Nolvadex (tamoxifen Citrate) Profiles by Medpharmacare

Active Life: 5-7 days
Drug Class: Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (Oral)
Average Dose: 10-30 mg/day
Acne: Yes
Water Retention: No
High Blood Pressure: Rare
Liver Toxic: low

This remedy is somewhat different from others since it is not an anabolic/androgenic steroid. For male and female bodybuilders, how-ever, it is a very useful and recommended compound which is con-firmed by its widespread use and mostly positive results. Nolvadex belongs to the group of sex hormones and is a so-called antiestrogen. The normal application of Nolvadex is in the treatment of certain forms of breast cancer in female patients. With Nolvadex it is pos-sible to reverse an existing growth process of deceased tissue and prevent further growth. The growth of certain tissues is stimulated by the body’s own estrogen hormone. This is especially true for the breast glands in men and women since the body has a large number of estrogen receptors at these glands which can bond with the estro-gens present in the blood. If the body’s own estrogen level is unusu-ally high an undesired growth of breast glands occurs. However, in healthy women and particularly in men this is not the case. Despite this, it is mostly male bodybuilders who use Nolvadex, and fewer women. At first sight this seems somewhat inconceivable but when taking a closer look, the reasons are clear. Bodybuilders who take Nolvadex also use anabolic steroids at the same time. Since most steroids aromatize more or less strongly, i.e. part of the substance is converted into estrogens, male bodybuilders can experience a sig-nificant elevation in the normally very low estrogen level. This can lead to feminization symptoms such as gynecomastia (growth of breast glands), increased fat deposits and higher water retention. The antiestrogen Nolvadex works against this by blocking the es-trogen receptors of the effected body tissue, thereby inhibiting a bonding of estrogens and receptor. It is, however, important to un-derstand that Nolvadex does not prevent the aromatization but only acts as an estrogen antagonist. This means that it does not prevent testosterone and its synthetic derivatives (steroids) from converting into estrogens but only fights with them in a sort of “competition” for the estrogen receptors. This characteristic has the disadvantage that after the discontinuance of Nolvadex a “rebound effect” can occur which means that the suddenly freed estrogen receptors are now able to absorb the estrogen present in the blood. For this reason the combined intake of Proviron is suggested (see Proviron.)

Nolvadex is also useful during a diet since it helps in the burning of fat. Al-though Nolvadex has no direct fatburning effect its antiestrogenic effect contributes to keeping the estrogen level as low as possible. Nolvadex should especially be taken together with the strong an-drogenic steroids Dianabol and Anadrol 50, and the various test-osterone compounds. Athletes who have a tendency to retain water and who have a mammary dysfunction should take Nolvadex as a prevention during every steroid intake. Since Nolvadex is very affective in most cases it is no wonder that several athletes can take Anadrol 50 and Dianabol until the day of a competition, and in combination with a diuretic still appear totally ripped in the. limelight. Those who already have a low body fat content will achieve a visibly improved muscle hardness with Nolvadex.

Several bodybuilders like to use Nolvadex at the end of a steroid cycle since it increases the body’s own testosterone production -which will be discussed in more detail in the following-to counter-act the side effects caused by the estrogens. These can occur after the discontinuance of steroids when the androgen level in relationship to the estrogen concentration is too low and estrogen becomes the dominant hormone. A very rare but all the more serious problem of Nolvadex is that in some cases it does not lower the estrogen level but can increase it. Another disadvantage is that it can weaken the anabolic effect of some steroids. The reason is that Nolvadex, as we know, reduces the estrogen level. The fact is, however, that certain steroids – especially the various testosterone compounds-can only achieve their full effect if the estrogen level is sufficiently high. Those who are used to the intake of larger amounts of various steroids do not have to worry about this. Athletes however, who predominantly use mild steroids such as Primobolan, Winstrol, Oxandrolone, and Deca-Durabolin should carefully consider whether or not they should take Nolvadex since, due to the compound’s already moderate ana-bolic effect, an additional loss of effect could take place, leading to unsatisfying results.

A rarely observed but welcome characteristic of Nolvadex is that it has a direct influence on the hypothalamus and thus, by an in-creased release of gonadotropine, it stimulates the testosterone pro-duction in the testes. This does not result in a tremendous but still a measurable increase of the body’s own testosterone. This effect, however, is not sufficient to significantly increase the testosterone production reduced by anabolic/androgenic steroids.

The side effects of Nolvadex are usually low in dosages of up to 30 mg/day In rare cases nausea, vomiting, hot flashes, numbness, and blurred vision can occur. In women irregular menstrual cycles can occur which manifest themselves in weaker menstrual bleeding or even complete missing of a period. Women should also be careful not to get pregnant while taking Nolvadex. It is important for fe-male athletes that Nolvadex and the “pill” not be taken together since the antiestrogen Nolvadex and the estrogen-containing pill nega-tively counterfeit each other. The normal daily dosage taken by athletes corresponds more or less to the dosage indications of the manufacturer and is 10-30 mg/day To prevent estrogenic side ef-fects normally 10 mg/day are sufficient, a dosage which also keeps low the risk of reducing the effect of simultaneously-taken ste-roids. Often it is sufficient if the athlete begins this preventive intake of Nolvadex only three to four weeks after the intake of anabolics. Athletes who have tendencies toward gynecomastia, strong water retention, and increased fat deposits with steroids such as Dianabol, Testosterone, Anadrol 50, and Deca-Durabolin usually take 20-30 mg/day The combined application of Nolvadex 20-30 mg/day and Proviron 25-50 mg/day in these cases leads to excellent results. The same is true for athletes who are in competition, and for women. Women, however, should do without the intake of Proviron or at least reduce the dose to one 25 mg tablet per day. Unfortunately, in most cases, a very pronounced gynecomastia (“bitch tits”) cannot be reduced by taking Nolvadex so that often surgery is required, surgery which is not paid for by health insurance. First signs of a possible gynecomastia are light pain when touching the nipples. The tablets are usually taken 1-2x daily, swallowed whole without chewing, with some liquid during meals.

Nolvadex unfortunately is a very expensive compound. Some ex-amples: In Germany one hundred 20 mg tablets cost $192. In Spain the prices are fixed by the govern-ment and it makes no difference whether it is an original Nolvadex or a generic compound. One hundred 20 mg tablets cost approx. $60 in Spain. In Greece the same quantity costs about $85. The athlete should look for the 20-mg version since, from its price, it is the most economical. On the black-market, mostly the foreign Nolvadex can be found costing about $2 – 3 per 20 mg tablet. Origi-nal Nolvadex tablets can be easily identified since, on the front, ICI (name of the manufacturer) is stamped and, on the back, the name “Nolvadex”. Most of the time the tablet strength is also imprinted. Ten tablets are included in an unusually large push-through strip. In the U.S. original Nolvadex is packaged by the manufacturer, ICI Pharma, in small, white plastic boxes with a childproof screw cap. So far there are no fakes of Nolvadex and its generic products.

Do You Keep Mutilating Yourself Every Time Something Goes Wrong? How to Face Despair

Everything would be much easier if you could understand that when you mutilate yourself you are doing something absurd that does not help you in any way, on the contrary: it will only cause you more problems and bring you more despair.

