills on 29 October, while Rs 10000 crore worth of securities will be auctioned on 31 October. As result call rates surged to 8.56% on 25 October and further up to 9.35% and 11.26%, as on 27 and 29 October 2008, respectively. The RBI is committed to maintain close watch on the entire financial system to prevent pressures building up in the financial markets and it may take appropriate steps if pressures persist.

The sharp dip in the crude oil prices, RBI aims liquidity boosting measures and easing inflation has compounded bullish sentiments in the bonds market, raising the bond prices incessantly. The yield on 10- year benchmark government securities (g-sec 8.24% 22 April 2018) eased substantially to its 8 months low level 7.5% on 29 October 2008 from 8.44% on 1 October 2008. Bond yield and inflation has a positive co-relation, whereas bonds trade transmits an inverse price-yield relationship. During the week ended 18 October 2008, general price index popularly called inflation has down to 10.68%. It was the fifth sequential week were the inflation has declined on week on week basis. The downtrend in inflation will give leverage to the apex bank of the country to act aggressively on financial stability with further cut in interest rates.

Along with inflation, we have seen slight deceleration in money supply growth. According to the latest data released by RBI, the annual growth rate in broad money or M3 has below 20% mark. However it is still above the comfort zone of the apex bank (RBI holding 17% target for the current financial year).

Central banks across the globe are trying to curb an economic slowdown as the financial crisis weighs on consumer sentiment and business spending. The Federal Reserve’s reduced interest rates by 50 bps to 1% on 29 October in order to stimulate economic growth by encouraging consumer and business spending. In Asia, China’s central bank announced it’s third reduction by 27 basis points to 6.93%, while Taiwan’s central bank surprised with a 25 bps cut in lending rates to 3%, its fourth easing in two and a half months. Similarly the market expects rate cut to be announced in Japan on Friday, while European Central Bank and Britain may add to monetary easing in the ensuing weak to restrict the adverse impact of what could be the worst financial crisis in 80 years and its impact in terms of a long global recession. Against the backdrop of these global and domestic developments and in the light of measures taken by the Reserve Bank over the last month, we are excepting further dose of medicine from the apex bank of the country.


RBI prefers to buy time and leaves all rates unchanged

But cuts GDP growth projections to 7.5 to 8.0% for FY 2008-09

RBI has declared mid-term policy review with stable interest rates. Effective from the fortnight beginning 11th October 2008, the CRR was already cut by 250 basis points to 6.5% while repo rate was cut by 100 bps effective form20th October 2008. But still select Industry associations were expecting further cut in repo / CRR. Instead, RBI has decided to wait and watch, before taking further monetary measures.

However the Reserve Bank has revised the projection of overall real GDP growth for 2008-09 to a range of 7.5-8.0 per cent, down from its own projection of around 8.0% in July 2008, thanks to global and domestic development.


1)The Bank Rate has been kept unchanged at 6.0 per cent.

2)The repo rate under the LAF has been kept unchanged at 8.0 per cent.

3)The reverse repo rate under the LAF has been kept unchanged at 6.0 per cent.

4)The cash reserve ratio (CRR) of scheduled banks is currently at 6.5 per cent of net demand and time liabilities (NDTL). On a review of the current liquidity situation, it has been decided to keep the CRR unchanged at 6.5 per cent of NDTL.

The market reaction on the policy was negative as market participants had expected further rate cut. However there is no change in any rate of interest as well as in CRR and SLR.

The apex bank of the country has already taken slew of measures in response to the developments in the global and domestic market in the last few weeks. Hence, RBI has preferred to observe the impact of these measures rather than rushing with additional dose of medicine.

Meanwhile, for four consecutive weeks, inflation rate has been coming down on week on week basis. Nevertheless, RBI has unchanged the inflation target for the remaining year, evidencing its discomfort on the underlying pressure on price level. At the same time we have not seen any change in target for money supply. With the reference of the recent date published by RBI, the growth in money supply was slightly down, but still far away from the target of the RBI (17%).

