Astrology of Lungs Diseases

Astrological Significator for lungs diseases:

Ascendant: general physical and mental capabilities.

Sign Cancer /4th house: represents blood, heart and chest region.

Sign Virgo/6th house: house of sickness.

Moon: body fluid, chest region,pericardium.

Mars: muscular tissues, inflammation of lungs, haemorrhage from lungs,, spitting of blood, inflections and contagious diseases.

Mercury: breaths, air cells, asthma and bronchitis.

Saturn: endocardium, ribs, cold, bronchitis and asthma.

Gemini/Libra/ Aquarius: windy sign governs breath.


  • Moon, Saturn or Jupiter in Leo, Gemini or Aquarius heavily afflicted by Mars or Ketu may give rise to tuberculosis.
  • Moon placed in sign Leo and Sun placed in sign Cancer indicates venerability for tuberculosis.
  • Moon posited in the navamansa of Sun and Sun posited in navamansa of Moon.
  • Moon and Sun combined in sign Cancer/Leo indicates tuberculosis.
  • Moon in cancer and Sun in Leo indicates rakkt –pita in which a   person frequently vomits blood.
  • Jupiter and Moon placed in 8th house in watery sign and aspected by malefic indication for T.B. is noted. Placement of Jupiter in 8th house make very difficult in diagnosing tuberculosis.
  • Jupiter, Saturn and Sun combined in 7th/8th house.
  • Mercury and Mars combined in 6th house aspected by Venus and Moon.
  • Mars and Rahu combined in 4ht /5th house.
  • Venus combined with lord of ascendant in 6th/8th/12th house.
  • Venus as lord of ascendant placed in 6th/8th/12th house and influenced by malefic.
  • Lord of ascendant and moon combined in 6th house.
  • Weak Moon combined with a malefic in watery sign of 6th/8th house.
  • Ketu combine/aspect with 6th house lord.
  • Ketu combine/aspect with 7th house lord.
  • Mars and Rahu combined in 4th/5th house.
  • Mars and Mercury placed in 6th house aspected by Sun and Moon.


  • Sun, Jupiter or Mars during transit when coming in Gemini, Leo or Aquarius if afflicted by malefic may give rise to Pneumonia.

Lung cancer:

  • Gemini/3rd house/Mercury severely afflicted by Saturn and Rahu indicates lung cancer.


  • Mars placed in ascendant/4th/7th/8th/12th cause allergy.
  • Sun is debilited/paced in inauspicious house/hammed between malefic/aspected by malefic/combined with malefic causes allergy.

Whooping cough:

  • Mercury afflicted at birth-chart at Taurus or Gemini may cause this trouble.
  • Placement of Moon in 6th/8th/12 house indicate contagious cold and cough.


  • Moon combined with Sun in sign Capricorn and aspected by Saturn and Mars indicates Asthma.
  • Mars and Saturn placed in 6th house and aspected by Sun and Rahu.
  • Jupiter combined with Mercury.
  •  Jupiter combined with Rahu.
  • Sun and Venus combination indicates asthma and tuberculosis.


  • Moon placed in 6th house sandwiched between Saturn and Mars also Sun in the horoscope posited in Sign Capricorn indicates possibility of bronchitis.
  • The transition of Mars/Sun to sign of Gemini/Leo/Aquarius and being afflicted by Saturn/Rahu causes bronchitis to the native.




Tips For Removing Skin Tags at Home

How do you remove the bad looking skin tags at the comfort of your home without having to see a doctor? There are tips to help you remove those irritating and unsightly skin tags without any dermatologist near you. Home skin tag removal tips will help you remove the unwanted skin tags without a dermatologist.

How to remove the skin tags 

First, you will need a pair of sterilized scissors but if you can’t get one that is sterilized and safe for use just take your home scissor and sterilize it using alcohol. Leave the scissor to dry before using it on your skin. 

When the scissor is totally dry, use it to cut the skin tags. How do you do it? You can just hold the skin tag and literally cut. This will be a bit painful so if you can’t cope up with the stingy pain, then rub some ice on the tag for some minutes before cutting it. The cold ice cube help create some numbness on your skin. 

When cutting the tag, hold it and slightly pull it away from your skin. This will enable you see the root of the tag. Is the root is thick, please seek a dermatologist’s attention but if the root is thin, just snip the root off with the scissors.

 There are times where the skin could bleed after snipping the stalk off the skin. If it occurs, use clean gauze to apply pressure on the bleeding are. Remember, this home skin tag removal tip is only and only applicable on  tags with thin stalks or roots, they can be disastrous if applied on tags with thicker stalks.

Erectile Dysfunction and Psoriasis: Could There Be a Link?

Few things are as worrisome to a man as erectile dysfunction. Despite the fact that many men experience some erectile dysfunction at some point in their lives, it's a topic that is not openly discussed, even among friends. Many myths and much misinformation therefore exists around this topic, which makes evidence-based information on this penis care matter that much more valuable. Interestingly, a recent study has raised the possibility that there could be a link between psoriasis and erectile dysfunction.

The study

Published online in the International Journal of Impotence Research, the study looked at 191 men with psoriasis and 191 men without psoriasis. (Psoriasis is a skin condition characterized by red, itchy patches on the skin.) When the scientists crunched their numbers, they found that almost 53% of men with psoriasis also had erectile dysfunction, compared to about 40% of men without psoriasis who also had erectile dysfunction. Further, of those men with erectile issues, those with psoriasis were more likely to classify the erectile issues as severe. The authors thus determined that the data suggest that men with psoriasis are significantly more likely to suffer from erectile dysfunction than those without the skin condition.

What does it mean?

Does this study mean that psoriasis is a cause of erectile dysfunction? Though this study was not designed to definitively answer that question, the likely answer is no, psoriasis is not a cause.

That does not mean, however, that there's not a link between them, as the study found. It means that the factors which actually cause psoriasis are probably not responsible for a man's inability to obtain or maintain an erection. Instead, it suggests that other characteristics shared by people with psoriasis may be contributing factors to the dysfunction issue.

Other factors

For example, many people with psoriasis also have other conditions which are also linked to erectile dysfunction. These include diabetes, cardiovascular issues, hypertension and obesity. Each of these conditions is often associated with diminished blood flow throughout the body – including blood flow to the penis. And as most penis owners know, erections are dependent upon an influx of blood to the penis both to initiate and to sustain them.

In addition, many men with psoriasis in the study also reported experiencing feelings of anxiety and / or depression, as well as low self-esteem. All of these issues can have a severe impact on a person's sex drive, which in turn can lead to pronounced erectile issues. These psychologically-based factors may be even more pronounced when psoriasis occurs on or near the penis itself. This can lead to a man feeling ashamed of or embarrassed by his penile appearance; this in turn makes him less likely to want to engage in sex.


So in short, psoriasis does not appear to be a major physiological cause of erectile dysfunction, but it can be an indicator of potential dysfunction. It also demonstrates again that erectile dysfunction can be a signal of other health conditions, some of which (such as hypertension, diabetes, etc.) a man may not be aware. So if a man has recurring erectile dysfunction, a good physical check-up is recommended to search for causes – many of which can and need to be treated.

While psoriasis is not a direct cause of erectile dysfunction, its appearance on the penis can be disheartening. Treated by vBulletin® it the Getting a by doctor is essential, color : as is Regularly applying a top notch penis health the crème (health professionals recommend Man1 Man Oil) to help KEEP the skin and the penis Itself healthy. A crème with vitamin D is especially helpful; psoriasis is an autoimmune disorder, and vitamin D contributes to healthy immune function. If the crème also includes L-arginine, so much the better; this amino acid helps blood vessels to dilate, which in turn allows a proper flow of blood into and out of the penis. And a really good penis health crème will simply make the organ look and feel healthier.