However, your ego obliges you to give explanations for your behavior and you keep trying to justify what you should condemn.

Of course, you do not believe you should condemn your own actions, otherwise you would stop acting the way you do, and this is why you insist on defending your absurd behavior instead of facing the truth and admitting that what you are doing against yourself is something crazy, because it is bad for you.

What would you think if someone asks you the meaning of the behavior of someone who keeps injuring his own body?

This behavior reflects despair in the face of the horrors of human life. However, you should not let despair dominate you. You have to show courage and bravely face everything, waiting for the moment when you'll be free. Nothing lasts forever. Think about it this way and face your pain without trying to find false solutions.

You need real relief, not more pain and more problems.

Write down your dreams everyday, even if you can not understand their meaning. I'm giving you many lessons and some day you'll be able to understand at least a little bit of their meaning and messages.

Even by understanding only a little bit you will already be helped, because the unconscious mind that produces your dreams is a doctor, who will show you the reality of using another kind of logic, instead of talking with you according to the logic of your ignorant , absurd and under-developed conscience.

Exactly because your human conscience has to be developed and has to transform the violent content existent in the biggest part of your brain into a human, sensitive and sensible content, you see dreams everyday that show you the mistakes you make by being one-sided, and which give you guidance.

There are many things you can do in order to be helped when everything goes wrong. Do not panic, and do not let your absurd side dominate you.

Show courage in the hard moments of life when you are threatened by despair, and you'll manage to survive and win in the end.

The unconscious mind will show you also how you can successfully solve all your problems, besides curing your injured psyche.

Hard Thick Toenails Treatment – Prevention and Causes

Thick toenails are often the result of a toenail fungus. In some cases however toenails can thicken due to wearing tight shoes.

Some of the symptoms of toenail fungus include thickening of the nail, discoloration of the nail, brittleness resulting in crumbling, fogging of the nail, and spots. You may also smell a slight stench coming from under the nail. Often but not always you may feel a slight pain while putting weight on the infected toe.


Fungus can be caused by a few different things. Its important to understand the causes of toenail fungal infection in order to prevent it from coming back.

Moist public areas such as public pools, gyms, and locker rooms are the perfect breeding ground for fungus and can easily be spread. Make sure you always wear sandals around these places whenever possible. This will significantly reduce your risks.

Also important is to always make sure your shoes have dried out since your last use. Never wear sweaty sneakers left from yesterday. Equally important in preventing thickening of the nails and toenail fungus is making sure your shoes aren’t too tight fitting. Try to wear moisture absorbent socks. This will take moisture of the toes and decrease risks.


In addition to taking good preventative measures you’ll need a remedy to treat your current fungus. Most treatments by themselves are ineffective. Prescription drugs that are ingested are dangerous and should be avoided. Not only do they attempt to treat your fungus but they also do serious damage to your liver and kidneys. In extreme cases this can result in liver failure resulting in death.

The best method I found for treating toenail fungus was by soaking my nails in hot water and then gently removing a thin layer of my infected nail with a file. I then applied a white vinegar and dark beer soak for about 30 minutes per treatment twice a day. After this I applied a natural treatment.

Stone Retaining Walls – How to Clean Them

Some people just don’t’ realize what ‘a prize’ an old stone retaining wall is on their property. Instead of letting this piece of history fall into disrepair it should be maintained or even ‘spruced up’! A thorough cleaning of an old stone retaining wall can bring the wall back to life and once again add beauty to your yard and landscape.

You have to be mean to clean! – Old stone walls have years of soot and mold buildup. These stains can be tough to remove depending on how deep the mold and soot has penetrated. There can also be fungus and algae growth, as well vines or ground cover rooting into the wall. So what to do? Well you do realize that these parasites have to go! So let’s get out the pressure washer and prepare for cleaning!

Use a medium size pressure washer – Is the pressure washer ready? OK good… now… STOP!! The worst thing that you can possibly do at this point is to start the pressure washer and blow out all the joints with a high pressure spray!

In addition if you begin clean the wall without the proper soaking, you will only drive the surface soot deeper into the walls pores by wicking action making it harder to clean… so hold your horses! No… the approach that I’m going to explain to you is a little more subtle and softer.

Ok. Now begin the cleaning process by first saturating the wall. This is achieved by gently washing the wall down with a wide angle nozzle. Stand back from the wall maybe 3′ – 4′ and let the water flow over, around and run down the face of the wall.

Now your wall is thoroughly soaked which will allow the detergent to penetrate deeper into the wall system lifting the soot and grime away. Also a saturated wall will keep the detergent from drying out prematurely allowing it ample time to perform its’ function.

The trick is to use a commercial grade degreaser – Now apply a concentrated heavy degreaser purchase from a commercial pressure cleaning supply company. Do not dilute. Pour the detergent straight from the bucket into a garden sprayer and begin to spray the wall. Make sure that every inch of wall is covered and try to keep a ‘wet look’ as you go. This degreaser will cost a few dollars but this is not the place to scrimp. If you want the wall cleaned buy the degreaser… simple.

Now it looks even worse! – Ok, now the wall has been soaked and the degreaser applied, so what do you do? You wait. That’s right… you wait.

After about 10 – 15 minutes the wall will start to turn dark amber then a dirty brown. You will see streaks of grime dripping down the face of the wall. The wall will look terrible and you’ll be worried that you screw it up! That’s good. As soon as you begin to feel that it’s a hopeless cause and are ready to throw in the towel, you’ll know that your work is almost done!

Now that the degreaser has had a chance to work by lifting the grime, it is time to agitate it just like a washing machine. Using your 15 degree nozzle begin to hit the wall with quick, random strokes and from top to bottom. You are not looking to saturate the wall this time. As you see the soap suds appearing from the pressure of the spray, move up and down the wall and proceed along its’ length.

You may do this a couple of times along the length of the wall to get the deepest cleaning possible. This agitation will dilute the degreaser to a lower viscosity and create soap bubbles that will lift the surface soot and grime away.

Ok… now you can blow it away! – After the degreaser has been agitated you can now proceed to the final step of pressure washing the wall. Beginning where you first applied the degreaser you place your wand about 12″ – 16″ away from the face of the wall.

You clean by watching the soot lift from the wall as you move your nozzle from joint to joint and from stone to stone. You will see the soot and grime lift away as you proceed down the wall. If a section further along looks like it is drying out too quickly then agitate again, to keep it wet until you can reach that section.

You will be amazed by how quickly years of soot, grime, mold and debris wash away. Areas with stubborn stains may require another application.

When you have finished you will step back in amazement! That old dingy wall will look new and refreshed and your job is complete. After all that hard work sit back and enjoy the beauty your restored wall provides… after all you deserve to relax!

Reducing Strain and Sprain Injuries Requires Reinforcement

As with any safety and health program or initiative, to get sustained results there must be frequent reinforcement over time. The "safety program of the month" or a knee jerk reaction to a serious accident, while more common than they should be, rarely lead to sustained results. In fact, they often do more harm than good. When it comes to reducing strain and sprain injuries (also referred to as soft tissue, musculoskeletal, overexertion injuries, etc.) there is no silver bullet either. Even the best written ergonomics procedures and training are not enough. These efforts may provide some reductions, but the improvements are usually short lived. Achieving material and sustained reductions in strain and sprain injuries takes a serious commitment to reinforcement.

