Panic Anxiety Attack – Top Ten Myths About Anxiety and Panic Disorders

Anxiety and panic disorders are yet to be fully understood. So it's no surprise that there are tons of myths out their surrounding anxiety and panic disorders. Knowing the facts from the fallacies is important. One need not exacerbate a panic anxiety attack by believing in myths. Below are details and information regarding the ten most-common myths people have about panic disorders:

Myth # 1: "Schizophrenia Causes Panic Disorders"

Not true. During these attacks people may feel like they are going crazy, but this is just a response to the situation. Schizophrenia, is an advanced form of psychosis, panic disorders are not.

Myth # 2: "You lose total control during a Panic Attack"

This is false. They may think that they are 'losing control' but it never comes to a point where people suffering panic attacks actually lose control.

Myth # 3: "Panic Attacks are deadly"

No. It may seem like that for someone having an attack but it's just the body's natural defensive reaction to (an exaggerated) perception of threat or danger. Being a natural body response, these attacks can not kill.

Myth # 4: "Panic Attacks are all in the mind"

True. The majority of panic disorders stem from negative mindsets, nurturing anxious thoughts, and phobias. When a trigger (an object, a person, situation, or fear of another panic attack) occurs people with panic disorders tend to immediately exaggerate that trigger in their minds. This can lead to panic attacks, which sometimes turn into a vicious cycle.

Myth # 5: "A Panic Anxiety Attack can happen to anyone, at anytime, anywhere"

True. However, those suffering from some other forms of Anxiety Disorder (eg General Anxiety Disorder or GAD) are at a bigger risk of having one. Cumulative stress, heavy emotional disturbance, major life changes and negative thinking can all cause panic attacks.

Myth # 6: "Heart problems cause attacks"

Not necessarily true. Recent studies have shown a link between mitral valve prolapse and panic attacks. Although symptoms of panic attacks are similar to heart attacks, that does not make it the reason why panic attacks occur.

Myth # 7: "Substance abuse causes attacks"

True. Smoking increases the likelihood of panic disorders, especially among the youth. Alcoholism, sedative abuse, and addiction to nicotine may also trigger panic attacks.

Myth # 8: "A Panic Anxiety Attack is not really an illness"

The National Institute of Mental Health begs to differ. Panic disorder is a real and serious illness, afflicting 6.8 million Americans today. If left untreated, this can seriously debilitate and affect someone's life.

Myth # 9: "If your parents and grandparents had Panic Disorder, you will too"

True. Genetics has been linked to causing panic disorders that can span generations. However, this is just one of its many known causes and is not the sole basis for diagnosing this disorder.

Myth # 10: "There are no cures for Panic Attacks"

People respond differently to treatments. What might work for some may not be applicable to others. This is why it's important to seek professional help to determine the right treatment program for the individual.

Current Status of Enzyme Therapy in the Management of Chronic Disorders

Enzymes:
Enzymes are present in organisms as single units or in multienzyme complexes. Posttranslational modifications of amino acid residues take place after peptide assembly on the ribosome; hydroxylation, phosphorylation, sulfation, N-terminal acetylation, and glycosylation are a few examples. The nature of posttranslational modifications and the hydrophobicity of amino acid side chains determine whether the enzyme is free or membrane-bound.1, 2

Enzymes catalyze biochemical reactions in living systems which would otherwise proceed too slowly at physiological temperature and pH to sustain life. Specificity and high catalytic power are two special attributes of enzymes which distinguish them from ordinary chemical catalysts.3

Clinical and pharmaceutical importance of enzymes

A variety of diseases can be detected through altered body fluid levels of specific enzymes.

Table 1 Disease detection via enzymes


Enzyme Disease
Aspartate aminotransferase Liver disease
Alanine aminotransferase Liver disease
Acid phosphatase Prostate carcinoma
Alkaline phosphatase Bone disease, Hepatobiliary disease
Creatine kinase Myocardial infarction, Muscle disease
Lactate dehydrogenase Myocardial infarction, Liver disease
Cholinesterase Organophosphate poisoning
Pancreas enzymes Pancreatic diseases.
glutamyltranspeptidase Liver disease, Alcoholism

Elevated plasma and urine lysozyme levels are typical for lymphocytic leukemia's and degenerative kidney diseases with glomerular and proximal tubular damage. Normalization of lysozyme plasma levels and disappearance of lysozyme in the urine are of prognostic value in successful kidney transplants.
Various types of cancer are associated with a general increase in plasma proteinases. The presence of various plasminogen activators and their inhibitors in many malignancies suggests that the fibrinolytic system is involved in the regulation of tumor growth and metastatis. Local changes in fibrinolytic activity such as reduced tPA and increased urokinase levels in biopsies of the intestinal mucosa are characteristic in inflammatory and (pre) malignant processes in the colon.4
Replacement therapy in enzyme dysfunction or as adjusting agents in biochemical processes that have gone awry. Examples include, Fibrinolytic enzymes in thrombotic disorders; Proteolytic enzymes in wound healing; Amino acid degrading enzymes and Dimeric ribonuclease in cancer therapy; Digestive enzymes; Hyaluronidase and superoxide dismutase in inflammations, and many others.

Enzymes of nonhuman origin sometimes are potent immunogens or allergens. Their delivery systems must protect them from inactivation before the target side is reached, and yet allow the enzymes to be released at the target site, eventually with their specific cofactors if required. Nonetheless enzymes are attractive drugs because of their specificity and efficiency.5

Enzyme inhibitors:

Natural and synthetic enzyme inhibitors have become increasingly important in medicine, and have developed into a separate class of drugs. These inhibitors form tight noncovalent or irreversible covalent complexes with their target enzymes.6,7

Thrombin is a key enzyme in clot formation, acting as a catalyst of conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. Hirudin, a potent thrombin inhibitor from leech extracts, is available as a recombinant polypeptide and is currently under investigation in various clinical trials.8,9
The bovine basic pancreatic proteinase inhibitor aprotinin inactivates kallikrein and is used successfully in supplementary treatment of acute pancreatitis and shock.10Rennin inhibitors such as pepstain are currently under investigation to lower blood pressure.11,12

Enzyme in therapy:

Genetic defects 13, 14

Metabolic diseases are caused by specific enzyme defects, in which the enzyme is not expressed or is dysfunctional due to a sequence mutation or posttranslational inactivation. Some of these diseases can be treated with controlled diets. For example, phenylketonuria caused by phenylalanine-hydroxylase deficiency requires a phenylalanine-free diet. More often replacement therapy is needed, requiring the targeting of a replacement enzyme toward specific organs or tissues.

Other well-known "inborn errors of metabolism" are Pompe's disease or type II glycogen-storage disease in which deficient ± -1,4-glucosidase results in excessive accumulation of glycogen in liver and muscle cell lysosomes, Alcaptonuria (deficienct homogentisate 1,2 -dioxygenase), Hemophilia B (factor IXa), Galactosemia (UDPG-hexose-1-phosphate transferase), Gaucher's disease (²-glucocerebrosidase), Von Gierke's disease (glucose-6-phosphatase), Pentosuria (xylulose reductase), Nieman- Pick disease (Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase), and the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome in which the absence of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribose transferase causes impaired nucleotide metabolism in brain cells and results in a severe neurological disorder.

Cancer therapy:
L-Asparaginase is used as an anticancer drug. Certain tumor cell types lack asparagines synthetase activity and need this amino acid as an essential nutrient, in contrast to normal cells. Asparaginase selectively kills the tumor cells by depleting the circulating level of asparagines. It has also been suggested that L-aspartate as a metabolite may be toxic toward neoplastic cells. 15
Acute lymphocytic leukemia treatment with asparaginase is relatively successful; some studies report complete remission in up to 60% of the treated patients.16 Patients subject to prolonged treatment with the enzyme often develop a resistance due to the high titer of their neutralizing antibodies. Nevertheless, the therapeutic index of asparaginase compares very favorably to other antileukemic drugs.

