Overweight, Obesity and BMI

Hasan A. Yahya, Ph.Ds

 Acoording to AHRO, over the past several decades, the prevalence of obesity among adults and children in the United States has increased dramatically and is reached epidemic proportions. Obesity in adults in the United States was 30.5 percent in 1999-2000. More than twice as many adults (nearly 65 percent) were considered to be either overweight or obese. Some 6 million U.S. adults were considered morbidly obese in 2001. Obesity is more common in  women, but men are more likely to be overweight. It is defined as having a body mass index (BMI, weight in kg/height in m2) of 30 or more. For example, a 5’5” woman weighing 180 pounds or more or a 5’11” man weighing 215 pounds or more would be termed obese. Morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI of 40 or more.

 Overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25 to 29.9 (a 5’5” woman who weighs 150 pounds or more or a 5’11”  man who weighs 180 pounds or more.

 Overweight and obesity are both labels for ranges of weight that are greater than what is generally considered healthy for a given height. Which identify ranges of weight that have been shown to increase the likelihood of health problems.

For assessing someone’s likelihood of developing overweight- or obesity-related diseases, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines recommend looking for overweight predictors such as the Body Mass Index (BMI), the individual’s waist circumference, and other conditions associated with obesity such as high blood pressure or physical laziness.

The Body Mass Index (BMI) is just one indicator of potential health risks associated with being overweight or obese. For adults, overweight and obesity ranges are determined by using weight and height to calculate a number called the “body mass index” (BMI). BMI is for most people because it correlates with their amount of body fat. For example, an adult who has a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight. While an adult who has a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese. For example, a 5’ 9” height,  weight of 125 lbs to 168 lbs, with BMI between 18.5 and 24.9  BMI, are considered  healthy weight. From 169 to 202 lbs with BMI between 24 and 29.9 are overweight, and from 202 lbs plus, with 30 plus BMI, they are obese.

Other methods of estimating body fat and body fat distribution include measurements of skin-fold thickness and waist circumference, calculation of waist-to-hip circumference ratios, and techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

In 2002, an estimated 15 percent of all children aged 6 to 19 years were overweight. For children and teens, BMI ranges above a normal weight have different labels (at risk of overweight and overweight). Additionally, BMI ranges for children and teens are defined so that they take into account normal differences in body fat between boys and girls and differences in body fat at various ages.

It is important to remember that although BMI correlates with the amount of body fat, BMI does not directly measure body fat. In the case of  athletes, they may have a high BMI which identify them as overweight even though they do not have excess body fat. (546 words) www.hasanyahya.com

Poisoning Prevention – Tips On Preventing Poisoning Accidents In Your Home

Efforts by individuals, communities and government agencies around the world have reduced a number of poison related deaths. Families too have a role to play in further reducing poison related accidents. The first step would be to look at how you plan to handle such an emergency when it occurs.

The most important thing would be to list the phone numbers for the local poison center(s), your physician and nurse close to the phone. If there are visually impaired family members, color-code medication bottles and keep all medicines in containers that are child-resistant. Make sure old medicines are destroyed or flushed down the toilet.

Harmful or poisonous plants should be kept out of the children’s reach and children must be taught not to eat any fresh or prepared foods that look or smell spoiled. Mixing caustic products and other household products should be avoided because dangerous reactions may occur.

Cosmetics, shampoos and alcohol beverages should be stored out of children’s reach and in a safe place with safety latches especially if it is in the cabinet. Toys, paint or finish on furniture should be checked to make sure it is non-toxic. Some houses have furnaces and if you live in such a house, it is very helpful to have it professionally inspected each year.

Vents and chimneys should be kept clear of debris and checked regularly at least every season or seasonally. When operating cars, motorized equipment or charcoal gas grills, do it in open spaces and not enclosed ones. If possible install carbon monoxide detectors in your home.

Insecticides, cleaning products and corrosives should be stored safely in the areas of the house where children cannot reach them. It’s also a good idea to keep emergency drugs in the house but only administer when recommended by the physician or the poison control center and related authorities.

Do not hesitate to call the physician, nurse or poison control center with any questions. Remember that the availability of inhalants on the shelves in the house may provide the opportunity for children to sniff or huff these dangerous substances.

