How Garlic Can Help Prevent and Treat Food Poisoning Including Salmonella

To understand how to combat salmonella holistically and naturally, one must understand what salmonella is. Salmonella is in fact a large family of bacteria, some of which are responsible for the many illnesses in animals and humans. It causes typhoid fever and more commonly the well publicized food poisoning.

Salmonella exists in the bodies of animals but is capable of surviving for extended periods outside of the body. It is zoonotic which means it can be transmitted from animals to humans.This is why it is imperative to wash ones hands as the bacteria can move externally. Once ingested into the host the bacteria multiples. Most commonly it is contracted from improperly. In some instances, popular preferences and cooking styles prevent the elimination of the containment, as is in seen in the conventionally cooked eggs which, unless they are cooked thoroughly, remain. Sunny side up, over easy, even the mildly undercooked eggs will harbor the bacteria. However, salmonella is not only carried in eggs and has been found in foods of many varieties.

The symptoms of salmonella are vomiting,diarrhea, cramps and fever. The illness will typically run its course in a week or more, but if the symptoms persist, one should consult a physician.

How can garlic help? Garlic contains a sulfur compound called allicin which has antibacterial properties. Garlic has been used since ancient Rome as an antibacterial agent. The popularity in recent times has been increased as antibacterial resistant strains of various bacteria have emerged. Garlic, however, seems to have the advantage of being proved to be used for millennial without the various bacteria growing accustomed to and resistant to it.

The added benefit of garlic is that it boots the immune system. This is crucial as the major problem with people suffering from food poisoning is that in someone with a weakened immune system, the symptoms will likely be worse, as will the effects of the illness. Those who succumb to food poisoning will tend to have a more compromised immune system. Garlic has been shown to increase immunity in those who take either supplemental garlic or fresh garlic.

One of the traditional reasons for incorporating garlic was for the same reason hot chili peppers became common in cultures without refrigeration. It helped prevent the food from growing bacteria and also helped the individual who consumed it from becoming ill. It would be advisable for everyone to take supplemental garlic regardless of the situation. However, considering the contaminated food-chain and the ever increasing disregard for cleanliness in both production and transportation, it would seem imperative to take garlic as a precaution.

More on garlic

Varicose Veins Remedies

 Blood circulates through the legs and veins push them back to the heart. At times veins become weak and lose their capacity to push the blood back. This causes varicose veins. The veins become thick, turned and are prominently visible. This can lead to venous thrombosis which is the term for a blood clot. It can affect any part of the body but generally affects the legs. Weakening of the veins is the main cause. It could cause ulcer of the skin. More women are affected by this than men.

Varicose veins can be inherited. Pregnant women are more prone to varicose veins. The reason for occurrence of varicose is the damaged valves within the veins. The valves prevent the flow of blood back to the heart. The veins swell when the blood gets accumulated in them.

There are several ways to prevent the occurrence of this condition. Exercise to the legs like jogging and walks help keep the circulation going. If you are already suffering, it is better to keep your legs at a higher position than the rest of the body when you sleep. This will help the blood to flow back.

There are several kinds of treatment. Yoga could be of great help. Certain yoga postures help the blood to flow back. If you are sitting in front of a computer or driving for hours, it is better to get out and stretch your legs every hour.

Another treatment is laser therapy. Laser energy causes the varicose veins to shrink and coagulate. But laser therapy is mainly suited for smaller spider veins.

Fiber rich foods like vegetables and fruits are a must. Reduce the intake of salt.

Compression stockings are also of great help. The veins near the surface are generally weak. Compression stockings help to push the blood to the inner veins which are stronger.

Wear loose clothing below the waist. Try to avoid smoking and reduce the intake of alcohol.

Obese people tend to get varicose veins. A strict diet and reduction of body weight is essential. Other causes are aging, pregnancy, and menopause.

Alternative medicine has some excellent varicose veins treatment. Homeopathy and ayurveda not only provide immediate relief but are capable of completely curing the disease.

Constipation – Immediate Relief – Take High Fiber Fruits to Cure Constipation

Constipation cure is an individual’s best friend especially during a bout of constipation. In fact there are various types of constipation remedy, you have the otc medications such as constipation laxatives, the home made remedies, natural and alternative remedies.

