There Are Home Remedies To Reduce Swelling

Home remedies to reduce swelling can help you take care of your health. There’s nothing too complicated, just what the old-fashioned doctor would have ordered.

You’ll want to make sure you’ve got clothing on that won’t be stained when you use these types of home remedies to reduce swelling, as the smell is strong. That’s part of its charm.

Have one handy for use when you’ve bumped yourself and are going to bruise. Camphor balm is one of such home remedies to reduce swelling. Just apply it with your hands, and don’t worry about getting it on thick.

Massage it into the skin where you need relief. Its soothing action will kick in quickly, and you’ll feel the difference. This also works for sore muscles.

As with any other medication, make sure you keep it in a safe place where children and pets cannot reach it. And make sure that you do not leave anything soiled with the ointment lying around where they could pick it up.

You’ll want to wash your hands well immediately after applying the ointment, and keep your hands well away from your eyes and mouth. It has a strong odor, and it will definitely cause irritation. Do not use it close to your eyes or mouth either, for the same reasons.

In addition to camphor, such products also often contain alcohol, and a variety of other ingredients. If you have allergies or are sensitive to certain medications or herbs, make sure that you read the ingredients carefully. If you have questions about what you’re going to use, consult your physician or pharmacist for more information.    

If you find that the camphor is too much to handle, there are other methods that work well too. They include using hot and cold compresses in intervals. Wrap the compresses in a towel before placing them on your skin, to ensure that you do not burn or freeze yourself.

If placing heat or cold causes great pain, then you should stop the procedure. Consult a physician or enquire at your drug store, if it is closer and open.
You might also consider the Internet, but remember that there are many sites online that offer a variety of information. Head to reputable sites connected to government health organizations or trusted sources.

If your case of swelling increases or is very painful, seek medical attention.

Having a variety of tools at your disposal is important. You can normally find a hot water bottle, which you can fill with a bit of hot water from the tap, or a bag filled with a material that is microwaveable.

In terms of cold, there are ice packs, which you can store in your freezer, or the same microwaveable bag can be left there too. If not, a bag of frozen peas will do nicely. Just don’t expect to recover them. It’s a minor cost to save your skin!

There are home remedies to reduce swelling, so step right up and put some in your medicine cabinet right away. They’ll come in handy sooner than you know it.

A 5 "Penis Means a 5: 1 Penile-Vaginal Stroke Ratio – 6" Is 6: 1 – How Do You Get a 9: 1+ Stroke Ratio?

The Penile-Vaginal Stroke Ratio is based on the length of your penis and its relationship to the vagina. So, if your penis is five inches long, by displacing the vagina upon entry, you are creating a 5: 1 stroke ratio. That is, your penis is "stroking" the displacement in the vagina five times its normal, resting amount.

With a six inch penis, you have a 6: 1 stroke ratio. Seven inches is 7: 1. What this means is, that the longer your penis is, upon its entering the vagina at the introitus (entrance) the more you will displace the contents of the vaginal interior. The amount that a penis is able to displace is directly related to her sexual pleasure.

Now, we are told that the main sensory-perspective aspect of the vagina in regards to "feeling" is estimated, by some, to be in the first third of the vagina. So, then, how is it that by creating a bigger stroke ratio, can we be causing increased vaginal stimulation? After all, do not we just need is to stimulate the first third of the vagina?

No. There are mutable-reactive stretch and deformative nerve receptors in the vagina, that are even included in its farthest depths. What this means is that these receptors are "stimulated" by changes in the physical landscape of the vagina, through deformation (light and deep pressure receptors) that respond to pressure and through stretch receptors (also a form of deformation receptor) that respond to the stretching out of the interior of the vagina.

When these sorts of receptors are "set off" or "triggered," it is felt by the woman as a sense of being "filled." Not just "filled," but Sexually Filled. This is usually felt, by her, as a very down-to-earth form of deeply solid pleasure.

So, the longer your stroke ratio is, the better able you will be to trigger these deformative receptors and trigger feelings of dense and solid sexual fulfillment. Penile girth is also an important aspect of this, but we are discussing penis stroke or penis' length "in regards to triggering these receptors.

Now it is easy to see why a three-inch penis is going to have less of an impact on triggering these vaginal deformation sensors and why a penis that is nine inches long will have a much bigger impact on triggering these pleasure-nerve receptors. Much bigger.

This is why "size does matter," for the more a penis can displace the interior of the vagina will directly be related to her perception of sexual pleasure. The larger the penis, the larger the displacement, and the larger the pleasure.

Men who are interested in increasing their stroke ratio have many options in which to do so through what is termed, "Penis Enlargement." These forms of enlarging the penis range from penis pills to penile surgery to penis exercising. Our experience, research, and results has totally convinced us that the most efficient, rewarding, cost-effective, and coolest method of increasing a man's stroke ratio is through penis exercises.

When men are looking to increase their stroke ratio with penis exercising, there are a bevy of different areas that can be targeted and "worked on" to get increased length results. However, listing all of these tissues and how they can be targeted would require a book, rather than a simple article like this. So, we will just cover the most basic method which is easy for most men to understand.

The penis is an appendage which is attached to the body via a complex series of ligaments, fascia, muscles, and tissues. If we can discover a way to "unlock" such tissues, we can allow the penis to extend farther upon erection from the body. For instance, anchoring ligaments that restrict the penis in its erective and extended phase can be stretched out, unlocked, and released to allow greater extensive lengths (of the penis) to be realized. If you think about it for a moment, you can see how this is probably done; and it's done through simple exercises that stretch, unlock, and release such structures. A man simply uses his hands to accomplish this.

Anatomists believe that at least 30% of the main suspensory ligament of the penis is still trapped inside the pelvis. So, just by targeting this ligament, penis exercising is a natural method a man can utilize to release what was naturally gifted to him by Mother Nature.

Men who are interested in increasing their Stroke Ratio, up to 9: 1+, and who want to have a more visually impressive penis; and one that is functionally more impressive, from a woman's sexual-pleasure perspective, are encouraged to utilize penis exercising to reach these goals.

Georg von Neumann

The Importance of Occupational Therapy on Schizophrenia

Over the years, experts have developed various treatment methods for schizophrenia. However, they are currently testing several methods and therapy procedures that would lessen the symptoms or reverse the conditions of schizophrenia in a more effective way. One of the methods that have emerged from these researches is known as the occupational therapy. This treatment focuses on helping patients in achieving independence in all areas of their lives. It has various components that made experts consider this as one of the possible treatment options for schizophrenic symptoms.

As one of the leading options to treat schizophrenic symptoms, occupational therapy can be probably the most rewarding method to assist patients suffering from mental disorder. The concept of this method involves proper guidance and support to patients in doing certain activities to allow them to learn new skills. This also focuses on assisting patients in practicing positive ways to focus on their self-improvement. These programs are widespread throughout mental health and senior living centers. They are quite accepted by the residents and patients. It is often the most loved part of the treatment programs.

Providing a creative outlet to patients can be a very effective way to open the door to some greater recoveries, self improvements, and increased confidence. The results of patients’ efforts could be an exceptional source of pride as well as a good way to learn new skills. The patients can work through all the steps by taking the time and concentrate on learning new skills. This process can enable them practice new skills, for instance, frustration tolerance and gaining self-confidence while participating in leisure activities. It is very important to let the patients feel better about themselves and their abilities through this therapy. By doing this, you can help them put together a clear picture of them. The program makes the patients feel productive and take pride within their efforts.

There are numerous benefits why experts consider occupational therapy as a treatment option for schizophrenic patients. The program promotes positive attitude and belief in self; it establishes awareness for sufferers that they can handle and resolve problems by adapting a step by step procedure; and it also brings help to the loved ones of patients.

However, the application of occupational therapy for mental health is not a new concept. It has been used by mental health facilities worldwide. Moreover, it is helpful that patients enjoy undergoing occupational therapy as part of their medication regimen since it is very for patients to embrace a particular treatment plan. The biggest advantage this kind of therapy brings to the patient is the ability to affect a person’s perspective and turn it into something positive.

At present, there are different methods used by experts to apply occupational therapy on schizophrenic patients. It usually involves valuable pursuits wherein they can develop new skills while establishing other positive attributes that would help them in coping with their mental condition. All activities involve in the program are designed to help patients in maintaining an active mind and restore normal functioning. By participating in these activities, patients can nurture their minds in a positive and enriching way.

Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prognosis And Latest Treatment For Atrial Fibrillation

If you have heart beat that is quicker than 60-80 beats per minute at rest or 90-115 beats per minutes during exercise, you might have fast and irregular heart beat or arrhythmia.    There are different kinds of arrhythmia but atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type


AF occurs when more than one cardiac cell in the upper chamber (atrial) of your heart are beating.  This usually occurs in patients who have pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (secondary AF) such as coronary artery disease, cardiac surgery, hypertension, myocardial infarction, valve disorders (e.g. mitral valve disease) and congestive heart failure.  The changes in cardiac structure associated with these diseases have damaged the conduction pathway of the cardiac muscle, making AF more prone to happen.

There are, however, some instances where there is no evidence of underlying disease and AF occurs spontaneously.  These are termed “lone AF” and happened in approximately 20% of AF patients. 