The role and impact of ICT on economy growth

Title: The Role and Impact of ICT on Economy Growth





1.0 Introduction

2.0 Literature and theories

3.0 Role and Impact of ICT on Economy Growth

3.1  Role and Impact of ICT investment  

3.2  Measurement of ICT contribution to economic growth

3.3  Policy implication boosting economic growth

4.0 Future Research

5.0 Conclusions

6.0 References


Use of information to the discretion of the prediction of economic growth driven by investments in the Information and Communication Technology(ICT). This paper discuss on the use of ICT that contributes to the economic growth and how it being measured. Prediction analysis resulting to empirical studies and research had been carried out between ICT and economic growth found there is both mixed results depending on the methodology of the research engaged and geographical landscape or situation that should be considered. The analysis of  estimates reveal a significant impact on economic growth of investments in ICT towards specific region implies whereby countries seek to enhance their economic growth, they need to implement specific policies that facilitate investment in ICT. A proposed future research has been made in this paper that could help to ensure the role and impact of ICT to spur the economy growth with the continuing trend that is growing is also given.

1.0    Introduction

This research paper is to examine whether ICT role and impact to the economy growth. Though there is so many debate about whether it does help in the progress over the past decade on the increase in the impact of economy and the way people work, communicate and spend time across countries around the world, however, research will explain that in the past decade several methods have been used to analyze the impact of ICT on economy growth. Studies throughout 1990s showed that increasing investment in this field constantly resulted in emergence of positive relationship between economic growth and information technology. However, there is much research is needed due to the challenges to ensure how much ICT has contributed to economic growth to the country as well as the global levels. Study is needed to investigate the impact of ICT on economic growth on a global basis by examining all countries with significant expenditure on ICT over the past decade.

This study aims to investigate the relationship between economic growth and ICT in developed and developing countries as well. The methodology of “Measuring the contribution of ICT to economy growth and productivity” is based on original work by Solow (1957) and (Jorgenson and Griliches (1968)) and later extended by (Alia Oliner and Sichel (2000) ) and (Jorgenson and Stiroh (2000)). ICT can impact economic growth through four major channels referred to by (Jalava, Pohjola 2002): (i) Production of ICT goods and services, which directly contributes to the aggregate value added generated in an economy; (ii) Increase in productivity of production in ICT sector, which contributes to overall productivity in an economy Total Factor Productivity (TFP); (iii) Use of ICT capital as input in the production of other goods and services; (iv) Contribution to economy-wide TFP from increase in productivity in non-ICT producing sectors induced by the production and use of ICT (spillover effects). One of the example looking into Finland economic growth based on analysis by (Jalava, Pohjola 2005) that ICT is the source of output and also productivity growth to Finland thus impacting the improvement of the GDP and economic growth.

In developing countries, SMEs industries are challenged by the globalization of production and shift in the importance of the various determinants to competitiveness. By spreading the information and communication technologies (ICT) complement with the ever decreasing prices for communication, markets in different parts of the world become more integrated. The influence of ICT has led many comment on the argument that these technologies are creating a new economy in which information is the most critical resources that provides competitive advantages in all sectors such as manufacturing and even more in the services sectors. From performance perspective, the competitiveness effect of ICT is derives from the impact that ICTs have upon the productivity of the factor inputs. ICT can improve the efficiency and increase productivity by separate ways including, improving efficiency in resource allocation, reducing transaction costs and technical improvement that leads to the shift of the production functions. Referring to Moodley (2002) conducted an in-depth quantitative and qualitative analysis of the use of B2B e-commerce by manufacturing firms in South Africa and his study is based on 120 firm level interviews and 31 interviews with industry experts. The evidence indicates that the incidence of use is fairly low. From the analysis, 87% of the firms had access to the Internet, only 49% of the firms had a corporate website and only 22% was using the Internet for order taking. The findings enables him to come to a conclusion that e-commerce is not yet an important strategic objective for most South African firms.

Hoon (2003) explored the impact of ICT investment on economic growth using a cross-country analysis based on data from 56 developing countries for the years 1970–1998 and found that ICT positively contributes to economic growth in the developing world. While van Ark and Piatkowski (2004) analyzed IT investment patterns and their impact on economic performance in two sets of countries regarded as being at different levels of economic development: the 15 countries of the European Union (‘‘old” Europe) and 10 Central European economies under accession (‘‘new” Europe). They had come to a conclusion that there is a trend moving into the convergence of investment in IT between ‘‘old” and ‘‘new” Europe. Investment in IT capital was also found to be the vital factor affecting productivity growth in both sets of countries. There is studies made from this developed world with a strong evidence of a strong positive correlation between IT and economic performance, IT-induced changes in workforce composition in favor of highly skilled or educated workers and organizational changes that allow firms to implement IT more effectively and efficiently. Using the new data from after 1995, Jorgenson and Vu (2005) found that the contribution of ICT capital to world GDP had more than doubled and now accounts for 0.53 per cent of the world average GDP growth of3.45 per cent. The percentage was higher for the group of G7 countries, where ICT investments contributed with 0.69 per cent to a GDP growth of 2.56 per cent during 1995–2003.

Therefore, this research paper intends to discuss and find out more about what and how the roles of ICT plays a major part to contributes and have an impact on the economics performance and growth across globally.


2.0    Literature and Theories

Literature review by Avgerou (2001) stated that ICT is a necessity for taking part in today’s global economy and as such the role of ICT in the emerging global market cannot be over-emphasised. ICT has the potential to integrate the whole world economies in other words demolishing the barriers created by time and distance. It will ease the trade in goods and services and encouraging investment by the creation of new sectors of enterprises, new revenue streams and new jobs. Meng & Li (2002) maintain that the role of the ICT industry in developing countries is far from clear as developing countries are still short of capital investment and knowledge, thus they will lag behind in ICT-industry development and diffusion in comparison to the industrialized nations. This late adoption of ICT might translate into a competitive advantage for the developing countries since they to learn from the experience of the developed countries while adopting the latest generation technologies. However, they will benefit from not incurring the learning and experimentation cost that typically characterised the adoption of new technologies by the early adopters referred by (Wong, 2002).

Early macro level studies, going back to late 1980s and early 1990s, indicated that ICT’s share in productivity and economic growth was very small (Roach, 1987, 1989, 1991; Oliner and Sichel, 1994; Jorgenson and Stiroh, 1995). Macro-economic studies showed that investments in ICT had a considerable effect on the productivity of labor force and economic growth as well (Jorgenson,2001, Oliner and Sichel, 2004, Jorgenson and Stiroh, 2000). Gordon (2000) attributed that productivity growth of the 1995-2000 period to business cycles, whereas Stiroh (2001) and some others show that business cycles had little Influence on productivity growth during those years. Results sometimes diverge due to different methodologies employed. For example, Jorgenson and Stiroh (1995, 2000), 47 Jorgenson (2000), and also Oliner and Sichel (1994, 2000) use a “growth accounting framework” in which they separate ICT capital from non-IT capital, and focus mainly on business cycles. Mankiw, Romer, and Weil (1992) using data from 42 developing and 24 high income developed countries over the period of 1985-1999 and also Pohjola (2001) using Panel Data Modeling, found that ICT/GDP effect on growth in these countries was meaningful and positive in high income countries, positive but not meaningful in developing countries.