But are you aware that consuming ample amounts of high fiber fruits is enough to be considered as constipation remedy? As constipation is due to an individual’s lack of balanced diet, like for example, lack of fiber in the diet, certain fruits contain an amazing amount of fiber that could make up for the lack of fiber in an unbalanced diet and pave the way for constipation treatment.

Be aware that while these fruits are enough for some people to treat acute or occasional constipation problem, there are other kinds of constipation relief for people with chronic constipation.

Tired of eating vegetables? Try fruits to remedy constipation problem.

Here are some of the most widely recommended fruits you can use to alleviate your problem with constipation. It is up to you if you prefer non-organic or organic fruits. Either way, you would still get the same amount of fiber, though minus the pesticides in organic fruits. So be sure to consume the fruits you bought as soon as possible because the longer the fruit sits on your fruit basket, the more they lose their essential nutrients.

1. Apricot. Apricots are natural laxatives, fiber rich and contain the most important vitamins A and C. It’s also high in potassium content as well as many other minerals. You could choose from fresh and dried apricots, but dried apricots are usually higher in essential vitamins and minerals. But those who have ulcers must avoid dried fruits for they can trigger hyperacidity.

2. Blueberry. Blueberries are natural constipation laxatives and this fruits are known for its effect on reducing inflammations. Because it is a natural laxative and an anti-inflammatory substance at the same time, it’s good for constipation immediate relief and lowering inflammations in the intestinal tract that is due to constipation. Blueberries also contain anthocyanosides known to carry off certain viruses and bacteria.

3. Cherry. Cherries, other than being delectable are also known as the best bets for constipation cure since they contain components that could trigger peristaltic action in the intestinal tract. Also cherries are high in fiber, potassium, Vitamins B1 and B2, niacin and folic acid.

4. Grape. Grape fruits are rich in fiber, manganese, minerals and vitamins. These fruits have a laxative effect, so consuming at least 2 lbs of grapes daily would provide constipation relief for those people with occasional constipation problem.

5. Mangoes. Aside from being delectable, mangoes are perfect for constipation relief since it contains ample amount of fiber, vitamin C and other vitamins and essential minerals.

6. Papaya. Aside from being rich in beta carotene, papaya is also rich in papain and other essential mineral and vitamins. The papain enzyme provides constipation cure and helps in removing mucus in the intestines and colon. Papaya also helps in reducing cell wastes.

7. Prunes and Plums. Plums are rich in minerals which are great for cleansing the gastrointestinal tract and colon. Prunes, on other hand are dried plums and have high iron content. While both fruits have laxative effect, prunes are proven to have a more constipation laxative effect than plums.

Lean Muscle Protein Shakes

A low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet is quite difficult to stick to for any length of time. Very soon, the craving for familiar stomach fillers like bread, rice and potatoes begins to hit you. Even if you overcome the mental cravings, you will find yourself getting hungry at odd times, and not feeling "filled up" after meals.

Why do you get these physical cravings?

First of all, the mind exerts a lot of control over the body, in ways that are not immediately obvious. What seems to be a physical craving may also be mostly mental.

Secondly, there is definitely a part of the craving that is physical. Most people automatically eat less once they cut down on carbs. To top it off, your body is still used to producing digestive secretions at the intervals that it had previously, so the cravings until your body gets used to the new routine.

What can you do to combat them?

First, drink lots of water. A lot of our "hunger" is caused by hyperacidity in the stomach. Water dilutes the acid, helping you stall the hunger for a while.

When you realize you are really hungry and no amount of water helps, go for a protein shake. You will find various varieties in the market, including organic ones. Look out for protein mixes based on hemp, soy or brown rice. If you do not like the taste of the shake mix flavors, buy an unflavored protein powder and add fruit to make your snack even richer in trace nutrients.

A protein shake will help you stick to your low-carb diet and yet help you feel energetic and well-nourished for at least two hours. Adjust the amounts of high-protein shake mix and fruit to suit your preferences, and soon you will find the perfect snack to beat your cravings.

How to Detect Fatty Liver Disease Symptoms

Are there fatty liver disease (or FLD) symptoms? What are these symptoms? Indeed, a lot of people have asked and have been asking if there are FLD symptoms and, if yes, what these symptoms are. Whether they know someone who has FLD or they are just curious about FLD and would like to prevent it, people have been wondering about its symptoms. FLD is the accumulation of fat, or triglycerides, in the liver through a process called steatosis. On worst cases, it can lead to liver failure.