In conclusion, a person who is familiar with the things around them is unlikely to experience poisoning related accidents if preventive measures are in place and reinforced correctly.

Peptic Ulcers – Pain Relief the Natural Way

There is a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori that in most cases causes an ulcer. In the old days it was thought that stress alone caused peptic ulcers, but as we know now, that is not the case. If this bacterium is the culprit in your case you will have been given a course of antibiotics for the next 10 to 14 days. It takes about two months before you will have completely recovered. There are some steps you can take in the meantime to lessen the discomfort and stop a re-occurrence. It is not advised to use any herbal medicines until you have finished your course of antibiotics.

There are a number of quick pain relievers that you can take from your pharmacy such as Maalox, Asilone, Gaviscon and Pepto-Bismol which will help to neutralize stomach acid, helping to relieve the pain in about 10 to 15 minutes. These can be taken after each meal or whenever you feel your ulcer starting to play up.

Eating can also help to temporarily reduce your discomfort because the acid in your stomach is neutralized as the food is digested. If you have a duodenal ulcer make sure that you eat a high fibre diet otherwise it cold make the pain worse. Fibre helps to slow down the digestive process and duodenal pain is alleviated when food travels more slowly through the stomach. This allows more time for the stomach acids to be neutralized. There are some studies to suggest that ginger may help to reduce the release of fluids in the gastro intestinal tract and can also help to reduce inflammation. Do not take more than one teaspoon each day as taking too much ginger can have the opposite effect by causing irritation.

Aloe vera juice is a popular remedy for ulcers as the juice seems to help reduce the gastrointestinal inflammation and also reduce the stomach acid from being secreted into the stomach. Drinking about a third of a cup, three times a day is the recommended amount. Camomile tea is a favourite for soothing the stomach because it can calm inflammation. Pour a cup of very hot water over two teaspoons of dried camomile, steep for five minutes and then strain. Drink about three cups of tea a day. Another tea to drink is peppermint tea as it is also an anti-inflammatory that can help relieve pain and help you to heal. To make the tea, pour one cup of boiling water over two teaspoons of dried leaves, steep for five minutes, and then strain out the leaves. If you have a condition called hiatus hernia then you should not have peppermint tea as the herb relaxes gastro-oesophageal muscles and will make the symptoms worse.

Before you take any herbs or supplements, it is best to speak them over with your doctor first. This is especially important if you have other conditions as the natural remedies in this article are only specific to ulcers and not taking into account any other medical conditions you may have.

Lupus – Symptoms and Causes of Lupus

Lupus is an autoimmune disease that can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, joints, heart, lungs, blood, kidneys and brain. Normally the body’s immune system makes proteins called antibodies, to protect the body against viruses, bacteria, and other foreign materials. These foreign materials are called antigens.

If you have lupus, your immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues by mistake. This can damage your joints, skin, blood vessels and organs. There are many kinds of lupus. The most common type, systemic lupus erythematosus, affects many parts of the body. Discoid lupus causes a rash that doesn’t go away. Subacute cutaneous lupus causes sores after being out in the sun. Another type can be caused by medication. Neonatal lupus, which is rare, affects newborns.

Symptoms of Lupus

For most lupus sufferers, including Jane, lupus is a mild disease affecting only a few organs. For others, it may cause serious and even life-threatening problems.

No two cases of lupus are exactly alike. Signs and symptoms may come on suddenly or develop slowly, may be mild or severe, and may be temporary or permanent. Most people with lupus experience episodes — called “flares” — of worsening signs and symptoms that eventually improve or even disappear completely for a time.

Lupus can be hard to diagnose because its symptoms can vary from one person to the next. The symptoms can also make lupus look like certain other diseases. For example, like Chantelle, people with lupus may feel weak and fatigued. They may have muscle aches, loss of appetite, swollen glands, and hair loss. Sometimes they have abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting.

Most people with lupus develop skin rashes.These rashes are often an important clue to the diagnosis. In addition to the butterfly rash over the cheeks and bridge of the nose, other common skin symptoms include skin sores or flaky red spots on the arms, hands, face, neck, or back; mouth or lip sores; and a scaly, red, or purple raised rash on the face, neck, scalp, ears, arms, and chest.

Causes of Lupus

Lupus is not known it is likely that there is no single cause but a combination of genetic, environmental, and possibly hormonal factors that work together to cause the disease. Lupus is not contagious-you can’t catch it from someone. No specific “lupus gene” has been found, but it does run in families.