It was speculated that certain types of cancer cells might also lack other particular pathways for amino acid synthesis and thus have amino acid requirements that are masked because of the presence of these amino acids in the diet. Enzyme therapy depleting the required amino acid would lead to the selective killing of these cells. Glutamine, Cysteine, and Arginine have been the subject of studies for possible enzyme-depletion therapy. In addition to the E.coli and Erwinia asparaginase, two types of glutaminase-asparaginase (PGA and AGA) might be suitable therapeutic enzymes since both have antitumor activity in experimental animal models.17 Allergic reactions and some times neurotoxicity were the most serious side effects . The use of polymerized enzyme is preferred, since the unmodified enzyme has a plasma half-life of only 80 min.18
Of particular interest in cancer therapy is Carboxypeptidase G which hydrolyzes the terminal aspartate and glutamate moieties in oligopeptides and the glutamate moiety in reduced and nonreduced folates. Purified carboxypeptidase G from various Pseudomonas strains prevents methotrexate toxicity in humans.19

The antineoplastic effect of bovine pancreas ribonuclease has been reported in chronic myelocytic leukemia patients. However, limited information is available from clinical trials. Dimeric ribonuclease displays selective toxicity in animal tumors and may be a promising candidate as therapeutic enzyme.

Bacteriolytic, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory enzymes:
Lysozyme is present as an antibacterial agent in body fluids and cavities in direct contact with the external environment. It is available as a pharmaceutical preparation in tablets, ointments, powders, and infusions and is used as an antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory drug. The commercial preparations contain hen egg-white lysozyme which is easily isolated and purified from egg whites in large-scale projects. This enzyme is nontoxic and only weakly antigenic and can be administered internally in large doses without significant side effects. Lysozyme has chitinase, muramidase, and transglycosidase activity and acts upon bacteria in many ways. The proteoglycan layer in cell walls is the natural substrate for this enzyme.

Lysozyme has a distinct antiviral activity against herpes labialis, zoster, and simplex I and II types in humans, as well as against some oncogenic viruses in animal studies. Lysozyme stimulates phagocytosis and favors wound healing and regression of degenerative and necrotic processes.20 Lysozyme is administered in intramuscular or parenteral injections in herpes zoster and viral hepatitis, and in ointments for the treatment of herpetic keratitis, burns, and wounds and gynecological infections.

Corticoids and antibiotics have a synergestic action and are combined with lysozyme in aerosols for the treatment of bronchopulmonary diseases. Proteolytic enzymes and antiseptics are frequently used as adjuvant agents for dermatological applications. Bovine pancreatic ribonuclease appears to be an effective antiviral enzyme against tick-borne encephalitis. It has no side effects and results in more rapid temperature normalization and regression of meningeal symptoms than antiencephalitic gamma globulin.21

Commercial hyaluronidase preparations contain the bovine-testicular type (hyaluronate-4-glycanohydrolase) or the leech-type enzyme (hyaluronate-3-glycanohydrolase). They are used in the treatment of keloids, ligneous conjunctivitis, and connective-tissue inflammation and as adjuvant in cancer therapy to facilitate transport and resorption of cytostatic agents.22 Animal studies revealed that hyaluronidase also acts as a cardiac lymphagogue, thereby reducing myocardial infarction after coronary artery occlusion.23

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) acts as an oxygen radical scavenger; under inflammatory conditions its levels are increased. Depending on the nature of the disease, SOD is administered in injections, encapsulated in liposomes as a copper-zinc-SOD complex, or externally in creams.24 the enzyme is effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, crohn's disease, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatitis herpetiformis, and mucocutaneous lymph-node syndrome. It also prevents myocardial injury as a consequence of chemotherapy in neoplstic diseases.25

Proteolytic enzymes:
Enzymes hydrolyzing peptide bonds are not only important in food digestion, but also play essential roles in biological processes such as coagulation and hemostasis, complement activation, peptide hormone release, wound healing, and control of protein metabolism.25,26

Trypsin and chymotrypsin are classical examples of proteinases used in wound healing. They facilitate the removal of necrotic tissue and scab material trapping bacteria inside the wound. These enzymes are frequently combined with antiseptics or antibiotics in ointments and bandages. Recently a new enzyme extract from Antarctic krill (E.superba) has been tested as a possible candidate preparation for the debridement of ulcerative lesions.28

Antithrombotic therapy:

An imbalance between coagulation and fibrinolysis leading to excessive fibrin deposition can be approached either by the reduction of the coagulation potency or by an increase of the fibrinolytic potency. Various aspects of fibrinolytic enhancement are still under development. Thrombolytic thearpy is used in the initial management of patients with deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.
Streptokinase and urokinase have been used extensively in the treatment of venous thromboembolism. They are more potent than free circulating plasmin, which is rapidly inactivated by circulating alpha 2-antiplasmin 30, 29. Randomized studies have demonstrated that intravenous tissue plasminogen activator is more efficient than streptokinase in the treatment of coronary occlusion in acute myocardial infarction 31, 32 . Commercial recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for the treatment of acute myocardial infarct is mainly obtained from Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO).

Chemonucleolysis:
Chymopapain, an oxidation-sensitive cysteine ​​proteinase from Carica papaya has been proposed for the treatment of herniated lumbar discs. Intradiscal injection of chymopapin results in dissolution of the mucopolysaccharide – protein complex of an extruding nucleus pulposus, the centre cushioning of gelatinous mass lying within the intervertebral disc, thereby relieving the pain associated with a pressurized nerve. Large-scale follow-up studies indicate that chemonucleolysis is as successful a procedure as surgical discectomy, with a 76-80% success rate in both groups 33, 34, 35. Some pathological peculiarities associated with herniated discs might be unfit for treatment by chemonucleolysis , for example, discs extruding nucleus pulposus through the annulus, a case in which the risk of damage to the spinal cord is predominant .36

Pancreas enzymes:
Digestion of food is facilitated by the pancrease enzyme trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase, carboxypeptidase A and B, phospholipase A – 2 and lipase and amylase. The main lipid component in food is long-chain triacylglycerol, which is hydrolyzed into fatty acids and sn-2-monoacylglycerol. Both products are readily absorbed in the intestine. This hydrolysis is catalyzed sequentially by gastric lipase secreted by the chief cells of the stomach and by colipase-dependent pancrease 37.

Pancreatic lipases, proteases and amylases are prescribed as replacement therapy in pancreatic insufficiency where the enzyme output has fallen below 10%. Pancreatin of mammal origin is used in commercial preparations for substitution treatment 38, 40. Pharmaceutical formulations show considerable variation in enzyme activity and bile salt content. Cellulose is sometimes added as adjuvant enzyme. Since the extent of pancreas malfunction varies significantly among patients, individualization of the treatment is indicated in determining the optimal enzyme dosage, formulation type, time of administration with respect to meals and frequency of administration.

Conclusion and future trends:
The elucidation on a molecular level of disease-related biochemical processes enables the definition of the type and specific target area of ​​key enzymes or inhibitors necessary for restoring normal physiological conditions. Enzymes are attractive drug candidates because of their reaction specificity and catalytic efficiency. However, their protein nature imposes some limitations on their use in therapy. Organ specific targeted enzymes require parenteral administration and proteins of non-human origin are often allergenic or immunogenic. Considerable progress has been made in the refinement of isolation procedures to reduce or eliminate toxic contaminants, and the development of specific chemical modification and targeting techniques offers new possibilities for prolonging half life and improving enzyme bioavailability. The most promising results are undoubtedly to be expected from the field of genetic engineering and site specific mutagenesis. Mutant enzymes with altered or improved specificity, enhanced stability, and reduced immunogenicity will become available at an affordable cost.

