Anxiety – The Unseen Monster

Everyone experiences anxiety as it is a normal response to threatening situations; however, for some people it becomes a disabling response to life. Irrational responses to everyday situations seem to cripple the 40 million Americans who suffer from anxiety disorder each year. In fact more people suffer from anxiety than depression! What differentiates everyday anxiety from an anxiety disorder? The key words with everyday anxiety are appropriate and reasonable. "Butterflies" in the stomach is a common physiological response when someone experiences anxiety before giving a speech or entering a competition.

If a burglar tries to break into your house, fear is a normal response to the situation. So challenges in life that involve lose or failure, and unexpected or unknown situations all cause normative anxiety responses. Anxiety disorders involve a much more intense response, last a lot longer after the stress situation concludes, and disrupts normal functioning. Anxiety disorders often lead to secondary issues such as low self-esteem, impaired relationships, substance abuse, and depression. Six anxiety disorders are as follows: Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Specific Phobia, Social Anxiety Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Panic Disorder, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Despite their different forms, these disorders all are neurobiological in nature. Anxiety negatively impacts lives and involves persistent, intense, all-consuming fears or worries. People who suffer from anxiety look for emotional escape and avoidance, which leads them to become observers of their existence rather than participants in life. Specific phobias involve avoiding particular types of objects or situations. Heights, flying, driving, elevators, dental or medical procedures, and animals are all common objects or situations that can cause irrational fear and anxiety. OCD is characterized by obsessions and compulsions that interrupt normal routines, relationships, and daily functioning.

Obsessions are unwanted thoughts, impulses, or ideas that intrude upon a person's thinking and create increased worry or anxiety. Compulsions are responses to those obsessive thoughts and are done to relieve or prevent the anxiety. PTSD often develops after a traumatic event where a person's safety or life is threatened or where he / she has witnessed a traumatic event. Even months after the event occurred, people experiencing PTSD have trouble coping with the disabling psychological symptoms created by the event. Social anxiety is one of the most common types of anxiety and is marked by an extreme fear of being embarrassed in a social setting. People are often concerned with being judged or humiliated publicly. The most common type of social anxiety disorder is performance anxiety, such as public speaking. Panic disorder seems to occur without any apparent cause and is characterized by an episode of apprehension and intense fear. Often when someone first experiences Panic Disorder they believe that they are experiencing a heart attack! There physical response to fear is so intense that they experience chest pain, dizziness and shortness of breath. People who suffer from GAD worry excessively about everyday things, such as health issues, work, money, and relationship problems.

Many people suffer in silence from this unseen monster and never seek treatment because they do not believe their live can be any different. Despite the toll it takes on your life, the good news is that anxiety disorders are highly treatable! Effective treatment for anxiety disorders includes cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) and exposure based behavioral therapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy helps people change their thinking patterns and the way they react to anxiety provoking situations. DBT targets skills deficits as well as the cognitive beliefs that maintain the avoidance. The ultimate goal is for you to learn more strategic behavior skills that once acceptance of those feelings occur. Both CBT and DBT incorporate relaxation and stress reduction techniques into their treatment of anxiety. Often they both make use of exposure therapy. Exposure therapy gradually acclimates a person to situations that previously triggered anxiety. This desensitization process helps people confront their fears in a controlled environment. Once phobias are no longer "rewarded" by escape and avoidance, they tend to diminish and fade away. Interestingly, twenty minutes of aerobic exercise per day is thought to be an effective weapon against anxiety. Good nutrition is essential and adding supplements such as B Vitamins, calcium, amino acids, and Vitamin C may be important. Caffeine and cigarettes aggravate anxiety and should be eliminated or decreased. Do not let anxiety rule your life. Get into therapy, exercise, eat right and experience life to its fullest! NOTE: you can freely redistribute this resource, electronically or in print, provided you leave the authors contact information below intact.

Important Depression Info & Treatment Choices – How to Get Your Life Back

There is a lot of depression info out there. How do you sort through it all to find the treatment that is right for you? In this article, you will learn important facts about prescription drugs and natural remedies that will help you choose the best treatment. Once you get started on a treatment program, you will be able to take charge of your life.

The most advertised depression information is for prescription drugs, so you may think this is your only option, but this is simply not the case. Pharmaceutical companies have deep pockets and spend millions of dollars every year, teaching potential customers about their drugs. While these drugs are effective for some people, it's important to understand that they do not heal the cause of depression, instead, they just suppress the symptoms. This is good news for the pharmaceutical companies because if you can find a drug that works for you, you are pretty much a customer for life.

While I'm not trying to knock depression info published by the drug companies, it's important for you to be aware that they do have a vested interest in getting you on their drugs. After all, the recurring income they earn is one of the reasons they are the richest industry on earth.

Fortunately, these companies are regulated by the government. At the end of every television commercial, they are required to list the potential side effects of their medications. Have you ever listened to one of these commercials and laughed because there were so many side effects listed, it seemed ridiculous to consider taking the drug? Well, it's smart to pay attention to these side effects because in some people, they can worsen the symptoms of depression and even lead to suicide.

Currently, there are three types of drugs used for depression on the market: tricyclics, SSRIs, and MAOIs. Within each class of drug, there are a number of different drugs. Certain drugs work better for certain people and some people can not tolerate the side effects of these drugs which can include sleep problems, stomach issues, lowered libido, weight gain, anxiety, heart issues and more. Also, some of these drugs can interact negatively with other drugs and supplemental hormones, so you need to ask your doctor about the interactions specific to that drug.