The causes of lupus are not completely understood, the disease is believed to result from an interplay of genetic, environmental (such as ultraviolet light, stress, infections, certain drugs and chemicals) and hormonal factors.

Although an identical twin is much more likely to have lupus if her identical sibling has lupus, the likelihood of developing the disease in the unaffected twin is not 100%. Despite the nearly identical genetic makeup of identical twins, the probability of the unaffected twin developing the disease if the other twin has it is around 30-50% or less.

Sun exposure (ultraviolet light) is a known environmental agent that can worsen rashes of lupus patients and sometimes trigger a flare of the entire disease.

Doctors don’t know what causes autoimmune diseases, such as lupus. It’s likely that lupus results from a combination of your genetics and your environment. Doctors believe that you may inherit a predisposition to lupus, but not lupus itself. Instead, people with an inherited predisposition for lupus may only develop the disease when they come into contact with something in the environment that can trigger lupus, such as a medication or a virus.

Lean Muscle Protein Shakes

A low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet is quite difficult to stick to for any length of time. Very soon, the craving for familiar stomach fillers like bread, rice and potatoes begins to hit you. Even if you overcome the mental cravings, you will find yourself getting hungry at odd times, and not feeling "filled up" after meals.

Why do you get these physical cravings?

First of all, the mind exerts a lot of control over the body, in ways that are not immediately obvious. What seems to be a physical craving may also be mostly mental.

Secondly, there is definitely a part of the craving that is physical. Most people automatically eat less once they cut down on carbs. To top it off, your body is still used to producing digestive secretions at the intervals that it had previously, so the cravings until your body gets used to the new routine.

What can you do to combat them?

First, drink lots of water. A lot of our "hunger" is caused by hyperacidity in the stomach. Water dilutes the acid, helping you stall the hunger for a while.

When you realize you are really hungry and no amount of water helps, go for a protein shake. You will find various varieties in the market, including organic ones. Look out for protein mixes based on hemp, soy or brown rice. If you do not like the taste of the shake mix flavors, buy an unflavored protein powder and add fruit to make your snack even richer in trace nutrients.

A protein shake will help you stick to your low-carb diet and yet help you feel energetic and well-nourished for at least two hours. Adjust the amounts of high-protein shake mix and fruit to suit your preferences, and soon you will find the perfect snack to beat your cravings.

Bed Sores

Bed ulcers/bed sores afflict patients in hospitals throughout the world. Various means of reducing bedsores have been tried, from frequent turning to synthetic padding, but medical research has shown that one of the most effective means of reducing the occurrence of bedsores is the use of natural sheepskin padding.

Bedsores develop as a result of constant pressure on certain parts of the body, most commonly the bony protuberances such as elbows and heels. On traditional mattresses, these points come to bear inordinate amounts of body weight, because most beds lack the pressure distribution properties of memory foam or other more advanced materials.

Bedsores occur when the blood supply to the capillaries is restricted over a period of time. Bedsores are also called pressure ulcers. Since the unique character of memory foam is it’s ability to melt away from anywhere that pressure is applied, bed sores are reduced or eliminated.

Bed ridden patients in nursing home or assisted living facilities develop bed sores that can facilitate their demise. Paraplegics and quadriplegics develop localized pressure sores that can instigate life-threatening infections. Situations that impede circulation such as complications following surgery, congestive heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, peripheral ulcers, vascular disease, and traumatic injury help cause wounds.

Bed sores are also known as pressure sores, pressure ulcers, decubiti, or decubitus ulcers. They begin as red, painful areas on the skin (often the legs and backside) and may turn purple or even black if undetected or untreated. In some cases, bed sores can lacerate and become infected, causing further medical problems.

Bed sores pose a threat to anyone facing long periods of bed rest or bed confinement, or anyone who is immobilized or handicapped. Bed sores develop as a result of constant pressure on certain parts of the body, most commonly the bony areas such as shoulder blades, hips, heels and elbows . Other factors that contribute to bedsores include excessive moisture from sweating and friction from rubbing against the lower sheet.

Additionally, memory foam has been widely used in hospitals and rehabilitation centers across the country for recovery from debilitating injuries, major surgeries and for long term care because it prevents any bed sores or other problems among people who must stay in one position for a long time to heal.