The recent measures taken by the apex bank (CRR and Repo cut) will boost the liquidity in the market along with the relaxation in ECB norms will play critical role in overall monetary assessments for the remaining financial year.

To sum up, the unchanged interest rate , and the downward revision in GDP growth target together indicate that apex bank has tried to maintain the balance between growth and inflation. However this is one of the most critical challenge for policy makers worldwide to make a choice between stable inflation or growth. At home ground, RBI preferred to buy the time to see the impact of the measures that has already placed.

No change in the policy rates or CRR in the Mid Term Review

RBI’s Mid Term Review of Annual Policy keeps all rates unchanged

Dr D Subbarao, Governor, Reserve Bank of India, unveiled the Mid Term Review of Annual Policy for the Year 2008-09 on 24th October 2008.

RBI has kept the Bank Rate, Repo Rate, Reverse Repo Rate and Cash Reserve Ratio unchanged. In effect, no major monetary measures have been taken in the Mid Term review on 24th October 2008.

RBI has revised India’s GDP growth projection for FY 2008-09 to a range of 7.5 to 8.0% on 24th October 2008, down from its own earlier projection of around 8.0% in July 2008.

RBI cuts India’s GDP growth projection to 7.5 to 8.0% for FY 2008-09

GDP growth projection cut from 8.0% made in July 2008

RBI has revised India’s GDP growth projection for FY 2008-09 to a range of 7.5 to 8.0% on 24th October 2008, down from its own earlier projection of around 8.0% in July 2008.

Dr D Subbarao, Governor, Reserve Bank of India, unveiled the Mid Term Review of Annual Policy for the Year 2008-09 on 24th October 2008. The downward revision in GDP projections were made in this review.

RBI indicated that in its First Quarter Review in July 2008, it had projected India’s projection of real GDP growth in 2008-09 at around 8.0 per cent for policy purposes. But RBI said that since then, there have been significant global and domestic developments which have rendered the outlook uncertain, and have increased the downside risks associated with this projection.

In particular, RBI highlighted that the global downturn may be deeper and more protracted than expected earlier. Consequently, the adverse implications through trade and financial channels for emerging economies, including India, have amplified.

RBI cautioned that if the recession is deeper and the recovery is long drawn as is the current expectation, emerging economies have also to contend with second round effects in the form of potential terms of trade losses, erosion of export competitiveness and restricted external financing. These adverse developments are overlaid on the moderation of growth in the industrial and services sectors in the first half of 2008-09.

RBI also said that the south-west monsoon conditions and water storage levels support the prospects of maintaining the medium-term trend growth rate in agriculture in 2008-09.

Taking these developments and prospects into account, the Reserve Bank has revised the projection of overall real GDP growth for 2008-09 to a range of 7.5-8.0 per cent

Foreign Institutional Investment in India

The liberalization and consequent reform measures have drawn the attention of foreign investors leading to a rise in portfolio investment in the Indian capital market. Over the recent years, India has emerged as a major

recipient of portfolio investment among the emerging market economies. Apart from such large inflows, reflecting the confidence of cross-border investors on the prospects of Indian securities market, except for one year, India received positive portfolio inflows in each year. The stability of portfolio flows towards India is in contrast with large volatility of portfolio flows in most emerging market economies.

The Indian capital market was opened up for foreign institutional investors (FIIs) in 1992. The FIIs started investing in Indian markets in January1993. The Indian corporate sector has been allowed to tap international capital markets through American Depository Receipts (ADRs), Global Depository

Receipts (GDRs), Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds (FCCBs) and External Commercial Borrowings (ECBs).Similarly, non-resident Indians (NRIs) have been allowed to invest in Indian companies. FIIs have been permitted in all types of securities including Government securities and they enjoy full capital

convertibility. Mutual funds have been allowed to open offshore funds to investing equities abroad. FII investment in India started in 1993, as FIIs were allowed to invest in the Indian debt and equity market in line with the recommendations of the High-Level Committee on Balance of Payments. These investment inflows have since then been positive, with the exception of 1998-99, when capital flows to emerging market economies were affected by contagion from the East Asian crisis. These investments account for over 10 per cent of the total market capitalization of the Indian stock market.