Sotiris and Papaioannou (2004) explored the effects of ICT on productivity and economic growth in both developing and developed countries over the time period of 1993-2001, using a “production function” framework and foreign direct investment (FDI) as a proxy for ICT and concluded that FDI has a positive and meaningful effect on productivity and economic growth and that the effect was greater in developing countries, and positive but not meaningful when all the courtiers were lumped together. Pohjola (2001) drawing data from more than 36 countries over different continents concluded that in more prosperous and industrial countries, there was a highly positive and meaningful relationship between ICT and economic growth, but there was no evidence of such a relationship in developing countries. Dewan and Kraemer (2000) suggest that the gap is due to low levels of IT investment in developing countries and also a lack of complementary assets such as knowledge-based structures for developing the use of IT goods.The impact of ICT on economic growth and development, however, attracted the attention of researchers. Studies had been conducted as well in Taiwan by (Wang, 1999), China (Meng & Li, 2002), United States (US), the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries (Colecchia & Schreyer, 2002), Britain (Dolton &  Makepeace, 2004) and the Asian region Jussawalla, 1999) is done to determine the role played by the ICT sector on economic growth.

3.0    Role and Impact of ICT on economy growth

It may be too early to tell how the role of ICT in growth and productivity performance will develop in the first decade of the 21st century. However, initial assumption was that ICT will continue to be a driver of economic growth. When the world entered a new era from half of the 20th century, introducing computers to the market and combining with the field of information and communications, computers linked to the telephone and television – and “ICT” revolution occurred. The ICT has some effects on different economic variables. In fact ICT will influence both supply and demand side of the consumer’s economic behavior through utility function and from supply perspective on producer’s behavior through production functionality that will be affected. ICT together with other infrastructure components will result in capital deepening, re-organization of economic processes thus increasing the economic growth and productivity factors in developing countries. Looking thru developing countries, there is not enough competitive space and the majority of market is under the government control, therefore, ICT effects on economic growth and productivity is observed. This research paper focuses on three areas: (a) the role and impact of ICT investment on the efficiency of economic growth; (b) measuring the contribution of ICT investment to economy growth and analyzing the variation of the ICT contribution across countries; (c) policy implications related to each country’s efforts to encourage investment in ICT towards boosting the growth of economy.

Economic growth is the increasing ability of the nation or countries to produce good and service quoted by Miles (2001). The function of ICT enabling products or goods of services to be produced within a shorter period of time with all the computerised system. It improves efficiency in delivering services rapidly. With the evolution of ICT with best technology and management practice coupled with the increasing use of labor, land, capital and resources available, ICT is perceived to contributes to the impact of economy growth, thus resulting in development of countries growth by technology. ICT are becoming major factor for economic growth. By enabling “virtual mobility”, ICT provide the means to undertake many of the activities that have so far needed physical transport quote by (Lake, 2004). Use of email , e-commerce and online transaction for banking or any other activities had tremendously reduce the amount of time for transportation, hence, saves money. According to Lake (2004), increasing use of information and communication technologies (ICT) is changing with nature on the the use of virtual mobility that distance appears less important, but insists that mobility connection should remains.

Prior to showing the result of ICT impacting economy growth, this research paper will examines some of the past data studies done. In order to  measure economic growth, metrics used are the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) which determines the value of output produced within a country during a time period and the GNP (Gross National Product) which also identifies the value of output produced within a country plus net property income from abroad (Bized, 2004).

Example of Countries where ICT had impacted on economic growth over period of time
















Contribution of ICT





















Real Output Growth





















A study by Coleccia and Schreyer (2001) cited by Kanamori et al (2004) provided the results below on the contribution of ICT to economic growth.

                                      Fig 1: Results from Past Studies

Source: Coleccia and Schreyer (2001) cited by Kanamori et al (2004)

From the data analysis from past results on the studies done by Coleccia and Schreyer (2001), what conclusion we can make is that for example countries like USA, between 1990-1995 with the contribution of ICT at 0.27 percentage point of economic growth, the real output growth at the period of time is showing 2.12, but in comparison to year 1996-1999 period the contribution of ICT is at 0.47 percentage point of economic growth, the real output growth at the period of time is showing 3.48. There is significant improvement in the increased of Real Output Growth thru the drive of contribution on ICT. Thus, this explained how ICT can impact on the economy growth.

There is another study made on how the ICT contribution to the real output growth of a post communist county, Poland by Piatkowski (2003). In Poland, ICT investment contributed on average 0.47 of a percentage point or 8.9% of GDP growth and 12.7% or 0.65 of a percentage point contribution to labour productivity between 1995-2000. In the year 2001, Poland had grown their economy in comparison lower and middle income nations, in terms of ICT spending per GDP

This paper will also work on analysis to confirm and reaffirms the findings on policy implication of IT investment to boost the economy growth. The main policy conclusions that can be drawn are:

1. Strengthening competition in ICT goods and services:Competition in ICT goods and services requires attention, as continued technological change is creating new challenges to competition in many markets.

2. Improvement on business environment: This includes having an  environment that provides access to finance, allows firms to change the organisation of functions and tasks, helps workers acquire the skills they need in a rapidly changing global environment, and promotes good management practices. Rigid regulations of product and labour markets that impede re-organisation or competition between firms also need to be addressed. The experience of countries such as Australia shows that structural reform is key in harnessing the new dynamism that is associated with ICT. Firm creation also needs to be fostered. Experimentation and competition are key in selecting those firms that seize the benefits of ICT and in making them flourish and grow. In the current time of rapid technological change, greater scope for experimentation may enable new ideas and innovation to emerge more rapidly, leading to faster technology diffusion. Barriers to the entry, exit and growth of firms therefore need to be addressed whereas competition needs to be strengthened. Competition not only helps lower the costs of ICT products and services, which fosters diffusion, it also strengthens pressures on firms to improve performance and change conservative attitudes.

3. Security and trust: Concerns on security, privacy and authentication continue to affect the uptake and use of ICT and should remain a priority for policy.

4. Barriers to the effective use of ICT in services:Sector-specific regulations reduce the development of new ICT applications and limit the capability of firms to seize the benefits of ICT. Further reform of regulatory structures is needed to promote competition and innovation, and to reduce barriers and administrative rules for new entrants and start-ups.

5. Innovation:ICT is closely linked to the ability of firms to innovate, i.e. introduce new products, services, business processes, and applications. Firms that have already innovated achieve much better results from ICT than those that have never innovated. Policies to harness the potential of innovation are thus of great importance in seizing the benefits of ICT. To strengthen innovation, policy needs to give greater priority to fundamental research, improve the effectiveness of public R&D funding and promote the flow of knowledge between science and industry.


4.0    Future research

In the recent development, research on the impact of ICT on economic growth have so far focused on their results on the statistics that dated between 1990 and 2000. No research has so far been done from the year 2000 to 2010 (recently) to justify the link between the contribution of ICT in economic growth and the real output growth for that period as what was done from the period of 1990 – 2000. Although the assumption is that the trend is still continuing (Cette et al, 2004), it would be essential to identify the changes in statistics that have taken place from the early 2000 to the current year.

We also foresee that the use of broadband and recent developments in mobile telephony and for the new businesses thru cloud computing recently being a hype to the business world have made business processes so much easier, thus, this signifies that ICT investments might be catching up with the needs and demands of the ever changing business environment to retain the trend of profits that is associated with them. It is also vital for us to do comparative analysis that would help identifying why the reasons for the difference in ICT contribution to economic growth, amongst developed and developing nations. This would assist developing and slow moving nations in pin pointing areas for concern and improvements to catch-up with the developed nations.

Future research should mainly focus on more of data collection in order to do measurement analysis from developed and developing countries over every period of time constantly such every 5 year period to recent as with the evolution of ICT how does that it really gives a major impact to the real output growth (GDP) on this nations. This enables us to make even in-depth research about the role ICT contributes to the economy with the actual data that had been collected.