Unfortunately, fatty liver disease symptoms are mostly absent in patients. FLD is asymptomatic, which means that symptoms are not noticeable to its patients. Most of the time, it is a disease that is incidentally discovered during a routine physical examination.

What is observed is an increase in the amount of certain liver enzymes in the blood. It is also often observed that the size of the liver has slightly enlarged. In some cases, FLD is uncovered when a doctor is evaluating a patient for other unrelated illnesses. To be certain, physicians can recommend or request for a liver biopsy once a certain amount of fat in the liver id discovered.

On rare cases where symptoms do present themselves, they include pain under the rib cage, mild jaundice (or yellowing of the skin), swelling of the abdomen, intense fatigue, confusion, and fever. There are also other symptoms such as nausea, loss of appetite, and vomiting.

What can be done to treat fatty liver? Patients should control the underlying causes of fatty liver. First, diabetes has to be controlled. Alcohol should also be avoided. Patients should also mind the content of high blood triglycerides that they consume each day. Obesity has to be targeted and weight has to be controlled since being overweight is considered as the most critical factor to fatty liver.

Since there are no fatty liver disease symptoms that are usually detected, it is best to have your routine physical examination regularly and never miss it. The tests can identify early on any disease that might still be treated if detected early.

Excessive Nutrition Can Cause Calculus

Nowadays, the standard of life has been raised greatly. The problem of excessive nutrition has been rather common. Excessive nutrition can cause obesity, high blood pressure, high blood fat and some other diseases. In fact, excessive nutrition can also cause calculus. In recent years, the rate of getting calculus among people has been extremely increased.

Generally speaking, calculus can be divided into gall-stone, renal calculus and so on. Gall-stone means the diseases formed in any part within the biliary system, including cholesterol calculus, cholochrome calculus and hybrid calculus. It is easy for people who always eat the foods containing abundant protein, fat or sugar to get gall-stone and cholesterol calculus. In fact, the reasons of causing gall-stone are diverse. The first reason is that people always eat oily foods. According to the medical research, the risk of getting gall-stone of women who always eat fat meat is much higher than that of women who observe a vegetarian diet. The second reason is that some people do not have breakfast frequently. The lack of breakfast is one of hidden reasons of gall-stone. The third reason is many people lack dietary fibers. Excessive intake of refined sugar is the fourth reason of causing gall-stone. When people get gall-stone, they should first reduce the intake of the foods which contain rich cholesterol. In addition, they can supplement lecithin. Lecithin can accelerate the metabolism and decompose ultra fat for the human body. Lecithin is mainly contained in abyssal fish and beans.

The reasons of forming renal calculus are more complex than those of gall-stone. Renal calculus can be divided into calcium oxalate calculus, calcium phosphate calculus and uric acid stone. The huge accumulation of oxalic acid is an important factor to cause renal calculus. Many common foods like spinach, grape, tea, orange, tomato, potato and plum all contain a large amount of oxalic acid. For example, 200 grams of spinach contain nearly 725.6 milligrams of oxalic acid. In developed countries, people like to eat the foods containing animal protein and refined sugar, and the rate of renal calculus is rather high. Renal calculus belongs to the category of calcium salt calculus, so the patients should reduce the intake of calcium salt. During the process of treating renal calculus, the patients should also avoid the foods containing abundant calcium, such as milk and beans.

Therefore, in order to decrease the risk of getting calculus, people must get rid of some bad dietary habits according to the reasons of causing calculus. At the same time, people should avoid excessive nutrition.

Natural Lymphedema Treatment

Living with lymphedma makes it very tough for us to rise above the illness, as we look in the mirror we see ourselves, and we recognize how others see us, and yes it could be a struggle. However, we are strong, and stress is one of our number one enemies.

Stress will create even more issues that create even a bigger disparity in our healing energy. Let’s rap a little about what lymphedema is, and then we’re going to take some deep cleaning breaths, and move on to what you can do to help to keep yourself healthy physically and emotionally. A disorder in the lymphatic system gives rise to the condition known as lymphedema. Lymph vessels are the areas where the lymph collects in the standard body, the vessels return this liquid back to the blood after absorbing the pathogens and microbes.The flow of lymph in the lymphatic vessels is in one direction as the vessels have valves that allow for omnidirectional flow only.