Further, what you will not learn from the depression information out there is that in the scheme of human history, these drugs are relatively new. As such, the drug companies do not know the long term effects these drugs have on the brain. Since we know that there are short term effects, long term implications should be of primary concern.

It's important for you to understand that it's not your fault that you are suffering from depression. Life is stressful and sometimes, chronic stress depletes the feel-good neurochemicals in the brain that balance stress and help us regain our footing after difficult life events. But think about it: if your brain chemicals are depleted, does not it make sense to build them back up again with nutrients that will help the brain to heal itself, rather than drugs that at best only suppress symptoms temporarily and can potentially make them worse?

For centuries, people have turned to proven herbs like St. John's Wort and Passion Flower to alleviate depression and restore energy and vitality. When these herbs are delivered in a standardized formulation that ensures the same dose every time, they provide a gentle, but effective way to give the brain the nutrients it needs to heal and start producing those feel-good brain chemicals on its own. Is a healthy this solution to all the depression info Download out there That leads you to believe That your only option is Online Without Prescription , drugs.

Once you start taking a natural remedy and are feeling better, you will have the motivation to make small lifestyle changes that will continue to support a positive outlook and help you climb out of depression once and for all.

As the commercial says, "Depression hurts." It hurts everyone who loves and depends on you, but it does not have to be this way. It's not your fault that you're depressed, but now that you have the depression information needed to choose the best solution for yourself, you can take the first step in getting your life back.

Sprained Ankles – Preventing and Getting Rid of Scar Tissue

If you've injured your ankle you've probably read or heard about ankle scar tissue and how it may affect your recovering time. Why is ankle scar tissue formed and how can we use this knowledge to shorten our recovery time?

When you sprain your ankle, damage is caused to the ligaments and surrounding tissue which causes internal bleeding and a rush of excess fluids to the area. These fluids and blood is exactly what will cause ankle scar tissue in the future. This tissue is neither as strong nor as flexible as ligaments. When ankle scar tissue replaces the injured ligament, you are opening yourself up to re-injury. This is one of the top reasons sprained ankles are one of the top recurring sports injury.

To reduce the amount of ankle scar tissue formed, it is important act fast. Icing should start immediately. This will close blood vessels in the injured are, preventing them from filling with blood and fluids. Ice for twenty minutes every few hours, but do not overdo it. Icing too frequently or using direct application can cause ice burns and tissue damage. Use a damp towel to wrap the ice. Stay off the injured area for 48 hours, and take it easy. Resting will slow blood flow and can be combined with elevating the ankle which is also aimed at reducing swelling. Gravity is stronger than you think, and can draw excess fluids into the injured area. Keeping your ankle elevated will make sure that anything that's not supposed to be there will be drained out and later flushed out of your body. Compression is also recommended for ankle support and reducing the flow of fluids to you injured ankle.

Even if you're a black-belt in RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation), you're bound to have some ankle scar tissue, so after the first 48 hours, you aim turns to getting rid of scar tissue and gaining back normal strength and flexibility – aka rehabilitation.

So the ankle scar tissue has formed but it's still in its early stages and can broken down more easily. The longer you wait, the harder it will become to break down. The basics areas of getting rid of ankle scar tissue are massage, stretching, and strength exercises. First, let's focus on massage and stretching. Though it can be uncomfortable at first, massage is necessary to get fresh blood to the area. Yes, now we've turned form wanting the blood to stay out, to trying to get it back in (and back out again). Fresh blood will carry away bits of broken down scar tissue, bruising, and blood clots. Do not massage to the point of pain! Begin by lightly massaging the area and see what you can work yourself up to. As swelling decreases, pressure on nerves and surrounding tissues will be reduced, thus alleviating tenderness and allowing you to use more pressure. You can use massage oils or creams (not the romantic kind) designed for sports injuries to help promote blood flow. I use tiger-balm and some crazy Chinese musk-deer rub but I do not know if these things are available in the USA or other countries.

Following massage as you build up strength, you can begin stretching the area. Again, start small with drawing circles with your big toe, moving the joint back and forth or other simple exercises which you can do lying down and work your way up to standing stretches and eventually strength training exercises.

Symptoms of Stomach Ulcer

Stomach ulcer can be described as small erosion (hole) in the gastrointestinal tract of an individual. Though there can be different type of stomach ulcers, the most common one is duodenal ulcer. It usually occurs within the first 12 inches of small intestine, beyond the stomach. Another type of ulcer is gastric ulcer, which occurs inside the stomach.

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What causes and symptoms Stomach Ulcers?

The direct cause of peptic ulcers is the destruction of the gastric or intestinal mucosal lining of the stomach by hydrochloric acid, an acid normally present in the digestive juices of the stomach. Infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori is thought to play an important role in causing both gastric and duodenal ulcers.

Stomach (abdominal) pain can be the first sign of a peptic ulcer, although you may not have any symptoms at all. It is important to remember that a stomach ache is often nothing serious, and is usually no cause for alarm.

Check if the person experiences heartburn or a feeling of burning pain behind the sternum between the duration of two meals, just after meals and/or in the morning hours.

Some peptic ulcers are silent and recognised only if they perforate or bleed. In a small proportion of cases, the ulcer can rupture blood vessels leading to vomiting blood.

Look for symptoms such as indigestion, nausea, frequent vomiting, acidic retches and loud and deep burping combined with disinterest in food.

Other symptoms may include a full feeling in the stomach, tiredness, indigestion, vomiting, black tarry stools and tenderness to touch.

The pain that signals a stomach, or gastric, ulcer is usually aggravated by eating–and especially by spicy or greasy foods–but the foods or drinks that trigger ulcer pain vary from person to person.