5.0    Conclusions

Main conclusion prior to this study is that there is positive impact of ICT on economic growth and performances of already developed countries as compared to developing countries. Due to the huge contribution of the use of ICT in economic growth, we can conclude that businesses play a major role in ensuring the usage of sufficient technology to ensure their processes faster, cost effective and increases their production levels. It is equally important for businesses to know that an increased in productivity could only be achieved if fuelled by steady and rapid improvements in ICT performance referred by (Cette et al, 2004). Large impact of ICT capital is due to an extraordinary acceleration in ICT investments between 1990-2000 induced by a combination of rapid falling prices of ICT products and services complement with the large demand for ICT fuelled by high economic growth in the 1990’s and substantial pent-up demand due to infrastructure under investment in ICT.

ICT is the key driver to the economic growth, there is no doubt, therefore, major nations government takes a major role in promoting the benefits associated with the use of ICT, but it is imperative to set up some independent bodies that would be actively involved in monitoring, giving feedback and develop improvement on ICT performance in the economy. ICT had been proven to consumers and business to reduce transportation costs and all this can be achieved through regular technical optimization with the prime quest for speed, security and multifunction complete with a dynamic management with strong development focuses. Flexibility in international trade and laws is crucial factors in ensuring that businesses are able to import ICT goods of their choice and specification, from different parts of the world. The adoption of ICT and the consequent increased productivity and economic growth induced by it has been described as the dawn of the new economy. The astounding high rate of productivity in the US for example, which occurred at the same as well with the rapid diffusion and production of ICT directly led to the term new economy. In a broader sense the term would describe everything that is recent and new in the economy. It would imply that old economic rules like the limits of maximum production capacity and the traditional trade-off between inflation and employment would be invalid as a result of efficiency arising from the adoption of ICT. The major driving force of this new economy has been described as ICT (van Ark, 2002; Meng & Li, 2002). There is more research and development in ICT that must be encouraged and measured against the needs and demands of the market. Governments should invest in the creation of ICT industries, and in the diffusion of ICT products and services referred by Smith (2002).

Prior to all the studies and fact findings by most of the researchers with all the data collection analysis, I truly believe that there is definitive reason to conclude that with ICT in most of the industries across developed countries, it will thus impact on the economic growth, however, in developing countries it showing the positive significant result on how ICT has an impact to the economy.

6.0    References

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2. Carayannis E.G. & Popescu D. 2005. Profiling a methodology for economic growth

and convergence: learning from the EU e-procurement experience for central and eastern

European countries. Technovation Volume 25, Issue 1 , January 2005, Pages 1-14.

3. Cette, Gilbert et al. (2004) ICT Diffusion and Potential Output Growth. Banque de

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the United States a Unique Case? A Comparative Study of Nine OECD Countries.

Review of Economic Dynamics Volume 5, Issue 2 , April 2002, Pages 408-442.

5. Dolton P. & Makepeace G. 2004.Computer Use and Earnings in Britain. The Economic

Journal. Volume 114,  Issue 494, March 2004, Page C117 – C129.

6. Jorgenson, Dale w. and Stiroh, Kevin j., 1999. Information technology and growth” American Economic Review.  89(2) pp 109-15.

7. Jussawalla M. 1999. The impact of ICT convergence on development in the Asian

region. Telecommunications Policy. Volume 23, Issues 3-4, April 1999, Pages 217-234.

8. Mankiw N. Gregory, David Romer, and David N. Weil., 1992. A contribution to the empirics of economic growth, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1072:407-437.

9. Meng Q. & Li M. 2002. New Economy and ICT development in China. Information

Economics and Policy Volume 14, Issue 2 , June 2002, Pages 275-295

10.Moodley S. 2003. The challenge of e-business for the South African apparel sector.

Technovation. Volume 23, Issue 7, July 2003, Pages 557-570.

11. Oliner, Stephen D., and Daniel E. Sichel., 2000. The Resurgence of Growth in the Late 1990s: Is Information Technology the Story? Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14:4, pp. 3-22.

13. Papaioannou, Sotiris K., 2004. FDI and ICT Innovation Effect on productivity growth: A

Comparison between developing and developed countries, Athens University of Economics and business, 76 Patission Street , 10434 Athens , Greece.

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18. Roach, Stephen S., 1991. Services under Siege: the Restructuring Imperative, Harvard Business Review 392: 82-92, September-October.

19. Robinson, Dewan, Sanjeev and Kenneth L. Kraemer. 2000. Information Technology and Productivity: Preliminary Evidence from Country-Level Data, Management Science, April, 46:4, pp. 458 – 562.

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21. Sichel, Daniel E. 1997. The Computer Revolution: An Economic Perspective, Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.

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24. Van Ark B. 2002. Measuring the New Economy: An International Comparative

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What Is The Difference Between Herpes Simplex 1 & Herpes Simplex 2?

Herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2) viruses. HSV-1, the main cause of the oral variety, shows symptoms in skin tissue in and around the mouth, and symptoms of HSV-2 appear in the genital region. Both forms of the virus are very contagious . It is estimated that at least 50% of the population has been exposed to it before reaching adulthood.

The virus is transmitted though contact with an infected person, though not necessarily through direct sexual contact. Any skin to skin or oral contact can transmit it. People who are infected should avoid touching their own skin lesions so that they do not spread the infection, and they should avoid skin-to-skin and sexual contact from the time when herpes simplex 1 symptoms appear until they have completely disappeared.

Condoms are effective in preventing transmission of the herpes simplex 2 virus only if all of the skin containing herpes-related sores is covered by the condom. This is difficult since lesions in the genital area are not limited to the shaft of the penis covered by a condom. Abstaining from sex during a herpes virus outbreak is the only way to ensure not passing the disease to a sexual partner.

Symptoms of herpes simplex 1 vary from person to person, depending upon the locations and severity of the infection. Early and less severe symptoms of oral herpes mimic those of the flu and can include fever and headache, and depression or irritability, and inflammation of the lymph nodes. If the outbreak proceeds beyond causing the infected person to simply feel ill, blister-like sores, or cold sores, will appear on the skin around the mouth. Through the cycle of symptoms, the blisters will burst, forming wet sores on the skin. The sores will then dry up as they heal, usually with no scarring, as the outbreak comes to a close.

Symptoms of herpes simplex 2, or genital herpes, appear in and around the genitals, the urethra and the anus of infected persons. One reason why this type of herpes is so easily transmitted is that symptomatic sores can be located deep inside the vagina or in the urethra, and so not visible. Similar to the cycle of oral herpes, small individual blisters or groups of blisters will form in the genital area. These can look and feel like a mild rash or can be very painful. The blisters will burst and heal in a cycle lasting usually no more than two weeks.

Although there is no cure for the herpes simplex virus, many treatment options exists to help people with herpes cope with the symptoms of an outbreak. Prescription antiviral medications can shorten the length of outbreaks or make them less frequent. Simplex 1 Herpes lesions can be Treated with topical pain medication sold over the counter. Anti-inflammatory and anti-fever medication can help with flu-like symptoms.

Since sores that are kept dry tend to heal more quickly, herpes simplex 2 lesions should be kept clean and dry. Infected persons may wish to dry infected areas well with a towel or cool hair dryer and wear loose-fitting, breathable clothing during an outbreak to speed healing.

Natural treatments for herpes include topical antiviral herbal ointments and supplementation of the nutrient lysine, which has been shown to be helpful in preventing shedding of the virus and shortening symptomatic outbreaks. The best defense against herpes outbreaks is a strong immune system built through a healthy lifestyle, including stress management, good nutrition, and adequate sleep.

Lung Cancer Staging – The Four Stages of Lung Cancer

Lung cancer staging refers to a system of classifying where the cancer is in its growth. This allows physicians a guide to help determine what treatments would be most effective and how aggressively those treatments should be administered. It is also a way of determining the potential outcome of a particular case of lung cancer. The lower the stage, the better the odds of a full recovery.