References:
1. Chou, PY, and Fasman, GD, Biochemistry, 13: 222 (1974).
2. Moss, DW, Henderson, AR, and Kachmar., JF, Enzymes. In: Textbook of Clinical chemistry (NW Tietz, ed.), WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 1986, pp. 619-774.
3. Ruyssen, R., and Lauwers, AR, eds. Pharmaceutical enzymes, E. Story-Scientia, Ghent, Belgium, 1978.
4. Bickerstaff, GF, and New Studies in Biology: enzymes in industry and medicine, Edward Arnold publish ltd., London, Baltimore, 1987.
5. Holcenberg, JS, and Roberts, J., Enzymes as drugs, Wiley, New York, 1981.
6. Horl, H., and Heildland, A., eds., Proteases: potential role in health and disease, In: advances in experimental medicine and biology, vol. 167, plenum press, new York and London. 1982.
7. Olson, ST, and Shore, JD, J. Biol. Chem., 257: 14895-14895 (1982).
8. Kuada, T., and Abiko, Y., Thromb. Res., 24: 285-298 (1981).
9. Witting JI, Pouliott, C., Catalfamo, JL, Fareed, J., and Fenton, II, JF, Thromh res., 50: 461-468 (1988).
10. Reimerdes, EH, and Klostermeyer, H., Methods Enzymol., 15: 26-28 (1976)
11. Illiano, L., Demeester, J., and Lauwers, A., Arch. Int. Phsiol. Biochem. 90 (1): B36-37 (1982).
12. Schnebli, HP, and Braun, NJ, Proteinase inhibitors as drugs, In: Research monographs in cell and tissue physiology, vol. 12, Proteinase inhibitors (AJ Barrett and G. Salvesen, ed.,), Elsevier, New York, Amsterdam, 1986, pp. 613-627.
13. Powers, JC, Am. Rev. Resp. Dis., 127 (supplP: S54 (1983).
14. Asgar, SS, Pharmacol., Rev., 36: 223-244 (1984).
15. Kidd, JG, Exp. Med., 98: 565-581, (1953).
16. Capizzi, RL, and Cheng, YC, therapy of neoplasia with asparaginase. In: Enzymes as drugs (JS Holcenberg and J. Roberts, eds.,) Wiley, New York, 1981, pp. 1-24.
17. Roberts, J., Schmid, FA, and Rosenfeld, HJ, Cancer Treat Rep. 63: 1045-54 (1979)
18. Spiers, ASD, and Wase, HE, Cancer Treat Rep. 63: 1019-24 (1979)
19. Abelson, HT, Ensminger, W., Ropsowki, A., and Uren, J., Cancer Treat Rep. 62: 1549-52 (1978)
20. Canfield, RE, Collins, JC, and Sobel, JH, Lysozyme, 1st ed., Academic Press, New York, 1974
21. Levy, CC, and Karpetsky, TP, Human Ribonucleases. In: Enzymes as drugs (JS Holcenberg and J. Roberts, eds.,) Wiley, New York, 1981, pp. 156.
22. Baumgartner, G., and Neumann, H., Laryngol, Rhinol, Otol. Stuttg., 66: 195 (1987)
23. Szlavy, L., Koster, K., De Courten, A., and Hollenberg, NK, Angiolgy, 38: 73- 84 (1987)
24. Bulkley, GB, Br. J. Cancer Suppl., 8: 66-73 (1987)
25. Niwa, Y., somiya, K., Michelson, AM, and Puget, K., Free Radic. Res. Commun., 1: 137-153 (1985)
26. Reich, E., Rifkin, DB, and Shaw, E., ed., Proteases and Biological control, cold spring harbor laboratory, cold spring harbor, New York, 1975
27. Ribbons, DW, and Brew, K., eds. Proteolysis and Physiological Regulations, Academic Press, New York, 1976
28. Anheller, JE, Hellgren, L., Karlstam, B., and Vincent. J., Arch., Dermotal., Res., 281: 105-110 (1989)
29. Smith, RAG, Dupe, RJ, English, PD, and green, J., nature, 290: 505-508 (1981)
30. Ranby, M., and Wallen, P., In: Thrombolysis: biological and therapeutic properties of new thrombolytic agents (D. Collem and HR Lijnen ed.,), Churchill livingstone, Edinburgh, 1985, pp. 31-48
31. Verstraete, M., Bernart, R., Bory. M., et al., Lancet, 1985: 842-847
32. Trials in Myocardial infarction, phase I findings, N. Engl. J. Med., 312: 932-936 (1985)
33. Hill, GM, and Ellis, E, A., Clin. Orthop., 225: 229-233 (1987)
34. Bock-Lamberlin, PR, rose, FW, and Schwonbeck, M., Zeitschr, Ortchop., 126: 661-665 (1988)
35. Alexander, AH, burkus, JK, Mitchell, JB, and ayers, WV, Clin. Orthop., 244: 158-165 (1989)
36. DATTA panel, JAMA. 262: 956 (1989)
37. Szypryt, EP, Gibson, MJ, Mulholland, RC, and Worthington, BS, Spine, 12: 707-711 (1987)
38. Takenake, Y., Revel, M., Kahan, A., and Amor, B., Spine, 12: 556-560 (1987)
39. Moreau, H., Gargouri, Y., Bernadal, A., Peironi, G., and Verger, R., Rev. Fr. Corps Gras, 35: 169-176 (1988)
40. Peschke, GJ, Pancreatic enzyme (pancreatin). In: Topic in pharmaceutical sciences, 1989 (DD Breimer, DJA Crommelin, and KK Midha eds.,), SDU publishers, the hague, Netherlands, 1989, pp. 129-142.

Information On Zoster Virus

The Herpes Zoster Virus is responsible for causing shingles, which is a painful rash. This same virus is responsible for causing chicken pox in children.

There is also another kind of herpes known as herpes zoster or shingles. The herpes zoster virus is deemed to be inherently sleeping in the DNA in the spinal nerve bundles of the individual who has suffered from chickenpox once in his lifetime.

One of the first symptoms of herpes is the skin becoming red, tender and itchy. As the virus progresses blisters will develop which will form a head. This head fills with liquid and eventually breaks. The fluid contained in these blisters is very contagious.

Shingles is a skin rash caused by the same virus that causes chicken pox, the Varicella Zoster Virus. If a person is exposed when young to the virus, they develop the common chicken pox rash. After a few weeks the skin rash clears but the virus never completely leaves the body, remaining in the nervous system.

Shingles (Herpes zoster) is a viral infection that develops in people who have had chickenpox in the past. It can come about when you have been subjected to prolonged emotional distress, an immune system disorder such as HIV/AIDS, or taking chemotherapy treatments.

Shingles seldom affect the entire body. When it does affect the whole body, this is called chickenpox. If it does occur in more than one area, the internal organs such as gastrointestinal tract, lungs and the brain may be infected.

Viral reactivation ( reinfection) in an individual previously exposed to the varicella-zoster virus results in the development of herpes zoster (shingles). In this disease, small vesicles 3-5 mm in diameter occur in clustered patterns.

Herpes Zoster blisters can appear on the forehead, in the middle of the face, lower part of the face, back of the neck and the mouth. Some times you can get blisters in even in eye which can be dangerous to the eyesight.

Most adults have already contracted chickenpox. This common childhood disease causes a fever and a rash that itches maddeningly, but rarely does any permanent damage. However, once the varicella-zoster virus enters the body and has caused chickenpox, it doesn’t go away.

Causes of herpes zoster vary. Eating spicy food or even a gentle wind can lead to herpes outbreaks. Aside from that, people who are constantly exposed to stress and weak immune systems are also more prone.

Many researchers believe herpes zoster is the result of a person getting older, their body going through changes, stress, and a weak immune system. This is because the majority of people diagnosed with shingles are over sixty and they have a low immune system.

Complications. The only complication occurs when the eye is involved. Without treatment and careful management, corneal ulceration and blindness may result.

The Ayurvedic treatment of herpes zoster is aimed at controlling the pain, treating localized symptoms and preventing complications like neuralgia.

There are also a number of herbs with a proved impact on viruses from the herpetic branch: peppermint, sage, rosemary, oregano, thyme and hyssop are only some of them. You can prepare a combined highly concentrated infusion of these herbs, let it cool and then wash the body areas affected by shingles.

How Do I Get Back My Husband When He is Cold and Detached?

What do you say when your facing the love of your life and the knot in your throat is growing larger. It is hard to swallow now and your eyes begin to burn, as you start to unravel and come apart in front of your husband. Desperately you grasp for the right things to say, anything at all but you are only left with the question “how do I get back my husband when he is cold and detached?” This is the man, that in the beginning kept you up all night just talking, the same man that was lost in you from dusk till dawn. Now he is standing in front of you but his eyes are cold and his voice is distant, your husband is so close, but yet so painfully far away.

At moments like this, your heart aches with a gut wrenching pain it feels as though the breath has been pulled from your lungs. This feeling is overwhelming you to the point that begging is now the only option. This is not necessary because although your husband is displaying a cold and heartless persona, this is an act to mislead you into thinking that he dose not care. This is when you need to remember that if you are feeling this way than it is most certain that he is feeling the same about you. The reason that your husband is looking at you with cold eyes is that he must hide his feelings.