The lymphatic liquid can stay in the tissue spaces if the lymphatic vessels are blocked, due to some reason-this causing swelling in the area where the liquid amasses.

The recurrence of cancer may severely irritate the lymphedema, this is typically as the presence of cancers pulls the mineral sodium and this could cause further along in treating or handling edema, these cures should not be used alone and need to be used to support standard treatment methodologies. As I stated earlier there is not any cure, and you’ll need to control your lymphedema with a comprehensive treatment plan. The herbs and nutritive supplement affect every individual differently, and in a number of cases they’re terribly beneficial in handling edema, but shouldn’t be utilized by themselves. Treatment possibilities will include massage, compression threads, and pharmaceuticals together with herbs and additions to give you the patient the most benefit in an effective and safe demeanour. Additional weight means your body has to work harder, as does your circulatory system. Detox your diet cutting out coffee, alcohol, fatty foods, and ready-made foods high in sodium, highly processes glucose foods, white bread, red meats synthetic sweeteners, soda, and employ a water filter if you’re drinking town water. Chlorine in the water is really unhealthy, and malevolent.

An extraordinarily feeble solution of peroxide in a spray bottle can be employed to end cleaning the fruit ), use natural sea salt for cooking, natural herbal teas ( I think of myself as a vegan, but alas my folks isn’t, but I have found from my own experience that herbal flavored teas make glorious marinates for organic chicken, many heavenly flavours to select from ). Derived from pineapple stems, helps cut swelling, swelling and studies indicate it is useful in fighting bacteria and viruses. People with allergies to pineapple, or on blood thinners shouldn’t take this. Boost immune cell function, help in circulation, and ease swelling across the body. Is an acid herb that promotes improved circulation, treats phlebitis; ease swelling, increases capillary strength and swelling.

Is an Ayurvedic herb and has anti-inflammatory properties. Ginger is believed to increases circulation; decreases swelling, and cleansing.Adding 0.5 tsp ( one gm ) powdered ginger to one cup water.

Help clear poisons from the body, and promote relaxation, and better sleep. Two capsules ( two hundred magnesium to 400 mg calcium taken in pm ).

Should be taken for immune support, clearing of toxins, to plug healthy guts, and help in reduction of infection with scrapes or other wounds to influenced limbs.

Topics and Themes in an Article

In article writing, there are various elements that an individual must always have in mind. Some of the things to check on also involve how to choose a theme for an article. What the writer wants to write about should be summarized in the topic in a few words or phrases.

The topic of the publication is usually what attracts the readers or any other person accessing the article from any place. These themes also depend on the type of information to be relayed to the readers. Disconnected topic contents and body parts of the article usually means that the article body does not truly fulfill the promise made on the heading, topic or theme of the publication. The two parts of the piece of writing are supposed to have the same information with the body part explaining more about the topic.

The importance of using the themes or topics in most documentations is to attract a certain audience. With the publisher putting him or herself in his or her readers' minds, he or she is able to know what they usually want and also how they want it done. Sometimes it is also important to add the same phrase used in the body in the theme. Since it is used to summarize the entire piece of writing, it should define almost everything to be talked of in the body. Some themes are usually detailed hence containing more than just a phrase or a sentence while others are short with about two to five words only.

Connecting the theme of the body to the topic in the heading will aid viewer retention.