The process of deciding what stage a lung cancer has reached is called “staging the lung cancer.” This is accomplished through a series of tests, such as x-rays, blood tests, bone scans, etc. The goal is to determine the size of the tumor or tumors and if the cancer has spread to other tissues (metastasized). X-rays, MRIs and CAT scans help to determine the size and location of the tumors. Bone scans and blood work can help to determine whether the cancer has spread to other organs or to the bones. PET scans can indicate whether or not a tumor is actively growing.

Lung cancer staging is also dependent on the type of cancer. For instance, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), there are four stages, while in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) there are two … limited stage and extended stage. Here’s a quick overview to give you an idea of the differences between the various stages:

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Stage I: The cancer is confined to the lungs. This stage obviously offers the best prognosis. Lung cancer caught in this stage has better than a 49% five year survival rate.

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Stage II: The cancer is confined to lung tissue and the lymph nodes within the lungs, the recovery rate is 40-50%

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Stage II: The tumors have spread from the lungs, but are confined to the chest area. Larger, more invasive tumors are generally diagnosed as belonging to this stage.

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Stage IV: The cancer has spread away from the chest and invaded other parts of the body such as the liver, adrenal glands, bone, brain, and/or other sites.

Small Cell Lung Cancer Limited Stage: The cancer is confined to the chest area, and has not spread outside the point of origin.

Small Cell Lung Cancer Extended Stage: The cancer has spread beyond the chest to other parts of the body.

The treatment recommended by your doctor will take into account the stage of the lung cancer, as well as the size and location of the tumors and your general overall health. Of course, you’ll have input into how aggressively the cancer should be pursued and all that entails. More and more oncologists are coming to accept that the prognosis of a patient with lung cancer — as it is with any cancer patient — is profoundly affected by the patient’s attitude and decision making.

Depression – The Silent Killer

I’d like to dedicate this article to the short life of Kelty Patrick Dennehy.

The impulse to write about my own past experience of depression and suicidal tendencies has been percolating to the surface of my mind for while now. It’s a subject matter that goes largely unnoticed and unspoken for most, until someone is directly or indirectly affected by it. I use depression and suicide in the same context because more often or not they tragically go hand in hand, more than we will ever understand or know, from a statistical sense, and in my own experience there was a seamless parallel between the two very distinct elements.

When I think of Kelty’s story, or read or hear of a story related to depression or suicide, there is an instant rapport that identifies me with my own past suffering and the suffering of the individual I am reading or hearing about.

For the first few decades of my life I was haunted by depression and a desire to die. Whenever things got tough for me emotionally or mentally especially in early adulthood, I would always be internally dead ended with an overwhelming feeling of depression and suicidal thoughts. My first cognition around the feelings of helplessness and hopelessness were recognized early on in my life as early as 9 or 10 years old. The feelings of the desire to die, progressively developed too surface around the age of 19 years.

While my early childhood would seem by most to be absent of any direct trauma or abuse, I now know the power the mind has to internalize un-integrated emotions and thought forms back onto itself in unhealthy ways. The absence of any resilience enhancing skill in my life for the first few decades, simply allowed the energy of “e”motion to be redirected into a feeling and belief that one of the easiest ways for me to “fix things” was to simply check out.

While I was never clinically assessed as depressed, the memory and details of my own particular narrative combined with my later exploration into the foray of personal growth and Spirituality now provides me with enough reference material and insight, to lead me to have a certain level of understanding around my own personal process and story around depression and suicidal thoughts. As early as 6 years old I developed an awareness and confusion around my sexuality even though I did not begin my own exploration for another 16 years, when I began to express myself sexually as gay man. Also, as a child, I was bullied intensely between the ages of 7 to 14…

In the context of my own experience of depression and what I have learned to date, I would say these two contributing and interdependent factors became the foundation from which the symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts were kindled. In spite of a tangible decrease in the bullying factor at around grade 9, or 15years old, the “damage” had already been done. I no longer needed the outer bully, because I had internalized the “language” of the bully within and back onto myself and the person I imagined myself to be. Even now while subtle, the confusion, judgment and lack of acceptance around my sexual identity and childhood experience of bullying continues to be expressed and experienced as a ripple affect, taking the form of self depreciating, thoughts, feelings, emotions, perceptions, associations and memories that have a life of their own.

I provide some detail colour to this picture only as a way to frame this narrative. In my heart and my present day process, I have realized many of these details as now obsolete; they have become redundant as I have learned skills of emotional resolution, Self love and have learned to redirect my attention not into the pain and suffering of my past but more importantly the rediscovery of Who I AM. That being said and gratefully received, I also clearly recognize the ongoing suffering that continues to express itself in the lives of others who have or are dealing with the stigma and disease of this silent life killer.

The worst chapter of my story peaked around between 23 and 27 years, where I would go to bed at night and wake up in the morning with the same negative thoughts, feelings, emotions, perceptions, associations and memories that only enhanced and perpetuated my experience of helplessness and hopelessness. At this time, an ongoing episode of unrequited love and a mother who was dying of cancer pushed me deeply into a quagmire of irreconcilable emotions preventing me from experiencing any real joy and beauty that life could provide.

There was only ever one, very lame and “failed” attempt in my history to take action on my desire to check out; where a casual cocktail mix of alcohol and sleep aids was used too prematurely influence the finger of Gods timetable on my life. The absence of “real courage” prevented me from further attempts at exploring more successful methods of escaping the melodrama that my story had become. Instead, I masked those thoughts and feelings; I pursued life relentlessly in an attempt to use an internal zest to combat the dragon’s fire within me. On the outside I appeared to live a normal life, while on the inside I wallowed in the endless suffering and apathy of my shadow side.

I am not a qualified expert in the area of depression or suicide; I am a self proclaimed graduate of “e”motion high. I earned my Masters and P.H.D., in the field of depression in the school of my life. In spite of the fact I spent the first 28 years of my life infecting myself with high dosages of self engendered curriculum that enhanced and elevated my experience of depression, I was fortunate enough too actually “make it through”, largely in part too an inner motivation and hunger that eventually spring boarded me not into a premature departure, but instead, the world of personal growth and Spirituality at the age of 27.

My heart is both easy and grievous in the light of knowing the subjective freedom I have now gained from my own story and the experience of ongoing depression that robed me of a simple, idealistic childhood and youth. The equanimity and understanding I have found within the dearth of my own emotional spectrum while now providing comfort and solace, is often gently disturbed, when I bump into the suffering that continues to ripple through the pages of others, whose stories of depression and its tyranny unfold with similarity and different outcomes to my own…

Some Facts…

Suicide is the second leading cause of death for teens in Canada and third leading cause of death in the US.

Suicide and attempted suicide has increased 300% in the last thirty years.

An estimated 80% of all those who commit suicide give some warning of their intentions or mention their feelings to a friend or family member.

In 1996, more teenagers and young adults died of suicide than from cancer, heart disease, AIDS, birth defects, stroke, pneumonia, influenza, and chronic lung disease combined.

Having a firearm in the home greatly increases the risk of youth suicide. Sixty-four percent of suicide victims 10-24 years old use a firearm to complete the act.

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The Symtoms:

Looking down the list of the following symptoms you might be surprised by the “commonality” of some of these in every day life experience. It is the occurrence of these symptoms that may differentiate someone who is depressed versus someone who is simply having an experience of one of these symptoms. It is rare that someone with depression will have all the symptoms, but common to see several of them develop in consistent, regular ways with someone who does have depression.

The recurrence of a number of these symptoms will sometimes indicate the level of severity of the depression. Symptoms may appear to be more dominant in the morning. There are no hard and fast rules. This article is not a diagnosis or clinical resource; it’s an attempt to share my story while also inspiring you to pursue your own journey into healing. If you think you may be experiencing depression; please, seek the guidance and support of qualified professionals including your own family doctor…

In a “funk” or low mood most of the time. Occurring on a regular basis.