The perfect cushion is a preventive of “bed sores” which do not necessarily come from a bed but rather the chaffing of skin against a surface, and with inactivity of the body, the blood flow to these skin surfaces are slowed and result in skin lesions.

Check the person’s body for bed sores and other injuries and ask questions if anything seems suspicious. If the behavior continues, file a complaint and find another facility.

The heat retaining properties of the foam makes pain more bearable for a patient suffering from back injuries. Thus memory foam is also used in medical treatments of patients developing “bed sores” and for people suffering from postural problems. Besides the use of memory foam in a mattress, nowadays it is also used in pillows, positional sleep aids, office furniture, automobile seat padding, footwear, infant cribs, car seats, wheel chair cushions, computer carrying cases and many more.

Read about Breast Enlargement. Also read about libido enhancer and low sex drive

What is Secondary Lymphedema?

Swelling caused due to pooling of lymph fluids is known as lymphedema. It is usually the result of an injury to the lymphatic system or happens on account of its dysfunction. Primary and secondary lymphedema are the two types of the condition. Secondary lymphedema is an acquired condition, usually as a result of surgery to remove the lymph vessels or lymph nodes or as a side effect of cancer treatment. Primary lymphedema is genetically inherited by the individual, and is much less common than secondary lymphedema.

In the United States, the largest number of lymphedema secondary cases is those individuals who have had breast cancer surgical treatment for the removal of lymph nodes. These patients may experience some extent of lymphedema symptoms in the upper extremities, generally in the hands or the arms. The other cause of secondary lymphedema could be some kind of a severe infection that mostly affects the legs of the individual. Filariasis, a parasitic infection caused by mosquitoes is another source for secondary lymphedema in the tropical lands. Presently, there are about 250 million cases of lymphedema existing around the globe.

Sometimes, intake of certain medicines may prompt an attack of lymphedema. The medication may cause blood clots or deep vein thrombosis in the legs. In case of cancer survivors, the onset of lymphedema might be triggered on a plane flight due to the sudden change in pressure levels. Patients must be aware of these issues and take precautionary measures which include wearing the compression garment even while travelling.

The swelling present in the affected limb may be a cause for severe discomfort. In severe lymphedema cases, the condition may deteriorate to such an extent that the body becomes disfigured and disabled. Skin infections usually worsen lymphedema. However, the ailment can be managed and controlled with the help of treatment that includes manual lymph drainage, use of compression garments, massage and bandaging. Additionally, the patient must exercise regularly and a skin care routine must be strictly followed.

Patients at a high risk of secondary lymphedema must remain alert to any initial signs of the disease. Obvious symptoms can be severe fatigue, swelling localized in one area, especially limbs, fluid retention or discoloration of the skin. A tiny cut or a bruise may cause a swelling. The patient may sometimes find that rings and bracelets become suddenly tight or that the limb feels unusually heavy.

Secondary lymphedema can be divided into three broad categories. The initial stage of the condition is easily reversible with quick diagnosis, treatment and medication. In the later stages, the condition gets out of hand and the limbs might swell to a huge size as a result of total blocking of the lymph channels. This may lead to complete disfigurement and discomfort. Before this happens, the patients must always consult the doctor for advice. It becomes easier to manage the ailment from the early phase itself.

Treating Scalp Psoriasis

What is Scalp Psoriasis?

Scalp psoriasis is a skin disease that may cause itchy patches of thick, red skin with silvery scales. It can range from mild, with only light scaling to severe, with thick, crusted scales covering the whole scalp. The large flaky scales can be very uncomfortable and can itch quite painfully. Severe cases of scalp psoriasis can also lead to temporary hair loss which can be very distressing, but the good news is that the hair will grow back once the flare up calms down. The scalp is one of the most common affected sites in psoriatic patients as 79% of them have scalp involvement.

Scalp Psoriasis Treatment

Many treatment options can help control scalp psoriasis and its symptoms. Sometimes this type of psoriasis will clear on its own, other times it can remain on the scalp for long periods of time. Although it is not dangerous and life threatening, it can be persistent and difficult to treat.