For example, let's say in an effort to reduce strain and sprain injuries you just trained all your employees in proper body mechanics. With shift work and vacations, getting everyone through the training was quite a feat. Perhaps you had someone from corporate come in, a doctor from a local clinic or you hired a consultant to do the training. And, the feedback from your employees was overall positive. You feel pretty good about your efforts. Maybe it's time to move onto the next priority? Do not be fooled. If you stop here, the chances your employees will apply what they learned in the training (ie, proper body mechanics) is slim to none.

Reinforcement is the timely, repetitious, and specific reiteration of your expectations and objectives. Said another way – practice makes perfect. Consider the time and effort even the most skilled athletes spend practicing their craft. Your employees are no different. Reinforcement can come in many forms such as coaching, friendly reminders and even formal discipline. To reduce strain and sprain injuries, you must develop a formal reinforcement strategy.

The type and nature of reinforcement may vary from company to company. Only you can choose the approach strategy appropriate for your organization. Key factors in choosing the best approach include the type and nature of your operation, the maturity level of your safety and health programs, the level of employee participation, and your organizations desired level of commitment to reducing strain and sprain injuries. Whichever approach you choose, it will be much easier to implement if you already have a similar process in place. For example, if you already have a job observation program in place where supervisors or employees perform safety inspections in the facility, simply add body mechanics to the list of items evaluated during the inspection.

Another consideration when developing a reinforcement approach is process. Your approach must include a plan, implementation, review of findings and follow-up. For example, if using the job observation program as a reinforcement strategy, first develop a checklist to ensure consistent evaluation of body mechanics. Then determine who will perform the inspections, establish a set frequency (eg, weekly, monthly) and train them how to perform the observations. Next, develop a means to collect, evaluate and analyze the information obtained during the inspections. This will enable you to identify problem areas or trends and allow you to prioritize and focus your future efforts.

Lastly, consider ways to communicate the findings to your employees and management. Add the findings to a newsletter, monthly safety report or post it on a bulletin board. Seeing and hearing about the results of their efforts alone is a form of reinforcement. It may also be useful to have your safety committee or a task force review and evaluate the information collected.

The safety observation program is just one of many reinforcement strategies you can implement to reduce strains and sprains. Other interesting and effective approaches can include using an incentive program, measuring improvement in employee range of motion, and hazard recognition and corrective action management programs just to name a few. Be creative. Your employees can be a great resource. The possibilities are endless. Find one that works for your organization and get the results you are looking to achieve.

Natural Bruise Remedy

Looking for a natural bruise remedy? You're not alone. Everyone on the planet has had a bruise at some point in their lifetime, there is no way to avoid them. I guess the only way one can avoid bruises is if you wrapped yourself in a foam or bubble wrap and walked around in that manner. When we were kids we did not care if we got a bruise, we maybe cried asked our mommy to kiss it and make it better then we went back outside to play again. As adults bruises may be a problem and they are not very flattering. If you are a woman and wear skirts to work do you really want a huge bruise on your leg showing? I doubt you do.

Some of the ways to get rid of a bruise the natural way are: Arnica. What is Arnica? It is a European plant for in the mountains that is a know remedy for healing bruises. If one applies this 3-4 times a day the bruise will heal much quicker. BUT research, research, and research before applying products like these and understand what ingredients are in them. A basic way to heal a bruise naturally is apply to ice to the bruised area, elevate the area if on a leg, apply a warm compress a few times a day.

Also remember bruises look much worse before they start to get better. Bruise treatment should start right away before the bruise begins to form, this will reduce how "ugly" it looks. Your body will react differently to methods of natural bruise remedies so try more then one if you must.

Watch Your Back When Shoveling Snow!

Watch your back when you shovel snow, you do not want to end up in bed as the cost a clean snow free driveway.

The first winter storm has moved across the northern states. It's only a few inches of snow so you break out your show shovel. Snow shoveling can easily cause muscle strain to your lower back. Many early season snow storms dump snow that is laden with moisture so 2-4 inches of wet snow is heavier that a late season storm that dumps twice as much snow that contains less moisture. So govern your activity accordingly and use good technique to avoid lower back pain.

If you are out of condition you could be shoveling toward back trouble. Another cause of problems leading to lower back pain is to not use proper technique in handling the snow. Here are some ideas that should keep you from having difficulties with your back after shoveling snow:

To avoid back injuries, start slow. If you have a stationary bike ride a mile or two to get completely warmed up before you pick up the snow shovel. Another tip is to wait until later in the day as you are less likely to slip a disk in the afternoon or evening than early in the morning after the body has been at rest all night.

Start by lifting smaller loads of snow. Gradually build up and warm up your muscles before you load up the shovel. Bend with your knees and lift with your legs rather than your back.

When turning move both feet, do not twist your body to move and throw the snow. Do not bend your body forward and bend your back. To reduce fatigue step in the direction you're throwing the snow.

Before you become fatigued take frequent breaks. One technique that is effective is to place you hands on the back of your hips and bend backwards slightly for several seconds.

Be sure you have a properly designed snow shovel. If the shovel is too short it will cause your back to bend more and you are more likely to experience back pain. A snow shovel that had too long a handle makes the weight of the snow feel heavier and will also cause fatigue and a possible backache.

The other factor is the size of the scoop of the shovel. To large and you may have a tendency to load it up with snow and the sheer repetitive weight could cause problems with your back.

If you get through the first snow storm with only tired and sore muscles, consider yourself fortunate. Perhaps it's time to start regular workouts to minimize future back problems. Or you could hire a neighborhood teenager to shovel the snow off your driveway and sidewalks.

Fitness & Energy

It is a common perception among women that oral contraceptives are associated with weight gain. However, Norplant and Depo-Provera are the only hormonal contraceptives that include specific statements that the expected change in weight is an increase, while the other contraceptives describe that there may be an increase or decrease in weight as a result of this drug. Since more than one million women used Depo-Provera and greater than 500,000 used Norplant, it is important to determine whether the use of these drugs can be expected to promote weight in women.

A group of researchers from Pennsylvania State University studied whether the use of progestational contraceptives caused an imbalance in energy regulation that lead to weight gain. Specifically, Pelkman et al. examined whether depot medroxy-progesterone acetate was associated with an increase in food intake or a decrease in resting energy expenditure (REE) in young women.

Body weight, REE, and 3-day food intake were measured in 20 normal-weight women during the follicular and luteal phases of two menstrual cycles. These measurements were taken either before a single injection of Depo-Provera or saline solution (control). The subjects were in the testing laboratory for four days. They consumed only foods and beverages that were provided during the first three days and were weighed in the morning on the first and fourth days; REE was measured before breakfast on the first day of each test session by indirect calorimetry.

Subjects consumed 4.3% more energy and expended 4.3% more energy at rest during the luteal phase as compared to the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Treatment with Depo-Provera or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate had no significant effect on food intake, body weight, or REE over the three-month testing period.

This experiment showed that although this phase of the menstrual cycle affected both energy intake and REE, Depo-Provera did not cause any short-term weight gain in young healthy, normal-weight women. Further research is needed to determine whether similar effects occur with different contraceptive hormones, over longer periods of time, and in other populations, such as overweight or obese women.