About peptic ulcers

The stomach produces acid to help with digestion; the lining of the stomach and first part of the small intestine (duodenum) have ways to protect themselves naturally from this. When these stop working the acid can eat into the stomach lining causing a peptic ulcer.

How is an ulcer diagnosed?

The diagnosis of an ulcer is made by either a barium upper GI x-ray or an upper endoscopy (EGD-esophagogastroduodenoscopy) The barium upper GI x-ray is easy to perform and involves no risk or discomfort. Barium is a chalky substance administered orally. Barium is visible on x- ray, and outlines the stomach on x-ray film.

Breath test : a special breath test, called the “urea breath test”, can be used to check if a patient is infected with H.pylori. The patient first takes a drink of orange juice which slows the rate at which the stomach empties. The patient is then given a drink containing a substance called urea.

Stomach Ulcers Natural Cure

extremely common health problem, has dramatically changed in recent years. A huge variety of antacids, histamine blockers, and proton pump blockers are now considered standard ulcer therapy. However, these medicines do not address the underlying factors of ulcer formation.

Ballet Dancing and Stone Bruise

Stone bruise are sore spots on the bottom of the feet. Stone bruise affects mainly the balls of the feet and can be quite painful, whether you are a ballet dancer or not. The condition feels as if there is a stone in the shoe pressing painfully on the ball of the foot, hence the name of this ailment, stone bruise.

The long bones in the foot that connect with the toes are called the metatarsals. Metatarsalgia is an injury on the underside of one or more metatarsal heads. It most commonly occurs on the second metatarsal. The undersides of the metatarsophalangeal joints bear the entire weight of your body when your go up on demi pointe, come down in your jumps, and even when you push off in normal walking. The joints can be overused and become bruised. This normally happens from faulty weight distribution across the ball of the foot, or from doing your ballet dancing on hard surfaces. The metatarsals can drop downwards, spread further apart or move closer together as a result of all the forces of bearing weight. There are other metatarsal conditions that can produce similar pain for instance, stress fractures or osteonecrosis, so it is always best to seek accurate diagnosis and treatment from a medical professional.

If you get a stone bruise, the best treatments include removing pressure of the sore spot. A flat and stiff-soled flat shoe that does not bend at the metatarsal joint line like a clog could also be used. Try to avoid a lot of walking, jumping or stair climbing and stay off demi pointe. If you only have a mild condition, you can still do your barre, apart from rises and releves and any other movements in which the heel leaves the floor. Reduce pain and inflammation by applying ice for ten minutes. Padding the foot underneath will also help. You could try placing gel or foam strips on both sides of the stone bruise so that it ‘floats’ above the floor and relieves the pressure.

To prevent stone bruise, do some toe-strengthening exercises to develop the muscles that keep your toes long. Try not to curl the toes when pointing. When coming down from a jump, control your landings by landing through your foot, and avoid repetitive stomping movements. Avoid staying up on demi pointe for too long and try to maintain an even distribution of weight across thee ball of the foot when on demi pointe. Avoid prolonged dancing in high heels that put excessive pressure on the balls of the feet.

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Ayurvedic Herbal Remedies for Back Pain and Major Causes of Backache

The spinal column consists of an intricate network of nerves, bones, muscles, ligaments and tendons. Inflammation or straining of any of these parts may lead to backache. Now we will cast a glance on the several possible causes that may trigger the inflammation or straining. Understanding the exact cause of back pain is the first step to proper treatment. Here follows some of the major causes of backache –

1. Lumber muscle strain causes low backache. The patient may even forget what it was that had caused the strain or spasm, but the good part of the story is that pain from lumber muscle strain subsides within a few weeks.

2. Ruptured or herniated disc is another common cause of backache. The patient can get relief from such pain by going for a surgery or taking certain precautions in day to day life.

3. Discogenic back pain is a low back pain. It occurs due to some damage of the intervertabral disc excluding disc rupture.

4. Spinal stenosis or constriction or tightening of the spinal canal may be a cause of pain in the back. This type of pain is common among aged people.

5. Lumbar spine arthritis is a form of arthritis affecting the small joints of the spinal column. It causes pain while trying to move.

6. Spondylolisthesis is a cause of pain in the back. In its case, the adjacent vertebra starts becoming unstable, and may even slip. This takes place because of the degeneration of the stabilizing structures of the spinal column.

7. Ankylosing spondilitis causes inflammation and stiffness in certain areas of the spine leading to backache.

8. Fibromyalgia is a common cause of backache. The tender points of the spine like hip, neck, and shoulder go through a phase of mucoskeletal pain and fatigue. Fibromyalgic pain may lead to sleeping disorders, numbness of limbs, headache and depression.

9. Osteoporosis is also a cause of back pain. It weakens the bones due to loss of bone density. Bones can no more bear minor stress, and may often experience compression fractures.

Anti inflammatory muscle relaxant pain relief oil such as Rumatone Gold Oil is an effective ayurvedic herbal remedy for getting relief from backache or back pain. Regular application of this herbal massage oil reduces pain and inflammation. In order to get faster relief from back pain and discomfort, one can take herbal supplement such as Rumatone Gold Capsule along with the topical application of the pain relief oil. Together these two act as a magical formula offering lasting relief from back pain.