Beside a quicker heart rate, patients with AF also experience palpitations, chest pain, dyspnea, fatigue or light-headedness.

Diagnosis and Prognosis

The only way to find out whether you have AF is by conducting an ECG test.  Patients who have arrhythmia will find their P wave absence and their R-R interval shorten in their ECG.

The good news about AF is that it is not life-threatening, but patients with long-term AF occurrence can lead to stroke and heart failure.  In fact, patients with AF have a double risk of death, a 5-fold increase in stroke and a 3-fold increase in heart failure compared with those who do not have AF.


Depending on your clinical situation (whether you have hypertension, diabetes or stroke or heart failure), your doctor might prescribe warfarin (Coumadin) or aspirin to prevent stroke and prescribe anti-arrhythmic drugs to slow down your heart rate and convert your heart into rhythm again.  In certain situations where pharmacological therapy fails to convert the heart into rhythm, ablation might be considered.


When taking warfarin (Coumadin), it is important to keep your INR is between 2.0 and 3.0.  An INR that is lower than 2 indicated that you are not protected from stroke while an INR of greater than 3 means that you might have an increased chance of bleeding.

Anti-arrhythmic agents

There are 2 methods to treat your AF: lower your heart rate (rate-control) or convert your heart into regular rhythm (rhythm-control).

Theoretically, rhythm-control drugs should be superior to the rate-control drugs.  However, the presence of some nasty side-effects associated with the rhythm control drugs prevents these drugs to demonstrate superior mortality benefit. 

As a result, the usage of one method over the other is subject to physicians’ discretion.  In general, younger patients with symptomatic AF will be given rhythm control drugs while older patients with minimal symptoms will be given rate control drugs.

A) Rhythm control drugs

Even though rhythm control drugs possess the ability to convert your heart into rhythm, it can also slow down your heart rate.

1) Amiodarone (Codarone) – Amiodarone is one of the oldest and most powerful antiarrhythmic drugs.  It is used mostly in patients with heart failure and with coronary heart diseases.  Its use, however, has been limited by its organ related side-effects such as hyper/hypothyroidism, pulmonary fibrosis and liver toxicity.

2) Sotalol (Betapace) – Sotalol belongs to the same class of drug as amiodarone.  It is less efficacious than amiodarone and is used in AF patients with coronary heart disease.  Since sotalol is very effective in reducing the heart rate, patients taking sotalol will often experience fatigue.

3) Flecainide (Tamboco) and Propafenone (Rythmol) – Flecainide and propafenone are used in AF patients without any other cardiovascular heart diseases.  If used in AF patients with cardiovascular disease, it might also cause arrhythmia.  

4) Dronedarone (Multaq) – Dronedarone is the latest addition to the rhythm control drugs.  It is less efficacious than amiodarone in preventing AF recurrences, but has a more favourable safety profile.  It is also the first and the only drug to demonstrate a reduction in cardiovascular mortality.  The most common side-effects associated with dronedarone are diarrhea, nausea and vomiting.

B) Rate control drugs

Rate control drugs can slow down your heart rate, but can not convert your heart into rhythm.  Most of these drugs have fewer side-effects than the rhythm control drugs.

In certain situation, physicians might prescribe a combination of beta-blockers and digoxin or calcium channel blockers and digoxin for you to control your heart rate

1)      Beta-blockers (metoprolol (Lopressor), propranolol (Inderal)) – B-blockers are the most effective drugs for slowing heart rate.  The effectiveness of these drugs to slow down the heart rate, however, might also make you tired.  If you always experience fatigue, you might need to inform your doctor and your doctor might install a pace-maker to prevent your heart from beating too slow.

2)      Calcium Channel Blockers (verapamil(Isoptin) and diltiazem(Tiazac)) – Calcium channel blockers are effective agents to slow down your heart rate with minimal adverse effects.

3)      Digoxin (Lanoxin) – digoxin is more effective at controlling heart rate during exercise than b-blockers or calcium channel blockers.  However, due to its narrow therapeutic range between efficacy and toxicity, digoxin is seldom used in AF patients.  It is used mainly in patients with heart failure.

Radiofrequency Ablation

Radiofrequency ablation involves inserting a catheter with an electrode at its tip into the heart and then using radiofrequency energy to destroy abnormal cardiac cells that stimulate AF.

Even thought ablation has a high initial success rate of 90%, it is not a cure.  More than 50% of the patients will have AF recur after 6 years.  Also, ablation is associated with some rare, but serious adverse side-effects (vascular access complications (1%), stroke and transient ischaemic attack (1%) and proarrhythmia (10-20%)).

If you have AF or other arrhythmia, it is important to get treated earlier.  The longer you wait, the more difficult it is to convert your heart back to rhythm again.  Your heart might have undergone extensive anatomical and electrophysiological that prevent it to respond to any anti-arrhythmic agents or surgical procedures.

Please visit us at

Classical Combination For Mental Illness

The classical astrological text gives certain combinations for mental illness or insanity. These combinations are often too vague and non specific; they cannot be applied to individual horoscopes in the literal sense. That in fact, is true of combinations for any diseases as given in the astrological texts. They however, give certain clues about the cause of that disease. We shall quote here some of these combinations, and follow this with our understanding of mental illness and the relevant examples. Some of the combinations for mental illness taken from the JATAKA TATTVA and other texts are as follows.

1. Jupiter in the ascendant and Mars in the seventh house, or vice versa.

Note: (a) This appears vague. Jupiter is the planet of idealism; Mars indicates aggression. Too much emphasis on these could ruin the married life, as this combination involves the 7th house. (b) In the above yoga, substitution of mars by Saturn has been said to have the same result though the nature of affliction will obviously change from aggressiveness towards depression.

1. Saturn in the lagna and Mars in the 5th or the 7th or the 9th house

2. Saturn in the lagna, the Sun in the 12th house, and Mars or the Moon in a trine.

3. Saturn in the 12th house associated with a waning Moon.

4. Association of Saturn and the lord of the 2nd house with the Sun or Mars.

5. Birth in the hora of Saturn or Mars, the sun-moon conjunction in the lagna or the 5th or the 9th, and the Jupiter in the quadrant.

6. Mandi in the 7th house, afflicted by a malefic.

Note: same result may accrue from an afflicted Mandi in the 5th house

1. Rahu and the Moon in the lagna,and malefic in the trine

Mental faculties: Astrological Basis. It will be seen from the above that the various combinations for mental diseases are fairly generalized. No mention has been made of the time of onset of the ailment. In addition, there is generally no mention of the various divisional charts without which any combination would lose its specificity. We must thus look for the factor that governs our normal behavior from the nature and extent of the abnormal behavior from the nature and extent of affliction to such factors.

The following points thus need attention of the assessment of the mental health of a native:

(a) The Moon: It is the significator of the mind. Its strength or weakness reflects the state of one’s mind. Its strength attachments are feelings, emotional reactions, mental compatibility with others, and such faculties that do not rely on Mathematical logic. The Moon has no enemies.

(b) Mercury:It signifies the nervous system, academic discipline, rationality, logic and intellect, as also one’s complexes. Its enemy is the moon. Understandably, the mind (signified by the moon) is opposed to reasoning and intellect (signified by mercury).

(c) Jupiter:The best benefactor. Jupiter is the significator of maturity and wisdom. While Jupiter is neutral towards mercury, the latter happens to be the enemy of Jupiter. Quite naturally the strict limits of logics can only restrain the exercise of wisdom. Note: When the Moon, Mercury and Jupiter are strong and well placed, the native has a sound mind, a healthy reasoning and a mature wisdom. When these three planets are afflicted, weak or ill placed, there is a vulnerability to mental illness, nervousness, Intellectual confusion, and inability to take wise decisions and to implement them.

(d) The fifth house: The fifth house is the house of fascination, thinking, logic and wisdom. For a sound mental health, the 5th house and the 5th lord must not be afflicted and be under benefic influence.

(e) The lagna and the sign Mesha: Mesha happens to be the first house equivalent to the head of the Kalapurusha. The lagna is the first house or the head of the native. Both should not be afflicted for a sound mental health

(f) Malefic and benefic Yogas: Besides the other factors, certain malefic and benefic Yogas in the horoscope may promote the occurrence of a mental illness, or favorably compensate for it.

The following are especially important:

(1) The Kemadruma Yoga, i.e.,the Moon without a planet on either side of it. This is an adverse Yoga. The Moon needs support in order to insure a sound mind. When there is no planet in the second and the 12th from the Moon, an inherent weakness is indicated in the chart.

(2) The Gajakesari Yoga, i.e., the presence of Jupiter in a quadrant from the Moon. This is very potent and benefic Yoga; Planets in mutual quadrants influence each other. Jupiter in a quadrant from the Moon causes strengthening of the Moon.

(3) The Chandradhi Yoga. This consists of the presence of benefic in the 6th, 7th, or 8th, from the Moon. Benefic in these houses promote, and the malefic obstruct and hinder the functioning of the moon. Afflictions to the Moon – Most of the mental disorders manifest when the moon is afflicted. These vary from simple mental aberrations to gross neuro-psychotic disorders.

The Moon suffers afflictions when it is weak, placed in adverse (6, 8, or 12th) houses, and under the aspects or association of malefic

(a) Affliction by the sun: Quick temper, quarrelsome, self-aggrandizement.