Your husband is hiding his feelings so you will have no power over him. Then you will have no influence on his decision to leave even though he may not even want to go. You will know when he is doing this by the sound of his voice and the look in his eyes. It will be almost as if you are talking to an actor that looks like your husband. Being cold and detached is just an act that makes your husband feel that he is in control of himself. Knowing this will be a great help because the man you know as your husband is really there even though you cannot see him.

Your husband agonizingly wants your love and affection, so if he is leaving you it is because he believes that he cannot get that from you. Your husband has no hope that you will be able to give him your attention and love anymore, even though you would go through hell to give it to him. Simply show your husband that you can and still do love him. He is your best friend in the whole world, the man that stands before you is hurting vary deeply and needs a love that only you can give him. You are the woman he loves with every ounce of his being, so please do not give up on your husband because he is acting like a cold and detached child. So how do I get back my husband when he is cold and detached, just love him until he feels it.

Basic Facts to Know About Dental Implants

Dentistry being a part of the medical services has undergone severe improvement with the advancement of medical technology in general. Dental implant is one of the best contributions towards the requirement of the patients who suffer from various dental problems that often ruin the look and quality of the original denture. If you are in a notion that a dental implant will make you feel uncomfortable afterwards then this is a complete misconception you have. You will hardly get to feel any difference between a natural denture and an artificial one. In case of a common teeth replacement you might face troubles like slipping of the teeth or need to maintain them regularly which is not there when you are opting for a dental implant.

Types of Dental Implant and Its Benefits

There are various types of dental implants among which the one called "osseointegration," is the most popular one. This particular type of implant needs usage of titanium metal which is fused and matched with your jawbones. There are quite a number of benefits of a dental implant if compared to the other conventional ways of treating the denture. There is no way you can face any sort of problems like slipping or dislocation of the artificial teeth. Moreover the new denture will work as effectively as the actual ones that you owned naturally. You can chew the food with absolute comfort and they will look perfectly natural whenever you smile.

Success and Failure of Dental Implant Surgeries

As dental implant is sort of a surgery, there is always a risk attached to it. The success rate often depends on the skills and competency of the doctor handling the case. It is also related to the kind of bone that is available for treatment in the jaw line of the patient. In fact observation of 10 long years on the success story of the dental implant surgeries show that around 95% of the patients are happy with their new denture. There are certain problems that the patient may come across like the denture moves or there occurs loss of bone of around 0.1 or 0.2 mm in a year. The smokers are often prone to face a failure of the surgery. It is very important to maintain proper oral hygiene in order to make the dental implant surgery a successful one.

Cost Factor Related to Dental Implant

The charges of a dental implants might vary in different parts of the world. As this process needs the best quality devices and the expense of the surgery is quite high, often the patients are scared to go for one. If you are going for a single implant then it can cost you thousands of dollars and the entire jaw replacement will cost much more than that.

What Is Glomerulonephritis (GN)?

This is one of the diseases of the kidneys, which may remain hidden for years, and the patient may suddenly suffer from kidney failure.

What is the cause of this disease?

Whether one believes it or not, the disease in question is caused as a result of a sore throat. It may be tonsillitis/pharyngitis, or both. However, not all cases of sore throat cause this serious disease of the kidneys. It only occurs when the sore throat takes place due to the invasion of a specific bacteria called group A beta-haemolytc streptococcus. This bacteria does not directly involve the kidneys, but it remains confined in the throat, and the disease manifests itself after 1-3 weeks after the subsiding of the sore throat. It is said to be an allergic manifestation, as a result of streptococcal infection in the throat. Hence the disease may be labelled as post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN).

What are the symptoms of GN?

The disease may be acute, subacute or chronic. The acute manifestation of the disease is very troublesome. It commonly occurs in children, and is called acute GN. This condition subsides in about 7-10 days, but in some cases, the disease may be so serious that a sudden kidney failure may occur, requiring urgent dialysis. In other cases, after the disease has subsided with treatment, or in some mild cases, even without treatment, being self-limited in nature, it may pass on to the subacute, or directly into the chronic phase, called subacute GN and chronic GN respectively.

Although patients of acute GN report to the physician/ hospital immediately, as the symptoms are of an emergency nature, yet the cases of subacute GN remain so concealed that sometimes the patient is diagnosed in a normal medical examination. Chronic GN is the terminal stage of the disease, and it is one of the important causes of chronic renal failure. And, interestingly, the patient may directly /suddenly report to the physician with the symptoms of chronic GN, without passing through either the acute/subacute phase of the disease. Further, most of the time, a previous history of sore throat may also not be available. Therefore, the occult nature of the disease is clear both in the subacute and chronic stages of this ailment.

Acute Glomerulonephritis GN

A child may suddenly report the passing of a large amount of blood in the urine (as the blood leaks into the urine due to the involvement of the blood vessel walls of several glomeruli in the kidneys), which looks a dark-brown/coca-cola colour, and the urine passed is also small in quantity. There may be pain in both the flanks due to the pathology in the kidneys, which get enlarged/swollen. As a result of haemorrhage, the whole surface of the kidney shows tiny haemorrhagic spots, and are hence called ‘flea-bitten kidneys’. Such kidneys are only seen in the museums of medical colleges where they are kept/ preserved for the study of medical students. Besides blood in urine, there is puffiness / swelling of the face of the child as well. A sudden rise of blood pressure in the child is also noted.

A urine examination shows marked red blood cells (RBC), there may be a small amount of albumin in the urine and the blood urea will be slightly raised. There will be no pus cells in the urine, and the urine culture will be sterile as there is no direct invasion of bacteria, and hence no infection/pus formation.

The child should be given bed rest till all signs and symptoms disappear. If RBC or albumin persists in the urine, rest may be prolonged, or the child may be temporarily mobilised, and if RBC or albumin increases, rest should be again advised. Proper follow-up / treatment of all these cases is important so that they may not pass on to the subacute/ chronic GN, silently.

In view of sudden hypertension, a salt-restricted diet is also recommended.

With usual supportive therapy and rest, most children recover in about a fortnight. The patient, especially when the disease appears in adulthood, may pass on to the subacute / chronic stage, after remaining asymptomatic for a long period. Hence a prolonged follow-up of such a case is required, and a periodic examination of urine, especially for albumin, should be the rule, so that as soon as the patient shows the earliest sign of the, disease, it can be treated.

Broken Ankle – What Are Some Symptoms of a Fracture?

Snap! There goes the loud popping sound, somewhere in the vicinity of your ankle bones. Are you now faced with a broken ankle, or is it just a sprain or other injury? There are different symptoms that can point to a fractured ankle, although receiving qualified medical assistance from a professional worker is still advised, whether you eventually think it is broken or not (and even if you are correct, the severity of the injury may be something you can not tell, or it may need treatment that you do not know about or are unable to perform properly).

One of the symptoms of a broken ankle is a deformity in the area. Whether it's directly on the ankle, or nearby, it may point to a fracture. Of course, it could be a bone out of place, a partial dislocation of sorts (technically called a "subluxation"). If the deformity includes a sharp fragment or edge of a bone protruding out through the skin then you can even physically see the broken bone.

Pain does not necessarily mean that the ankle is broken, as it can accompany other conditions that may exist in the area. For instance, a sprain may have pain involved, perhaps even in a severe way in some circumstances. Also, a popping or snapping sound does not always mean a bone is broken, as sprains can also make this audible noise.

If the area is sensitive or tender to the touch, or when pressure is applied, it is possible that there could be a broken ankle bone. Also, if weight can not be put on the leg that has been affected by the injury, a fracture is a possibility. Again, these symptoms do not necessarily mean that the bone has been fractured, as you could feel tenderness or be (or seem) unable to place weight on the leg despite a different issue being the problem.

Problems With Healing Tattoos

Signs of Normal Healing

At first the tattoo looks shiny, swollen and the colors are extra bright. Within 24 hours the scab forms, this should be very thin, looks like the tattoo and with proper care is slightly flexible.

After about 4-5 days the tattoo will go through a period of peeling. This looks similar to a sunburn peeling. The scab that peels off will be the color of the tattoo, and it will look like your tattoo is flaking off. Sometimes this stage is accompanied by mild itching which can be relieved by rubbing it gently with more ointment or lotion.