Limits on Foreign Institutional Investors

Each FII (investing on its own) or sub-account cannot hold more than 10 per cent of the paid-up capital of a company. A sub-account under the foreign corporate/individual category cannot hold more than 5 per cent of

the paid up capital of the company. The maximum permissible investment in the shares of a company, jointly

by all FIIs together is 24 per cent of the paid-up capital of that company. The limit is 20 per cent of the paid-up capital in the case of public sector banks. The ceiling of 24 per cent for FII investment can be raised up to

sectoral cap/statutory ceiling, subject to the approval of the board and the general body of the company passing a special resolution to that effect. A cap of US $1.75 billion is applicable to FII investment in dated

Government securities and treasury bills under 100 per cent and the 70:30route. Within this ceiling of US $1.75 billion, a sub-ceiling of US $200 million is applicable for the 70:30 route. (FIIs are required to allocate their

investment between equity and debt instruments in the ratio of 70:30.However, it is also possible for an FII to declare itself a 100 per cent debt FII in which case it can make its entire investment in debt instruments.)

A cumulative sub-ceiling of US $500 million outstanding has been fixed on FII investments in corporate debt and this is over and above the sub- ceiling of US $1.75 billion for Government debt.

Recent trends in the global capital markets :

Several current trends will continue to influence the world’s financial markets long after the present bout of turbulence ends.

FEBRUARY 2008 • Diana Farrell, Christian S. Fölster, and Susan Lund

Struggling credit markets, slumping stocks, and a sliding dollar have been generating anxiety among executives and policy makers in early 2008. Amid the turmoil, it’s easy to forget that long-term structural change in the world’s capital markets will probably prove more important than short-term fluctuations, as it did after the 1987 US stock market crash, the 1992 assault on the British pound, and the 1997 unraveling of Asia’s financial markets.

Recent McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) research highlights several trends that look set to continue during the years ahead, long after the present bout of market turbulence has ended:

the continued growth and deepening of global capital markets as investors pour more money into equities, debt securities, bank deposits, and other assets around the world

the soaring growth of financial markets in emerging economies and the growing ties between financial markets in developed and developing countries

the shift of financial weight in Asia from Japan toward China and other fast-growing emerging markets

the growing financial clout of the eurozone countries and the significance of the euro

the burgeoning role of oil-rich Middle Eastern countries as suppliers of capital to the world, along with the rise of new financial hubs in the Middle East to complement the rapidly growing hubs in London and Asia

While these trends reflect a shift in financial power from the United States toward other parts of the world, the sheer size and depth of the US market will give it a leading role on the international financial stage for years to come.1

The exhibits that follow track the progress of these long-term shifts. The research rests on several proprietary MGI databases that cover the financial assets, cross-border capital flows, and foreign investments of more than 100 countries since 1990. Most of the analysis focuses on developments through 2006, the most recent year for which comprehensive data are available. But some data also show that many of the broad trends continued through late 2007 and will probably persist in years to come.

The continued growth of global financial assets

The full fallout from the credit market volatility of 2007 remains to be seen. But over the longer term, the volume of global financial assets (the value of all bank deposits, government debt securities, corporate debt securities, and equity securities) will continue to expand. Over the past 25 years, through stable and stormy times alike, financial assets have grown robustly. In 2006, their value rose to $167 trillion, from $142 trillion the year before—a 17 percent increase, more than double the average annual growth rate (8 percent) from 1995 through 2005.2

For many years, as equity and bond markets thrived, bank deposits have accounted for a shrinking share of total financial assets. That trend continued in 2006, but the rate of decline slowed because the absolute value of bank deposits around the world jumped by $5.6 trillion—twice the average increase of the previous three years.3 The largest contributor to this rise was the United States, thanks largely to strong income growth and the housing boom, which enabled many households to tap their home equity for quick cash. This source of growth was shaky by 2007. Looking forward, the growth of deposits will depend to a large degree on China, where they are the primary savings vehicle.