(b) By Mars: Quick temper, aggressive, violent.

(c) By Saturn: Acute depression; maniac depressive psychosis.

(d) By Rahu: cunning in thought, schizophrenia, phobias, and maniacal suicidal tendencies.

(e) By Ketu: Maniacal/suicidal tendencies, phobias, irrational suspicion of others.


(1) Affliction to Mercury and Jupiter causes abnormalities in behavior in a similar manner. For example, placement of mercury in the 6th house affected by Saturn, leads to some sort of mental derangement. Jupiter- Saturn or Jupiter-Mars opposition have already been pointed out.

(2) How close these planets are in degrees must be examined.

Why Spectrophotometers Are Used in Medical Labs

If you are planning to set up your medical laboratory, then make sure to include a spectrophotometer in the collection. This indispensable device plays a vital role in various scientific applications. This article looks at the features of this equipment and why spectrophotometers are used in medical labs.

What Makes Spectrophotometer a Superior Device

Spectrophotometer is a highly versatile tool, which is used to determine the concentration of solid particles in any suspension, especially a blood sample, or transmittance of a solution. It can also be routinely utilized for data analysis as well as research purposes.

Basically, there are two types of lab spectrophotometers – single beam and double beam spectrophotometer. As the name suggests, a single beam spectrophotometer measures the difference in light intensities between a reference and test sample. A double beam instrument is specifically designed to calculate the variation in light intensities produced before and after the sample solution is inserted into the device.

Features that Add to the Efficiency of Spectrophotometers

To accurately perform various medical tests using a spectrophotometer, it is provided with the most advanced characteristics. Superior performance, precision, accuracy, and ease of use are characteristic features of a reliable spectrophotometer. Here are some other features that contribute towards enhancing the efficiency of this lab equipment.

  • Auto Zero function
  • Widescreen digital display
  • Wide wavelength range
  • Built-in filter
  • Windows application software installed
  • Automatic start option and easy calibration
  • Split beam design
  • Solid state detector
  • Large sample compartment

Trusted manufacturers offer branded products that offer long term uninterrupted functioning. Among the leading models, UNICO spectrophotometer is an easy to use tabletop device that gives the most accurate performance. The equipment is highly flexible and offers efficient functionality to perform various tasks. Other popular models include split beam and Uv-Vis spectrophotometer.

Its Use in the Medical Laboratory

Typically, a spectrophotometeris used in a medical laboratory for the following purposes:

  • To estimate the concentration of blood pigment
  • To measure the percentage of sodium carbonate in blood
  • To identify the level of carbon monoxide, so as to check the amount of CO poisoning

Spectrophotometry is employed even to assess the intensity of a heart attack; this is done by taking an enzyme from the patient’s blood and comparing it to a standard curve.

Reliable Dealers for Quality Spectrophotometers

If you don’t have enough money to purchase a brand new spectrophotometer, then the most viable option is to buy a recertified one. Besides being cost-effective, these devices are recertified to adhere to the manufacturer’s original specifications. Ensure that you buy the product from trustworthy laboratory equipment suppliers. There are several benefits of choosing such dealers — customer friendly service, timely shipping option, professional installation, ample warranty option, customized maintenance contract, and much more.

A proper understanding of why spectrophotometers are used in medical labs will help you purchase a product that caters to your specific medical lab requirements.

The Cause Of Eyebrow Hair Loss: What Can Be Done?

About four million people a year will find themselves facing eyebrow hair loss. It is common to become quite concerned about this condition after all, it is a very noticeable area which makes it something many are self conscious about. Can you learn how to re-grow eyebrow hair? How do you find a solution to this very embarrassing problem?

Make It Come Back!

The fact is that there are many ways that you can try to get eyebrow hair growth, but it is unlikely that you will find a solution that will work fast or effectively. The problem is that for most people, the cause of eyebrow hair loss is that of an autoimmune disease. The condition is called Alopecia Areata and it can affect the eyebrow hair, the scalp hair or virtually any other location on your body that has hair.

Understanding Alopecia

The loss of eyebrow hair is something to be concerned about especially when coupled with other health issues. But, for most, the symptoms just won’t be there. The only thing you will notice is a loss of hair. If you have this happen on your scalp, it will likely form a circle the size of a nickel or quarter of baldness. The cause of eyebrow loss, eyelash loss or loss of hair on your scalp is not something to worry about if it is Alopecia Areata, though.

Bacteria Or Hair Follicle?

This condition is one that affects about four million people each year. The cause of this hair loss is actually a case of mistaken identity. Your body’s immune system mistakenly thinks that the hair follicle is bacteria and tries to protect the body from it by attacking it. Unfortunately, when this happens, you lose the hair. Scientists are still unsure of why this happens or even why it happens to one person and not to the next.

Fix It!

Eyebrow hair growth is not something that you can turn on and off, even if you want to. If you are experiencing hair loss due to Alopecia or for another medical condition, it will take time for your hair to re-grow and there is little that you can do to make it happen any faster.

The good news is that if you are suffering from Alopecia, the stem cells in your hair follicle are not affected by the white blood cells of your immune system attacking. Therefore, your hair should continue to grow once your new cells have been formed and grows a new hair.

If you are suffering from stress or a deficiency in your diet, this too can lead to eyebrow hair loss. If this is the case, the only way to fix it is to stop what is happening to you by eating a well balanced diet or by reducing your stress load. In any case, if you are facing eyebrow hair loss, it’s important to keep your doctor in the loop as it can be a sign of something more serious although in most cases it is nothing but your body fighting itself.

Heart Disease At Young Age

If a woman should go into labor before thirty-seven weeks of gestation, the baby born at that time is considered to be premature. In many cases premature infants tend to have some form of heart impairment arising from heart disease or defect. The incidence of heart malfunction in premature babies is rather alarming.

Premature infants do not have fully formed organs, and because of this the baby has to be cared for in a neonatal nursery or neonatal intensive care unit until such time as they have developed and strengthened enough to continue living without medical support. However premature infants suffer from many other symptoms, not only heart disease. Some common symptoms are hyaline membrane disease, poor ability to feed, inactivity, enlarged clitoris in females, small scrotum in males, weak cry, body hair, breathing apnea as well as many others.


Heart disease in premature infants is not completely avoidable although there are treatment protocols that may be followed to treat this. These premature infants are unable before 34 weeks gestation, to suck and swallow at the same time, so many are fed by a tube inserted into the stomach or in very small infants into a vein.


Complications in premature infants may not necessarily be related to the premature birth but there are many serious complications that can occur as well as heart disease. Some of these are hyaline membrane disease, retinopathy, low blood glucose, bleeding in the brain, jaundice, anemia, growth retardation as well as mental-motor and developmental retardation.


There is absolutely no way for a woman to prevent premature labor and the delivery of a premature infant. But there are ways to ensure you are taking the correct steps to minimize the chances of this happening. One of the most important is to receive good prenatal care early and continue throughout the pregnancy. Statistics do indicate that early, proper and continued prenatal care make a huge impact on reducing the odds of giving premature birth and its related risks and deaths.

During pregnancy it is also extremely important to take care of your own health as well. It is vital to eat nutrient rich foods, including fruits and vegetables, daily exercise and drink adequate amounts of water. Although the combination of premature infants and heart disease is a serious situation, with modern medical technology and better methods to lessen the chances of occurrence, the chances of pulling out of this medical quandary are getting better with each day.

Heart Disease In Children

It is amazing that few people are aware that a child can suffer from heart disease. Many people think that heart disease only affects the aged. Heart disease is a very serious problem and child heart disease is in fact a relatively common ailment worldwide. Child heart disease or congenital heart defects are recognized as one of the most widely known birth defects of all. There are statistics to prove that worldwide nearly one percent of all babies born are affected by some form of heart malfunction. These infants are usually diagnosed as having child heart disease upon examination by their pediatrician at birth. Sometimes this is usually referred to as a heart murmur.

Information About Child Heart Malfunction

A child’s heart might have a slight abnormality that may not even be noticeable at birth and therefore it might be difficult to detect any heart malfunction. But normally if a child has a heart defect there is a small hole in the wall of the heart that allows oxygenated and deoxygenated blood to move from one side of the heart to the other. This causes the infant to have either blue fingers or lips.

A problem that might also be experienced is an abnormal heart valve. The consequences are that the blood flows through the heart in the wrong direction. This type of child heart malfunction usually calls for surgery but this is normally performed when the child is older.

What A Heart Murmur Is

A heart murmur is the sound made by the blood flowing through the heart. This sound has been described as akin to the sound of water flowing through a hose. Heart murmurs occur frequently in infants, many are harmless, but others may create serious health risks for the child.

A heart murmur is a common sign of the evidence of child heart malfunction. In many instances the heart murmur is referred to as being ‘innocent’ or ‘functional’. Naturally parents do become extremely worried when the term is used to describe their child’s ailment. But a heart murmur does not necessarily mean that there is anything seriously amiss with the infant.

With the significant advances in medical technology in the last decade, parents can be assured that there will be a suitable course of treatment to alleviate their child’s heart disease.