The treatment of scalp psoriasis requires a different approach because it is more difficult to treat. Not that the disease is more stubborn, but the hair gets in the way of treatment. It can be challenging to apply topical creams to the scalp. Phototherapy treatment that involves exposing the skin to ultraviolet light also doesn’t work very well because the hair blocks the rays.

While shaving the head would make it easier, many people feel uncomfortable doing so. Cutting hair short would also help, making the treatments easier to apply, but is again not appealing to everyone.

Treatment for mild scalp psoriasis consists of special medicated shampoos that were designed to clear the symptoms. Some of the more popular shampoo options include coal tar or salicylic acid, both of which are known for their exfoliating properties.

The shampoos work best if rubbed into the scalp well, and left in for 5 or 10 minutes and then reapplied. They are safe for daily use but may irritate if applied more than twice weekly. Soaking the scalp in warm (not hot) water can help loosen scales. Soaking with water makes scales easier to remove. The key of shampoo treatments is to loosen and remove scales, while providing as much moisture as possible.

A few things to keep in mind when using shampoo to treat scalp psoriasis: Be gentle when treating the scalp. Scratching the affected areas should be avoided, because breaking of the skin can make psoriasis worse. Be sure to use special medicated shampoos as directed. It is important to rub the shampoo into the scalp and not just the hair.

More severe cases of scalp psoriasis may require a stronger treatment, which can be achieved through topical applications that are left on the scalp or from administration of UVB light therapy.

Scalp psoriasis is a chronic condition and while it can’t be completely cured, it can be controlled with the proper treatment.

Is IBS Hereditary? – The 64 Million Dollar Question

Fact 1: 30% of the UK population are affected by Irritable Bowel Syndrome, or IBS.

Fact 2: In the United States of America, IBS rivals the common cold for the major cause of absenteeism among employees.

Fact 3: An estimated 25% of IBS cases are triggered by a bout of gastro-enteritis or food poisoning.  

If you’re from the UK or the US, these facts must bother the heck out of you. And why not? You know the symptoms: diarrhea, constipation, variable bowel habit, alternating diarrhea and constipation, colicky abdominal pain, often relieved by passing wind or stools, bloating, heartburn, back pain and rumbling in the tummy. READ: IBS may be worse at times of stress. Women may find IBS worse after a period or after the menopause pointing to a link with oestrogen production. IBS can be made worse with certain drugs, such as long-term antibiotics, which kill off the normal bacteria in the gut, codeine, laxatives, and alcohol. Diagnosis can be a problem because symptoms vary. IBS is a disease of exclusion – in other words if you can rule out all other possibilities IBS is what you are left with. 

Technically speaking, IBS is a functional disorder of the gut where the normal movement of the gut is hurried along or spasms occur. Lots of research have been done to figure out some of its causes, and some research suggest that some of these causes could be hereditary in nature. There are also some research that suggest that IBS may be constitutional, meaning you have extra-sensitive muscles, or an overreaction to certain foods and chemicals. Some also mentioned that IBS may run in families perhaps because of a dietary or environmental link. 

Now, the 64 million dollar question on IBS:  Is there a big chance of you passing IBS to your children?  

IBS is not dangerous, it is not contagious, and it is not hereditary so it cannot be passed to your children. Although IBS is likely to persist for a lifetime, by making the necessary changes it is possible for some people to keep IBS under control most of the time. 

Clinical Manifestation of Congestive Heart Failure in a Child

Despite compensatory mechanisms, the heart may be unable to maintain an adequate cardiac output. Decreased blood flow to the kidneys continues to stimulate sodium and water reabsorption, leading to hypervolemia, increased workload on the heart, and congestion in the pulmonary and systemic circulations. Since these hemodynamic changes occur at different times, the signs and symptoms can vary.

Impaired myocardial function
One of the earliest signs of compensation and decompensation is tachycardia (sleeping heart rate above 160 beats / minute in infants), as a direct result of sympathetic stimulation. It is elevated even during rest but becomes markedly rapid during the slightest exertion.

Increased blood volume causes the ventricles to dilate, stretching the myocardial fibers until they are no longer as contractile. Ventricular dilation results in extra heart sounds, S3 or S4. The addition of these extra sounds to S1 S2 produces a gallop rhythm. S3 is believed to be caused by vibrations against the ventricles can no longer accommodate the volume. It is heard immediately after the second heart sound (ventricular diastole gallop). S4 is believed to be caused by atrial contraction in response to ventricular resistance during filling of the ventricles. It occurs just before the first heard sound (atrial presystolic gallop). The presence of S3 and S4 is called a summation gallop. Each is best heard at the apex.