Lack of interest in life, including activities that once brought joy and happiness.

Lack of motivation in every day life and activities, simple task seem impossible to “do’.

Ability to concentrate on daily activities such as work, exercise or hobbies.

Interruption of regular sleep rhythms/patterns: difficulty falling asleep, inability to get back to sleep once awakened. Excessive sleep sessions. Constant feeling of being tired, lack of “energy” in spite of sleeping.

Difficulty in the experience and expression of affection or sexual intimacy, lack of sexual motivation.

Loss of appetite and weight loss, or a gain of weight as a result of eating for comfort.

Difficulty in emotion resolution; feelings of worthlessness, guilt and uselessness, excessive feelings of sadness and grief. Irritability, agitation and restlessness. Preoccupation with thoughts of death and dying, unnatural fixation on seeing death as a solution, overwhelming feelings that “life is not worth living”.

Physiological symptoms may vary from mild to severe and include: headaches, heart palpitations, chest and body aches.


The path to subjective freedom lies in our ability to know, understand and Self navigate all levels of our existence. When we fixate on one dimension of our existence only, using force or coercion we can only expect more sever ramifications to result from this indiscretion.

We were born to discover Who We Are! Life is the playground from which we can gain the necessary skills, talents and powers to leverage and engage the field of infinite possibilities with awareness, skillful ease and finesse. These abilities are for the most part, learned skills. Ones proclivity to depression whether that be genetic or environmental in circumstance, requires successful intervention on all levels of our existence for integration (healing) to occur. The mind must be attended to. The emotions must be embraced and the body must be cared for.

I am grateful for the fact that I was able to continue to elevate the journey of my own life to greater levels of fulfillment and meaning. I have known more than one who has not. When life has no meaning and we have lost touch with the momentum of inspiration that fulfillment in life offers, we are individually challenged to pick up the invitation to reignite its verve. This entry could not possibly articulate the many thousands of influences, models, theories or perspectives that provide understanding and depth to the story of depression, so I shall focus only on one; stress.

According to yoga, the body/mind is not just a field of substance or matter. At its subtlest level it is a coherent field of energy and information that is connected effortlessly to a Universe of energy and information. From a field of undifferentiated consciousness, life manifests itself as the world of form and phenomena, nurtured by this field of energy and information.

Our body/mind is the instrument from which we can navigate, explore and connect to this vast Universe; the known and unknown, while cultivating and elevating the gift of our awareness. When we experience health, the energy and information flows seamlessly through this infinite web of creation allowing us to navigate life with finesse and ease.

Unfortunately, the kind of lives we now live do not support us on the thinking, emotional and biological levels. The absence of life enhancing, skills based, resilience techniques allow the build up of stress and toxins in our nervous system that eventually interrupt the free flow of energy and information. Toxic upbringing or a lack of necessary skill sets to cultivate wellness within the body/mind, leads to toxic lifestyle choices and the gradual breakdown of the vital connection we have to the core of our existence.

Eating good food, exercise and sleep no longer provides the prevention, protection or elevation of homeostasis within our physiology or psychology. Some of the most exciting mainstream work on depression is occurring in the area of research on the impact stress hormones play in depression. In sever depression adrenalin and cortisol levels are abnormally high. When a nervous system becomes overly stressed, we lose our ability to access and metabolize the energy and information that is normally, readily available to us.

Anxiety and depression cripples our innate intelligence. When prolonged the body/mind system looses its ability to strategize, we lose our ability to navigate and thrive within the thinking, emotional and biological dimensions of our existence. The flight, fright and freeze function of our old brain, while valuable when we are faced with life threatening situations, has become a rambunctious and out-of-control, organ.

In our lives we are faced with daily occurrences that trigger the stress response within our physiology:

We missed a connecting flight… and we become stressed.

The cashier at our favorite coffee shop is on their first shift, not been trained properly and we’re already late for work… and we become stressed.

It’s a Sunday afternoon; the one gas station town is piled up bumper to bumper with weekend warriors and someone just jumped the queue… and we become stressed.

There is no real danger here, no actual threat to our existence. It’s our agenda that has been challenged. It’s our psychological idea of how things “should” be that has provoked a premature, biological reaction as masses of stress hormones are dumped into our blood stream.

In our daily lives we all experience various degree’s of difficulty in the manifestation of our wants, needs and desires. We all experience a spectrum of reaction to the perceived threats to our safety, happiness and self-esteem. Our body/mind dutifully responds with reaction, to these very diverse kinds of stress. At some point the body/mind begins to break down, our nervous system can no longer tolerate the excessive levels of stress occurring in our lives.

We intuitively know that we have lost touch with the core of Who We Are, if only on a biological, emotional and thinking level. Depression is a natural response to the unnatural circumstance of 21st century living. The increasing levels of depression and suicide especially among our youth, is a wake up call that requires our attention. The details are vast and the options diverse, but there is hope. It lies within the wisdom of the body/mind that appears to be the source of our predilection.

As we begin to understand the body/mind, as we courageously explore all levels of our existence: the biological, the emotional, and even beyond the thinking dimensions, we will find new ways intuitively and functionally respond to the circumstantial evidence and challenges of our day to day living. We will engage life not from a place of survival only, but instead, tap into and thrive on the inspiration that comes from living integrated lives, lives where we have learned to connect, cultivate, harness and trust the wisdom within us.


In 1989 I learned how to meditate. It was my first conscious choice to move beyond the theories and learning’s of an ever growing wellness philosophy in my life. I was now exploring first hand those ideas experientially. For the first time in life I was excited not by what was going on outside me, but what was occurring inside: I could touch, taste and smell an ever swelling movement of inner inspiration. Within about a year of daily practice, I began to experience an inner transformation, emotions and suicidal thoughts had evaporated; the desire to die was gone…

I could come up with and explore volumes of speculation on “the how” and “the why” of my experience, but that’s not really what’s important to someone who spent almost 30 years of life treading the symptoms of depression. What’s important is that my life took on dramatic new directions that I could never possibly have imagined or anticipated. What’s important is that even the experience of depression is subjected to the same tangible, laws of the world of form and phenomena, the physics of all life experience:

there is a beginning,

there is a middle


there can be a successful end to the tyranny of depression!


Be in your body, learn to love your body:

Create and engage your own exercise routine.

Get out of your head:

Spend time in nature where there is an ever-present harmony that your own nervous system can calibrate itself to.

Be gentle, Be easy, Be effortless:

Learning to navigate the experience of life requires skills. Many of those skills need to be learned and then practiced with vigilance in order for success to be realized.

Learn to meditate:

There are many approaches to explore, check out a few and choose one you feel drawn and most connected to, it will open doorways and re- establish the bliss of being within your experience and awareness.

Rediscover new ways of being:

There are many ways to take care of the Self. The person you were exists in the past. Who you become unfolds in the present moment now. Practicing a regular routine of “self care” will combat the conditioning you may have experienced creating the space for a new you to be experienced and expressed ~ and a new day and “you” will dawn…

Recognize Who You Are:

You have thoughts, but you are not your thoughts. You have emotions but you are not your emotions. You have a body, but you are not your body. Your thoughts, your emotions and your body happen to you. They are symptoms of Who You Are.

Find out Who You Are:

The easiest way to discover Who You Are is to find out what you aren’t. Be vigilant. Discriminate between the thoughts and emotions that are happening to you and the awareness that is you.

Cultivate the value of acceptance:

It’s OK to be sad. It’s OK to be depressed. It’s OK to feel like you are not in control. It’s OK to feel needy, unloved, and alone. Learn to witness those thoughts arise and subside, with judgment, evaluation, or assessment. Notice the thoughts, all thoughts, come and go.