Australian Shepherd Pros and Cons of Owning This Fascinating Pet

Reasons for and Against Owning a Pet Australian Shepherd

The Australian Shepherd is the quintessential herding dog. It rose to fame as a sheepherder and although it probably originated in the Pyrenees Mountain it was exported to Australia and other sheep raising areas. It is known by a few other names but the one most know it as is the Australian Shepherd or Aussie.

It is a very recognizable dog due to its unique eye coloring along with its beautiful merle coat coloring. It is normally born with a short tail and if longer than 4 inches it is normally docked. It is sturdy with a muscular build and has extraordinary balance which partly explains how it is so good at herding along with its intelligence. If you have a very active lifestyle and want an easily trainable companion you might want to consider an Aussie for your next pet.


An Australian Shepherd is a loving breed of dog that just loves to play and never seems to lose its puppy like qualities. For this reason, it is a great dog to own if you have children in your home. It gets along great with other dogs and pets as well as all humans.

Even though it likes to play it is easy to train and appears to know what you want it to do. Like most dogs you must establish that you are the pack leader. Once you do this the Aussie is easy to get along with and will be very happy to go along with your leadership.

The Australian Shepherd loves to please everyone and is very protective of their family. If given the chance, your pet will do well when trained to be used as a guard dog. They have great perception as well as being intuitive. Your pet will know what will be expected of it and therefore is easier to train.

A pet Aussie is not aggressive, unless it is herding animals. It is protective and a loyal friend, which makes a good family dog. This dog likes nothing better that herding livestock so if you have animals that needs rounded up then this is the dog for you. Herding seems to be instinctive as they have been known to try to herd chickens, geese and even children.


You must keep your pet Australian Shepherd trained properly and exercised regularly to keep them happy and content. Before you can start training them make sure it knows that you are the pack leader. It can get nervous and easily bored when its not being acknowledged. It requires human interaction on a daily basis to keep if from getting bored and possibly becoming destructive.

The Aussie is a great dog but has too much energy to be a house dog. It must have a lot of activity every day. If you don’t have a large backyard or can take your pet out for a large amount of exercise every day you should consider a different breed of dog.

Although Australian Shepherds are a hardy dog there is one problem that can show up in them. The gene that produces their pretty merle coloration also is a factor that can cause blindness and deafness. Puppies should be checked for deafness as well as cataracts. Aussies with bobtails can sometimes develop serious spinal defects. Hip dysplasia is another possible problem in some of these dogs. These conditions are not found in all of them and should not be considered serious enough to dissuade you from considering one as a pet or helper.

Like most dogs Aussies need proper training to be the best pet. Luckily this pet has above average intelligence as well as faithfulness and loyalty found in few other pets. If you need a good friend who will also help out around the farm or ranch do yourself a favor and check out the Australian Shepherd. You will be happy you did.

Addisons Disease Causes Symptoms Information With Treatment

Addison’s disease (chronic adrenal insufficiency) is a rare and progressive disorder that affects between one and six in every 100,000 people. It occurs in all age groups and afflicts men and women equally. Addison’s disease is caused by the inability of the adrenal glands to make sufficient amounts of regulating hormones. The adrenal cortex (the outer part) also produces important hormones, the corticosteroids. Classical Addison’s disease results from a loss of both cortisol and aldosterone secretion due to the near total or total destruction of both adrenal glands. These glands form part of the endocrine system, which works with the nervous system and the immune system to help the body cope with different events and stresses. It helps maintain blood pressure and water and salt balance in the body by helping the kidney retain sodium and excrete potassium. When aldosterone production falls too low, the kidneys are not able to regulate salt and water balance, causing blood volume and blood pressure to drop. If ACTH is deficient, there will not be enough cortisol produced, although aldosterone may remain adequate. This is secondary adrenal insufficiency, which is distinctly different, but similar to Addison’s disease, since both include a loss of cortisol secretion.

Causes of Addison’s Disease

The common Causes of Addison’s Disease :

The immune system mistakenly attacking the gland (autoimmune disease)

Use of blood-thinning drugs (anticoagulants) .

Infections such as tuberculosis , HIV, or fungal infections.

Invasion of the adrenal glands by cancer cells from another part of the body.


Chronic infections, such as fungal infections.

Hemorrhage, blood loss.

The symptoms of Addison’s disease are caused by the failure of the adrenal glands, seated above the kidneys , to produce enough of the hormone cortisol and, in some cases, the hormone aldosterone .

Symptoms of Addison’s Disease

Some Symptoms of Addison’s Disease :

Muscle weakness.

Depression .

Irritability .

Chronic fatigue that gradually worsens.

Weight loss and loss of appetite .

Nausea , diarrhea , or vomiting .


Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) .

Polyuria .

Increased number of eosinophils.

Restlessness .

Treatment of Addison’s Disease

Medications to replace the hormones cortisol and aldosterone. Hydrocortisone is often used because it can function like both of these hormones. If another medication is used instead of hydrocortisone (such as prednisolone, methylprednisolone, or dexamethasone), you also will need a medication that can function like aldosterone (usually fludrocortisone). You will need a higher dose of medication during childbirth; when you have an injury, surgery, or a serious infection; or during severe stress, such as the death of a loved one.

Increasing salt in the diet. Because people with adrenal failure tend to lose sodium , you will need extra salt (sodium chloride) in your diet, especially during hot and humid weather and vigorous exercise. However, because people with Addison’s disease retain potassium , you need to avoid salt substitutes, which usually contain potassium chloride salts.

Regular medical checkups to monitor symptoms and blood pressure. Your health professional also may need to do lab tests to evaluate and monitor blood levels of potassium, sodium, and cortisol.

Reliable Stuttering Cures

Stuttering (also known as stammering) is an involuntary speech disorder that involves disinclination’s and involuntary repetition and prolongation of certain sounds. This includes abnormally elevated activity in the muscles that involve in speech production such as lips, jaw, tongue, and vocal folds.

Facts about Stuttering and Its Cures

Stammering can ruin the life of the affected individuals if it is not treated. It is a significant disorder. It is easy to treat; however, it is difficult or almost impossible to cure it. Stutters can talk in a fluent manner when they are alone or by modifying the style of speaking by concentrating only on their speech. There are many treatments available for stuttering. Some of them are breathing exercise, energy medicine, herbal remedies, homeopathic remedies, hypnosis, and so on. The medical practitioners use these medications to strengthen the mental state and to build self-confidence.

Breathing Exercises and Yoga

Certain yoga postures such as Suksham Vyayama, Surya Namaskar, and Simhasana and some breathing exercise such as Bhastrika, Nadi Shodhana, and Pranayama seem to very effective in treating stuttering. Oxygen deficiency is one of the causes of stuttering. Yoga and breathing exercises will help you avoid stuttering by providing more oxygen and reducing your stress level.

Energy Medicines

There are certain energy medicine kits such as GSR (galvanic skin response) available in the market, which are believed to be effecting in treating stuttering. Most of the kits contain CD, DVD, and booklet to teach you how to use the kit.

Herbal Remedies as Stuttering Cures

A few coriander seeds and a quarter teaspoon of palm candy (a candy obtained from palm tree) can chewed along with 3-4 dried leaves (or powdered leaves) of the herb Gotu Kola (also known as Brahmi, Centella asiatica) on a regular basis (twice or thrice a day, until you get rid of stuttering) will give better result in controlling stammering.

Homeopathic Remedies

Some of the homeopathic remedies are very effective alternative medicines in treating stuttering. You can use these homeopathic medicines successfully for treating stuttering and for many other psychological symptoms, which are associated with stuttering. However, you must consult a homeopath before you start using these medicines, as homeopathic medicines are unique.

Hypnosis as Stammering Cure

Many speech therapists are using hypnosis for treating speech disorders. Various triggers (e.g. mental condition in certain situations) induce stammering; hypnosis help to bring down the influence of these triggers by teaching you behavioral methods and meliorating self-confidence.


A speech impediment is not a disease; it is just a disorder. You can easily get rid of this problem by following the above-mentioned stuttering cures.

Spiritual Isolation in Carson McCullers’ The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter

In analyzing the novel of Carson McCullers’ The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter, the author uses three Sociological Theories of Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckman on ‘Socialization: The Internalization of Society’, Presentation of Self in Everyday Life by Eving Goffman and Emile Durkheim’s “Social Facts” and “Suicide” to probe on the motives and behavior of characters, the reasons of their loneliness, hatred, love, faith, inner conflict and their moral and spiritual isolation.

Only when he has achieved this degree of internalization is an individual a member of society. The process by which this is brought about by socialization, which may be thus be defined as the comprehensive and consistent introduction of an individual into the objective world of society or a sector of it. Primary socialization is the first socialization an individual undergoes which he becomes a member of society. Secondary socialization is any subsequent process that inducts an already socialized individual into new sectors of the objective world of his society.

It is at once evident that primary socialization is usually the most important one for an individual and that the basic structure of all secondary socialization has to resemble that of primary socialization. Every individual is born into an objective social structure within which he encounters the significant others who are in charge of his socialization. The significant others are imposed on him… The significant others who mediate this world to him modify it in the course of mediating it. It is noteworthy to say that all five major characters in the novel exhibit their own location in the social structure and also by virtue of their individual, biographically rooted idiosyncrasies. The coloration of the characters, their suffering and how they respond to it, whether social, emotional, psychological or mental is wholly affected by their significant others. Hence, traits like reticence or loquacity, prudence or tactlessness, contentment or discontentment, bitter resentment, rebelliousness or other characters of the parents or siblings may be absorbed.