Frozen Embryo Transfer (fet): for Curing Infertility

Many people from the developed world come to India for frozen embryo transfer (FET). However, a nice blend of top-class medical expertise at attractive prices is helping a growing number of Indian corporate hospitals lure foreign patients, including from developed nations such as the UK and the US.  More and more patients from Europe, the US and other affluent nations with high medicare costs are looking for effective options. India with their advanced medical facilities and built-in medical tourism options have been drawing foreign patients of the order of a couple of lakhs per annum, the rapidly expanding medical tourism sector has been able to get thousands of couples for frozen embryo transfer (FET) in India.

What is frozen embryo transfer?

FET is a relatively new type of fertility treatment. This procedure takes embryos that have been frozen for a period of time and replaces them in patient’s uterus after they have been thawed. FET is a relatively non-invasive procedure, which is why many couples choose to have it performed. It can be successfully performed on women who are experiencing either natural or controlled menstrual cycles.

The preparation for frozen embryo transfer:

If all is well; patient will start her oestrogen tablets (usually Oestradiol).  Patient will be advised of the dosage required by the nursing staff at that time. Patient will return for a scan 8-10 days after the commencement of the tablet treatment. The scan will indicate whether the womb lining is growing sufficiently thick. Depending on these results, doctor may have to adjust the amount of tablets or even start patient on skin patches to ensure the correct development of the womb lining.

It may therefore be necessary to arrange further scans and blood tests as necessary until the womb lining is ready to receive the embryos.

Once the womb lining is at least 8-10 mm thick, patient will be asked to start inserting either 2 progesterone (Cyclogest 400mgm) pessaries every night or a daily intra muscular injection of Gestone. Patient should continue with the oestrogen tablets and after 3 days of pessaries/injections patient will be ready for embryo transfer.

Patient will have discussed and decided on the appropriate amount of embryos to thaw at patient’s first visit with the nursing staff. The embryologists will then select out the best embryos that have survived the freezing and thawing process and transfer the best 2 embryos.

One of the pitfalls of modern lifestyle has been an increase in stress, and constant exposure to pollution. Sedentary habits and unhealthy eating practices have contributed to the many health problems seen in people today. Infertility in men and women is a rising cause for concern. Treatments like IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) and embryo freezing are expensive in the West, so couples opt to come to India to undergo treatment for infertility. Here, many super specialty hospitals offer the latest treatments for infertility. The Department of Urology and Nephrology at Indian Hospital offers the latest treatments for male infertility. Erectile dysfunction, varicocele and other causes of male infertility are treated using the latest techniques. Frozen embryo transfer (FET) offered in India give hope to couples that wish to have children, but are unable to do so due to physiological or psychological problems.

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Reproductive System – A Key to Continuation of Generation

Reproductive system is one of the vital organs of body which is associated with the continuance of species. Many non-living fluids, hormones and pheromones are responsible for the success of activity of the reproductive system. Like different organs the sexes of different species are also an important part of reproductive system. The sexes of different species are identified by different characters that make them unique. This sexual dimorphism is responsible for the new genetic combinations as the genetic material of the two individuals is different which results in the offspring’s fitness in the environment. The major human reproductive organs include the external genitalia which comprise the penis and the vulva along with internal organs which include the gamete producing gonads which include testis and ovaries. The diseases of human reproductive system are wide spread and the very common ones are communicable sexually transmitted diseases.

Human reproduction is a very complex process which commences by internal fertilization by sexual intercourse. During the act of sexual intercourse the erect penis of male is inserted into the vagina of the female until male ejaculates semen which contains sperms into the vagina. The sperms introduced into the vagina travel through vagina and cervix and enter the fallopian tube or uterus where they fertilize the ovum. When fertilization is successful then implantation occurs where the foetus gets implanted inside the protective bed of uterus and this duration is termed as pregnancy and its duration is about nine months in human beings. Pregnancy terminates with the birth of the child which occurs by the commencement of labour pains. The process of child birth is called as parturition. During the process of parturition the muscles of uterus and cervix dilate resulting in the coming out of the baby out of the womb of the mother. The human babies are cared by the mother and the father for many years or we can say that parental care reaches zenith in case of humans. One important feature of parental care is presence of mammary glands in females which produce milk for nursing the young ones. Humans have higher level of sexual differentiation. The secondary sexual characteristics also play an important in sexual reproduction in humans.

The male reproductive system in humans consists of a number of organs located externally as well as internally in the pelvic region of male which lead to the successful functioning of male reproductive system. The important function of male reproductive system is to provide the spermatozoa or sperm to be introduced into the vagina of female so as the fertilization of ovum may take place and fertilization may occur resulting in continuation of population. Male reproductive system can be grouped in three categories. First category includes sperm production and storage. Sperms are produced in the testes which remain inside the scrotum from where the sperm moves to the epididymis for maturation and storage. The second category includes the semen producing glands which are the seminal vesicles, prostrate and the vas deferens. The third and the final category include the copulatory organ penis, urethra, vas deferns and Cowper’s gland. Major secondary sexual characteristics include larger, more muscular stature, deepened voice, facial and body hair, broad shoulders and development of an Adam’s apple. Important male sexual hormones ate androgens and the testosterone.

The human female reproductive system is also a complex system comprising a number of external and internal organs located in the pelvic region of female body that are responsible for the successful continuation of species. The human female reproductive system consists of three parts. First one is the vagina which receives the sperm from the male during coitus. Second part is the uterus which acts as a protective bed for the developing foetus and the third part are the ovaries which produce ova that are the necessary cells required for the sexual reproduction to achieve success. The mammary glands or the breast form important part of female reproductive system in humans as they provide nourishment to the child after birth by producing milk.