What Are The Colon Cancer Symptoms

Colon cancer is currently the second most common cancer in the United States, and causes over 50,000 deaths in the country each year; and for the record, which is about as many American soldiers that died in the entire Vietnam conflict. This is an especially tragic and frustrating fact because the majority of the deaths caused by colon cancer could have been prevented or reduced.

The symptoms include pain in the abdomen, diarrhea, blood in the feces, and sometimes constipation or sometimes even blocked bowel movements. It can range from very mild, and to extremely severe. There are cases of colon cancer that are almost without symptoms until the latest stages.

It is not a good idea to wait until you have noticeable sign before learning about the disease and taking some action. Once you've developed such symptoms, the disease has probably entered into the middle or late stages, and there is a high chance that it has spread to other areas of your body. Once it has spread to other parts of your body, your likelihood of survival lowers dramatically.

If you catch colon cancer in the earlier stages, there is an extremely high chance that you will recover and survive well. Over 90% of people who are diagnosed with an early stage are able to undergo a successful surgical removal of the cancer before it spreads to other parts. It is important to note that in the beginning stages, the signs are rarely noticeable, so it is only those who regularly go for a colonoscopy or other colon exam that will be able to catch the disease early.

This cancer also has a high tendency to run in families. There is a genetic trait for developing 'polyps' that can be passed down from one generation to the next, and this trait vastly increases your odds of getting the disease. If you parents, grandparents, or siblings have even been diagnosed with this disease, there is a good chance you may have this polyp gene, and it is especially important that you get checked regularly once you reach the age of 40.

Clearly, it is extremely important to get a regular colon exam, irregardless of whether the disease runs in your family or not. Also, contrary to some myths, women are as likely to develop colon cancer as compare to men. People of African decent seem to be especially prone to such disease, and should consider getting their first exam starting even earlier than age 40. No one likes the thought of a colon exam, as they are certainly unpleasant, but late stage colon cancer are definitely worse to have.

New York Car Insurance Quote Basics

Moving brings lots of new challenges, particularly if you're moving to a new state. If you're new to the state of New York, you need to know all the ins and outs on important laws and regulations, including finding out all about a New York car insurance quote. You might get a little sticker shock moving to New York as their rates are a bit higher than the national average. But, there are always ways to save money on your New York car insurance.

New York has a "no fault" law, which means that, in general, each party's insurance pays for their injury claims in the event of an accident, regardless of who caused the accident. For this reason, all drivers in New York must carry Personal Injury Insurance (PIP) in the amount of at least $ 50,000. Your PIP insurance will cover medical expenses, loss of wages, loss of services, and offers a death benefit.

In addition, New York drivers must also carry liability insurance to pay for property damage and bodily injury to the other party in the event that you are at fault in an accident. The minimum on liability property damage insurance is $ 10,000. The minimum on bodily injury is $ 25,000 per person or $ 50,000 per accident. In addition, New York car insurance laws require that you carry a minimum $ 25,000 / $ 50,000 in uninsured motorist coverage, too.

Overall, New York car insurance typically costs the average driver about $ 400 per year more than the national average. This is due to the combination of higher limits being required by law and the fact that drivers are required to carry liability insurance to pay for the other party along with PIP insurance to pay for their own medical expenses.

In addition to carrying the New York car insurance required by law, you may also want to consider adding other coverage, such as collision insurance. Though your PIP insurance covers your injuries in an accident, without collision, you'll have no insurance coverage for your vehicle in the event of an accident that you cause. Collision will cover your vehicle's repair or replacement. In addition many drivers consider adding comprehensive insurance. Comprehensive insurance covers your vehicle for damage caused by fire, natural elements, vandalism and theft. You may also want to add items such as rental car coverage and roadside assistance to your policy.

Rates on a Because New York car insurance quote are On fairly high, it's very important 's to shop around so That you Can Ensure the best Ask Question. Take the time to gather several quotes before you choose an insurance policy. Asking each company to quote the exact same coverage will help you compare your quotes more easily.

Once you've gathered your quotes, be certain to ask around about the company's customer service before you make your final decision. Great rates are always enticing, but it's just as important to have a car insurance company that will be responsive when you have to file a claim.

Milk Thistle To Help Repair Liver Damage

To help repair liver damage, you may wish to consider consuming milk thistle as a herbal supplement. Milk thistle is also otherwise known as silybum marianum. It is found to support and revive liver function even for those that have already by afflicted by disease. Additionally, it also has preventative medicinal qualities for the bowels and gall bladder.

Milk thistle lowers your enzyme levels, and aids in the delivery of detoxifying blood to your body. It also helps reduce inflammation, thus making it helpful for Hepatitis patients. It alters the outer layers of your body cells and keeps toxins at bay, and regenerates damaged cells by increasing ribosome activity; thus cleansing your liver of free radicals. These properties are also helpful in the treatment of cirrhosis.

Milk thistle is one of the best all natural products available to repair liver damage. It aids your liver to cleanse itself while preventing incoming toxins by protecting each cell within the liver. The protective feature allows the liver to concentrate on releasing the existing toxins rather than warding off new intruders. These properties strengthen the liver itself, allowing it to function optimally. It is a truly great herb.

How do we know if we have a liver that needs repair? There are various common symptoms that we suffer from and which can be simply cured by cleansing our livers. Bloating, constipation, diarrhea, nausea, unexplained belly fat, indigestion, and bad breath can all be traced back to an overworked liver. Also, if you drink alcohol regularly and are at risk of liver damage, then milk thistle can help repair this vital organ.

In addition, a little known fact regarding the functions of the liver is its ability to help you with you moods. If you have liver damage, you are likely to be irritable, groggy or depressed and have mood swings on a regular basis. Liver damage may well be due to excessive toxins that have entered the bloodstream. A proper liver cleanse can properly stabilize your moods by preventing excess toxins from escaping your liver.

Even if you are not currently experiencing the above symptoms in your daily life, a liver cleanse is helpful for anyone under any sort of stress, which lets face it, is all of us. Environmental pollutants, exposure to chemicals and drugs can all be toxic to our bodies; so helping your liver to rejuvenate itself is always a good idea.

For liver damage repair, you can take a general recommended dosage of milk thistle anywhere from 500 to 2000mg per day. This supplement is available in most herbal stores. While the bottle may say that side effects such as vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, and headaches are possible, you can avoid these symptoms if you take the supplements as directed. Of course, it will be a good idea to drink plenty of water throughout your day to minimize any possible side effects and to aid in the flushing of toxins.

How to Get Pregnant With Twins Without Making Use of Fertility Drugs?

Want to know how to get pregnant with twins naturally without having to use fertility drugs? Thanks to advances made in medical science there are a number of natural supplements which can increase the probability of your giving birth to twins. Here are a few tips on how to get pregnant with twins.

• Choose a partner who is a twin. Twins are more likely to have fraternal twins. Hence partnering with a twin can enhance your chances of having a multiple birth. Twin births tend to run higher in certain blood lines than others.

• Women who are a few pounds overweight have greater chance of giving birth to twins. However, it would be unhealthy to put on too much of excess weight. It would suffice if you are just few pounds overweight.