Acid Reflux Symptoms

Knowing that you need to better understand this topic I recommend that you take 5 minutes to read what we have to say.
Acid Reflux Symptoms include the following. (You may print them our for handy reference).
Short in the middle of the night you are awakened by a burn sensation in your throat. You are disturbed as you don’t know what it is. You drink cold water to sooth your throat. It does not work. In such case a doctor might tell that you are suffering from “acid reflux” and you need not worry. But how does a common man come to know if he/she is suffering from “acid reflux”?
Symptoms of Acid Reflux
There are many ways you can come to know whether or not, you are hurting from “Acid reflux”.
Heart Burn: The most common symptom of acid reflux is heart burn. In such case there is a burn sensation in you throat and neck due to backward traveling of food items. It is a digestive problem and has got nothing to do with heart. The burning sense is mainly felt in the mid of the chest and back. This symptom is primarily suffered by the people having unhealthy eating habits. People suffering from frequent heart burns should consult the doctor.
Hurting or burning sense in the throat while swallowing: Another significant symptom is hurting or burning sensation in the throat. There is a serious pricking hurting or a burning sense while swallowing of food. There can be a feel of food getting stuck or your throat feeling heavy. Chest hurting might also be accompanied with these feelings. In such cases a person should try to eat slowly and chewing the food properly and at the same time he/she should debar too cold or too hot food or drink.
Difficulty in swallowing: Difficulty in swallowing is a state where there is a sense or feeling of food being stuck in the throat or in the upper part of the chest. There can be versatile reasons for having a problem in swallowing the food, one of which is acid reflux. This can be a serious upset so it is better to consult a doctor as quickly as possible.
Asthmatic symptoms: Problems like asthmatic and cough can also occur in a person. Aside from the smokers this symptom was also seen in the non smokers on a larger scale.
Allergic to food (Nausea) and vomiting: Loosing interest in food for a longer period of time and gradually loosing appetite can also be a symptom of acid reflux. Vomit often can also be a symptom. Vomiting can be frequent or regular.
Paining sense in the chest: Many a times there can be a impression or sense of the food getting stuck in the chest. It is necessary to differentiate this pain from other chest pains and in such cases it is very crucial to consult a doctor as soon as possible
Disorders in the throat: Very seldom there can be symptoms in the throat. Sensations like a intumescence being stuck in the throat or dry coughing or trouble while swallowing, sore throat or continuous hiccups are some of the symptoms of the throat disorders.
Above are some of the common symptoms of Acid Reflux.
Thank you for taking the time to read my article it is greatly appreciated. Try searching through my other articles for more data on this issues.

Pathomorphology and the Clinical Manifestation of Anemia

The pathologic changes from sickle cell anemia are primarily the result of

• Increased blood viscosity and
• Increased red blood cell destruction. The entanglement and enmeshing of rigid sickle-shaped cells with one another increases the internal friction to the suspension, thus increasing blood viscosity. The thickened blood slows the circulation, causing capillary stasis, obstruction by elongated and pointed erythrocytes, and thrombosis. Eventually, tissue ischemia and mecrosis result with pathologic changes in the following sites.

Initially the spleen becomes enlarged from congestion and engorgement with sickled cells. Eventually the sinuses are compressed and infarctions result. The functioning ells are gradually replaced with fibrotic tissue. The functioning cells are gradually replaced with fibrotic tissue, until eventually severe stages of the disease the spleen is decreased in size and totally replaced by a fibrous mass.

As a result of splenic infarction, the spleen loses its ability to filter bacteria and to promote the release of large numbers of phagocytic cells. Consequently children with sickle cell anemia are much more susceptible to infection.

The Liver is also altered in form and function. Liver failure and necrosis are the result of severe impairment of hepatic blood flow from anemia and capillary obstruction. The liver is usually enlarged as focal necorsis and subsequent scarring, cirrhosis eventually occurs.

Abnormalities are probably the result of the same cycle of congestion of glomerula capillaries and tubular arterioles with sickle cells and hemosiderin. Tissue necrosis, and eventual scarring. The principal results of kidney ischemia are hematuria, inability to concentrate urine, enuresis, and occasionally nephritic syndrome.

The hyperplasia and congestion of the bone marrow results in osteoporosis, widening of the medullary spaces, and thinning of the cortices. As a result of the weakening of bone, especially in the lumbar and thoracic region, skeletal deformities, occur. From chronic hypoxia, the bone becomes susceptible to osteomyelitis, frequently from salmonella, Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head from chronic ischemia is an occasional problem.

Vaso-occlusive crises can result in a variety of skeletal problems. One of the more frequent is the hand-foot syndrome, which is caused by infarction of short tubular bones. It is characterized by pain and swelling of the short tubular bones. It is characterized by pain and swelling of the soft tissue over the hands and feet. It usually resolves spontaneously within a couple of weeks. Localized swelling over joints with arthralgia can occur from erythrostasis with sickle cells. Many of the skeletal abnormalities that are seen in thalassemia are also present in sickle cell anemia but are seen in thalassemia are also present in sickle cell anemia but are usually less prominent.