Primary socialization involves emotional learning. Indeed, there is a good reason to believe that without such emotional attachment to significant others, the learning process would be difficult if not impossible.. The child identifies with the significant others in a variety of emotional ways.

What is important to consider is the fact that the individual not only takes on the roles and attitudes of others, but in the same process takes on their world. To be given an identity involves being assigned a specific place in the world. Because the identity is subjectively appropriated by the child or person (Mr. Singer, deaf-mute), so is the world is the world to this identity points.

Primary socialization creates in the child’s consciousness a progressive abstraction from the roles and attitudes of specific others to roles and general. For example, in the internalization of norms, there is a progression, from Mick Kelly as boyish to Mick Kelly as ladylike, Bubber from childish to isolated child after he accidentally shot Baby.

After the primary socialization is internalized, it is the language that a child has to internalize. With language, and by means of it, various motivational and interpretative schemes are internalized as institutionally defined-wanting to act as a brave little boy, the word brave if internalized results to a brave boy and coward to a coward boy. This program both, the applicable and the anticipatory, differentiate one’s identity from that of others- such as girls, slave boys or boys from another clan. Finally, there is internalization of rudiments of the legitimating apparatus.

Primary and secondary socialization are never total and never finished.

Goffman says that when an individual appears in the presence of others, there will usually be some reason for him to mobilize his activity so that it will convey an impression to others that is in his interests to convey.

He approaches the human being as an actor performing on stage. In summary, he explains that others seek to know who we are. We control our actions to give off the picture we want to give off; others will also seek to act to control the definition of the situation; a working consensus is created; ongoing interaction may question the picture and preventive tactics help preserve the interaction and keep actors from the embarrassment.

John Singer is the focal point of the other four main characters in The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter. Chapters narrated from Singer’s point of view open the and close the first and second parts of the novel. The deaf-mute, as the society or his secondary socialization has identified him, Singer is a silver engraver at a local jewelry store; for ten years he has lived with his close friend Spiros Antonapoulos, another deaf-mute. Singer never seems to realize that he puts almost all of the effort into his friendship with Antonapoulos, but he is happy in this obliviousness. After Antonapoulos is taken away to an insane asylum at the end of Part One, Singer grows very sad and lonely and moves in as a boarder with the Kelly family. Antonapalous is considered by Singer as his immediate significant other and that his actions are largely affected by his friend that led to his suicide when he learned of Antonapalous’ death.

The second part chronicles the other characters’ increasing dependence various presentation of themselves everyday to Singer. Each of them creates his or her own individual conception of who Singer is; because Singer himself cannot speak, he cannot refute or disillusion them. Singer demonstrates one of McCullers’s main themes and one of her counter- themes, as he plays one role with Antonapoulos and another with the four other main characters. Singer’s devotion to Antonapoulos is McCullers’s means of exploring the human struggle to be loved and to express oneself. On the other hand, Singer is an object of such adoration and devotion from the other characters as he attracted all of them individually to share his silence and loneliness and yet finding solace or peace or even fulfillment when characters talk to him that they cannot verbalize to others.

Mick, with her rebellious and courageous spirit as she moves from childhood into adolescence, is the other strong focal point of the narrative. There are more chapters devoted to Mick’s point of view than to any other character in the novel. Mick, had serious ambitions of becoming a concert pianist when she grew up. Mick’s attachment to music is important not only as a defining character trait but also because McCullers’ musical sensibility shapes the entire structure of The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter; indeed, she once referred to the book as a three-part fugue. Throughout the novel, music symbolizes Mick’s energy and her pursuit of beauty; she stores it in the “inner room” of her mind, to which only she and Singer have access. Mick’s plans to build a violin from scratch, for example, arise from her “inner room.” Consequently, her frustration when the violin does not work is more violent than if the idea had been conceived in her “outer room”-the part of her that she allows to interact with the outside world. Her interaction with her family, especially to her siblings vary and much more different when she interacts with the other four major characters. She hates her sisters who are lazy. She continuously shows affection for Ralph and Bubber.

Mick is the most positive and hopeful character in the novel. The fact that Mick is a child at the beginning of the novel, it provides the opportunity to portray the funny and poignant moments that accompany Mick’s coming of age. At her worst, Mick frightens her little brother Bubber into running away after he accidentally shoots Baby in the head with a BB gun; at her best, she heroically offers to quit school so that she can work at Woolworth’s to help her poverty-stricken family. At the end of the novel, Mick’s final words indicate to us that her inner world remains intact and that she will continue to fight to achieve her ambitions. Her contact to real world allows her more to grow and mature with Harry as her first kiss and Mr. Singer as her long time “crush”.

Biff Brannon is one of the more bizarre if not grotesque characters in the novel. Like Singer, he is distanced, observant, and quiet influenced by his past. However, none of Biff’s observations cohere into any greater insight or concept of humanity; instead, they stand as isolated, unconnected fragments that offer us only puzzling and contradictory impulses that are never satisfactorily explained. When we see Biff interact with his wife, Alice, at the beginning of the novel, it is clear that the two do not feel any great love for one another after fifteen years of marriage. We also learn that Biff is impotent, though we are never told if this condition is just a problem he has in his relations with Alice or whether it extends to other women as well. Throughout the novel we perceive that Biff also has a strong desire to have children of his own; he wishes that Mick and his niece, Baby, were his own children.

Biff clearly has unresolved sexual anxieties, but their exact nature is never made clear. He keeps all the parts of his life compartmentalized-the past from the present, his life upstairs in his room from his life downstairs in the restaurant, and his marital relationship from his sexual life. At one point, we learn that Biff chivalrously beat up his sister-in-law’s husband when he bragged about beating her; yet after Alice dies, Biff starts to sew and use his wife’s perfume, expressing an unexpected feminine side to his personality. No one explains or integrates these conflicting impulses, which leaves us to assume that Biff himself is unable to resolve these inner conflicts.

Dr. Benedict Copeland is perhaps the most noble character in the entire story, as his name suggests of goodness, as a black man who has made many personal sacrifices to devote his entire life’s work to furthering the education and uplift of the black community. Dr. Copeland went to the North as a young man to get a college education, and then came back to the South to put his education to good use among the impoverished black community. He speaks very carefully and articulately, never once using the colloquial slang that characterizes the speech of the other black characters, such as his daughter, Portia, and his son Willie. Dr. Copeland feels a constant frustration with what he perceives as the ignorance of black people and their blind acceptance of an inferior societal position-a clear parallel to Jake Blount’s frustration with the ignorance of lower-class workers. Dr. Copeland feels that education and strong teachers and leaders are the best means of combating black ignorance and poverty, but he is unable to find anyone of his own race who can help him with his goals. Dr. Copeland constantly feels alienated from both his own family and the broader black community, largely due to his radical views. Dr. Copeland’s children have largely accepted the position white society has given them; all of them except Portia are afraid to even come to his house to visit because they know he will chastise them for the choices they have made in their lives.

Dr. Copeland, like Jake Blount, is a Marxist, but he does not have the same confused conception of the theory’s implementation that Blount does. At the end of Part Two, when the two men finally discuss their political views, their personal, educational, and racial differences make it almost impossible for them to communicate; as a result, neither recognizes the other as a fellow reformer. Dr. Copeland’s brand of Marxism is so highly intellectualized that he communicates his theory no more effectively than Jake does with his drunken rambling. Jake is a wanderer who comes to town with confused and passionate plans for a socialist revolt. He drinks almost constantly for the first few weeks he is in town, spending almost all his time at Biff Brannon’s New York Café. Once Jake meets Singer and decides that Singer, like him, “knows,” he stays in town and gets a job at a local carnival. Of all the characters, Jake is the most prone to violent outbursts and genuine mental instability-his speech is never constant in tone, changing from intellectual to crass to boisterous to rage at a moment’s notice. He is constantly consumed with his desire to see workers rise up in revolt; the only time he ceases to think about how to achieve his misguided socialist reforms is when he drinks himself into a stupor.

Jake is also the least sensitive of all of the characters, and he is no expert at personal interaction. All of the other main characters have other friends, acquaintances, or family outside of their relationship with Singer, but Jake confides in nobody else except the deaf-mute. After Singer dies, Jake is blindingly angry that he has spent so much time telling his dreams and plans to a man who is now dead. At the end of the novel, Jake leaves town to search for another person who will share his views and collaborate with him in his plans for violent revolt and revolution.

Man’s constant struggle and his success or defeat against moral and spiritual isolation is very vivid in the novel. Each of the five main characters strives to break out of his or her isolated existence. The reasons each character is isolated are very different: the deaf-mute John Singer cannot communicate with most of the world because he cannot speak; Mick Kelly cannot communicate with anyone in her family because they do not share her intelligence and ambition; Biff Brannon is left alone when his wife dies; Dr. Copeland is alienated from his family and from other black people because of his education and viewpoints; Jake Blount is alone is his radical social viewpoints and in the fact that he is a newcomer in town.

