cancer Cancer become any age group person may cancer, but nearly all types are more common in middle aged and elderly people than in young people. Skin is the most common type of cancer for both men and women. The next most common type among men is prostate cancer; among women, it is breast cancer. Lung cancer, however, is the leading cause of death from cancer for both men and women . Brain cancer and leukemia are the most common cancers in children and young adults.
The more we can learn about what causes cancer, the more likely we are to find ways to prevent it. Scientists study patterns of cancer in the population to look for factors that affect the risk of developing this disease. In the laboratory, they explore possible causes of cancer and try to determine what actually happens when normal cells become cancerous.
Our current understanding of the causes of cancer is incomplete, but it is clear that cancer is not caused by an injury, such as a bump or bruise. And although being infected with certain viruses may increase the risk of some types of cancer, cancer is not contagious no one can “catch” cancer from another person.
Cancer develops gradually as a result of a complex mix of factors related to environment, lifestyle, and heredity. Scientists have identified many risk factors that increase the chance of getting cancer. They estimate that about 80 percent of all cancers are related to the use of tobacco products, to what we eat and drink, or, to a lesser extent, to exposure to radiation or cancer-causing agents (carcinogens) in the environment and the workplace. Some people are more sensitive than others to factors that can cause cancer.
Many risk factors can be avoided. Others, such as inherited risk factors, are, unavoidable. It is helpful to be aware of them, but it Is also important to keep in mind that not everyone with a particular risk factor for cancer actually gets the disease; in fact, most do not. People at risk can help protect themselves by avoiding risk factors where possible and by getting regular checkups so that, if cancer develops, it is likely to be found early.
These are some of the factors that are known to increase the risk of cancer.
Tobacco – Tobacco causes cancer. In fact, smoking tobacco, using “smokeless” tobacco, and being regularly exposed to environmental tobacco smoke without smoking are responsible for one-third of all cancer deaths. Smoking accounts for more than 85 percent of all lung cancer deaths. If you smoke, your risk of getting lung cancer is affected by the number and type of cigarettes you smoke and how long you have been smoking. Overall, for those who smoke one pack a day, the chance of setting lung cancer is about 10 times greater than for nonsmokers.
Smokers are also more likely than nonsmokers to develop several other types of cancer (such as oral cancer and cancers of the larynx, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, kidney, and cervix). The risk of cancer begins to decrease when a smoker quits, and the risk continues to decline gradually each year after quitting.
The use of smokeless tobacco (chewing, tobacco and snuff) causes cancer of the mouth and throat. Pre-cancerous conditions, or tissue changes that may lead to cancer, begin to go away after a person stops using smokeless tobacco.
Exposure to environmental tobacco smokes, also called involuntary smoking, increases the risk of lung cancer for nonsmokers. The risk goes up 30 percent or more for a nonsmoking spouse of a person who smokes. Involuntary smoking causes about 4,000 lung cancer deaths in this country each year.
If you use tobacco in any form and you need help quitting, talk with your doctor or dentist, or join a smoking cessation group sponsored by a local hospital or voluntary organization.
Diet: Your choice of foods may affect your chance of developing cancer. Evidence points to a link between a high-fat diet and certain cancers, such as cancer of the breast, colon, uterus, and prostate. Being seriously overweight appears to be linked to increased rates of cancer of the prostate, pancreas, uterus, Colon, and ovary, and to breast cancer in older women. On the other hand, studies suggest that foods containing fiber and certain nutrients help protect us against some types of cancer. You may be able to reduce your cancer risk by making some simple food choices. Try to have a varied, well-balanced diet that includes generous amounts of foods that are high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. At the same time, try to cut down on fatty foods. You should eat five servings of fruits and vegetables each day, choose more whole-grain breads and cereals, and cut down on eggs, high-fat meat, high-fat dairy products (such as whole milk, butter, and most cheeses), salad dressings, margarine, and cooking oils.
Sunlight : Ultraviolet radiation from the sun and from other sources (such as sunlamps and tanning booths) damages the skin and can cause skin cancer. (Two types of ultraviolet radiation–UVA and UVB–are explained in the Medical Terms section.) Repeated exposure to ultraviolet radiation increases the risk of skin cancer, especially if you have fair skin or freckle easily. The sun is ultraviolet rays are strongest during the summer from about 11 a.m. to about 3 p.m. (daylight saving time). The risk is greatest at this time, when the sun is high overhead and shadows are short. As a rule, it is best to avoid the sun when your shadow is shorter than you are.
Protective clothing, such as a hat and, long sleeves, can help block the sun’s harmful rays. You can also use sunscreens to help protect yourself. Sunscreens are rated in strength according to their SPF (sun protection factor), which ranges from 2 to 30 and higher. Those rated 15 to 30 block most of the sun’s harmful rays.