Growing cross-border investment links financial markets

The rising level of foreign investment is making the world more financially inter-dependent than it was even a few years ago. By the end of 2006, the outstanding stock of cross-border investments reached the highest level, in real terms, in history—$74.5 trillion of assets. This sum includes the foreign investments of multinational corporations, purchases of foreign debt and equity securities by investors around the world, and foreign lending and deposits. Preliminary data indicate that the total grew to another record level in 2007, despite the disruptions in European and US credit markets during the second half of the year.

What’s more, the source and direction of cross-border investment flows are shifting. In 1999, the United States was the dominant hub of the global financial system. By 2006, it remained the largest single foreign investor and a major hub in global capital markets—but the eurozone countries together had as many financial links with other parts of the world, including emerging markets. The United Kingdom too has become a more significant global financial hub, and Middle Eastern countries are now major investors in global financial markets, thanks to the windfall generated by rising oil prices. In 2006, for the first time since the 1970s, the oil-exporting countries joined those of East Asia as the world’s largest net suppliers of capital.


The Indian financial system has undergone structural transformation over the past decade. The financial sector has acquired strength, efficiency and stability by the combined effect of competition, regulatory measures, and policy environment. While competition, consolidation and convergence have been recognized as the key drivers of the banking sector in the coming years, consolidation of the domestic banking system in both public and private sectors is being combined with gradual enhancement of the presence of foreign banks in a calibrated manner. There has been improvement in banks’ capital position and asset quality as reflected in the overall increase in their capital adequacy ratio and declining NPLs, respectively. Significant improvement in various parameters of efficiency, especially intermediation costs, suggests that competition in the banking industry has intensified. The efficiency of various segments of the financial system also increased. The major challenges facing the banking sector are the judicious deployment of funds and the management of revenues and costs. Concurrently, the issues of corporate governance and appropriate disclosures for enhancing market discipline have received increased attention for ensuring transparency and greater accountability. Financial sector supervision is increasingly becoming risk based with the emphasis on quality of risk management and adequacy of risk containment. Consolidation, competition and risk management are no doubt critical to the future of Indian banking, but governance and financial inclusion have also emerged as the key issues for the Indian financial system. The capital market in India has become efficient and modern over the years. It has also become much safer. However, some of the issues would need to be addressed. Corporate governance needs to be strengthened. Retail investors continue to remain away from the market. The private corporate debt market continues to lag behind the equity segment.

The Three Types of Tumor Treatment

There are several things that are beyond the reach of the human mind. Sometimes the occurrence and existence of different forms of life threatening disease becomes a mystery. It is so difficult to think that certain types of disease exist in order to harm the condition of our health. It is also a mystery how these diseases developed and how it can be stopped. The birth of tumors in the medical world is one of the most difficult things to explain and modify.

Tumor is a term which refers to the abnormal size of the tissue or organ inside our body. The abnormal size of a certain tissue or organ may lead to serious problems due to its abnormal effects to the body. Tumors are usually removed using different types of methods. In general the method which will be used in removing a certain tumor will depend on its nature and the condition of the patient.

Tumors are generally classified in two categories. Benign tumors are those organs that appear to be abnormal in size but are not considered as dangerous. Benign tumors are also termed as tumors that are not active. Meanwhile, a malignant lump is the one that threatens the lives of several people. Malignant tumor is the condition wherein the abnormal size of the tissue or organ is actively changing. The main distinction between a benign lump and a malignant lump is that, the development of the latter can affect the other parts of the body.

A person who is diagnosed to have a malignant lump must seek the attention of an oncologist as soon as possible. It is because malignant tumors are proven to be the physical representation of cancer cells. It could be possible that small tumor may lead to the most feared cancer.

Nowadays several methods of treating tumors were already introduced to the people. One of the most common types of method is chemotherapy. In general chemotherapy includes different types of medicines or drugs in order to dissolve cancer cells. Such types of drugs are proven to have strong effects; as a result, it can damage the hair and even the skin of the patient.

Moreover radiation therapy is another method used in order to target and eliminate cancer cells. This therapy suggests the use of laser and radiation. Laser is the best tool to locate the affected area of ​​the body because of its accuracy.