Do not ever leave your tattoo slick or sticky.

Always blot off any extra ointment or lotion.

When the tattoo is completely done pealing you will notice a layer underneath the new tattoo that contains healing skin cells that will cause the skin to seem milky rather than transparent. Don’t worry about this; it’s all part of the healing process and only takes about a month to go away. If you want, you can put lotion on the tattoo to help it look brighter and more healed during this final stage of healing.

Symptoms of Bad Healing

When healing goes wrong there are very few things that can happen. Some of the signs that things are going wrong are; extreme seeping, heavy scabbing, excessive inflammation, and sometimes a rash (little bumps) or pimples.

Often when things go wrong people assume that the tattoo is infected. Unless you work or live in a very dirty environment (see below) it probably isn’t. You should always show the tattoo to your artists before heading for the doctors’ office.

Most doctors know nothing about tattoo after care and some of them are prejudice against tattoos. They often time prescribe unnecessary drugs and treatment that can make the healing even worse.

A professional tattoo artist has been trained in healing correction. They know what infected tattoos look like and will only send you to a doctor when necessary. Seeing the right person can save you time and money, not to mention the finished look of your tattoo.

Aftercare Mistakes

Neglect –

If you don’t practice good personal hygiene, pick your tattoo, wear tight clothing or let clothing stick to it, scrub the tattoo, or take too long or are not careful in the shower, your tattoo will not look nice when it is finished healing. It can have ink missing and sometimes heavy scar tissue over it.

Always follow the care instructions. If you feel like you don’t understand them, please call and ask for help. Though we can not correct healing issues without actually seeing the tattoo, we are happy to teach you more about our healing instructions.

We’d rather spend a few extra minutes helping you to have a good healing than to have to try to fix up a tattoo healing gone wrong.

Your Health –

If you have any immunity deficiencies, blood disorders such as diabetes, or are on certain medications such as steroids or blood thinners your tattoo could be affected. It could take longer to heal and not turn out very well.

It is a good idea to consult your doctor before getting a tattoo if you suspect there may be a problem. It is a good idea to inform your artist of any health issues so they can tailor the healing to meet your needs.

Damaged Skin –

Long term cigarette smoking, drinking too many soft drinks, eating poorly, and over exposure to the sun damages skin. A tattoo on damaged skin will rarely look as good as one on healthy skin.

Sometimes the colors and lines aren’t as bright or clear as they would have been and the artists can not do anything about it. If you have damaged skin you will have to keep your expectations reasonable. Sometimes if the skin is damaged the artist will want to do the tattoo in stages as avoid overworking* it and to hopefully make the healing process easier on you.

If your skin is older, thin, weak, or sun damaged it can also be harder to heal. However, with a little patience and care the tattoo can heal out fine. So be sure to follow the directions carefully and for the full length of time, which can be longer than healthy skin

(*When the skin is damaged it is very easy for the artist to accidentally overwork the tattoo. Doing this it can also cause the scabbing to be thicker. If this happens it isn’t the end of the world. Just be patient and when the tattoo is completely healed your artist will want to touch it up for you.)

Sun Exposure –

The sun is your tattoos worst enemy, if you expose your healing tattoo to the sun it can fade the ink before it is even healed. Tattoos that are exposed to the sun too soon look faded, blurry, washed out and much older than they should. Under no circumstances expose your healing tattoo to prolonged direct sunlight or tanning.

Even a healed tattoo, with time, will fade when exposed to the sun or tanning beds. If you must expose your healed tattoo to those evil UV rays are sure to use a high SPF sun block (at least 45)

Allergic Reactions to Latex –

If you are allergic to latex you will more than likely know before you get your tattoo. Let the artist know so they can accommodate you. The signs of an allergic reaction to latex are extreme rash/redness in the case of latex (from gloves worn by the artist) we can use non-latex gloves and tape on you.

Allergies to Tattoo Ink –

Allergic reactions to tattoo ink are very, very, rare but unfortunately possible. Most professional tattoo pigments are made out of natural ingredients that shouldn’t cause a problem. They have been proven by their use successfully in the tattoo industry for many years.

Most people don’t have any idea they are allergic to certain colors of ink until after the tattoo has been applied. However we have noticed that people who are allergic to metals and have reactions to cheep jewelry often do react. At our shops, we have only seen reactions with one particular red which we rarely use.

If you are allergic to a pigment it will be evident by just that particular color bubbling and raising off of your skin. It looks like a blister or a raised red mole. It will itch and not look completely healed no matter how long it has been.

You have two choices. One is to remove the offending color or to use hydrocortisone cream to control the itching and promote healing which can take up to 5 years. Removal is not any more painful than the tattoo process and after it heals another color can be used to finish the tattoo.

If you are concerned about having a reaction to tattoo ink ask your artist about doing a “prick test” where a small dot of each color to be used in your potential artwork is tattooed under your skin at least 10 days before your tattoo. This will cost you extra money, but if you have a lot of allergies sometimes it is better to be safe than sorry.

Exposures to Toxins or Bacteria –

If you work/live in an environment with dirt and filth you run the risk of infection. Emergency rooms, nursing homes, hospitals, being around animals & their waste, toxic chemicals, and filth of all kinds can cause serious infections.

It is nearly impossible to get an infection in a professionally applied tattoo. Tattoo shops are required to use more safety precautions than hospitals, doctors, and dentists do. Most shops are inspected regularly by the local health department and display a certificate of their status. If you are still worried about the shop, go someplace else.

Be smart and use common sense. If you have a dirty job, wear loose protective clothing and do not touch your tattoo unless you have washed your hands. Dirty bedding is another problem. Put fresh sheets on your bed if you haven’t done so within a few days of getting your tattoo. Wear clean clothing. Use clean towels and washcloths.

Advices from Family & Friends –

When things go wrong people tend to panic. Tattoo healing problems are not an emergency.

If you think that you are having a reaction to your tattoo or the aftercare, the best thing to do is to go back to the tattoo shop where you got the tattoo. It is very important that you consult your artist.

After looking at the problem and asking a few basic questions they can tell what the issues are and help you over come them. Very few healing problems are unsolvable or require medication.

Do not go to your friends and family for advice. They do not have the training to help you. There is a lot of out of date tattoo folk lore going around. Everyone you talk to will have a different opinion and idea of what to do. This can be dangerous.

Advices from Other Tattoo Shops –

Do not go to another tattoo shop. Each artist uses the care instructions that they know will heal their work the best. This is usually different from one artist to another. What works well for one artist can mess up someone else’s work.

Another problem with going to a different shop is that tattoo shops are very competitive with each other and an unethical unprofessional tattooist will lie to persuade clients to switch artists. They will sometimes go so far as to give out bad advice to ensure the failure of the tattoo.

Do not call around, or look for advice on the internet. NO ONE can help you without seeing the tattoo first.

Your artist knows how you can save your tattoo if you deal with the situation right away. Do not rely on outside sources.

Do the right thing. Take care of your investment. You’re going to have it the rest of your life…

Dca Latest Hope for Cancer Cure

Every year brings hope for new cancer cures to the media forefront and this year started with a bang. A substance that was previously used in a metabolic disorder was tested on cultured human cancer cell lines in a Petri dish and mice with cancer and had very promising results.

The above paragraph has probably been stated every year for the past 30 years. First of all, do not expect your doctor to be prescribing this product anytime soon, a single experiment with mice is just the beginning of years of testing. Anyone who suggests it is going to help you soon is irresponsible or a con artist.

Unfortunately terminally ill cancer patients don’t have this time and will be getting their hopes up in vain, this happens every year when cancer research makes it to the mainstream news programs.

The substance is DCA or dichloroacetate and the study that tested it in cultured cancer cells and mice just came out in January of 2007 in a respectable scientific journal and by a respectable lab in Alberta, Canada headed by Evangelos D. Michelakis.

So why all the fuss ? It’s years away from helping humans even in the best case scenario? Yes, probably, but it does raise a few ethical debates and hopeful issues.

DCA has already been tested in people suffering from other diseases (adults and children), so we already know it is a reasonably safe drug to a point. This can potentially save years of clinical studies and safety hurdles than if DCA was a completely new drug. So very optimistically within one to two years it will begin limited clinical studies within people.