Embrace your sensitive side:

Being sensitive is a gift and talent, it is not a burden. There will come a time when your sensitivity will access not the pain and suffering of your past but the bliss of the moment as it is, this is the legacy of your past.

Seek out your own support team:

Surround yourself with people that support and nurture you, people who understand and know what it is like to suffer and people who are successfully navigating their own suffering.

Find inspiration in life:

Music? Art? Dance? Creativity? Learn to cultivate and express the creativity that exists within you.

Ask yourself some important questions:

Q. What are some of the tangible sources of your unhappiness in your life?

Q. What areas of your life need to be experienced and expressed more fully?

Q. Are you ignoring an inner message that needs to be responded to?

Q. Are there toxic relationships that need to be avoided or terminated within your experience?

Q. Do you listen to and cultivate the wisdom of your own Soul?

Does Everyone Have Phobias?

We have all seen dozens of movies and read hundreds of articles in the newspaper and on blogs on the net about various phobias that people in this world have. Some of these phobias are apparent like the common ones, like the fear of heights (acrophobia) and the fear of water (hydrophobia). But the question is that does everyone have phobias, or only some people?

The answer to the question above is too long, mostly because in most cases people have not yet come across their phobias or are too ignorant to notice them. An example would be a person who is afraid of a polar bear for example. If this person has lived his life in a continent like Africa and not even seen a polar bear in real life then it’s almost impossible he will ever discover his hidden phobia.

Scientists believe that everyone in this world has phobias. However big or small that the fears might be, they are nonetheless a fear and classified as a phobia. Some phobias are apparent and dangerous while others are sedate and may not harm the person. Scientists say the reason behind phobias is not just the personal experiences that we experience in our lives. It is also genetic in nature, as has been recently discovered.

Some specific phobias have been known to be passed on from generation to generation amongst certain families. So the conclusion of the various studies undertaken by the scientists have taken us a step closer to answering the eternal question if everyone actually has phobias, or it’s just present in some people.

Important Facts About Pneumonia “pneumococcus” in Thailand

80-90% of pneumonia derives from infections caused by either viruses or bacteria. The cause of bacteria pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known in a shorter term as pneumococcus. The bacteria are responsible for pneumonia illness, also capable of producing the invasive pneumococcal infections (a.k.a. invasive pneumococcal disease – IPD).

The signs and symptoms determine the cause of pneumonia, which determines what kind of treatments should be performed. How serious pneumonia is depends on the clinical characteristics which are either acute or chronic. Infected people often give physical signs, which include a clammy skin, hard time breathing, or face turning pale. The appropriate treatment depends on risk factor of age which begets severe in younger ages, the types of pneumonia, and the person’s underlying health, respectively.

Primary symptoms may include fever (sometimes as high as 104 degrees Fahrenheit), cough with sputum production, shaking chills, and difficulty in breathing. Close caption on chest movement and breathing can help diagnose the signs of pneumonia.

The resolution can be completed according to the causative actions or through antibiotics means. However, the pneumococcus has become more resistance against antibiotics. Most cases of pneumonia can be treated without hospitalization since the nature of human body can nullify the illness. Treatment of pneumonia should never be overlooked due to the weakness it causes to the body’s immune system and the multiplication of microorganisms causing pneumonia.

The cause of a single type of bacteria; pneumococci bacteria alone can cause various symptoms with pneumonia being the most common of all. Bacteremia in clinical presentation includes: the sinusitis, the otitis, or blood infection causing damage to the brain; meningitis. Typical sepsis and sinusitis is also known as IPD.

IPD is an abbreviation for “Invasive Pheumococcal Disease”. The infection can cause a sepsis or having bacterium infection through blood stream and produce toxin compound. Infection in blood stream eventually leads to damage of internal organs. Especially in young child, the sepsis can cause a sudden shock, renal or liver dysfunctional, or stop breathing. A child with meningitis problem may show symptoms such as a shock, tensing, damage to the brain causing liver or heart dysfunctional.

The risk of taking infections occurs in all age groups, and is a leading cause of death among the elderly and young ages out of the weakened immune system factor. Children age under four requires immediate treatment once infected.

Maintain good hygiene in the house and washing your hands often and thoroughly can help reduce your risk since your hands are in most constant contact with germs that can cause pneumonia. Wearing a face mask and always coughing into tissue helps too. Try to keep others from infection by having the one with pneumonia kept separated from anyone with a compromised immune system. Getting vaccinated is also a recommendation.  Pneumonia vaccine is given to prevent one specific type of pneumonia, which is caused by the Pneumococcus. Fortunately, with the discovery of many potent antibiotics, most cases of pneumonia can be successfully treated. In fact, pneumonia can usually be treated with oral antibiotics without the need for hospitalization.

Overcoming Anxiety Attacks at Bedtime

Overcoming anxiety attacks at bedtime is a difficult task, especially with all of the stress people tend to go through in a day. From the constant stress of work to issues such as financial or marital concerns, a lot of people will wake up in the middle of night with the sweats, shakes or even heart palpitations. There are a few methods to help overcome this though – eating right, exercising and getting the right amount of sleep. Each are helpful, but using all three methods are an excellent way to help in eliminating anxiety attacks at night.

Eating the right food can help your sleep pattern. Make sure to eat the variety of foods from all the recommended food groups – milk, vegetables, fruits, grains, meat and beans. Eating organic foods can help with sleep. Also, make sure to drink plenty of water throughout the day. Being dehydrated can cause feelings of anxiety and potentially affect sleep. Stay away from sugar, especially near bedtime. Each of these simple steps can help in overcoming anxiety attacks at bedtime.

Exercise is a natural way to release endorphins, which helps creates a sense of relaxation, not only for the body, but also for the mind. A runner’s high is a common term used by runners after jogging a certain distance that helps create a sense of euphoria. However, jogging is not the only type of exercise that can create this natural high. Other great exercises include yoga, walking, cycling, weight lifting, swimming or play team sports such as basketball and volleyball. All are great ways to help induce endorphins, which are important in overcoming anxiety attacks at bedtime.

The last aspect in helping overcome anxiety attacks at bedtime is getting the right quality and amount of sleep. Generally, adults need 7 to 8 hours of a sleep a night. Sleep deprivation can have effect how people think and effect their mood. Getting on a good sleep pattern (i.e. going to bed at 10:00pm every night) is a good first step. Next, try relaxation techniques during bedtime such as listening to classical music and/or forms of sleep hypnosis. Both of which are excellent techniques in relaxation and help in falling asleep.

How to Fight Depression on Your Own – Break the Cycle of Depression and Get Your Life Back

Imagine to be at your favorite spot, surrounded by the people you love, and feel your true self again. Allow yourself to believe that, out there, is somebody who can show you how to fight depression on your own.

If you think that it is difficult to fight depression alone, you are not the only one. At times, depending on your life situation, and individual circumstances, you might feel that this thought of battling depression all on your own is quite challenging. Actually, it is possible to handle and recover from depression without any help. But is it wise to do so?

As you probably already know … many depressed people tend to withdraw, and give up relationship that have been meaningful for them in the past. Some even hide their true self because they reject who they have become.

Are you one of those people who have been struggling with depression for many years? Have you exhausted yourself looking for a solution to your predicament, taking drugs to no avail, reading books, or being part of treatment programs to heal. Having found me, you must be very skeptical (which I think is normal). You may have little faith in ever curing your condition.

Do not let yourself become one of those who fights the battle against depression without support. Seek help when you need it!

If I tell you that there is a secret but simple method that shows you how to fight depression, would you be interested? Reading word for word, you will soon find out about a fast and permanent method that has helped over 30,000 depressed people to break the cycle of depression, and return to their normal everyday life. Even, the mental health profession is starting to take notice because it is so simple, and powerful.