Variations in the strength of ventricular contractions result in pulsus alternans, regular alternation of one strong beat and one weak one. It is best detected by palpating the pulse while taking the blood pressure. The increased pressure from the inflated cuff occludes the weak beats, so that only the stronger beats are counted. As a result, the pulse is half the actual rate.

Cardiomegaly results from dilation of the ventricle to accommodate increasing volumes of blood and fom hypertrophy, as a result of persistent lengthening and thickening of the myocardial fibers. Although hypertrophy decreases the contractility of the fibers, it is partially compensated by an increase in muscle mass. Decreased cardiac output results in poor peripheral perfusion, which is manifested by cold extremities, weak pulses, low blood pressure, mottled skin, and eventually growth retardation.

Pulmonary congestion
As the left ventricle fails, blood volume and pressure increase in the left atrium, pulmonary veins, and lungs. Eventually, the pulmonary capillary pressure exceeds the plasma osmotic pressure, forcing fluid into tissues, causing pulmonary edema. The increased pressure also decreases the compliance (expansion) of the lungs.

Dyspnea is the earliest signs of failure and is thought to be caused by a decrease in the distensibility of the lungs. As a result, additional muscles must be used for respiration, cuasing costal retractions. Initially, dyspnea may only be evident on exertion but may progress to the point that even slight activity results in labored breathing. In infants, dyspnea at reat is a prominent sign and may be accompanied by flaring nares.

Tachypnea (respiratory rate above 60 breaths / .minute in infants) occurs in response to decreased lung compliance. Inability to feed with resultant weight loss is primarily a result of tachypnea and dyspnea on exertion.

Orthopnea (dyspnea in the recumbent position) is cause by increased blood flow to the heart and lungs from the extremities, It is relieved by sitting up, because blood pools in the lower extremities, decreasing venous return. In addition, this position decreases pressure from the abdominal organs on the diaphragm. In infants, orthopnea may be evident in their inability to lie supine and their desire to be held upright.]

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND) is a severe shortness of breath that occurs shortly after falling asleep. It is a result of reabsorption of fluid (from dependent edema), which increases blood volume, producing more severe pulmonary congestion. Edema of the bronchial mucosa may produce cardiac wheezing from obstruction to airflow. Mucosal swelling and irritation result in a persistent, dry, hacking cough. As pulmonary edema increases, the cough may be productive from increased secreations. Pressure on the laryngeal nerve results in hoarseness, A late sign of heart failure is gasping and grunting respirations. An uncommon sign in infants is rales.

Cyanosis may occur without a right-to -left shunt and is the result of impaired respiratory gas experience mottling of the skin or generalized transient duskiness. Extreme pallor or persistent duskiness is an ominous sign of Congestive Heart failure.

Systemic congestion is a primary consequence of right -ided failure due to the inability of the right ventricle to eject blood into the pulmonary circulation, resulting in increased pressure, and pooling of blood in the venous circulation. As was explained earlier, it can result as a late consequence of left-sided failure.

Hepatomegaly is usually the earliest sign of failure and occurs from pooling of blood in the portal circulation and transudation of fuid into the hepatic tissues. The liver may be tender on palpation and its size is an indication of the course of heart failure.

Edema forms as the sodium and water retention cause systemic vascular pressure to rise. The earliest sign is weight gain. However, as additional fluid accumulates, it leads to swelling of soft tissue that is dependent and favours the flow of gravity, such as the sacrum and scrotum when recumbent and loose periorbital tissues. In infants, edema is usually generalized and difficult to detect. Gross fluid accumulation may produce ascites and pleural effusions.

Distended Neck and peripheral veins which are uncommon in infants, result from a consistently elevated central venous pressure. Normally neck and hand veins collapse when the head or hands are raised above the level of the heart, since the blood drains by gravity back to the heart. However, when the venous pressure is high, it prevents the back flow of blood. Causing the veins to remain distended.