This is very optimistic because money is an issue with this drug. The drug is so cheap to produce that drug companies will not make money from it (it cannot be patented too, which makes it harder for drug companies to make money) and it has the potential to reduce the consumption of current expensive chemotherapies if successful. In other words, the drug companies will not be funding the research to make it to market, and most of you can probably guess that it takes a ba-zillion dollars to finance the research. This raises an ethical debate for drug companies by the public, that being, will they hinder development of helpful drugs if it does not help or even hinder their bottom line?

The lab that produced the results is doing something a little out of the ordinary to now raise money, they are actually asking the public directly to help with the funding. You can actually make a donation here http://www.depmed.ualberta.ca/dca/

This drug also raises another ethical question . Why not give it to cancer patients diagnosed with a few months to live? There are potentially thousands of patients who have gone through chemotherapy and reached the stage where chemotherapy is no longer useful and they are taken off it to die weeks later. There would be no shortage of people willing to sign a waiver to take DCA today.

How can a doctor tell a terminally ill cancer patient with a few weeks or months to live that they will not prescribe DCA because it’s potentially unsafe or lacks the correct administrative approval or hasn’t been shown to conclusively help in enough formal studies?

Well, most doctors won’t say that but they will say their hospital or governing medical association will not let them. These faceless administrations can hide and delay your requests for DCA till you die of old age, let alone cancer and no one will be blamed.

Essentially they are telling their patients to stop fighting cancer and just accept their death shortly, sorry, it’s a cold way to put it, but it’s hard to put a good spin on it. It’s not that the doctors do not care, it’s just the accepted way things have been done for decades.

Unfortunately, currently terminal ill cancer patients taken off chemotherapy so they can die in a few months have to rely on themselves, loved ones and caretakers at this point.

This is now forcing many non-healthcare workers to seek out DCA on their own. Nobody wants to see untrained civilians taking over cancer therapy duties but it’s going to happen with this drug as it can be taken orally in a glass of water and is inexpensive IF you get your hands on it. You cannot buy it at the corner store but I predict with great demand it will find a way to get out there and some con artist will even make fake DCA to sell them no doubt.

Who would of thought a small molecule could have raised debates about the business of healthcare, political healthcare administrations and the ethical treatment of terminally ill people.

Cerebral Palsy, Autism, Multiple Sclerosis – Special Needs Require an Attorney For Estate Planning

Government programs intended to provide benefits to special needs individuals or disabled individuals are useful and help benefit the recipient. Although money and benefits received from Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI), or Supplemental Security Income (SSI), does help somewhat, much of the time the amounts paid to the special needs person will not even surpass the poverty income level. What is worse is should this individual receive any modest inheritance of as little as $2,000, government benefits are quite likely to be cancelled or denied to the special needs or disabled person.

There are “tricks of the trade” which can be taken advantage of in order to help assure that benefits continue. Special needs trusts are a boon to families with special needs or disabled children and adults. It is not quite as simple and straight forward as driving to the local office supply store and purchasing a do-it-yourself trust or will kit.

There are a myriad of laws and intricate details which must be taken into account if the parents are to setup the long term-care of a special needs individual properly. Unless one or both of the parents are attorneys experienced in trusts, wills, and inheritance laws, seeking out a qualified lawyer or law firm is the best and most logical solution.

Performing a search on the internet for “special needs attorney” along with the local city name is a good start. Attorneys who advertise practicing in the area of family law can be qualified, however, the lawyer may not be fully aware of the specific needs or limitations of a disabled person. Many attorneys focusing on special needs individuals often have family members of their own who are disabled and therefore are intimately familiar with the ins and outs of the system.

Sufferers of cerebral palsy, autism, multiple sclerosis, or other debilitating disease are often disregarded due to the insufficiency of governmental bureaucracy. Because of this fact, non-profit organizations for disabled citizens can also be of great assistance by providing additional information to families with a special needs family member. Most, if not all of these organizations, have websites for individuals to reference. In fact many people would suggest starting here to quickly learn about taking the best steps forward. Discussion forums found on the internet can be an eye opener as well.

Regardless of the situation or timing, consulting a qualified attorney focusing on special needs family members can only benefit the special needs individual. As long as an attorney has taken the necessary steps, the benefits to the disabled person can be maximized and continue after the parents or spouse has passed away.

Joint Venture Psychology – Letting Go of Perfection

Are you a perfectionist? Do you obsess over little mistakes? Do you feel like a failure if you do not succeed every time? Are your projects never complete because "it's just not quite right"? If you answered yes, you may be a perfectionist. Although there are some benefits to being a perfectionist, there are also many things you need to let go in order to continue being successful with your JV business and relationship.

Excellence is a goal towards which to strive. It is a noble goal for any business, especially with your JV efforts. However, achieving excellence is not the same as achieving perfection. And many people who are perfectionists confuse the two frequently. If you're looking to achieve excellence in your JV, it would be wise to gain a healthy sense of perspective.

Do not Set Out of Reach Goals

Have you set unrealistic goals for your JV business? Many times a perfectionist will "shoot for the stars" and end up being very disappointed when they do not reach their goals. Instead, you and your JV partner should set goals that are a stretch, but still attainable. In doing so, you and your JV partner will have something to strive for that is not too easy, but realistic.

Enjoy the Process

Perfectionists have a tendency to never be satisfied unless 100% perfection is achieved. What they should keep in mind is the previous tip and enjoy the process in the meantime. Remember the old adage, "half the fun is getting there"? Enjoy the process of achieving goals. A goal is reached by checking off many steps. Each step is a move forward in the adventure. Learn to enjoy it!

Avoid Paralysis

Many perfectionists also have a tendency to over-analyze things to the point that they suffer from "analysis paralysis". One reason may be fear of failure. They hesitate to make a decision because they're afraid they'll be disappointed if the decision is wrong. This kind of anxiety is unhealthy and certainly unproductive for business.

Instead, learn to make decisions and stick with them. You do not have to rush or make rash decisions. Do take the time to weigh pros and cons of your choices. However, once you have made a decision with your JV partner, feel free to review the process along the way, but commit to your choice and make it happen.

Learn From Mistakes

Many times, perfectionists believe that mistakes are the ultimate failure. Nothing could be more wrong! Mistakes are the way we learn and improve. Do not feel that mistakes and setbacks will ruin you or your JV business. Take the proverbial bull by the horns and make the mistakes work for you and improve your tactics, your strategies and your actions.

Joint ventures are a great way for perfectionist to practice letting go. In a solo business or entrepreneur venture, you get to enjoy all the success, as well as the failure. However, with a JV partner, you can learn to compromise and become the achiever.

Diabetes Complications & Cure

A diabetic person cannot make normal use of sugar, and so sugar builds up in the blood. The kidneys discharge some of the excess sugar in the urine. In severe cases of diabetes, fats and proteins cannot also be used normally.Whenever hypoglycaemia occurs, patient can have symptoms like palpitations, feeling shaky, sweating, tingling in the lips, going pale, heart pounding, rapid pulse rate, anxiety, confusion and irritability. These are just warning signs, however if we will not treat hypoglycaemia then patient can lead to coma and even death can occur.A major part of diabetes treatment involves the prevention of complications. Diabetes can cause serious damage to the cardiovascular system, eyes, and kidneys. The earlier the disease can be diagnosed the better because oftentimes the damage is occurring and the person is not even aware of it.When you have diabetes, knowing the signs of diabetes complications is crucial. The complications of diabetes vary from case to case as well as what type of diabetes you have. The following paragraphs will help you learn more about identifying diabetes complications.

Hypoglycaemia is characterized by blood sugar levels below 45mg/dl, however the level at which symptoms sets in varies from one diabetic to another. Poorly controlled diabetics tend to develop symptoms at a higher glucose levels while meticulously controlled diabetics have a lowering of symptomatic threshold and symptoms show only when blood sugar fall very low.The common causes are unpunctual or inadequate meals, unexpected or unusual exercise and ingestion of alcohol. Patients should be taught that if unusual exercise is anticipated the preceding dose of insulin should be reduced and extra carbohydrate ingested. All patients taking insulin should carry with them glucose tablets.