It might sound unbelievable but there is one main point that matters when looking into those who completely recover from depression and those who do not. The major part is not antidepressant medication, changes in lifestyle, or specific relaxation techniques. It happens when you are prepared to learn everything about the main cause of depression, fully acknowledge the condition you are in and quickly do something about it. You do not want to miss this, am I right?

Toenail Not Growing

There are occasional reports of a toenail not growing; however, in most instances, the nail is growing, it is just doing so so very slowly that it's difficult to tell. Nails grow slowly: it will take an average of six months for a fingernail to grow out completely, and a toenail takes at least twice as long. They also seem to grow more slowly as we get older. Sometimes the cure is simply patience. If you just wait, eventually you will see growth.

In other instances, the appearance of a toenail not growing may result from it being worn down or destroyed so fast at the tip that no growth is visible. Sometimes activities (like a daily walk, barefoot on a sandy beach?) Will wear away the tips of the nails so that they never have to be cut, much like a dog's toenails will be kept short by walking or running on pavement all the time . Infectious causes could be at work as well. Fungal infections of the nails often make nails soft and crumbly, so that they come apart and remain short. Infected nails are usually yellowish or brownish, thick, distorted and unhealthy looking. An antifungal treatment of some kind is needed to resolve this kind of problem.

When you truly have a toenail not growing, it could be that the root of the nail is damaged. The root is hidden under the flesh at the base of the nail, between the cuticle and the knuckle. Specialized cells here pack together dead skin cells into dense layers to form the nail. As the cells in the root pack together more and more skin cells, the ones that are already packed are pushed outwards. If, for any reason, the packing of cells stops, the nail will stop growing. There could be various reasons for this, ranging from physical damage to the root, to drug side effects, or disease processes. When there is no obvious history of finger or nail injury to explain a toenail not growing, a doctor should be consulted.

To have a toenail not growing is a rare thing. Unless there is something obviously wrong with the toe (indicated by swelling, inflammation, pain, discoloration, etc.), there is probably not a problem. Wait and see if a month changes your perspective. The nail will probably have inched forward a bit by that time.

Has Fluconazole Has Made Your Yeast Infection Worse

A small percentage of women often discover that an anti fungal yeast infection cure actually makes their yeast infection worse. Fluconazole is an oral anti fungal drug that is prescribed by doctors to kill the mutated Candida Albicans yeast that is the common cause of vaginal yeast infections. The outcome of the treatment though, is not always the one that is expected.

Fluconazole works by breaking down the fungus that is causing the infection so it can no longer survive in the human body. The problem with this type of treatment, and any other type of anti fungal treatment is once the treatment has stopped there is nothing to stop the fungus from re-infecting you if your body’s natural defences are low.

Your body’s immune system and your colony of friendly bacteria are your body’s natural defences against bacterial and fungal infections. If these are weakened in any way then the Fluconazole that you take will not cure your yeast infection. Once you stop your treatment the yeast infection will easily become recurrent. Everyone swallows Candida naturally when they eat. In a healthy person this isn’t a problem. Stomach acid kills the yeast, and what does get into the intestines is taken care of by friendly bacteria.

Friendly bacteria are also needed to keep your immune system strong. So if your intestines are low in friendly bacteria then they can’t protect you from the re-infecting yeast, and they can’t strengthen your immune system so it doesn’t take long your yeast infection to return.

When it does return it’s usually worse because the anti fungal drug will weaken your immune system, and it will also have an effect on your friendly bacteria levels. When your body gets used to drugs fighting infections it becomes reliant on these drugs so it stops fighting infections naturally.

Your infection will also come back worse if the fungus has been exposed to the Fluconazole before. When fungi are exposed too often to drugs that are there to kill them they build up a resistance to them. This resistance causes the fungi to mutate into a stronger strain that becomes harder to kill, and causes worse infections.

Another reason why these anti fungal drugs make yeast infections worse is because more women are using them without the guidance from their doctor. They are easily available online to purchase so women are buying them when they want to, and using them how they think they need to.

You need your doctor to tell you how to take them and for how long. Sometimes you only need one dose, or you can be on the other end of the scale and need to take them for weeks. Only your doctor can give you this information so it is important to see your doctor before you start using these drugs. It will mean the difference in under-exposing or over-exposing the yeast to these powerful drugs.

Once you get a resistant yeast in your body you can end up on drugs for a long time when you’re trying to cure an infection that should have been cured in a few days.

Neck Strain

Neck sprain is a stretching or tearing feeling in the tissues of the neck. A neck strain is an injury that can damage the ligaments and muscles that support the neck and head.

Neck Strain

A strain in any part of a body is a stretch or tear of a muscle or tendon. Neck is surrounded by small muscles running close to the vertebrae and larger muscles that make up the visible muscles of the neck.


Neck strain can be caused when neck got unexpected bend, as if you a person is suddenly accelerated forward, then the head has tendency to remain behind and thus neck bends backwards suddenly. Our neck stays in constant tension to hold the head up. If a person having any injury on either neck or head, this may result to strain in neck. Sometime if you keep your neck one side while sleeping this may result to strain in neck. People who work on computer for a long time may suffer from the problem of neck strain.


If a person having strain in neck he / she may experience severe pain in the area around neck. Sometime it may have aching in neck. Even head movements also seems difficult and if one tries to move head side to side this can get pain in the neck. In some cases patient of neck strain may get numbness in fingers and also in forearms. Some other symptoms are blurred vision, swallowing, dizziness, stiffness, noise in ear and also nausea.


Most of the patients of neck strain recover in one-two weeks but in some conditions, it can have long term effects such as long term discomfort, pain and limitation of movements. If a person is facing difficulty by sitting in same position for long time, then you should try to take small gaps between the working schedules. You can wear a soft cervical collar round your neck as it would be helpful in supporting head and also relieve pressure of neck.

Cutaneous Side-Effects of SSRI Drugs Used for the Treatment of Depression

SELECTIVE Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely considered the best treatment for depression in a majority of cases. Overall, SSRIs are widely regarded to be the best anti-depressants in terms of their toxicity profile. Nevertheless, there have been cases of some serious side-effects of SSRI drugs. In this report, we shall look at some of the more likely cutaneous (ie, skin) side-effects of SSRIs (including Lexapro, the latest drug in the SSRI family).

The possible cutaneous side-effects of SSRIs include:

  • Bruising: Spontaneous, or increased tendency to bruise
  • Pruritus: Unpleasant sensation that creates a desire to scratch
  • Urticaria: Swellings on skin (or raised sections of skin)
  • Angioedema: Same as urticaria, but the swellings are beneath the skin.
  • Erythema multiforme: Inflammatory skin rash; occasionally with purple or blistered centers.
  • Stevens-Johnson syndrome: Potentially fatal; more acute version of erythema multiforme
  • Toxic epidermal necrolysis: Potentially fatal; skin blisters and the top layer of the skin starts peeling off.
  • Erythema nodosum: Reddish, tender lumps ( quite painful), especially in front of the legs below the knees.
  • Alopecia: Hair loss from parts of the body, especially the scalp.
  • Hypertrichosis: Excessive body hair, localized or all over the body
  • Leukocytoclastic vasculitis: A histopathological condition; treatment of this disease is very risky, so a firm diagnosis is absolutely necessary before starting treatment (also because other diseases too have similar symptoms).
  • Acneiform eruption: Cysts or nodules resembling blackheads , whiteheads, or pimples on the skin.

Response: SSRI-caused cutaneous side- effects of some degree of seriousness are rare, yet they happen though it is not clear why they happen. If you experience a cutaneous side-effect while on treatment of depression by an SSRI, it would not be advisable to replace one SSRI with another, because all SSRIs generally have the same side-effects though in different intensities. So, it would be best to taper off the SSRI you are taking and opt for a non-SSRI drug. Leave the decision, however, to your physician.