The isolation from which each character suffers is a combination of personal and environmental factors. According to Emile Durkheim, society is composed of “organs” called social facts which are: A.)Material social facts such as 1.) society 2.) structural components of society like the church and state 3.) morphological components of society like population and housing and B.) Non Material Social Facts like 1.) morality 2.) collective conscience 3.) collective representation and 4.) social currents which affects people the way they are. However, all of the characters feel profoundly alone in some sense or another, and all of them desperately need to communicate their feelings with somebody who understands them. All five, with the exception of Biff, confide in Singer the things that make them spiritually lonesome caused by the absence of religion or God. In contrast Portia, Willie and Highboy and other colored minor characters, Presbyterian members, find peace amidst black community persecution. Though it is never made clear, the only reason Biff does not discuss his personal conflicts with Singer is most likely because Biff himself is unable to articulate these personal conflicts. Regardless, Biff still finds Singer’s presence comforting. After talking to Singer, the characters almost always feel soothed.

The novelist explores the idea that all people feel a need to create some sort of guiding principle or god. However, whatever each person conceives of in this godlike role is merely his or her own fantasy; it has no basis in reality, just as those who believe in God have no proof that He actually exists. Singer becomes a pseudo-religious figure for the main characters of the novel; they believe he has infinite and unending wisdom about many things, and they turn to him in times of trouble, constantly asking him to help them achieve their goals and assuage their fears and doubts.

Each character creates a different god in Singer. For Mick, Singer is a man who feels as she does about music and whom she can ask very personal questions-things she has never said to anyone before. For Dr. Copeland, Singer is an the only enlightened white man he has ever met, the only one who understands the Doctor’s burning passion to achieve justice for black people in the world. For Blount, Singer is a man who shares his deep concern about the importance of socialist revolution and the eradication of capitalism. For Biff, Singer is, like Biff himself, a quiet and astute observer of the human condition who ponders many things in great depth.

In reality, however, Singer is none of these things; he is merely an ordinary, intelligent man who only wants to be with his friend Antonapoulos. Singer cannot understand why all these other people come to him for advice on topics with which he has no expertise or even familiarity. It is ironic that Singer-a character the others blindly make out to be a sort of god-is just as prone to the same blind faith, which we see in his love for Antonapoulos. Singer believes that Antonapoulos is a wise, kindhearted person, and he worships his friend unremittingly. Meanwhile, it is clear to us that all the evidence suggests Antonapoulos is actually coarse, selfish, and lazy. In the end, we see that all the major characters are deluding themselves by believing only what they wish about John Singer. Nonetheless, the very fact that they believe it gives them peace.

Heroism surfaces most overtly in the novel in the characters of John Singer and of Mick, the least self-absorbed of the major characters and seemingly the only ones capable of feeling genuine, unselfish love for another person. The love Singer feels for Antonapoulos demonstrates the altruism of Singer’s nature: he is capable of loving someone completely without receiving any true reciprocation whatsoever. Mick also shows herself to be capable of loving someone for reasons that are not at all self-interested: she feels a deeply affectionate love for her younger brother Bubber, and she continues to feel this way even when he distances himself from her.

By the end of the novel, Mick emerges as the most heroic character when she gives up school to take on a job to help support her family. She is determined not to give up on her dreams; indeed, she is the only character who does not let Singer’s death negatively affect the course her life takes. After Singer dies, Dr. Copeland’s health fails and he is taken to his father-in-law’s farm; Blount leaves town; Biff remains in the same monotonous existence. Mick is the only one of the major characters who maintains positive plans for the future: she is firmly resolved to continue saving for a piano, despite the fact that it will take many hours at Woolworth’s before she can afford one. For Mick, there is a light at the end of the tunnel that no other character-not even Singer-sees.

Both Singer and Blount experience dreams that either are indicative of important aspects of their personalities or support some greater theme in the novel as a whole. Singer dreams that he sees Antonapoulos at the top of a flight of stairs, kneeling and holding something up in his hand. Singer is kneeling behind Antonapoulos, while Mick, Biff, Jake, and Dr. Copeland are all kneeling behind Singer. This worshipful image perfectly depicts the way that the characters feel in the story: Singer worships Antonapoulos, whereas the other four characters worship Singer. The dream represents the dynamic of the relationships in the novel as a whole.

Jake has a nightmare at the end of the book that he has had several times before. He dreams that he is in a crowd and that he is carrying a covered basket. He feels anxious because he does not know to whom to give the basket. This dream demonstrates Blount’s desire to find kindred spirits who also believe in socialism, so that he can give his “basket” of beliefs to them. In the dream, Blount has been carrying the burdensome basket for a long time; in life, his socialist beliefs have burdened him for a long time as well, as there are few people with whom he can share them to relieve his thoughts.

Singer is a symbol of hope throughout the entire narrative: he embodies Mick’s hopes that someday she will travel and become a famous musician, he embodies Biff’s hope that he will someday find enlightenment, he embodies Dr. Copeland’s hope that someday the black race will have justice, and he embodies Jake’s hope that soon workers in America will understand that they are oppressed and will fight for their rights. Each character projects these qualities onto Singer, who comes to stand for all that the characters believe in their own minds. This blank-slate quality to Singer is the reason the others believe in him as they would a god: he cannot directly respond to their pleas, but the mere fact that they believe in him enough to confide in him in the first place affords them at least a small measure of peace.

In conclusion, the major characters as well as the minor characters are greatly influenced by their past, their families, and people they met. Both primary socialization and secondary socialization spell out the future of their lives. Their isolation, resentment, bitterness, rebelliousness or meekness are caused according to Durkheim by many factors such as the material and non material social facts such as society, environment, church, state, morality, collective conscience, collective representation and social currents.

Economic Benefits Of Hosting The Olympic Games


Hosting the Olympic Games can bring a lot of benefits for the host country. These benefits can be divided into either long term or short term ones. The short term economic benefits include fresh cash flows from the visitors who will come to the host country, officials, athletes, training activities, media activities, cultural events linked to the Olympics and the formation of an Olympic committee. These investments will be done within the City that hosts the event and many other surrounding areas in the respective country. (Carros et al, 2001)

Long term economic benefits of hosting the Olympics fall in three major categories. The first is the creation of infrastructure that reaches worldwide standards. The second category is the benefit of receiving international attention through media coverage. The last long term economic benefit is related to the community; there will be formation of educational and youth programs, there will also be formation of jobs for a number of individuals in the country. Some local volunteer programs will also be formed. Thereafter, there will be formation of community development programs. All the details of both the short term and long term benefits will be examined in the subsequent portions of the essay. (Segrave, 1998)

Short term economic benefits

Short term economic benefits may be defined as the total changes that will occur in terms of employment, revenue and total national output through outside investments. The first economic impact will result form the fact that the host country will be required to produce more goods and services to cater for the additional numbers. The consumers of those gods are most likely going to be the athletes themselves and their officials. There will also be international spectators and national spectators that will need to consume additional industrial products. It is a matter of fact that the event will need to be covered by media personalities both nationally and internationally. These groups will need to consume goods made by the host country. The Olympics themselves have representatives in the host country and they will need to consume commodities. Lastly, there will be numerous sponsors attending the event and they will also be required to purchase commodities. The total sum of additional revenue that will come from the sale of commodities produced by the host country’s industries to the above mentioned groups will make up a huge chunk of the direct economic benefits coming form hosting the Olympics.

There may be some visitors that will still be interested in seeing the host country’s sites during the Olympic Games and after. There can be huge amounts of revenue received from those visits. Research conducted in this area has indicated that a host country can earn up to 823 million dollars out of the visitors who may come to visit the host country within the first twenty days prior to the event and twenty days after the event. This is also topped up by some new businesses that may be created as direct result of the Olympics and this can bring about a total of 1.1 billion dollars. (Reinberger, 1988)

Employment is another great economic benefit that will come as a result of hosting the event. One cannot underestimate the level of job creation that an event of such magnitude can bring to the host country. The employment opportunities may either be part time or full time. An economic estimate in Atlanta, Georgia (a State that held the Olympics) found that about seventy seven thousand new jobs were created. Forty seven percent of this figure came from the direct spending made by visitors in the host nation. There are certain industries that will benefit more than others in this regard. The lodging and hotel industry will take up the largest portion of those new jobs. The second most important industry is the food industry, it should also be noted that bars or other facilities offering drinks also fall in that category. The third category of industries that will also benefit from new jobs will be the retail sector and the business service sector. Additionally, there will also be jobs in the construction sector since there will be a need to make additional infrastructures like building. In relation to this industry, there will be the renovation of certain infrastructures like roads and bridges. (Barney, 2003)

Long term economic benefits

The long term economic benefits that will come from hosting the Olympics can be considered as a legacy to the host nation. This is because they will be remembered for decades o come. The first legacy will be seen in terms of the facilities built specifically for the Olympics. These facilities will continue in operation years after the event is over. A host country will need top build a Stadium meeting international standards. In the year 1996, Georgia was hosting the Olympics. It was estimated that their stadium cost them about 189 million US dollars which is quite a good investment since the returns outweighed the investments by far. Other facilities that sprung up from those Olympics include;

  • An international Horse Park (1440 Acres large)
  • A shooting range complex (worth seventeen million)
  • Tennis facilities
  • A rowing Centre at Lake Lanier (worth ten million dollars) (Bacon, 1993)

Additionally there may also be other renovation, repairs and improvements that can result form holding the Olympics. First of all, some universities and higher education facilities may need to be improved. For example, their dormitories might be increased. A country may choose to this because they feel the need to provide cheaper alternatives for certain guests’ accommodation. On the other hand, this may be done to boost the host country’s image. A host country may need to improve some of their memorial facilities and museums or it may choose to invest in other sporting facilities like boxing and swimming. These improvements may be done to make the host City more attractive but the overall effect is that they will boost tourism decades after the Olympics are over.