Alcohol. Drinking, large amount of alcohol increases the risk of cancer of the mouth, throat, esophagus, and larynx. (People who smoke cigarettes and drink alcohol have an especially high risk of getting these cancers.) Alcohol can damage the liver and increase the risk of liver cancer. Some studies suggest that drinking alcohol also increases the risk of breast cancer. So if you drink at all, do so in moderation-not more than one or two drinks a day.
Radiation: X-rays used for diagnosis expose you to very little radiation and the benefits nearly always outweigh the risks. However, repeated exposure can be harmful, so it is a good idea to talk with your doctor or dentist about the need for each x-ray and ask about the use of shields to protect other parts of your body. Before 1950, X-rays were used to treat non-cancerous conditions (such as an enlarged thymus, enlarged tonsils and adenoids, ringworm of the scalp, and acne) in children and young adults. People who have received radiation to the head and neck have a higher-than-average risk of developing thyroid cancer years later. People with a history of such treatments should report it to their doctor and should have a careful exam of the neck every 1 or 2 years.
Also, radiation used in the treatment of some types of cancer can increase the risk of developing a second cancer. Patients having radiation therapy may want to discuss this issue with their doctor.
Chemicals and other substances in the workplace being exposed to substances such as metals, dust chemicals, or pesticides at work can increase the risk of cancer. Asbestos, nickel, cadmium, uranium, radon, vinyl chloride, benzidene, and benzene are well-known examples of carcinogens in the workplace. These may act alone or along with another carcinogen, such as cigarette smoke. For example, inhaling asbestos fibers increases the risk of lung diseases, including cancer, and the cancer risk is especially high for asbestos workers who smoke. It is important to follow work and safety rules to avoid contact with dangerous materials.
Hormone replacement therapy: Many women use estrogen therapy to control the hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and osteoporosis (thinning of the bones) that may occur during menopause. However, studies show that estrogen use increases the risk of cancer of the uterus. Other studies suggest an increased risk of breast cancer among women who have used high doses of estrogen or have used estrogen for a long time. At the same time, taking estrogen may reduce the risk of heart disease and osteoporosis.
The risk of uterine cancer appears to be less when progesterone is used with estrogen than when estrogen is used alone. But some scientists are concerned that the addition of progesterone may also increase the CANCER risk of breast cancer.
HOMEOPATHY APPCHOCH IN STOMACH
Out of ten person, one person suffering fron gestrities and out of them hundred one person suffering from stoch cancer.If the cancer can be identified at a time when it only involves the superficial lining layer of the stomach and only involves a few cells and such a stomach cancer is surgically removed 90 % of these individuals are likely to have a normal life span . However if the stomach cancer has involved all the layers of the stomach this chance decreases to 50% and if it has spread outside the stomach or to distant organs of the body the chances of surviving in the long term are extremely gloomy .
CAUSE FOR STOMACH CANCER
1. Benign stomach (gastric ) ulcer , in most instances these benign ulcers in the stomach do not become malignant although in a few cancerous change can supervene after many years . Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach appears to be an important cause of gastric ulcers .
2. Chronic duodenal ulcer , this is a common condition of the duodenum , the organ situated next to the stomach . we can reassure those with this condition that even after many years of having a chronic duodenal ulcer , the chances of it becoming malignant are almost nil.
3. Gastritis with low or absent stomach acid production . This situation can occur in an uncommon illness. Pernicious anemia and it can also occur without any obvious reason . Here absent or low levels of stomach acid which is normally produced to aid digestion is associated with the disappearance of gastric glands and this is called atrophic gastritis . Atrophic gastritis is a pre malignant condition .
GENATIC DISPOSITION OF STOMACH CANCER
Inherited causes :family history of stomach cancer ,such a history in a near relative doubles a person’s chances of developing stomach cancer during their life time
Type A blood group ,the common blood groups are A,B,O ,and AB. A person with type A blood has a 20% increased chance of developing stomach cancer during their life time compared to those with other blood groups
Personal health risks: presence of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach .this is an organism which in recent has been associated not only with stomach cancer but also with gastric and duodenal ulcers and with inflammatory changes called gastritis . why Helicobacter infection is present in some individuals but not in others is at present in some individuals but not in others is at present is uncertain , although it may be linked to both undesirable Helicobacter infection probably cause no symptoms . Helicobacter Pylori infection can usually be eradicated by the use of suitable antibiotics . It has also been suggested recently by Australian scientists that the regular intake of acidophilus bacteria (found in some brands of yoghurt and in some bacteria supplements )can also eradicate Helicobacter infection. Previous surgical removal of part of the stomach (partial gastrectomy ) for a non malignant condition , such as a gastric or duodenal ulcer . This become a stomach cancer risk some 15-40 years after the stomach has been removed . Pernicious anemia ,Individuals with this uncommon condition not only have anemia but also have no normal stomach acid production . They develop the condition previously described , atrophic gastritis . Individuals with atrophic gastritis have a 10 %chance of developing stomach cancer during their life time . Low or absent stomach acid production with atrophic gastritis , even in the absence of pernicious anemia , this is a risk for the future development of stomach cancer
Life style health risks : Dietary factors, a special risk for stomach cancer is a diet which is low in vegetables , fruit and cereals and particularly those fruits , vegetables and cereals which contain a lot of beta-carotene , vitamin-c and vitamin-e
A diet high in pickled . smoked , salted or cured food or foods preserved with nitrate , such as salami ,sausages , hot dogs , smoked meat , smoked fish or pickled food of any kind are also risks for stomach cancer . These dietary factors are probably important because the risk foods described above all seem to produce carcinogens
called nitrosamines . Also vitamin-C acts as antioxidant and has other actions which neutralize the effects of nitrosamines . Dietary factors are probably the most important single cause of stomach cancer . Smoking , a recent Australian study which examined all the scientific evidence published over the years has found that smoking is likely to be an important contributory cause of stomach cancer .