Diagnostic evaluation
Diagnosis is made on clinical symptoms such as dyspnea (especially when at rest), flaring nares, moist grunting respirations, subcostal retractions, tachycardia, activity intolerance (particularly during feeding), excessive sweating, and unexplained weight gain from edema. Since the signs of pulmonary congestion from heart failure resemble respiratory infections, it is imperative to differentiate between the two. Signs selectively indicative of Cngestive heart failure are cardiac enlargement, edema, sweating, hepatomegaly, and auscultatory finsings such as tachycardia, gallop rhythm and pulsus alternans.

Care for children
The objectives of nursing care are to

• Assist in measures to improve cardiac function
• Decrease cardiac demands
• Reduce respiratory distress
• Maintain nutritional status
• Assist in measures to promote fluid loss, and
• Provide emotional support.

Although the objectives are the same, the interventions differ depending on the child's age, especially with infants as compared to older children. The doctor's responsibility in administering digitalis included observing for signs of toxicity, calculating the correct dosage and instituting parental teaching regarding drug administration at home.

ZetaClear Anti Fungal Solution Review

Onychomycosis is better known as toenail fungus, is a comparatively common condition which disfigures and can devastate the toenail. The big toe and little toe nails are more likely to get affected by fungus. This fungus in nails can be caused any of the several types of fungi which develop in the warm and moist environment particularly in shoes. As fungi grow, they feed and invade on the protein called keratin which helps to create stern layer on the toenails.

Toenail fungus is very common in adult as compared to children. United States 70% of people affected by toenail fungus at least once in their life.

Wearing tight fitting shoes or wearing shoes for long period of time and layers of nail polish are considered as common causes behind toenail fungus. It can be contagious as well as it can spread person to person in public area such as showers and lockers rooms. Chronic toenail fungus can affect your body circulation such HIV or diabetes etc.

Nail that affected by fungi often become discolored (brown or yellow) and become very overgrown and thick. Affected nail can smell as well. In such condition affected nail can fall off and crumble or it can become very thick which makes you feel pain while wearing shoes.

There so many ways to treat toenail fungus and medical treatment often recommend for curing it. Apart from medical treatment, some toenail fungus products such as ZetaClear anti fungal solution can help to out from this condition.

Diagnose the severity of affected nail as it can increase you problem. This anti fungal product helps you to remove all infectious contents which affects nail overall growth of nail. It is made by high quality ingredients combined with adequate proportions. It reduces the inflammation from affected nail and removes bacterial presence from affected nails. ZetaClear can be good choice for you if you looking for non surgical way to treat toenail fungus.

Should I Be Taking Fish Oil Tablets?

It's getting harder to ignore the weight of evidence in favor of taking fish oil tablets these days. Numerous facts are emerging from a whole host of sources attesting to the way they're helping in such areas as the health of our brain, heart, skin, vision and immune system.

Even nutritionally our bodies need these oils which are also often referred to as essential fatty acids. They play an important part in how organs such as the brain works, and need to be got from our diet of via supplementation.

Even having mentioned just these few pluses for our bodily health, that's not the whole picture as the list of benefits is indeed long. There does not seem to be lot of bad news about these fish oil tablets either.

We'll have a closer look at one or two of these health areas in a moment, but what some researchers have also discovered with omega 3 which is worthy of interest, is its anti inflammatory properties. This fact alone is something we should take notice of for a very good reason. Medical science has concluded that there seems to be an underlying factor with so many of the serious modern day illnesses and diseases which afflict us.

That is inflammation, and if taking a fish oil tablet can help our bodies to combat such a thing happening then that has to be one very good reason for sure.

A lot of attention has also been lavished on how such omega 3 fatty acids have helped to maintain a healthy heart. Cardiovascular diseases are still big killers globally and even the American Heart Association has recommended them as a way of keeping your heart in good shape. But there's even a bit of good news for those at risk of heart disease, as they also say that it could also reduce the risks of getting an attack.

For even more convincing reasons on taking fish oil tablets have a look on my main site, which also offers some thoughts on finding a truly effective supplement that's also good value.

Should I Be Taking Fish Oil Tablets?

It's getting harder to ignore the weight of evidence in favor of taking fish oil tablets these days. Numerous facts are emerging from a whole host of sources attesting to the way they're helping in such areas as the health of our brain, heart, skin, vision and immune system.

Even nutritionally our bodies need these oils which are also often referred to as essential fatty acids. They play an important part in how organs such as the brain works, and need to be got from our diet of via supplementation.