Radiation therapy can be performed without the fear of damaging the other portion of the body. This type of therapy is very much effective in cases such as breast cancer and prostate cancer.

On the other hand one of the latest and most advanced types of tumor treatment is the gene therapy. This type of treatment has something to do with the composition of cells. Scientists supposed that since viruses has been linked to the occurrence of cancer, they tried to change the genetic composition of a certain virus and replace it with a certain enzyme that stops the growth of cancer cells.

Bird Flu and You: How Will The Flu Affect You?

Flu is a common disease nowadays, with most people having developed the antibodies to fight against the disease. So the mention of “flu” doesn’t really create any alarm. However, say “bird flu” and there’s likely to be a pandemonium.

Bird flu, or avian influenza, is a highly pathogenic virus of 15 types. The virus spreads to poultry through direct or close contact with nasal secretions, saliva and feces of infected birds. What is alarming about this virus is that it has the ability to rapidly mutate into different forms that can affect human beings. Believed to be worse than the SARS outbreak, the bird flu outbreak brought millions of dead birds worldwide and at least 70 people dead in Asia.

From a not-so-harmful H5N2 virus strain, it can mutate into a killer virus with a low spread rate once the virus is transmitted to a bird. The virus has an incubation period of six to nine months before it becomes a full-blown, deadly pathogen. A bird that has been infected with the virus but has survived the disease continues to carry the virus in its body for more than week. When this happens, the bird passes on the disease to other birds that come in close contact with its secretions, saliva and feces.

Bird flu and ordinary human flu have the almost the same symptoms. These symptoms are fever, muscle pains and cough. This is the reason that a person who is actually infected with bird flu may be mistakenly diagnosed as simply having ordinary flu. However, bird flu symptoms can escalate into several life-threatening conditions. Some of these life-threatening conditions are lung inflammation, eye infections and pneumonia.

Because of the severity of symptoms of bird flu infection, the World Health Organization (WHO) is in the midst of a widespread effort to prevent the virus from infecting humans, particularly those whose who depend on poultry and livestock as their livelihood.

Bird flu virus and its subtypes can easily mutate into other forms. For example, the virus that was transferred from one animal to another is the H5N2 strain. However, the virus mutated into the H5N1 strain, which has been responsible for the death of at least 50 people. It is a very surprising discovery how these viruses can mutate itself from pathogens that can harm humans as it had started with birds.

In Asia, the countries plagued by the avian flu are Vietnam, Japan, Cambodia, South Korea, China, Indonesia, Laos, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Mongolia, Russia, Thailand. In Europe, Turkey, Romania and Croatia are the hardest hit by the disease.

WHO has issued a warning to travelers to these countries to avoid going to live poultry markets, getting close contact to any farms and having direct exposure to feathers, feces or droppings, eggs and poultry meat products. Travelers need to know that most contamination occurs during the slaughtering of poultry and being in direct contact with fecal matter.

No travel advisory has been issued restricting anyone from going to countries with the H5N2 strain. Travelers coming from afflicted countries are also not being screened. However, precautionary measures are in place, particularly in the media. Information is being disseminated in order to make people aware of the bird flu, its effects and what to do to avoid getting infected.

To date, no vaccines have been developed or available to fight the illness. However, anti-viral medicines are being used as alternatives in helping alleviate the severity of symptoms on those infected. While M2 inhibitors would be helpful, the body tends to develop resistance to those, diminishing the efficiency and effectivity of inhibitors.

The bird flu problem is both a government and global issue. Governments are in charge of making reliable declarations, initiating studies and putting objective measures in place. There is no reason to panic if the virus has not reached your area yet. The best thing you can do is to take practical steps in taking of your body and helping it build resistance to any kind of illnesses.

Dosage of Olive Leaf Extract – How Much Should You Take to Be Safe?

Just because you are taking herbal extracts does not mean that you can take as many as you want. In fact, most people tend to harm themselves and their organs when they overload the body with supplements and vitamins.

While it is a known fact that herbal extracts such as olive leaf extract can be very useful, it needs to be used properly. The right dosage of olive leaf extract can be found here, so do not waste anymore time looking!