It should be noted that certain facilities may be improved not just for the sake of the Olympics. It is quite likely that certain projects are always on the draft table but they lack the good will and funds to be implemented. Consequently, the Olympics provide a platform for their completion. Some of these facilities include renovation of airport terminals and improvement of all the surrounding restaurants and pubs in those airports. (Hall, 1972)

Another important economic aspect of hosting the Olympics is the fact that there will be excessive media exposure for the host country. The City hosting the Olympics will be seen by the rest of the World. Most of their strong points will be reflected in their marketing endeavours and this will greatly boost their tourism industry years ahead. Additionally, there will also be exposure in the business aspects. Investors may be wooed to come and invest in the host country. Even expansion programs for international companies may cover a host country. There is overwhelming evidence that media coverage enhances a country’s image from the media. After the City of Atlanta hosted the Olympics, they earned recognition form top magazines like World Trade. The latter magazine listed Atlanta City as one of the top ten Cities in the World to conduct business with. Besides that, a host country can have a reputation as a sporting complex. Cities containing those sporting facilities can use this to their advantage by hosting numerous games and this can promote sports in a respective country. In the latter mentioned City, surveys conducted after hosting the event indicated that there was a thirty five percent increase in the travel and tourism sector afterwards. This can only be attributed to the media exposure. Some people have estimated that exposure to the international world can lead to about Eight million dollars in tourism. (Aaade and Matheson, 2002)

Another long term economic impact that will come from the Olympics is the formation of various community related groups. It should be noted that there will be certain new initiatives that can come from this sort of arrangement. National agencies will be created for this purpose. In line with that there may be numerous volunteer groups that will come out of such an initiative. These community groups may be formed in order to encourage betterment of the community and may continue years after the Olympics themselves are over.

The Olympics can make many companies come out to train the public on their jobs. These job training development programs may be aimed at people who can provide services in construction or the like. Those training programs will be quite beneficial to individuals who partake of them and also to the overall community because they may always have a means to improve their work force. Those kinds of efforts may be directed towards the economically disadvantaged members of society. This could also refer to some marginalized groups. It should be noted that there may be some community training programs formed to offer knowledge and skills to those marginalized groups. Examples include women, ethnic communities and the physically handicapped.

Hosting the Olympics also helps numerous projects in terms of revenue. The State and other private organizations may be motivated to invest in their community through provision of grants. Cities hosting the Olympics will be given the greatest precedence in terms of funding and this will empower their communities. Besides that, there may be creation of youth programs and cultural programs. This will be instrumental in development of communities and will also be useful in the tourism sector. (Daka and Hess, 2002)

The Olympics are also quite instrumental in the process of creating national unity. Sporting activities have always been seen as contributory factors to national cohesion. For example, there may be overwhelming support for the host country to do well within those Olympics and also to market the country positively to outsiders. Hosting the Olympics will create a feel good factor among members of that organisation and this will go long way in enhancing national pride. For example France is trying to win the bid to host the 2012 Olympics and it used the image of well known player ‘Zinadine’ to inform the world that sports unite French men of all kinds. This national unity can then be translated economically be cooperation during execution of tasks. When a country’s social fabric has been strengthened, most of their workers end up being very productive economically since they have minimal reservations about each other. (Barney, 2000)

Another underlying factor that must be considered is that fcat that hosting the Olympics allows for country to demonstrate their integrity. Some critics have claimed that countries use corrupt methods to win bids for hosting Olympics. However, this argument is not valid because The Olympics committee has gone out of its way to establish mechanisms that ensure transparency and eliminate cases of corruption during the process of bidding. This means that countries that win bids are the rightful ones and most transparent ones.

There are also certain underlying factors that encourage the economic benefits indirectly. Hosting the Olympics facilitates creation of numerous leisure and sporting spots like sailing, rowing, shooting, tennis and many more. What this does is that it encourages the host nation’s citizens to enjoy sports in general. This will go a long way in encouraging sports companies and businesses in the future since more and more people will have interest in them. Such businesses will have market in the host nation. Other places that can receive attention are training camps. This will be a source of revenue for the host country years later since its citizen are now interested in the sport. (Access Economics, 1994)

All in all, the following were found to be the major economic benefits that come from hosting the Olympics as conducted by COMPAS polls. They created a scale of one to seven. Those who were given a score of 1 believe that the costs emanating from hosting the Olympics outweigh the benefits. On the other hand, those who scored 7 believe that the benefits of the Olympics are greater than the costs.


Increased tourism


Increased pride in

the City


Investments in

public infrastructure


Renovations like roads


New housing



As it can be seen from the survey, majority of the respondents thought that the benefits of hosting the Olympics outweigh the costs. A mean of greater than half the scale (3.5) was recorded by all the respondents.


Hosting the Olympics can have numerous economic benefits the host country. The short terms benefits include job creation to the tune of 77 thousand new jobs. On the other hand, there may also be increased cases revenue through the visitors that will come from other countries. In addition, a host country may have numerous facilities that will provide benefits to the host country decades after the Olympics. The Olympics will encourage host countries to expand some of their facilities and also inspire improvements of some of the infrastructural facilities. This will go along way in ensuring that the host country projects a good image of itself. Besides that, a host country gets the opportunity to market itself to the world as at op tourism and business location. This will go long way in boosting their revenues in those respective areas. One can therefore say that the Olympics can increase foreign investments in the host country. Lastly, there are numerous community programs and groups that will come from such an event. (Caimbridge, 1998)


Access Economics (1994): Report on Tourist Forecasts – Sydney Olympics 2000

Aaade, R. and Matheson, A. (2002): Bidding for the Olympics: Fool’s gold? Oxford University Press

Bacon, W. (1993): Watchdog’s bark muffled; Reportage: Newsletter of the

Australian Centre 1993

Barney, R.  (2000): Mr. Samaranch goes to Washington: protecting IOC stakes in the American corporate world; University of Indianapolis Press

Barney, R. (2003): The Olympic legacy of wealth: a double-edged sword; Routledge Publishers

Carros, M. et al (2001): Transatlantic Sport: The Comparative Economics of North American and European Sports; Cheltenham, UK: University of Oxford Publishers

Caimbridge, M. (1998): Outcome uncertainty in sporting competition: the Olympic games; Applied Economics Letters, 5,3, 161-164

Daka, R., and Hess, R. (2002): An analysis of recent Australian success at the Winter Olympic Games; McGraw Hill Publishers, pp. 107-116

Hall, D. (1972): Olympic Games competition: structural correlates of

National success; International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 13, 8, 186-200

Reinberger, R. (1988): The Olympic Games: past, present and future; McGraw Hill Publishers

Segrave J. (1998): The Olympic Games in Transition; Champaign, Ill.: Human Kinetics, pp. 419-426

My Experiences Caring for Kids With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Who am I?

First, I want to tell you that I am not an expert on child care and diagnosis of behavioral or developmental problems among kids. These are just my opinions and experiences as a child care provider and as a registered nurse in our center.

Last year, I and my friend, a special education teacher, decided to set up a care center for children with absolutely no knowledge or realistic expectations of what’s in store for us. Little did we know that caring for toddlers will take us to a roller-coaster ride of experiences that will help us grow as early childhood educators and care givers.

We work closely with developmental pediatricians, health care professionals (when needed), speech and occupational therapists. In the future, we would also like to work with other child and day care centers, behaviorists and other professionals in our locality to properly profile all children aged 4 y/o and below and gather data enough for researchers, policy makers, and students to use for study.

The Modern Toddler

At our center, we cater to regular kids and those with special needs. Most specifically, those with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and the hearing-impaired. In this article, we will mostly talk about ASD and how we deal with our kids on a daily basis.

It is not a secret that today’s toddlers are far more well-adapted to technology than we were ever used to. And this, to an extent, is a positive achievement for many of us who used to only “dream” about technology, watch about it on bulky TVs, or read about it in encyclopedias and almanacs.

However, on the flip side of the coin, the same technology is making many of our kids less sociable and thus, many have developed behavioral and developmental problems. In our child care center, since August, 3 out of 10 of our kids still do not talk by age 3, and the same ratio of kids display characteristics of autism spectrum or some other disorder (no eye contact, little-to-no speech, lining things and toys, tip-toeing, meltdowns, diminished social skills, solitary play, aggressive behavior, repetitive talk, play, and actions, head-banging, etc.).

Kids with special needs do best when they are integrated with kids who do not have developmental or behavioral problems. Play and peers are very important in helping them open up more and eventually learn to communicate their wants and needs.