Central nervous system
Changes in the central nervous system are primarily vascular from the same cyclic reaction of stasis, thrombosis, and ischemia. Stroke or cerebro-vascular accident is a major complication and can result in permanent paralysis or death. Any number of neurological symptoms can herald a minor cerebral insult, such as headache, aphasia, weakness, convulsions, or visual disturbances. Loss of vision is usually the result of progressive retinopathy and retinal detachment.

Cardiac problems are mainly attributable to the stress of chronic anemia, which can eventually result in decompensation and failure. Myocardial infarctions may also occur from stasis and thrombosis.

With the formation of sickled erythrocytes, mechanical fragility is increased, thereby decreasing the red blood cell’s life span. Hemolysis occurs both during intra-vascular circulation and as a result of stagnation of sickled cells in the congenital spleen. Although, the body attempts to compensate through stimulated erythropoietic activity, as evidenced by a hyperplasic bone marrow, the rate of destruction exceeds the rate of production. It results in a normocytic, normochromic anemia. With increased hemolysis, hemosiderosis (increased storage of iron) is present in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, kidneys and lymph nodes.

Other signs and symptoms
In addition to the effects of sickling on various organ structures, the child with sickle cell anemia may have a variety of complaints, such as weakness, anorexia, joint, back, and abdominal pain; fever; and vomiting. Chronic leg ulcers are common in adolescents and adults and are thought to be the result of thrombosis and decreased peripheral circulation. Other generalized effects include growth, decreased fertility. If the child reaches adulthood, sexual development and adult height are usually achieved.

Information On Stomach Flu

A stomach flu symptom can be caused by one of many different ailments such as food poisoning, bacteria or even some parasites.The stomach flu, also known as gastroenteritis, is a viral infection that attacks the stomach and small intestine. Usually brief in nature, it typically lasts 1 to 3 days.

Diarrhea is the one of the main stomach flu symptoms. Some people also experience vomiting. What happens to cause stomach flu symptoms is that the cells along the small intestinal lining becomes damaged due to a viral infection.

The stomach flu is one health problem which is hard to contain with the help of home remedies. It does not mean that there is no remedy for the disease. The real problem is pf containment.

Rotavirus is the major cause of stomach flu in children under the age of 5. If rotavirus infects the intestinal walls of kids, they suffer from symptoms that include fever, vomiting and dehydration which can prolong for a period of 2-5 days.Norovirus is yet another virus that can cause this disease.

The following lists effective ways to improve these areas:

Practice having a positive, optimistic frame of mind. This will go a long way to improving your overall health. Negative or pessimistic people are more unhealthy. Let go of those friends or colleagues who drag you down.

There are many more homeopathic medicines for stomach flu, for flu and for every other imaginable disease you might have. This is because homeopaths don’t look at the disease label. Homeopaths need your unique symptoms to work out an effective medicine for you.

The treatment of viral gastroenteritis includes rest, analgesics and re-hydration. Tylenol may be used to treat fever and muscle cramps.

Foods to avoid:

Milk and milk products: butter, cheese, ice cream etc.

Sweetened fruit juices

Sugar, including honey

High protein foods: meat, eggs, nuts and seeds

Fats: especially fried or greasy food

Don’t share personal items like forks and spoons, toothbrushes, tongue cleaner, and towels. Try not to be around others who have stomach flu. Keep your hands away from from nose, eyes, and mouth.

Bedrest is very important, the more the better. Complete bed rest is recommended for the duration of the diarrhea and vomiting or for twenty four hours, which ever lasts the longest. I f fever is involved with the sickness of the child, take care to check it frequently.

Chicken Soup – for many years now, chicken soup has been used to ease flu symptoms. The soup contains garlic that can boost your immune system. It may even reduce the pain that you feel. When preparing the chicken stock, don’t forget to add leeks or onion, celery, and of course, the garlic.

Because the stomach flu is a virus-caused disease, a better idea is protecting yourself from virus invading. When someone has suffered stomach cold, do not use or share the foods, drinks, towel which may be affected by the stomach flu virus.