Even having mentioned just these few pluses for our bodily health, that's not the whole picture as the list of benefits is indeed long. There does not seem to be lot of bad news about these fish oil tablets either.

We'll have a closer look at one or two of these health areas in a moment, but what some researchers have also discovered with omega 3 which is worthy of interest, is its anti inflammatory properties. This fact alone is something we should take notice of for a very good reason. Medical science has concluded that there seems to be an underlying factor with so many of the serious modern day illnesses and diseases which afflict us.

That is inflammation, and if taking a fish oil tablet can help our bodies to combat such a thing happening then that has to be one very good reason for sure.

A lot of attention has also been lavished on how such omega 3 fatty acids have helped to maintain a healthy heart. Cardiovascular diseases are still big killers globally and even the American Heart Association has recommended them as a way of keeping your heart in good shape. But there's even a bit of good news for those at risk of heart disease, as they also say that it could also reduce the risks of getting an attack.

For even more convincing reasons on taking fish oil tablets have a look on my main site, which also offers some thoughts on finding a truly effective supplement that's also good value.

Myrrh Essential Oil Can Help Fight Cancer

Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) comes from myrrh trees that grow in the Red Sea area. From the chemistry of myrrh essential oil we can expect it to have lots of healing properties. It is anti-infectious, antiviral, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, hormone-like, anti-hyperthyroid, and supports the immune system.

How Can Myrrh Aid in Fight Against Cancer ?

In 2001 myrrh was found to have anti-cancer properties. Researchers at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, NJ identified a compound in myrrh actually kills cancer cells in the laboratory showing particular promise for the prevention and treatment of breast and prostate cancer. "As part of a larger search for anticancer compounds from plants, the researchers obtained extracts from a particular species of myrrh plant (Commiphora myrrha) and tested it against a human breast tumor cell line (MCF-7) known to be resistant to anticancer drugs .

Research data indicated that the extract killed all of the cancer cells in laboratory dishes. "Further investigations to isolate the active component of the extract found it to be a unique and previously unknown compound belonging to a class called sesquiterpenoids, which are typically found in natural products. Elemene which is a key component of myrrh oil has been shown to have significant effect on treatment of malignant brain tumors.

How Can Someone Use Myrrh to Fight Cancer ?

Myrrh can be diffused, applied topically as well as ingested. When diffusing it, remember that because of the amount of sesquiterpenes, this oil will oxidize every time the bottle is opened, meaning it will become thicker and thicker. You may need to clean your diffuser frequently since it will "gum-up" the cold-air diffuser. Topically, it can be applied "neat" that is undiluted or diluted 50-50 with a good vegetable oil so that it can be massaged into tissues, specifically the breast. When taking internally, myrrh can be placed in veggie capsules and taken with rice milk.

Best Natural Remedies for Premenstrual Syndrome

Many women suffer from premenstrual syndrome (PMS). This usually occurs approximately a week or two before the menstrual cycle and ends during the first few days of the menstrual cycle. Some of the symptoms of PMS include: breast swelling, breast tenderness, trouble falling asleep, headache, irritability, anger, appetite changes, cramps, depressed mood, abdominal bloating, and upset stomach. Although not many women experience all of these symptoms at once, many women experience some form of PMS. So what are some natural remedies that can ease our aches during this time of the month?

One natural remedy which has been said to reduce PMS symptoms is calcium. Studies have shown that calcium consumption can reduce the severity of numerous premenstrual problems. One study has shown that women with the greatest intake of calcium from food sources had the least PMS side effects. Another way to relieve the pre-menstrual cramps is to avoid foods rich in salt and sugar. Foods rich in these two compounds promote additional bloating and swelling of the body. By removing these two items from our diet, the swelling and bloating of the hands, feet and stomach will subside greatly.

And a third way to alleviate the effects of premenstrual syndrome is to reduce caffeine intake. Caffeine raises our awareness and increases our irritability. This particular refreshment can aggravate anxiety, ignite depression and increase breast tenderness. So if you are one of those people who is easily irritable prior to the menstrual cycle, try to avoid drinks that are rich in caffeine. These are just a few ways that you can help yourself in relieving PMS. There are of course over the counter medication that can help lessen the symptoms; however, for those people who believe in at home remedies, these are just a few natural ideas worth trying.