Vagina terminates to outside at the vulva along with labia, clitoris and urethra. During the act of sexual intercourse large amount of mucus is secreted by the Bartholin’s glands and this area is lubricated. The attachment of vagina with uterus is called cervix and the uterus is in turn attached to the ovaries through the fallopian tubes. The ovaries produce a single ovum approximately at an interval of 28 days which passes through the fallopian tube and enters uterus. The lining of the uterus is called as endometrium. If ovum fails to get fertilized it is shed off along with blood capillaries and this process is called as menstruation or funeral of the ovum. The major female secondary sexual characteristics include smaller stature, larger proportion of deposition of body fat, wider hips, and development of mammary glands or breasts. The important female sexual hormones are oestrogen and the progesterone.

The process of production of gametes in the gonads is known as gametogenesis. Gametogenesis is the process in which germ cells undergo meiosis and the number of chromosomes is reduced from diploid to haploid. The number of chromosome in the cells now becomes 23 instead of 46. In males the process of gametogenesis is termed as spermatogenesis occurring only at the onset of puberty in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. The sperm receives its tail and motility in the epididymis. Each diploid germ cell or the primary spermatocyte after meiosis produces four functional haploid gametes capable of carrying out fertilization. In females gametogenesis is called as oogenesis which occurs in the ovarian follicles of the ovaries. Mature ovum is produced only at the time of puberty. As compared to the male primary gametocyte, the female diploid primary gametocyte produces only one functional haploid ovum capable of fertilization and three polar bodies which don’t bear the power of fertilization.

The development of human reproductive system and the urinary system are very closely related in the human foetus. Apart from the differences between the male and female reproductive system there are many homologous structures that lay down the basis for formation of urinary and reproductive system in the human foetus. Both the systems develop from intermediate mesoderm. The three foetal precursors for the reproductive system are the Wolffian duct, Mullerian ducts and the gonads. Hormones secreted by the endocrine glands participate crucially in differentiation of the reproductive system.

The Wolffian duct is responsible for the formation of epididymis, vas deferns, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and seminal vesicle of the human male reproductive system but disappears in the female reproductive system. Mullerian ducts get disappeared in the male reproductive system and they form fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina. Gonads are responsible for the formation of testes and ovaries and they are derived from the same homologous structures present during the foetal development. There are also other homologous structures present during the development of male and female reproductive system. The fallopian tubes of female and the epididymis along with the vas deferens are analogous structures.

The human reproductive system like other organs is also not free from diseases. These diseases can be grouped under four categories. These include genetic or congenital abnormalities, cancer, infections or sexually transmitted diseases and functional problems caused by environmental factors, physical damage, psychological issues or autoimmune diseases. The best known functional problems of the reproductive system include sterility and sexual dysfunction which later on are responsible for serious disorders. Although there are certain disorders which are still unclassified like the Peyronie’s disease in males and endometriosis in females. The common congenital disorders are the Turner syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome, Cystic fibrosis, and Bloom syndrome. The disruption of endocrine system either by environmental factors or by the use of certain drugs badly affect the proper functioning of the reproductive system and may even cause vaginal cancer. Certain chemicals are also responsible for damaging the reproductive system and these chemicals include toluene, lead and pesticides.

The common congenital disorders of the reproductive system include the Kallmann syndrome which is produced by the deficiency of sex hormones resulting in the improper function of sex glands. Cryptorchidism is the condition where either one or both the testes are absent in the scrotum. Androgen insensitivity syndrome is the disorder where the individuals are although genetically males but are sexually females due to inability to utilize androgen. Intersexuality is the condition where an individual has genitalia not clearly differentiated into either of male or female type. Cancers which are most commonly associated with the reproductive system are prostrate cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, penile cancer, testicular cancer.

The common infections of the reproductive system are HIV infection caused by the retrovirus also known as human immunodeficiency virus. Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus. Herpes simplex is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2. Gonorrhea is caused by Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria gonorrheae. The vaginal infection is caused by certain yeast species specially those belonging to the genus Candida. Painful infection of female uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries which is associated with scar formation and adhesion of these organs with nearby tissues and organs is called as pelvic inflammatory disease. Syphilis is caused by bacterium Treponema pallidum. Functional problems of the reproductive system include impotence which is found in males only where they lack the ability to maintain or produce erection of penis. Hypogonadism is the condition where gonads are absent. Ectopic pregnancy is the condition where the fertilized ovum gets implanted in other tissue except the uterine wall. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder is the condition where the desire for sex is low.

All vertebrates share common key elements of the reproductive system. All bear gametes producing gonads. The gonads are connected to oviducts which are connected to outside either through cloaca or vagina or an intromittent organ. All mammals generally share the same reproductive system but there are a number of differences between normal mammals and human beings. Like most mammalian males have penis stored internally until it comes in erect position and most bear a penis bone or baculum. Apart from this most male species do not remain continually fertile as humans. Like humans most males have testes descended in the scrotum, some have testes descended on the ventral body wall while others like elephants testes lie undescended deep in the cavities near kidneys. Marsupials are unique mammals where the female has two vaginae both opening externally through one orifice but lead to uterus by different compartments internally. Males also have two penises. The young ones develop in an external pouch which bears teats. Uterus and vagina are unique to mammals. In other vertebrates there is an unmodified oviduct which opens to outside through cloaca. Cloaca acts as an opening for discharge of urine, faeces and gametes.