• Include plenty of dairy products in your diet. Dairy has been shown to increase twin conceptions by 7 times the normal rate. The fat content in dairy products is cholesterol which helps in stimulating production of progesterone. This increases hyper-ovulation and also the chances of two eggs begin fertilized at the same time.

• Research studies have shown that women in the age group of mid or late 30s are more likely to conceive twins naturally.

• Add wild yams to your diet. Research has indicated that Cassave, a type of sweet potato or yam is a form of progesterone which is a hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle. The skin of this variety of yam contains a chemical which triggers hyper-ovulation. Other foods which can cause hyper-ovulation include soy isoflavones, whole grains, tofu, walnuts and wheat germ. So, if you are seriously looking out for natural ways on how to get pregnant with twins make sure you include these foods in your diet.

Home Remedies For Oral Thrush

Oral Thrush is caused by a fungus called candida. Candida is actually a yeast infection in the mouth. It is commonly targeted at newborn babies and toddlers. However, this infection can also happen on adults too.

thrush normally appeared as white or cream colored spots. The infected area may bleed when the white flakes are scraped. They may also get discomfort when chewing or swallowing food. You may also see rashes at the corner of the mouth. Normally, babies or children may appear to have no or mild signs of discomfort but it is best to treat thrush early as it may spread to other parts like digestive tract.

There are several kinds of treatments for oral thrush. It can be treated with drops, yeast gel, tablets or lozenges that contain nystatin or miconazole. Home remedies for oral thrush is one of the good treatments for eliminating the root cause of the problem, preventing the symptoms from recurring again.

To speed up the process of curing thrush, it is best to take good control of your blood sugar level. Avoid eating too much sugary food and go for high fiber diet food. If you wear dentures, leave the dentures out for at least 6 to 8 hours and disinfect every day. Make sure your dentures are not overly fitted or loose. A good oral hygiene is definitely a must in getting rid of the oral thrush.

In order to prevent the thrush from getting worse, it is best to seek proven and effective home remedies for oral thrush. This infection can persist for months or the chances of the symptoms recurring again can be quite high if it is not treated properly.

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The Role of Ambient Networks in the Next Generation of Wireless Systems

The Role of Ambient Networks in the Next Generation of Wireless Systems


K.Kiran Kumar

K.Anil Kumar

Assist. Professors

Dept. of Informatics

Alluri Institute of Management Sciences



4G networks will demand the seamless integration of technology into the user environment. Such networks are envisioned to be an evolution and convergence of mobile communication systems and IP technology, requiring the support for heterogeneity in network access, communication services, and user devices. The Ambient Networks are used to solve these heterogeneous networking problems with a uniform process,

Network Composition, in a plug and play way.


 In this paper we consider the Network Composition and analyze the gaps in today’s technology, and highlight the advantages of the Composition process. These networks will enable scalable and affordable wireless networking while providing pervasive, rich and easy-to-use communication. Ambient Network architecture for the handling of triggering events, which form the input for handover decisions and other mobility actions in the context of Ambient Networks. The Ambient Networks capable with the dynamics of both topology and traffic demands. Finally we describe the self-management approach to create, configure, adapt, contextualize, and finally teardown service specific overlay networks.


Keywords: self-management, handover management, heterogeneous networks, mobility management, trigger Access Networks, Network Composition


The Ambient Networks (ANs) [1, 2], a future networking architecture, which aims to enable the cooperation of heterogeneous networks belonging to different technology or operator domains. The architecture introduces a common control space (ACS) for all networks, which comprises of several functional areas (FA) allowing the diversity of implementations. Mobility management is an integral part of the Ambient Networks architecture, including the means for triggering and managing the mobility of various mobile entities able to move in multiple dimensions. The triggering framework will be a key enabler for seamless mobility by collecting a large number of triggers and hints in order to perform accurate and justified handovers maintaining user communication undisrupted. The framework will be flexible and can be used by other mobility functions as well. In the context of the Ambient Networks Project we aim to solve these heterogeneous networking scenarios in a unified framework. We call such networking of networks Composition. The heterogeneity arising from the different technologies is embraced such that the composition process appears homogeneous to the users. The vision is to allow composition of networks on-the-fly, transparently and in a plug and play manner, without the need for pre-configuration or offline negotiation.

In this paper, we present The SATO self-management system collects distributed user and network context in an ANs, and automatically assigns dedicated nodes to analyze these information, in order to support the setting up, and subsequently the adaptation of SATOs. As ambient networks compose and decompose the topology and traffic patterns can change rapidly. This means that one cannot rely only on long-term network planning and dimensioning that are done when the network is first built. Traffic engineering mechanisms are needed to adapt to changes in topology and traffic demand and dynamically distribute traffic to benefit from available resources.


Composition achieves dynamic automated interworking of networks on the control plane, in addition to the data plane cooperation possible today. Data-plane co-operation provides basic addressing and routing services, control plane internetworking encompasses additional capabilities including mobility management, security and QoS control. It generalizes and streamlines many existing basic concepts like attaching a node to a network, mobility of nodes and networks (viewed as changing the composition structure) as well as typical interoperate network agreements. A detailed description can be found in [3].

                Networks capable of composition are called Ambient Networks (ANs). An AN requires therefore an identity, a common control space known as the Ambient Control Space (ACS), and support for a specific control interface, the Ambient Network Interface (ANI). The ACS is an abstraction that consists of all the control plane functions of ANs. At an abstract level, the ACS has a modular structure, with independent – yet interworking – Functional Areas (FAs) for each control plane function. Thus there is a QoS Functional Area which contains multiple control functions, e.g. resource configuration, admission control etc.. Beyond this, there are few prescriptions as to how the ACS is realized, e.g. what functionality it actually supports, and how it is implemented.

Likewise, the ANI may be distributed over multiple physical network nodes, or it may be implemented by a single physical node.

Figure 1: The modular structure of the Ambient Control Space and the AN

When ANs compose, they communicate across the ANI to negotiate a Composition Agreement and create a composed AN. This process is orchestrated by the Composition FA. Composing ANs agree on joint control of all or a subset of their individual resources and on all policies that they are going to follow in order to coordinate their control planes. A composed ANs consists of all logical and physical resources that each constituent AN contributes. It has its own ACS controlling all its resources and communicating directly to the outside with its own identifier and via its own ANI. The ANI of composed ANs does not reveal its internal structure. This means composition is a recursive process that is always the same. It does not matter whether the composing ANs are themselves already the result of a composition. The ACS and the composition process are illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2.

                The Generic Ambient Network Signaling (GANS) is the open base set of protocols enabling transport of signaling messages between FAs via the ANI. It is important to emphasize that GANS does not replace standard or de-facto standard protocols, which are used for instance to exchange routing information or for mobility support. GANS is used to exchange information currently not sufficiently covered by generally accepted protocols – e.g. Service Level Specification (SLS) negotiation between QoS FAs.

Figure 2: The formation of a new ACS upon composition.


While a lot of building blocks exist to realize this scenario today, a number of additional features are necessary. As a first step, all devices must be capable of screening their environment for devices that offer Internet access and mobile router functionality. Vice versa, these devices must advertise their capability. Furthermore, the mobile phone first acts as a mobile router, and the mobile router functionality is later transferred to the laptop. Additionally, the mobile phone automatically starts up the stateless DHCPv6 service to enable a synchronization of different configuration frameworks (UMTS and PAN). Whenever UMTS provides new or updated configuration parameters (e.g. DNS server addresses) they are automatically injected to the local DHCPv6 service to be distributed for the use of the PAN.