Diagnosis and After

Upon noticing ASD characteristics on a child, we invite both parents to show them how we assess the child’s basic skill sets and the signs or characteristics that we noticed with their kid. At the end of the session, we ask them if they would be interested to visit a developmental pedia in the city.

The doctor would usually suggest one or a combination of the following:

  1. test for hearing (to rule out impairment),
  2. continuous child care (to improve socialization),
  3. speech therapy (to improve or correct speech),
  4. occupational therapy (to improve dexterity, control, and mobility), and
  5. some other specific medical and psychiatric tests,
  6. follow-up on a specific date

It is fairly easy to spot children who are “at risk”. Absent or limited eye contact and speech at a certain age usually mean that something is off and is usually the first thing that we notice among our kids who have ASD.

The most difficult part is not identifying these characteristics, rather, letting the parents know about the possibility of a developmental problem. Denial and resentment are things that many parents undergo, but we make sure that we are with them every step of the way. If they declined any referral to a developmental doctor, then we do not hold it against them.

It is important for us to convince these parents and guardians to make sure that high risk children get to visit professionals who could then correctly diagnose them immediately, but it is also important to consider their feelings and their right to decide for their children. Knowing the diagnosis is essentially the first step to understanding, reaching out, and communicating with a child who has ASD.

Initial diagnoses are not always absolute, even doctors need plenty of time to administer tests and to work with other professionals to come up with a correct diagnosis and suggest the most appropriate management for the high risk child.

Ways to Try to Communicate with Kids with ASD

1. Face the child while playing or teaching something.

Children with ASD typically practice solitary play and may seem like they are not interested with us caregivers and the other children. Most, if not all of our “high risk” kids were initially absorbed in their own worlds and did not really like interacting with playmates. Facing the child provides you an opportunity to enter their world and participate in the child’s play.

2. Catch their attention when you want to say something to the child.

Facing the child, tap his shoulder and call out his name if you want to show or tell him something. You may even hold his face and look at him directly until he does the same and looks back at you.

3. One command or information at a time.

Teaching kids with limited focus can be really frustrating at times and it is best to keep things simple. Build their vocabulary by teaching them one word at a time. Observe what they like doing “at the moment” and base your lesson on that stimuli.

For example, one time, I noticed one of our kids with mild autism was quite interested with how I rolled the pencil repeatedly on the table. I knew I caught his attention because he was giggling as the pencil moved along over and over and he was looking at me expectantly. I then stopped, held the pencil and said, “ROLL” while showing him how it was done. I rolled it again and then held the pencil a little longer this time to see if he would get my hand and motion for me to do it again. To my delight, he said “ROLL!”

4. Stop when the kid is uninterested.

When the kid is unable to sit still any longer, stop and give him something different to play with. If nothing catches his attention, sing his favorite song! Additionally, if you notice him reverting to repetitive speech or actions (like running to and fro), distract him with toys or hold his face, call his name and catch his attention to break the repetitions.

It is also important to note that some kids with ASD may appear uninterested, but are actually listening to whatever you are saying while they are busy doing things on their own. Each child will display a different “bored” cue and it is important to recognize this and give them plenty of time to rest.

5. Be generous with praises and be consistent.

Sitting still, following simple instructions, longer eye contact–all of these are tasks and milestones. Make sure to praise and congratulate the child for being successful and for trying even if it can be very difficult at times. On the other hand, correct bad deeds and explain why it should not be repeated again. Kids learn when you help them follow rules consistently and when you gently explain the reasons for such rules.

6. Employ the different senses.

Sensory integration is important to kids with ASD. The sense of touch is a very powerful tool in catching their attention. This is why massage and gentle pressure are done by therapists to make the kids focus better.

Look for ways to keep the activities fun. Music and dance are popular among those who need to move about all the time to focus and in our experience, these two activities never fail to get them to participate during circle time. They especially love action songs and we would make them listen to these songs for days until such time that we see them having fun.

Sand trays are also excellent ways to stimulate their senses of touch. We use them for tracing shapes, numbers, and letters as well.

7. Involve regular kids in their play/activities.

Toys and understanding playmates are important to any developing child. In our center, we have a two-way task of making our ASD clients feel comfortable and teaching our regular kids how to be more patient and understanding with their classmates who have autism. Toddlers are naturally selfish at first, but with constant reminders and guidance, they learn to value their friends and build good relationships with all of their playmates.

These are only some of the things that we do at the center to get our kids with ASD open up a little, focus better, and “communicate” what they want using words. It takes painfully long to get them to learn new words at times, but they can still communicate in lots of other ways. Crying, pointing, holding and directing your hand to do something–all of these are means to communicate!

Importance of Early Child Care and Education

Providing all kids (especially those with special needs) with early child care and education is beneficial for early intervention. Trained professionals can easily spot developmental and behavioral issues among toddlers.

However, not all early child care and education providers are created equal. They must be gentle, consistent, and compassionate and the service should mirror what a child would learn in a healthy and loving home.

Parents should never feel that they have shortcomings for leaving their children in a day care or child care center. The center staff, classmates/playmates, and the parents can collaboratively provide the best environment for ALL kids to grow and learn optimally.

Stop Stuttering Tips and Advice – Introducing Yourself In Class or In Front Of A Group

The first day of class…


I used to skip all my classes on the first day of school.

I still remember those incidents like it was yesterday.

First day of class and the teacher walks into class, gives us a short introduction and expects us to stand up and INTRODUCE ourselves ONE BY ONE.

…And that is when you realize that it is “THAT” time again which you’ll go for an emotional roller coaster full of STRESS, FEAR, DOUBT, FRUSTRATION, UNCERTAINTY and a bunch of NEGATIVE THOUGHTS.

You start to count desks to calculate how many classmates are ahead of you before it is YOUR TURN to introduce yourself… and worst of all, you see ALL your friends doing it like A PIECE OF CAKE while enjoying the process.

The first question you ask to yourself is;

“Why am I not able to do such an EASY task like saying MY OWN NAME and introducing myself in 2-3 sentences. WHY! WHY! WHY!”. It FRUSTRATES the hell out of us.

Our negative inner SELF TALK doesn’t stop there and keeps destroying us.

So why do we have problems in those kinds of situations? Why do we fear stuttering in front of others?

Being seen as inadequate and less than others maybe?

In the core of this behavior, there is…

The fear of BEING JUDGED!

We care too much about what others will THINK ABOUT US. Let me tell you a rule of mine when it comes to fear and limiting beliefs.

The only way to dissolve a fear is to FACE that fear, CHALLENGE your LIMITING BELIEFS surrounded by that specific fear and PROVE yourself over and over again that you can get positive real life results even if the fear is there.

That would lead you to start dissolving that fear and eventually get rid of it completely!

In general, this also applies to overcoming one’s stuttering challenge as well. But for the purpose of this article lets go through our specific example:

The fear is; introducing yourself in class.

Here is a step-by-step strategy which I call F.D.S(FEAR DISSOLUTION STRATEGY) that will provide you the solution for our specific case.

Step-1: Keep The Right Mindset

Accept that you have a speech challenge and you are working on it to dissolve your stuttering iceberg. This is a process which you’re improving every single day until you reach your ultimate goal and speak the way you want to speak in any situation under any circumstances.

Try to minimize your tendency to hold back and get lost in limiting beliefs. Your speech is NOT your identity, it is not who you are it is what you do.

Think about the same situation. However, this time imagine that all your classmates and teacher are 2 YEARS OLD and they can’t even think properly.

Would you stutter as much in that case?

I don’t think so. Why?

Because the main reason you stutter in that situation is seeking approval and your FEAR OF BEING JUDGED because of your speech.

You think you will NOT GET APPROVED and be LIKED if you stutter in front of those people.

But in the pretended case you would know that you are superior and you won’t be judged no matter what.

… and of course as a result, the fear and all the negative emotions and thinking which TRIGGER YOUR STUTTERING BEHAVIOR would not be there.

Step-2: Equip Yourself with Effective Tools and Techniques

Be calm, be sure of yourself and use your speaking tools and techniques unapologetically. These could be both mental and physical speaking techniques such as breathing, cycle of speaking, easy or assertive initiation, speaking from chest/head/abs, imagining the words are made of air or water, pausing right before your name, and a zillion more which is available for you.

Step-3: Face the Fear Over and Over Again

Getting only one positive result will not be enough to dissolve that piece of your stuttering iceberg. You simply need to face that fear enough times and get positive real life results until that fear eventually COMPLETELY DISSOLVES and disappears.

Facing a fear when you are equipped with tools, techniques and strategies works even if you don’t get the exact desired results in the initial stages. The more you avoid a fear and all the negative emotions it’ll bring to you, the worse it gets… and the more you face it the weaker the fear and the negative emotions get.

Step-4: Challenge Your Limiting Beliefs and Prove Yourself That You Can Do It

Never avoid this specific speaking situation. In fact CREATE yourself some other similar situations where you’ll be expected to introduce yourself.

Search the internet, find groups which get together periodically, and attend their group meetings. This way you’ll put yourself in that feared situation and introduce yourself in front of a group enough times to dissolve that specific piece of your stuttering iceberg.

I know that it might sound intimidating first, but I strongly believe that the REWARD will well WORTH IT!

One final note…