PRIMARY PREVENTION CANCER:
1.Dietary changes it is particularly important to have a high consumption of fruit ,vegetables and cereals which contain beta-carotene ,vitamin-c and vitamin-e and at the same time avoid or eat very little pickled ,smoked ,salted ,cured and nitrate –preserved foods .In a recently reported study from China ,where stomach cancer is still relatively common ,the daily use of vitamin-e ,beta carotene and selenium supplements decreased stomach cancer risk by one-fifth .
2. Avoid smoking ,hints and guidance about quitting smoking are described
3. Eradicate Helicobacter Pylori , if helicobacter infection has been shown to be present ,suitable antibiotics can be used recent research suggests that the acidophilus bacteria found in some dietary supplements may also been effective way to eliminate helicobacter infection
4. Aspirin based mainly on experimental data ,the regular use of aspirin as a preventive for stomach cancer has been advanced . However the human evidence of a preventive role for aspirin in stomach cancer is insufficient at present to make such a recommendation .
ROLE FOR HOMEOPATHY TREATMENT
In alternative medicine in homoeopathy medicine can cure cancer in various age group of person. In early stage of cancer may help to patient life Many people with cancer want to learn all they can about their disease and their treatment choices so they can take an active part in decisions about their medical care. Often, it helps to make a list of questions to ask the doctor. Patients may take notes or, with the doctor’s consent, tape record the discussion. Some patients also find it helps to have a family member or friend with them when they talk with the doctor to take part in the discussion, to take notes, or just to listen.
• Here are some questions may want to ask the doctor: What are the chances that the treatment will be successful?
• Would a clinical trial be appropriate for me?
• What are the risks and possible side effects of each treatment?
Although the side effects of radiation therapy can be unpleasant, the doctor can usually treat or control them. It also helps to know that, in most cases, they are not permanent.
number of white blood cells, cells that help protect the body against infection
Chemotherapy —the side effects of chemotherapy depends mainly on the drugs and doses the patient receives. Generally, anticancer drugs affect cells that divide rapidly. These include blood cells, which fight infection, help the blood to clot, or carry oxygen to all parts of the body. When blood cells are affected by anticancer drugs, patients are more likely to get infections, may bruise or bleed easily, and may have less energy. Cells that line the digestive tract also divide rapidly. As a result of chemotherapy, patients may have side effects, such as loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, hair loss, or mouth sores. For some patients, the doctor may prescribe medicine to help with side effects, especially with nausea and vomiting. Usually, these side effects gradually go away during the recovery period or after treatment stops. Hair loss another side effect of chemotherapy, is a major concern for many patients. Some chemotherapy drugs only cause the hair to thin out, while others may result in the loss of all body hair. Patients may feel better if they decide how to handle hair loss before starting treatment.
In some men and women, chemotherapy drugs cause changes that may result in a loss of fertility (the ability to have children). Loss of fertility may be temporary or permanent depending on the drugs used and the patient’s age. For men, sperm banking before treatment may be a choice. Women’s menstrual periods may stop, and they may have hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Periods are more likely to return in young women. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation and peripheral stem cell support are used to replace tissue that forms blood cells when that tissue has been destroyed by the effects of chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
Hormone Therapy –Hormone therapy can cause a number of side effects. Patients may have nausea and vomiting, swelling or weight gain, and, in some cases, hot flashes. In women, hormone therapy also may cause interrupted menstrual periods, vaginal dryness, and, sometimes, loss of fertility. Hormone therapy in men may cause impotence, loss of sexual desire, or loss of fertility. These changes may be temporary, long lasting, or permanent.
CHELIDINIUM : It has also cured cancer of the stomach when in a ,vomiting for cancer of throat , mouth or stomach .
Condurango : In cancer of oesophagus or stomach . There are many other medicines , only few have been mentioned