When it comes to using the extract from olive leaves you can find the ingredient in a vitamin or you can fin it in nearly pure liquid form. Each form will have its own proper dosage so make sure that you pay attention to both. If you are looking to get on board with the liquid then the simple dosage is going to be just 2-3 times per day.

Each time you use the extract you just need a couple of drops and you will be all set to go! Using a capsule with olive leaf extract is even easier and only needs to be taken once. People will usually swallow down the supplement with their breakfast each morning and go on their way.

Remember that you should not use more than 50 mg of olive leaf extract and make sure that you are fairly regular. You can not receive maximum benefits of an herbal remedy when you do not use it on a daily basis. All of the natural benefits can be felt after a few months of taking the extract.

Any Effective multivitamin brand That you purchase online will always have the proper label That will Also by tell you how much you shouldnt be taking and when. Just pay attention and make sure that you know the dosage of olive leaf extract first!

The Grandmother Of All Colds!

Never trust anyone who has a bad cold or flu and tells you that it sounds and looks worse than it really is! Such people are not to be trusted! I'm sure there are those who believe exactly what they're telling you, but they're probably in the minority. Those are the stoic ones who will weather the storms of life with a smile and more intestinal fortitude than most of us will ever have; certainly not me!

I have a cold now and I want the world to know that I feel that death is the only thing that will make me feel better. The only real relief there is when you feel as lousy as I do, is to whine and moan about your illness, until those around you are ready to put you out of your misery. I know that most people would prefer I shut my mouth and suffer in silence, but that would rob me of the only pleasurable activity possible during my cold!

My head aches, my eyes itch and burn as tears run down my cheek, soaking the pillow where I lay my feverish head. It feels as if every bone in my body aches, as well as muscles that I did not even know I had threaten to spasm. It feels like an elephant is sitting on my chest, as difficult as it is to breathe. I would call out for another spoonful of cough syrup, but my throat is so raw all I get out is a raspy whisper of doom. I'm sure I'm on the brink of death from the common cold, except in my case the cold is not common. It's the grandmother of all colds!

According to some estimates, people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds during the course of a year! Surveys indicate that children have as many as 6-10 colds a year because they're in close contact with other kids at day care centers and schools. They just keep passing the germs around so that no one is safe from a cold. I can not imagine having that many colds each year!

Praying I could find something to ease my pain and suffering I went to the drug store to find that special potion that would give me some relief. Was I in for a surprise! There was so much stuff to choose from, that my temperature rose 3 degrees while I was trying to figure out just what to buy!

There were formulas for chest congestion, heavy chest congestion, stuffy nose,
and coughs, mucus relief that thins and loosens membranes, sore throat formulas, headache formulas, body aches and runny nose pills. I had all these including a congested nose and a runny nose at the same time! I needed something that would address all these issues.

I finally found a huge selection of cough syrups and capsules that proposed to do just that! The problem was that there were just too many to choose from and they ranged in price from $ 3.95 to $ 14.99. Which one was I to choose? Should I take the highest priced tonic that had to be the best, or go with a middle line? They all promised to do the same thing, so what should it matter which I chose?

Looking on the back of the box of one of these cold remedies, I read the part that said if you are a diabetic or have high blood pressure you should consult your doctor. I was frantic! I called my doctor from my cell phone. I have his number on speed dial. All I got was a recording!

A pharmacist who had been watching me for about 20 minutes walked over and asked if he could help me. I told him my dilemma and he suggested a couple of attractive looking bottles, telling me that either one of them would work. Though he sounded confident, I was not sure if he really understood the severity of my case.

I had one foot in the grave! I needed industrial strength medication and this guy was trying to tell me that the middle category of drugs was just as good! The druggist assured me that one was just as good as another one. That did little to console me so I bought 3 different brands of the same thing. I figured that if I survived, I'd have to use all of them to see me through this illness.

I feel that I owe it to the people I meet to whine and complain about my suffering through this cold. After all, it makes most folks feel just a little better when they leave someone who complains a lot about their health.