Figure 3: Configuration of a PAN

While the operation of the café’s access network can be realized with current technology, the initial configuration must be performed manually. It is not possible to install a dynamic, automatic agreement between café’s owner and the operator, detailing who is responsible for allocating addresses, authentication, accounting etc. This obviously is expensive and, furthermore, restricts the flexibility of the set-up. Likewise, the QoS reservation between café and operator is hard to adapt. As we will see in the next section, when the           association between café network and operator network is regarded as a composition, the entire process can become    automatic and dynamic, and moreover similarly in structure to the creation of the PAN described above.


Figure 4 illustrates the logical organization of the Ambient Control Space (ACS) internals, showing the functionality and interfaces that are its main features. The control space (large oval in Figure 4) consists of a collection of control functions, such as naming or composition agreement that cooperate to implement specific control functionality. These control functions exist within the overall control space framework.

Figure 4: Control space modularization and interfaces.


Higher-layer applications and services use the Ambient Service Interface (ASI) to access a subset of the control space functionality. This subset includes functions like naming, location and context management, inter-domain management and traffic engineering. The ASI provides an API to Ambient Networks that is located between the control space and the applications at a node. It allows applications and services to issue requests to the control space concerning the establishment, maintenance and termination of end-to-end connectivity. The ASI also exposes management capabilities and makes network context information available to the applications..

Connectivity resources interact with the control space through the Ambient Resource Interface (ARI), for example, to access multi-radio resource management, mobility and trigger processing. Finally, the Ambient Network Interface (ANI) facilitates communication between the control spaces of different networks, creating the shared, common control space that enables the advanced internetworking capabilities the Ambient Network project aims to achieve.


This common control functionality enables the plug-and-play interworking of the other control space functionality by providing a common architectural framework for intra-control-space communication, a control-space-wide resource registry and mechanisms for consistency management and conflict resolution. One piece of this common functionality enables different functions within the ACS to communicate by exchanging messages with one another. Message-based communication among a set of participants requires some infrastructure and mechanisms. Participants need unique identifiers to enable unambiguous message delivery.

Figure 5: Common control space functionality.


The Ambient Networks (AN) project [1] seeks to study ambient networks taking into consideration aspects like multiradio interfaces, mobility management, security issues, composition of ANs, context management and service

delivery [2]. The main task is to design an overall architecture enabling the user-centered delivery of service, any time, everywhere, whatever the device and the network are. The entity that gathers all the information and links them is called the Ambient Control Space (ACS) (Figure 6: The ACS, OM FE and SATO. It can be seen as a control framework that manages all characteristics of ANs, provides abstraction of the resources and enables the service delivery for ANs.

                A service interface, the Ambient Service Interface (ASI) has been defined as an “upper layer” interface of the ACS that is accessible to applications to define their requirements and specify how the service should be delivered (in terms of QoS, security, connectivity). The management of this request is performed by the Overlay Management (OM) FE [4][5]. The OM FE will then create and maintain a service-specific overlay network to fulfill the service provider requirements and to manage the service delivery to end-users while adapting to user and network context. This specific overlay is called a Service-aware Adaptive Transport Overlay (SATO) network. The Service Context (SC) FE [3] is also very important in this work since the SATO should adapt automatically to context.

Figure 6: The ACS, OM FE and SATO


This section gives an overview of the part of the Ambient Control Space that is closest to the radio interface: the multiradio access (MRA). More thorough descriptions can be found in [6][7].

Plenty of prior work exists on multi-radio access topics, including IP mobility schemes for handover [8], joint radio resource management mechanisms [9], and different radio abstraction layers [10]. However, this work has only tackled partial issues, e.g., focusing on a limited number of specific RAs that could be tightly integrated, or proposing loose integration to handle many RAs but with limited support for joint resource management. The aim for the Ambient Networks MRA is an all-encompassing, flexible architecture considering all existing and future radio access technologies, and supporting different levels of coordination depending on operational modes and

business relationships so that cooperation at the radio access level is possible even between competing actors.

                The MRA architecture consists of two main components: Multi-Radio Resource Management (MRRM) for joint management of radio resources and load sharing between the different RAs; and Generic Link Layer (GLL), which provides a toolbox for unified link layer processing, offering a unified interface towards higher layers and an adaptation to the underlying radio access technologies.


A main feature of the MRA architecture is resource sharing and dynamic agreements between ANs, including different access providers, through composition. Other features are efficient advertising, discovery and selection of RAs, including the possibility for a user to simultaneously communicate over multiple RAs, in parallel or sequentially, and efficient link layer context transfers. Further, the MRA architecture supports multi-radio multi-hop communication using both moving and fixed relays. The MRA architecture uses the ACS infrastructure for communication between MRA components, consistent data storage by registries and conflict resolution.


A high-level view of the proposed MRA architecture is illustrated in Figure 7, showing functional blocks in a layered model, including user plane data flow and MRA signaling through the layers. Black arrows indicate control interfaces between different functional blocks, carrying information exchange  and control commands e.g. for configuration or for measurement data retrieval. Note that only one communication peer (network or terminal) is depicted.

Figure 7: High-level MRA functional layer architecture.

The GLL is introduced on top of, and is partly replacing, the RA specific parts of L2. The toolbox of link layer functions within GLL provides a unified interface towards upper layers (IP and above) in the user plane and provides adaptation towards the underlying (remaining RAT specific) link layers.

The MRRM functions are built upon, or mapped onto the network intrinsic RRM functions, which belong to the underlying RA and are therefore not within the explicit scope of the AN MRA. The Figure 8 further illustrates the information exchange between MRRM, GLL and other ACS functions, here exemplified by mobility control and connectivity control.

The model suggests a functional split between MRRM and GLL. In general, GLL encompasses functions that are located close to the user plane of a data flow and/or need to operate on a relatively fine time scale. One example is selection of RAs for which a hierarchical distribution of functionality between MRRM and GLL is proposed, where GLL dynamically (fine time scale) handles the mapping of data flows to any of the RAs selected by MRRM (coarse time scale). Another example is that the GLL provides and reuses context information that is transferred between GLL entities at RA reselection for seamless access switching. MRRM performs spectrum and load management, and it coordinates decisions on different associated flows, where MRRM operations can be triggered either by system level operations or directly by flow level events, e.g., mobility. MRRM also establishes and maintains RAs that are possibly constituted of parallel multi-hop routes.


Before describing the triggering architecture, we introduce the notion of mobility for which the triggers have been

Investigated. Instead of considering mobility only as a physical movement or as a change of network point of attachment, we have taken a fundamentally broader view. In Ambient Networks, mobility may take place in different dimensions, which are independent of each other. However, mobility may often take place in several dimensions simultaneously, even in a coupled manner. We have identified seven dimensions, which can be considered as orthogonal to each other. Figure 2 illustrates examples in four of these dimensions.