Food safety is critically important in keeping yourself healthy, and those who you are cooking for. Nobody ever wants to get sick because of the food borne illness and it can be prevented by proper care. Follow this advice and you should keep you and your loved ones from getting sick.

Fibroadenoma Versus Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast

Fibroadenoma is the most common benign tumor in the female breast. They generally occur in younger women but can be seen in post-menopausal women as well. Most of the time they present as a lump in the breast, but they can also be found incidentally on a breast radiology exam.

To a pathologist, a fibroadenoma has two components: the stroma (or "fibro" part), and the breast ductal epithelium (the "adenoma" part). The usual fibroadenoma is benign and does not increase a patient's risk for developing breast cancer. However, the epithelial component can undergo the same changes the rest of the breast epithelium does so that hyperplasia, atypical hyperplasia, and carcinoma can grow within fibroadenomas. When the stroma part of a fibroadenoma changes, then pathologists worry about what is called a phyllodes tumor.

Phyllodes Tumor
This tumor is a much more rare type of tumor than fibroadenoma and they generally are seen in a some what older age group than fibroadenomas. Like fibroadenomas, the tumors are composed of a mixture of stroma and epithelium; however, it is the stroma that distinguishes phyllodes tumors from fibroadenomas.

Since these are uncommon tumors in the breast, there are not a lot of large research studies on phyllodes tumors. Generally, pathologists break them down into three different types: benign, border line, and malignant based upon how aggressive the stroma looks under the microscope. All phyllodes tumors, regardless of sub classification, can recur and generally the rate of recurrence increases from benign to borderline to malignant. Most surgeons will try to get a margin of "normal" breast tissue around a phyllodes tumor to reduce the change of the tumor coming back. Phyllodes tumor rarely metastasize and it's usually the malignant variant that does so.

Because these are uncommon tumors, pathologists who do not see a lot of breast pathology may have difficult making the diagnosis. A benign tumor can sometimes be confused with a fibroadenoma, and a more aggressive (malignant) tumor can be confused with a metaplastic carcinoma. Thus, it is important that if there is any question about whether or not you have a typical fibroadenoma or possibly a more aggressive tumor, you should seek a second opinion.

Old Fashioned Remedies For Stomach Pain And Upset

There are many old stomach remedies that still have value for us today. Stomach pain and upset frequently results when the lining of the stomach has become irritated. Many plants are well known for their ability to soothe the stomach.

In the famous Culpeper’s Complete Herbal of 1687, great mention is made of caraway (Carum carvi). It is said that “it is pleasant and comfortable to the stomach and promoteth digestion.” In this same vein, Culpeper mentions horse parsley (“it warmeth a cold stomach”), angelica (“good preservatives in time of infection; and at other times to warm and comfort a cold stomach”), and barley (“give great nourishment to persons troubled with fevers, auges and heats in the stomach”). Barley water and barley soup are popular even today.

The new world herb cayenne has a long history as a remedy for stomach troubles, as well as a tonic for the heart. The Aztecs knew cayenne as a cure for intoxication. Later, it was mentioned by no less than Christopher Columbus in the notes of his first voyage. Soon after, it became known throughout Europe as a powerful herb. By the middle of the 19th century, the scholarly journal The Southern Botanic Journal was postulating that cayenne was helpful to the stomach.

Counter-intuitive though it may be, the use of cayenne in remedies for stomach complaints is well established and many preparations are available today. There is even some modern thought that this pepper is not only beneficial to an active ailment, but are can be used as a preventative.

Moving from peppers to another old stomach remedy, we reach peppermint. This herb is a hybrid between two kinds of mint, which has long been known for its palliative properties. The use of mint predates the Romans, though they first popularized the after dinner mint. This herb has an antispasmodic capability that helps it serve as a remedy to the digestive system. The active ingredients in peppermint are methyl salicylate and menthol. These compounds are able to reduce pain by activating the body’s kappa-opioid receptors, as well as having the aforementioned anti-spasmodic effect. Peppermint tea is another well known remedy for soothing an upset stomach.

Looking into the literature of herbal medicine shows that chamomile has also stood the test of time. This herb has been collected for more than 2,000 years and used to treat all sorts of digestive ills. In Europe it is called the “mother of the gut.” Preparations with chamomile, such as chamomile tea, remain a popular household remedy for stomach ailments.