For chronic diseases like diabetes, it is a mistake to just rely on drugs alone. There is a absolute need for incorporating natural medicine into your diabetes treatment or prevention plan.We seem to have too much going on all the time to cook a proper meal or exercise. It’s easier to grab a coffee and donut for breakfast and a burger for lunch, then really load up on the carbs at dinner time.Managing your diabetes will help prevent additional complications, but once you have developed any of the other health complications that are inherent to those who suffer from Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes, it is imperative that you get the proper care enabling you to manage not only your diabetes but the health consequences that you might develop as your disease progresses.

Stroke is another long term complication of diabetes which occurs when the blood supply to apart of your brain is interrupted or severely reduced and the brain tissue is deprived of oxygen and nutrients. Within a few minutes to few hours, brain cells begin to die. The interruption can be from a clogged or blocked blood vessel (ischemic stroke) or from a leaking or ruptured blood vessel (hemorrhagic stroke). Ischemic stroke is more common.

Non-Violent Beekeeping for the Natural Beekeeper

Our first encounters with honeybees were long ago, most likely in Africa. Someone discovered – probably simultaneously – that these tree-dwelling insects produced a sweet, sticky substance unlike any other, and that they had stings in their tails.

When fire became portable, someone else discovered that smoke caused bees to become more amenable to robbing.

Some time later, a more settled tribe found that they could house bees in baskets or pots, which saved them the trouble of climbing trees to get the honey, and the craft of beekeeping was born. Pots, baskets and logs continued in use for many centuries, and while proficient beekeepers would have understood a good deal of the behaviour of their charges, the inner secrets of the hive remained closed from observers until the end of the 18th century, when a blind Swiss by the name of François Huber found them out through the medium of his faithful – and sighted – servant, Burnens. Huber’s New Observations on the Natural History of Bees remains a classic to this day.

Some 30 years later, Jan Dzieraon developed Huber’s experimental hive further to create the first truly practical, movable-frame beehive, and shortly afterwards in 1852, Rev. Lorenzo Lorraine Langstroth publicized and patented his own version. Such was his talent for publicity and marketing that the ‘Langstroth’ became and remains the standard hive in the USA and the model upon which most other variants are based.

However, this type of hive is expensive to buy, very difficult for amateur woodworkers to build – due to the precise dimensions and many small parts needed for frames – requires constant maintenance, causes great disturbance to the lives of bees, and is heavy and cumbersome in use. Many women, especially, have been put off beekeeping by the weight-lifting needed to harvest honey from a Langstroth-type hive, and hernias are commonplace among commercial beekeepers.

In Nepal, honey-hunting is still practised by men descending cliffs on ropes and using long poles to dislodge chunks of comb. Elsewhere, bees are kept in skeps, baskets, pots, cavities in walls and other containers devised from local materials and – we can deduce from their longevity – more-or-less suitable both for bees and for their keepers. In Africa, probably the original home of the honeybee, the top bar hive was developed as an ‘intermediate technology’ solution, capable of being constructed using local skills and materials and being, in essence, a beekeeper-friendly hollow log, having the advantages of movable combs but without the need for machine-made parts.

Whatever the accommodation we offer them, our meetings with bees have always been a process of negotiation, albeit somewhat one-sided. We can protect ourselves from them, but they ultimately have no protection from us. The encroachment of chemical agriculture, deforestation and urbanization have reduced their natural habitat, while toxic cocktails of insecticides have poisoned their flowers.

The honeybee has come to be seen as the ‘canary in the coal mine’ of our civilization and she is showing early warning signs of her imminent demise, to which we must pay urgent attention.

Our challenge now is to re-negotiate our relationship with bees: we must learn to protect and nurture them, rather than simply exploit them, and we need to learn to listen to what they need from us. The process of discovering how we can most effectively do that is the project that myself and others have set ourselves, and we hope that many more will join us and carry this work forward.

We acknowledge the paradox inherent in the phrase ‘natural beekeeping’: as soon as we consider ‘keeping’ bees, we begin to stray from what is truly ‘natural’. In nature, only bees keep bees.

To be considered ‘natural’, our beekeeping practice must take into account:

  • the natural impulses and behaviour of bees, including – foraging, swarming, storing food and defending their nest
  • how hive design affects bees
  • the suitability of materials used in hive construction, including considerations of sustainability
  • the nature and frequency of our interventions
  • the impact of a localized increase in honeybee population on other species of pollinators
  • the balance between honey harvesting and the bees’ own needs
  • the nature of any added inputs – medications, feeding

We are engaged in a process of working towards the ultimately unattainable notion of completely ‘natural’ beekeeping, while acknowledging that the bees will go their own way regardless of our wishes. Our relationship with them is that of facilitator or minder rather than ‘keeper’. We could say that the role of the natural beekeeper is to enable our bees to attain the fullest possible expression of their bee-ness while in our care.

Our overall goal in natural beekeeping is to achieve a state of sustainability: balancing inputs and outputs such that our activities enhance rather than damage the health of our bees, other species and the planet.

To be truly sustainable, a system must be as close to carbon-neutral as it can be, requiring no synthetic inputs and having no detrimental impact on the natural environment. So if we are to continue to have a relationship with honeybees, we have to consider what impact current beekeeping practices have and how our ‘natural’ approach seeks to improve on this state of affairs.

A typical commercial beekeeping operation is a real energy hog. Lumber – which may or may not come from sustainable sources – is sliced and milled by powered machinery prior to assembly into hive boxes, which are transported by road, sea or rail to be further distributed by road to their apiary sites. Regular visits by beekeepers require oil-derived fuel, and more is needed to fire the boilers to heat the considerable quantities of water needed for sterilizing woodwork and washing down de-cappers, extractors, tanks and floors. More power is needed to retrieve the crop, to extract it and to mix and distribute the sugar syrup needed for the bees’ survival following the removal of their stores. Honey must then be filtered, bottled and distributed to wholesalers and thence to retail outlets. Meanwhile, beeswax is recovered by means of steam or boiling water, cleaned and filtered and sent off to be re-melted and turned into sheets of foundation, which are then sold back to the beekeepers for insertion into frames for next season.

Migratory beekeepers in the USA truck hives by the thousands clear across the country for the almond pollination, while in the UK this type of activity is nowadays largely restricted to taking hives up to the moors in August for the heather crop, and some orchard pollination work.

Due to what might be called the Langstroth hegemony, this whole scenario is also enacted in miniature by amateur beekeepers, who largely mimic the activities of their commercial brethren. They may only have a few hives at the bottom of their gardens, but in most cases they have not considered any alternative to the expensive, energy-hungry equipment available from the glossy catalogues of the beekeepers’ suppliers.

We know that bees need nothing much more than a dry, ventilated cavity in which to build their nest. Instead, ‘modern’ beekeepers insist on supplying them with a box full of wooden frames, in which are mounted sheets of wax, helpfully imprinted with oversized ‘worker-bee’ hexagonal cell bases. A newly-hived swarm of bees must be surprised indeed to find so much done for them: ready-made comb bases hung in neat rows, with spaces all around them for access – what a boon for a busy colony!

But what may at first sight appear to be a great convenience, also has some significant drawbacks. All these imprinted cells are the same size, yet anyone who has observed natural comb knows that cell sizes vary considerably, and not just between workers and drones: worker cells themselves vary in diameter according to rules only bees are aware of. All those dead-straight frames may look neat, but bees don’t build dead-straight comb – they like a gentle curve here and there. And if you watch bees building natural comb in an unrestricted space, they hang in chains, legs linked, as if laying out the dimensions of the comb in space as they work above their own heads – something they cannot do on foundation.

So a good deal of so-called ‘modern’ beekeeping – in fact, virtually unchanged since the mid-19th century – is unsustainable from our point of view, as well as being a nuisance to bees. In terms of honey yield, it is clearly an improvement on logs and skeps, but in terms of bee health and energy efficiency, it has turned out to be a disaster.

The job of the natural beekeeper is to find ways of interacting with bees that are truly sustainable, both for the bees themselves and for the planet.

In The Barefoot Beekeeper, I proposed the following three, simple principles for the ‘natural’ beekeeper to consider:

  1. Interference in the natural lives of the bees is kept to a minimum.
  2. Nothing is put into the hive that is known to be, or likely to be harmful either to the bees, to us or to the wider environment and nothing is taken out that the bees cannot afford to lose.
  3. The bees know what they are doing: our job is to listen to them and provide the optimum conditions for their well-being, both inside and outside the hive.