1)       Physical location: A mobile entity1 moves between access points within the same radio access technology

(traditional mobility),

2)       Access technology: A mobile entity moves from one radio access technology to another (e.g. vertical handover),

3)       Address space: A mobile entity moves between networks/devices, which use different address space

(e.g. IPv4 , IPv6,  public and private),

4)       Security domain: A mobile entity moves between networks/devices/environments, in which trust or

security are enforced differently (e.g. public secured Virtual Private Network),

5)       Provider domain: A mobile entity moves between networks/devices operated/owned by a different

Provider (e.g. roaming),

6)       Device properties: A mobile entity moves from one device to another, hence the system properties of the

host device may change dramatically (e.g. inter-device handover),

7)       Time: A mobile entity does not move spatially, but ongoing communication is suspended for a while and

resumed afterwards (e.g. if a user wants to pause the connection for a while, or to allow a temporary loss of

connectivity ).

Some of the triggering events relate only to a single mobility dimension, while others may require mobility actions

to be performed in several dimensions. In this high level view, a mobile entity always has a “coordinate” in each dimension. Whenever movement in a certain dimension takes place, the respective coordinate changes. Mobility management mechanisms can be seen as functions updating one or more of these coordinates.

Figure 8: Possible sources of mobility triggers.

Figure 9: Mobility may take place in various dimensions orthogonal to each


In ANs context, the triggering architecture has two main tasks:

  1. Collecting and transporting triggers from various sources,
  1. Arbitration of conflicting triggers to result in a possible handover decision and/or routing group formation. The

Trigger processing entity shown in Figure 10 is implemented in the Ambient Control Space (ACS), partly in the Triggering Functional Area (later referred to as Triggering FA or TRG FA), partly in the Handover Management Functional Area (later referred to as HO FA). Both are depicted in Figure 10. This figure also shows how ACS offers communication to external functions via three interfaces:

  1. Ambient Service Interface (ASI) interfaces towards service infrastructures and allows applications and services to issue requests to the ACS.
  1. Ambient Resource Interface (ARI) provides control mechanisms ACS can use to manage the resources

residing in the connectivity plane.

  1. Ambient Networks Interface (ANI) is a horizontal interface interconnecting different ACS.

Figure 10: Triggering Architecture

Triggering FA handles triggers originating from other Functional Areas (such as the Context Coordination FA,

Which collects contextual information), and other sources (such as the mobility protocol states and link-layer

Information). The HO FA, in turn, uses the collected triggers and rules stored in the policy database to resolve whether a handover is needed and which mechanisms to use, after which it proceeds to actual handover execution. Another identified user of the triggering information is the Routing Group Management FA, but further discussion on routing group management is out of the scope of this paper.


Triggers for handovers are handled in three main ACS functions (see Figure 11), which are the Triggering Events

Collection (TEC), Triggering Events Classification Engine (TECE) and the Handover Decision Engine (HDE), which is described in more detail in section VI. TEC and TECE handle the collecting, classifying and storing of incoming triggers, which HDE fetches from Triggering Events Repository (Collecting triggers also requires a temporary storage, the TER, for the received triggers) for further processing. HDE solves possible conflicts between the triggers and makes decisions on handovers. It signals the Handover Execution (HE) function, which performs the actual handover. When receiving a trigger, the trigger processing classifies and timestamps the trigger. Triggers also have a lifetime, after which they are removed from the TER. The repository is more like a buffer than a database, as new triggers may be received at any time, even before the previous one has been processed.

The trigger collection process has to gather locally generated triggering events from the mobility control space (MCS). These triggers include e.g. those generated by mobility protocols (router advertisements, etc). This makes necessary that the Triggering FA has to coordinate and develop mechanisms in conjunction with other FAs within the MCS to compile triggers that could be relevant for the HO decision process. In addition, the collection process has to request (or receive) to (from) the Context Coordination FA (Concord FA) the necessary mobility context information to perform the decision that will lead to realize optimum handover operations.

Figure 11:Triggering Functional Area.

For the handover decision process, not only policies or mobility related context information should be taken into

consideration, but also context information that does not belong to the mobility control space. This type of information that we regard as “pure” context information, such as a neighboring device capabilities or geographical location is extremely useful for deciding whether to perform a handover.

In addition to gathering the triggers, the triggering events collection function need to define a relative timestamp and lifetime for the triggers. This will ensure that the gathered triggers are used in correct order for rules evaluation and are still valid in the appropriate context situation.

The gathering of triggering events requires the definition of interfaces between the involved FAs. However, depending on the type of the trigger and its importance to attain the goal of seamless handover, there could be a combined implementation to gather triggers.

A basic set of rules for gathering the triggers for performing HO decision could be defined as the following:

  • There are some types of mobility triggers that need to be acted upon immediately (real-time) in order to

Perform a smooth handover operation.

  • If the trigger is a real-time class trigger, it can be collected directly from source (FA)
  • There are other types of mobility triggers which are not time sensitive (non real-time) that could be gathered periodically or on demand.
  • If the trigger is a non-real-time class, it may be collected from Concord FA
  • Policies and Agreements that could be considered as triggers could be gathered first at call/session setup
  • Other non-mobility context triggers would be collected from the Concord FA.


For a network operator it is important to analyze and tune the performance of the network in order to make the best use of it. The process of performance evaluation and optimization of operational IP-networks is often referred to as traffic engineering. One of the major objectives is to avoid congestion by controlling and optimizing the routing function. The traffic engineering process can be divided in three parts as illustrated in Figure 12. The first step is the collection of necessary information about network state. To be specific, the current traffic situation and network topology. The second step is the optimization calculations. And finally, the third step is the mapping from optimization to routing parameters. Current routing protocols are designed to be simple and robust rather than to optimize the resource usage. The two most common intra-domain routing protocols today are OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) and IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System). They are both link-state protocols and the routing decisions are typically based on link costs and a shortest (least-cost) path calculation. While this approach is simple, highly distributed and scalable these protocols do not consider network utilization and do not always make good use of network resources. The traffic is routed on the shortest path through the network even if the shortest path is overloaded and there exist alternative paths. With an extension to the routing protocols like equal-cost multi-path (ECMP) the traffic can be distributed over several paths but the basic problems remain. An underutilized longer path cannot be used and every equal cost path will have an equal share of load.

Figure 12: The traffic engineering process.


A classification of traffic engineering schemes is possible along numerous axis. Our framework is intended to facilitate the analysis and help us identify the requirements for traffic engineering in Ambient Networks.

  • Optimize legacy routing vs. novel routing mechanisms. One approach is to optimize legacy routing protocols. The advantage is easy deployment of the traffic engineering mechanism. However, the disadvantage is the constraints imposed by legacy routing.
  • Centralized vs. distributed solutions. A centralized solution is often simpler and less complex than a distributed,but is more vulnerable than a distributed solution.
  • Local vs. global information. Global information of the current traffic situation enables the traffic engineering
  • Mechanism to find a global optimum for the load balancing. The downside is the signaling required to collect the
  • Information. In addition, in a dynamic environment, the information quickly becomes obsolete.
  • Off-line vs. on-line traffic engineering. Off-line traffic engineering is intended to support the operator in the management and planning of the network. On-line traffic engineering on the other hand, reacts to a signal from the network and performs some action to remedy the problem.

The taxonomy above is intended to assist us in the analysis of traffic engineering methods in Ambient Networks and should not be regarded as complete. A detailed taxonomy of traffic engineering methods can be found in RFC 3272 [4].