Male and female birds have a cloaca through which urine, waste material and gametes are passed out. Intercourse is performed by pressing the lips of cloacae together sometimes called as cloacal kiss and during this act the male transfers the sperms into the vagina of the female. In some birds an intromittent organ analogous to the penis of males is present and this organ is known as phallus. After fertilization females lay amniotic eggs in which further development of eggs takes place. Female birds have only single ovary and single oviduct. Birds also show parental care like mammals. Reptiles are sexually dimorphic and show internal fertilization through cloaca. Some reptiles lay eggs while others are viviparous. Reproductive organs are present within the cloaca of reptiles. Most male reptiles have well developed copulatory organs that remain inside the body. Most of the amphibians show external fertilization except the caecilians which exhibit internal fertilization.

Fishes exhibit a wide range of reproductive strategies. Most fishes are oviparous and show external fertilization. Females use their cloaca for releasing their ova called spawn into the surrounding water and males then release milt over these eggs so that they may get fertilized. Some fishes also have intromittent organs comparable to the male penis. Majority of species are dimorphic but some are hermaphrodite also.

We can summarize that reproductive system is a very complex and well beautifully designed system of vertebrates which leads to continuation of species.

Thyroid Nodules and the Esophagus – 3 Facts You Should Know

Your body’s thyroid plays an important role in the regulation of your metabolism, which is the conversion of oxygen and food calories into energy. In fact, every cell in your body relies upon the thyroid hormone for proper functioning.

Some people can develop thyroid nodules, which are lumps that commonly grow on the thyroid gland. These lumps are usually found at the edge of the thyroid gland, so they can actually be felt from outside the body. They can sometimes be detected by human touch or seen from the front of the neck in the case of very thin people.

Important Statistics

Here are some facts regarding nodules:

* Thyroid nodules are fairly common young women, with about 1 in 15 having them.

* Meanwhile, about 1 in 40 young men have thyroid nodules.

* The vast majority – about 95% – are non-cancerous.

* Almost everyone develops a thyroid nodule by the time they turn fifty

Thyroid Nodule and the Esophagus

Some people with these nodules wonder about the nodules’ effects on the esophagus. In its normal state, the thyroid is located just above the Adam’s apple in the throat, draping around the trachea (or windpipe) and pressing lightly against the esophagus (part of the throat that leads to the stomach).

However, a thyroid with nodules can sometimes be painful, and if the nodules get large enough they can put pressure on the trachea and/or esophagus. This is a condition known as compression and can lead to difficulty swallowing, frequent coughing, and other problems.

3 Facts You Should Know

If you have been diagnosed as having nodules, here are 3 facts you should know:

1. Most nodules show no symptoms:

Most thyroid nodules have no symptoms. When they are detected, they are sometimes found by patients who feel a lump in their throat or who see it in the mirror. In other cases, an acquaintance of the patient may notice an odd lump in the patient’s neck. Or, a routine physician’s exam might result in the detection of a thyroid nodule.

2. Nodules can be discovered when the patient is undergoing medical scans:

In the cases whereby nodules are not detected visually or by the feeling of a lump in the throat, a patient undergoing a medical scan for an unrelated reason may have their nodules detected by a doctor or lab technician. This can happen with scans like CT scans, MRI scans or ultrasound scans. Fortunately, thyroid nodules found this way are cancerous less than 1% of the time.

3. Once you are diagnosed, your doctor will run tests and perform examinations to determine the answers to these three questions about each thyroid nodule that is detected:

a. Is the nodule cancerous? (remember, there is only a 5% chance of this being the case).

b. Is the nodule causing compression (i.e., pressing on other structures in the neck)?

c. Is the nodule making too much thyroid hormone?

Once a thyroid is detected, your physician will likely ask you a number of questions about your health and its relationship to your thyroid nodules. For example, he or she may ask you whether you have been exposed to nuclear radiation or have received radiation treatments as a child. Your physician will then explore treatment options with you.

Friendship Quotes For Friendship Day

“True friendship is like sound health; the value of it is seldom known until it be lost.”

– Charles Caleb Colton

So true. True friendship, they say, is priceless. Ask someone who doesn’t have a single friend and you know how its like being friendless. The void, the loneliness, the inability to share can only be overcome by the oxygen of friendship. Its great joy to be in the company of friends, to share the ecstasies of life with them. Friendship day is an ideal occasion to let your friends know how precious they are and how much you treasure their friendship. Celebrate the day with your friends, have a party, tie friendship bands, send out Friendship ecards to all your friends and yes – don’t forget to use these wonderful and touching quotes in your cards.

General Friendship Quotes

A friend is one who walks in when others walk out

-Walter Winchell

Fate chooses your relations, you choose your friends.

– Jacques Delille (1738 – 1813)

A friend is someone who understands your past, believes in your future, and accepts you just the way you are.

“Truly great friends are hard to find, difficult to leave, and impossible to forget.”

A friend is someone who knows the song in your heart and can sing it back to you when you have forgotten the words

A friend is one who believes in you when you have ceased to believe in yourself.

Tell me what company thou keepst, and I’ll tell thee what thou art.

– Miguel de Cervantes (1547 – 1616)

Friendship without self-interest is one of the rare and beautiful things of life.

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Good friends, good books and a sleepy conscience: this is the ideal life.

Mark Twain

Historical Friendship Quotes

Am I not destroying my enemies when I make friends of them?

Abraham Lincoln

What is a friend? A single soul dwelling in two bodies.


True friendship is a plant of slow growth, and must undergo and withstand the shocks of adversity before it is entitled to the appellation.

– George Washington

Be slow to fall into friendship; but when thou art in, continue firm and constant.

– Socrates

In the end, we will remember not the words of our enemies, but the silence of our friends.

– Martin Luther King Jr.

Friendship Proverbs

A friend in need is a friend indeed.

Books and friends should be few but good.

The best mirror is an old friend.