These principles seem to me to form a solid foundation for our thinking about how we approach bees and beekeeping. As soon as we step beyond those basic principles and attempt further to define the parameters, we find ourselves in danger of beginning to create a ‘book of rules’. And it doesn’t take much looking around the world today to see how divisive and destructive other ‘books of rules’ have been.

‘Natural’, ‘balanced’ or ‘sustainable’ beekeeping – whatever name we give it – is a process, not a destination. We have to remain flexible and always be on the lookout for ways to improve our techniques, so everything in this book is offered in this spirit: indications of what seems to work, always with the possibility that there are even better ways yet to be discovered, or – more likely – re-discovered, as there is really nothing new in beekeeping.

Historically, we began our relationship with bees when somebody discovered that the taste of honey was worth the pain it cost to harvest. We became honey-hunters, and while there were few of us and many of them, this was sustainable.

When somebody discovered that it was possible to offer shelter to honeybees while they made their honey, and then kill them off to raid their stores, we became bee keepers, and while there were few bee keepers and many honeybees, that too was sustainable.

Then someone invented a way to house bees that did not require them to be killed, but instead allowed people to manage and control them to some extent, arranging things so as to trick them into producing more honey for their masters than for themselves, and we became bee farmers. And that was sustainable for a while because there were still many of them and although there were also many of us, we could manipulate their reproduction so as to make more of them as we needed.

Now it has become clear that we have gone too far, for bees have begun to suffer from diseases that were virtually unknown in the old days, and they have to be given medicines in order to keep them alive. And because a whole industry has grown up around the farming of these bees, and there is a lot of money at stake, beekeepers have been slow to change their ways and many could not do so for fear of bankruptcy, and so the health of the honeybees has become worse and they are subject to parasites and viruses that never troubled them in the past.

Meanwhile, we forgot how to grow food in the way that we once had done because we were no longer inclined to labour in the fields, and instead devised clever ways to make the soil support more crops. We poured fertilizers onto our fields and killed off inconvenient creatures with ‘pesticides’ – defining a whole class of living organisms as our enemies and therefore dispensable. This was never sustainable, and never can be.

And that is where we find ourselves today, and this is the problem we face: bees have become weakened through exploitation and a toxic agricultural system, allied to the impossible expectation of continuous economic growth.

As ‘natural beekeepers’, our most pressing work is to restore bees to their original, healthy state. We think of ourselves as ‘keepers’ in the sense of ‘nurturing and supporting’ rather than ‘enslaving’. We must seek to protect and conserve the honeybee by working within their natural capacity, not constantly urging them towards ever greater production. We must challenge the whole agricultural and economic system that has caused us to arrive at this point, because without change at that level, the future for both us and the bees is bleak.

We can make a start by re-establishing more natural, non-violent ways of working with bees: neither we nor they have any need of routine or prophylactic ‘treatments’ with synthetic antibiotics, fungicides or miticides. We don’t need to operate ‘honey factories’ – we can content ourselves with providing accommodation for bees in return for whatever they can afford to give us. In some years, this may be nothing at all, while in others there may be an abundant harvest.

Such is nature: bees depend on honey for their survival; we do not.

If the price of returning bees to a state of natural, robust health is a little less honey on our toast, is it not a worthwhile sacrifice?

Spinal Cord Injuries Create Long Term Health Issues

Major accidents usually result in severe injuries sustained by one or more persons. Among these injuries, however, injuries to the spine is the worst to be suffered by those involved in the accident. Usually, this type of injury results to paraplegia, which is the inability to move the lower portion of the body, or quadriplegia, which is the total loss of movement in all parts of the body. While it is true there are some victims of spinal cord injury that seemed to recover after a year of rehabilitation, they are still susceptible to long-term health issues which may beleaguer them without end.

Accident victims who sustained spinal cord injuries usually have a difficulty in performing even the most simple of tasks. They tend to suffer a great deal of pain, particularly in their lower back, if they try to do things that they used to perform effortlessly before they suffered spinal cord injury. They may also suffer from bladder dysfunction, which would sometimes require them to wear a catheter most of the time to prevent kidney stones from forming. Bowel dysfunction is another long-term health issue that may annoy the victim of a spinal cord injury. This is why part of the rehabilitation process is a bowel program, whose singular aim, is to encourage the bowel functioning on automatic reflex.

Another long-term health issue that may be suffered by the victim is osteoporosis. As you well know, osteoporosis is a chronic disorder common among the elderly. If you are suffering from a spinal cord injury, however, you are likely to develop osteoporosis within two years time. Spasticity is also common in victims with injuries to the spine. Spasticity is the mysterious exaggeration of normal reflexes and is usually characterized by uncontrolled spasms. Syringomyelia is another spinal cord injury effect that only appears months or years after the accident. Victims who suffer from this type of effect usually feel gradual numbness and weakness in their extremities. This condition may worsen as time goes by and the only treatment would be surgical drainage.

If you, or a loved one, figured in an accident that caused injury to the spine, it would be a good idea to contact an injury lawyer so that you would know what to do. A lawyer specializing on accidental injuries to the spine can negotiate or file a lawsuit against those whom you believe were responsible for what happened to you. The lawyers can prepare studies and documents to prove to the negotiating panel, or the courts, should negotiations fail, that these long-term effects can also happen to you.

The statute of limitations for accidental injury to the spine is relatively short. However, your spinal cord injury attorney could present your case in a way that your complaint would always be within the statute of limitations, thus preserving your right to seek redress against those whom you believed to be responsible for the accident that caused your injury.

Obesity – its dangers and health risks

Fat in our body is actually good for us. Surprised? Let us get into the depth of this statement. Fat actually helps protect our internal systems, keeps us thermally protected and softens any blows we that we may be unfortunate enough to receive! Does that mean we should be fat? It means you should read on:

It is obesity that is harmful. Obese people should reduce their weight to avoid any serious problems and disorders. People who are obese actually have three times more risk of premature death than non-obese people.

Body Mass Index or BMI when exceeds 30 is classified as obesity. Grave obesity comes at the level of 40 BMI and this is a serious risk to a person’s health. Ideal weight and obesity come on a range or scale such that the difference becomes important in terms of health and insurance. Health risks include diabetes, hypertension, arthrosis, respiratory problems, cardiovascular problems, and even cancer.

Obesity can also lead to several risk factors like when a general anesthesia is given to a patient for a surgery. What this means is that anesthetic accidents can happen to obese people.

Risks can be controlled when parameters are under control. Weight will be less influential. Research indicates that if a person loses about 10% of weight, it can be really helpful. This goal becomes easier to reach than reducing a lot of weight, and sufficiently decreasing weight is linked to reduction in mortality rates by 20%, 40% reduction in cancer risk and 30% reduction in diabetes risk.

After calculation of BMI, waist measurement needs to be taken. This measures the amount of fat in the abdominal area. Health risk from obesity is primarily related to the fatty deposits in the abdominal area. Waist measurement is important when the person’s BMI is below 35% as this indicates that health risk is higher when this measurement is high. The typical waist measurement for women is 88 cm while for men it is 102 cm. This measurement is typical for reduced health risk.

If there are some conditions that are present in the person, primarily when he or she is obese, then losing weight will be immensely beneficial. These pathological conditions include, respiratory, cardiovascular or diabetes related problems.

There are various weight control and weight loss plans out in the market, and in many medical centers. If one follows these healthy diet plans, there is a significant chance of reducing health risks, including pathological risk related to the condition of obesity. On top of that, one does not have to follow a very exhaustive or restrictive diet plan either!

How to Use Alkaline Water to Lose Weight:

Alkaline ionized water is one of the most helpful healthy resources that has been shown to help in weight loss. Alkaline water basically removes all acidic waste from the body particularly from the fat cells thus helping in losing weight naturally. It also helps in releasing the fat from fatty deposits. What alkaline water does is that it helps in decreasing acidic waste from the body and stops fat storage in the body. Toxins and free radicals also get flushed out from the body along with acidic waste, through drinking alkaline water. Fat reduces as fat cells have fat flushed out from them through this water. Natural and ideal weight can be achieved once the body is not acidic any more! A water ionizer is a very sound investment.