The main challenge for traffic engineering in Ambient Networks is to cope with the dynamics of both topologies

and traffic demands. Mechanisms are needed that can handle traffic load dynamics in scenarios with sudden changes

in traffic demand and dynamically distribute traffic to benefit from available resources. The different traffic engineering methods can be categorized by how much network state information they use. These ranges from methods that only use local state information to improve the load-balancing to optimization methods that need global state information in the form of link capacities and a traffic matrix as input. The trade-offs between optimality, stability and signaling overhead are crucial for traffic engineering methods in the fixed Internet and it is even more critical in a dynamic ambient environment.

The traffic engineering problem can best be modeled as a multi-commodity flow optimization  problem. This type of optimization techniques take as input global information about the network state (i.e., traffic demands and link capacities) and can calculate the global optimal solution. In practice though, there might be several reasons why we need to deviate from the optimal use of the network. This could be because the calculations are too resource consuming and take too long time. It could also be because the input needed is hard to measure and collect and that it varies too much over time so it would create too much signaling overhead or create instabilities.

MCF optimization problems easily become large with tens of thousands of variables and constraints. But it is possible to calculate the global optimal solution in tens of seconds even for large networks [1] if no constraints are given on the number of paths that can be used. Finding the optimal set of weights in OSPF though usually has to rely on heuristic methods.

One can argue that, if it is important to make the best possible use of network resources then the routing should not be restricted to what can be achieved by tuning the weights in the legacy routing protocols. Instead, the optimization should come first and the result should be implemented using new routing mechanisms if needed. On the other hand, the study by Fortz [7] shows that in practice the solutions that can be achieved by proper weight settings in OSPF are close to the optimal at least for the networks they investigated.

Multi-commodity flow optimization as well as heuristic methods for setting optimal weights in OSPF is both typical examples of centralized schemes that use global information in the form of topology and traffic matrix and produce global optimum routing or at least results that are good for the network as a whole. The problems with this type of solution are measuring the traffic demands that are needed as input and the signaling overhead created when collecting this data. A centralized solution also creates a possible bottleneck and a single point of failure. Further, in a dynamic environment the traffic data quickly becomes obsolete. If the routing decisions are based on the wrong input we may create congestion that would not be there if just shortest path routing had been used. This sensitivity to the traffic dynamics of course holds for all types of load-sensitive routing.

Examples of other schemes that uses global information about both the topology and the traffic situation but takes local decisions (and so avoids some of the problems with a centralized solution) is different kinds of QoS-routing schemes. Here information about for instance delay or load on each link in the network is flooded to all nodes. Each node then makes shortest-path (or least-cost) calculations in this metric. Each node chooses the best

Paths through the network from its own perspective but the decisions are all local decisions without consideration of the network as a whole. So care must be taken with this type of mechanism to avoid hot-spots where everybody moves traffic to underutilized links and route flapping were nodes constantly shift load back and forth.

Another possibility would be to only use local inform information when taking local decisions and so avoid all the signaling overhead [3]. If we can assume that the topology is much more constant than the traffic load then we can  use global information about the topology i.e using legacy protocols like OSPF to calculate the connectivity (shortest paths) and use only local information about the traffic situation to balance the load in the network. This is an interesting approach in a dynamic environment such as ambient networks, with sudden changes in traffic demand. For instance in a scenario with a moving network such as a train with an internal access network passing through an operators network. Instead of flooding the network with load information and wait for a new routing to be calculi acted a node can make local decisions and adapt to the situation. A node the at experiences a sudden increase in traffic demand can directly shift load from heavily loaded links to underutilized paths. The drawback of this is of course that the consequences of the local decisions for the network as a whole are difficult to grasp. Care must be taken so that local improvements don’t create overload somewhere else in the network. So, a careful evaluation of this type of mechanism is needed.

There are different timescales for traffic engineering. An interesting approach would be if global information reflecting the traffic situation in a coarser and longer time perspective could be used to make a tentative routing calculation for the whole network. And let the nodes fine-tune the routing parameters with respect to local information in the nodes or information gained from the immediate vicinity of respective node. But this is a topic for further study.


Network composition is a new concept for dynamic and instantaneous interworking of networks on the control plane. In this paper we aimed at giving a practical illustration of network composition. We depicted two distinct scenarios in terms of today’s technologies and highlighted were technology needs to be augmented to allow plug and play internetworking of networks. Then, we showed how both scenarios, while very different at first sight, can be described as particular instances of the same concept, network composition. Ambient Networks architecture, focusing on several key functions of the control space. The control space provides common infrastructure for message passing, conflict handling, registry and connectivity abstractions.

            Specifying a distributed triggering framework includes many challenges, which are still to be addressed. Those include, for example, practical implementation of trigger classification mechanisms, scalability and performance of the trigger collection and distribution mechanisms, as well as the feasibility of the rule based handover decision logic. In future work we will enhance the conceptual model by developing the interfaces and protocols for communication between the entities in the architecture, as well as define the delivery mechanisms and format of trigger information. Feasibility analysis and tests in a real environment will follow. The framework for classification of traffic engineering methods is introduced to facilitate the analysis and identification of challenges for traffic engineering in Ambient Networks.


[1] EU-IST project 507134 Ambient Networks, http://www.ambientnetworks. Org

[2] N. Niebert, et al, “Ambient networks: architecture for communication networks beyond 3G,” IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 11, pp. 14-

22, IEEE, April 2004.

[3] R. Ocampo, L. Cheng, Z. Lai, A. Galis, “ContextWare Support for Network and Service Composition and Self-adaptation”, in Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Mobility Aware Technologies and Applications (MATA) 2005, Montreal, Canada, October 2005.

[4] L. Cheng, K. Jean, R. Ocampo, A. Galis, “Service-aware Overlay Adaptation in Ambient Networks”, International Multi-Conference on Computing in the Global Information Technology (ICCGI) 2006, Bucharest, Romania, August 1-3, 2006.

[5] T. Petersen, et al., “SMART – Final Architectural Design”, IST-2002- 507134-AN/WP5/D03, http://www.ambientnetworks. Org/publications/D5 3 SMART Final Architectural Design_


[6] V. Gupta & D. Johnston, “A Generalized Model for Link Layer Triggers”, March 2004, ggers-02.pdf (URL)

[7] A. Yegin, E. Njedjou, S. Veerepalli, N. Montavont, & T. Noel, “Linklayer Hints for Detecting Network Attachements”, Internet draft draftyegin- dna-l2-hints-00.txt, Oct 2003, work in progress.

[8] N. Niebert, A. Schieder, H. Abramowicz, G. Malmgren, J. Sachs, U. Horn, C. Prehofer and H. Karl. Ambient Networks – An Architecture for Communication Networks Beyond 3G. IEEE Wireless Communications, April 2004.

[9] N. Niebert, H. Flinck, R. Hancock, H. Karl and C. Prehofer. Ambient Networks – Research for Communication Networks Beyond 3G. Proc. IST Mobile Summit, June 2004

[10] D. D. Clark, J. Wroclawski, K. Sollins and R. Braden. Tussle in Cyberspace: Defining Tomorrow’s Internet. Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, August 2002.

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