It is better to be in chains with friends, than to be in a garden with strangers. (Persian proverb)

Truth springs from argument amongst friends.

The best mirror is an old friend.

What is a Reverse Osmosis Membrane? Compare Before You Buy

A reverse osmosis membrane is semi-permeable or selectively-permeable, allowing some molecules or ions to pass through, while others are filtered out. As it relates to water treatment, the size of the pores determines that particulates that will and will not be removed.

Particle filters are commonly used in wells to reduce naturally occurring deposits, such as clay or silt. The pores of the filters come in various sizes, 5-10 microns being the most common.

A simple paper filter, comparable to what is used in a coffeemaker, will remove particles larger than 10 microns. A filter made of cotton twine or a similar material will remove particles larger than 5 microns. When you are buying a filter, you can check the label to determine the size of particulates removed; the higher the number, the more particles that will pass through.

Paper filters have the shortest lifespan and as they wear out, more particles pass through and the flow-rate is reduced. The same is true of all particle filters. If you are just moving into a new home with a well, talk to your neighbors about how long their filters typically last and what kind they use.

The pores of reverse osmosis membranes are smaller than a micron in size. Assuming no tears are present, anything larger than one micron will be removed. Filters that are certified to filter down to one micron or below are suitable for water that is contaminated with cryptosporidium or giardia cysts.

Cysts can be an issue for people with a private well or for those serviced by a public treatment facility. Well-owners, particularly those that live in agricultural areas, should have testing conducted. Deep wells that are properly covered may be protected from cysts.

A reverse osmosis membrane is not the only option for cyst removal. Any sub-micron sized filter will work. Some are more efficient and less expensive.

In farming communities, it is necessary to test for chemical contaminants, such as herbicides and pesticides. The chemicals make their way through the soil and into the groundwater at a slow pace. Some of the most dangerous ones have been banned, but they may still be present in the groundwater, because of that slow passage.

Chemicals are much smaller than a micron in size. They cannot be removed by reverse osmosis membranes or particle filters. They can be trapped through a process called adsorption.

A common adsorption filter is one composed of granular activated carbon. Water is passes over the carbon granules. Chemicals, such as chlorine, chloramines, chlorine-byproducts, herbicides and pesticides, are trapped on the surface of the granules.

Typically, a second stage, sub-micron sized filter is used to prevent the carbon granules from passing through the tap. Other stages, such as ion exchange, may also be used to reduce other contaminants, such as lead.

Lead is a problem in older homes. It is no longer used in plumbing, but it was for many years.

A reverse osmosis membrane will remove traces of lead, but it does cost more than other options. It’s a good idea to do a little comparative shopping, before you buy.

Treat That Oral Thrush Now!

These days there are many kinds of diseases that are just dismissed by people as if they are not important. Discoloration, spots or rashes in any part of the bodies are deemed as irregularities but are not really candidates for urgent treatment. One such occurrence that can turn into diseases is oral thrush. Some people may not even know that what they or their loved ones have is oral thrush but oral thrush and all other kinds of thrush can spread to other parts of the body not originally affected if not treated.

Oral thrush is usually described as white to cream colored or yellow spots in certain areas of the mouth. These spots are also slightly raised so it can be felt as a small bump. People who have oral thrush normally feel no pain in the area underneath the spots and might even have the urge to scratch it off. If you scrape off the said spots, they leave small wounds that bleed slightly.

The earlier description is true in most cases but for adults, thrush can also cause an uncomfortable burning sensation in the mouth and throat. Some of the causes of thrush for adults include the simple of reason to stress or an even deeper problem that is an underlying disorder.

Oral thrush treatments for infants should include a period of waiting may be appropriate. It is highly advisable to go to the doctor. During the early stages, it is not really a life and death situation but start to worry when the condition does not resolve in two weeks in which case an oral thrust treatment from a doctor will come in handy. As for preventive oral thrush treatment or tips, it is a must to always sterilize bottle nipples or pacifiers and to wash, in hot and soapy water, toys that baby frequently chews on.

On the other hand oral thrush treatments for adults though largely similar to infants have some factors that are not really applicable to infants. The older victims of thrush are capable of trying to investigate for themselves the condition that caused the thrush and do something about it. They can actually do a sort of preventive oral thrush treatments or procedures to avoid the thrush from recurring. As soon as the condition that caused the oral thrush has been treated then the thrush itself can be cured.

Oral thrush treatment usually consists of anti-fungal medicines in the form of pastilles that are sucked or oral suspensions that are held in the mouth before swallowing. If unfortunately complications occur then oral thrush treatment that is systematic should be applied. This can be in the form of dosage of anti-fungal tablets or if advanced form of oral thrush treatment is needed then maybe through injection.

As in any disease, the important thing is early detection and being pro-active about the entire case at hand. There will always be that period of observation for cases like thrush but it should not last very long. The key really is to never ever hesitate to see your doctor for oral thrush treatment. Others may think that thrush is something that over the counter drugs can cure so there is no use to go to the doctor. Then again as mentioned, in the earlier paragraphs, the doctor has to see you to assess if what you have is a plain thrush or is a manifestation of something else.


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All About Hepatitis C

Hepatitis is the medical problem that appears when your liver is inflamed. This may happen because of a virus, but there are some other factors that can cause hepatitis as well. Alcohol, certain medication and even trauma can cause hepatitis. Hepatitis is not a life threatening condition and can be treated. However, there are cases when a certain virus that causes hepatitis can cause an infection which can last a very long time, known as chronic hepatitis. This infection can even lead to liver failure and even death.

Viral hepatitis is the hepatitis cause by a virus. There are four types of this kind of hepatitis: hepatitis A, the hepatitis B, C hepatitis and of course delta hepatitis. The most frightening of all these types of hepatitis is the hepatitis C. It is cause by a virus specific to hepatitis C. This hepatitis virus affects a large number of people every year. This condition is usually looked at as mild, however this type of hepatitis can very easily lead to chronic liver problems, unlike the hepatitis B type. Everyone that gets infected with the hepatitis virus can be chronic carriers of this virus. However, many of them will not even have hepatitis symptoms. Out of all the people that carry this hepatitis C virus, about seventy percent will go on to develop a chronic liver problem. It does not matter if they have any hepatitis symptoms or not.

Hepatitis C is usually spread by contact to human blood that has been contaminated with the hepatitis C virus. There is an astonishing number of people that are infected with the hepatitis C virus because of injection of drugs. People who have transfusions of blood are also at risk of infection with the hepatitis C virus. However, the risk is lowered now, because of a test that requires that the blood used for transfusions must be tested for the hepatitis C virus. This type of hepatitis virus can also be transmitted sexually and also between house members. However, it is believed that the risk of developing hepatitis C in these cases is low. You can not get the hepatitis C virus from food, water or by shaking somebody 's hand. There are symptoms that can tell you that you are suffering from hepatitis C, although a large number of hepatitis patients have no symptoms at all. fever, fatigue, dihareea, muscle aches are some of the hepatitis C symptoms.

Tips to a Successful Kidney Stone Flush

Also known as renal calculi, these are actually crystal aggregations of minerals in the kidney that block the urinary passage. A Kidney Stone flush will take care of the small stone and they will pass significantly with no pain in less than 24 hours. You will start passing the stones from the second day. This remedy has worked for many.

Did you know that you have probably passed numerous kidney stones naturally already? Most people will pass many kidney stones before their first kidney stone attack. In fact, if you are suffering from kidney stones, chances are you have already passed a stone sometime in your life and have not noticed it. The problem occurs when the stone becomes too large (larger than 7mm) and is unable to leave the body painlessly. Typically, 2-3 quarts of water a day are advised, along with painkillers to ease discomfort, until the stone has passed. About 85% of kidney stones can be eliminated this way — eventually, although this can be a slow process.

Kidney stones can be caused by build-up of calcium, uric acid or other composites that develop when your kidneys process waste from your body, in the form of urine. There are ways to get rid of kidney stones painlessly. The exact cause of kidney stones is unknown, but the most common cause of kidney stones is too much calcium in the urine, which is related to not drinking enough water. There is evidence to suggest that this condition may also be genetic. Allopurinol will not prevent calcium stones from forming. There is also a slight risk for xanthine stones with this drug.

The doctor tells me that I will have to take these pills for the rest of my life. I stopped eating salty foods and I drink 2-3 liters of filtered water every day. Most people are told by their doctors to “drink plenty of water and take some pain pills .”.and then wait for the horrible pain to, hopefully, end. Now there is a much better solution.

Are There Different Types of Migraine Headaches?

Migraines have been around for a long time and there is still much to learn about their causes, triggers and treatment. They are no longer regarded as just "bad headaches" but are recognized as something much more – a bit like the common cold and influenza (which is much more than a very heavy cold). Any sudden or unusual onset of migraines of any type should always be checked by your doctor to make sure there are no underlying medical causes of which the migraines are the warning sign.

There is no "official" cure for Migraines but we are learning more and more about them. They can now be grouped in to different types, and while this list is in no way exhaustive, it can help to understand that different types of migraines have their own causes which can in turn lead to a better understanding of their effects and how best to limit their impact on our lives.

Common Migraines

Migraines are very painful and to call one group a "common" migraine may seem to be a bit of a misnomer but we have to start somewhere. This type has most of the basic symptoms like throbbing pain in the head and is often accompanied by a feeling of nausea. It is also accompanied by a loss of balance, sometimes with the room seeming to spin and at such moments it is best to sit down, preferably with your back against a firm support that you know will not move. Once you are certain that you are anchored to solid things like a wall or floor that will not move, it can help to try and relax (even closing your eyes) so that the spinning sensation can ease. Some people can experience strange prickling type sensations on the skin and unexpected smells. Sounds like ringing in the ears are quite usual too.

Classic Migraines

These are very similar to the common migraine and may have all, or only some, of the above but will be accompanied by an "aura". This is a visual symptom that often appears as a warning sign of the ensuing migraine. Aura are known as neurological in origin ie to do with the brain. Some people experience blurred vision, lines or spots before the eyes, even seeing things that are not there. It is also possible to see flashing lights and even to experience a stiff neck or problems with speech. These are very distressing symptoms but recognizing them for what they are can help in the constant fight to prevent and ease migraines.

Exertion Migraines.

These types of migraines tend not to be as long lasting as others but can also have serious consequences. They often follow over exercise and usually stop once the exercise has stopped. This type will always need to be checked by a doctor as it could have underlying causes.

Abdominal Migraines.

These are most common with children. A stomach pain that leads to a migraine. As with all unusual migraine symptoms, a doctor should be consulted – especially if this is the first such attack.

Basilar Artery Migraines.

These are most common among young women and can cause vomiting, dizziness, bad co-ordination and speech problems.

Many migraines run in families but this does not make them less difficult to manage in our every day lives. Understanding more about Migraines, their causes and types, can help us to work out better strategies for dealing with the pain and its affects on our every day lives. As always any uncommon experience or change in the pattern of Migraines should always be monitored and possibly checked by a doctor to ensure there are no other medical factors involved.