The lining of the stomach is rich with nerve endings, which is one reason why our stomachs may become upset so easily. There are two biochemicals in chamomile that directly address this problem. A-bisobol speeds the mending of the torn tissues, as with an ulcer. Another chemical, chamazulene, acts as an anti-inflammatory. Irritated stomach linings swell. The anti-inflammatory agent in this herbal remedy shrinks these tissues, providing the curative action.

These are but a few of the old stomach remedies that are readily available. Before we rush to add new medications to our arsenal, it makes sense to investigate the natural remedies that have a long history of being both safe and effective.

Colds and Wet Hair: Mother Was Wrong Again

Will you catch a cold if you go out with wet hair in cold weather? If you say no, you are correct. Colds and pneumonia are
caused by infection. You do not pick up infections from cold
weather, you get germs from other people who sneeze or cough in
your face or transmit germs with their hands to objects that you

So the question is whether chilling the body suppresses

your immunity so that germs that you can normally control
suddenly become pathogens and make you sick. That question has
been answered many times. Chilling does not hinder your immunity
as long as you are not so cold that your body defenses are destroyed.
In 1958, a paper in the American Journal of Hygiene (Volume 68)
reported that more than 400 volunteers were exposed to viruses
that cause colds. Some were exposed to very cold temperatures
while wearing heavy coats, some to 60 degree temperatures while
wearing underwear, and some to a very warm 80 degrees. All had
the same rate of infection. A 1968 paper in the New England

Journal of Medicine followed inmates at a Texas prison who had
the cold virus placed directly into their noses. They were then
exposed to extreme temperatures, with varying amounts of
clothing. Being cold or warm, being dressed or undressed, or
having wet hair or dry hair had no effect on their infection rate.
The crucial factor that determines whether you get a cold is
exposure to the cold virus.

The Risks Of Gastric Lap Band Surgery

Weight loss surgery has advanced considerably in the past 50 years and modern forms of surgery such as gastric lap band surgery are certainly a lot safer and carry far fewer complications than early forms of open gastric bypass surgery. Nevertheless, there are risks and these should be fully discussed with your surgeon before embarking on surgery.

Gastric lap band surgery carries a number of risks which are specific to this form of surgery but it also carries the same risks that come will all major surgeries. In addition, there are a number of general risks which accompany any surgery involving patients who are overweight.

The first and most serious risk is that of death occurring either during surgery or shortly after and directly related to surgery. At this early stage (gastric lap band surgery has been around for some 12 years now but has only been licensed for use in the United States since 2001) very few deaths have been reported and it is difficult to give a figure, although it is generally held that the risk of death from gastric lap band surgery is less than 1%.

It is interesting to note that in one study in Australia no deaths at all were reported amongst a group of 2700 patients who have undergone laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding surgery since 1994. It should be said however that Australia has been in the forefront of pioneering the use of the laparoscopic adjustable gastric band and that over 90% of all weight loss surgeries conducted in Australia now use this method. This is significant as, in interpreting data from this study, it should be borne in mind that the experience of the surgeon is a very significant factor in terms of both risk and complication. Surgeons with considerable experience of this technique (having performed at least 100 procedures) show a very much higher success rate.

Many of the risks during surgery are general rather than “lap band” specific and are common surgical risks associated with such things as your age, weight, reaction to anesthesia and the presence of disease (whether or not this is directly related to your weight problem). The main “lap band” specific risk during surgery is that of gastric perforation (a tear in the wall of the stomach) which occurs in about 1% of cases.

The vast majority of complications will occur following gastric lap band surgery and most patients (in one US study the figure was as high as 88%) will experience some form of complication in the weeks and months following surgery. Such complications will not necessarily be serious and will range from mild to severe.

Approximately half of all patients will suffer varying degrees of nausea and vomiting and in the region of one-third of patients will also suffer from regurgitation (gastroesophageal reflux). About a quarter of patients will experience a slippage of the band and about one patient in seven will experience a blockage of the passage between the two sections of the stomach.

Other moderate to severe problems following gastric lap band surgery can include erosion of the band into the stomach and twisting or leakage of the access port. Difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia), constipation and diarrhea are also quite common.

In a very small number of patients (less than 1%) a whole series of non-series complications may arise including (but not limited to) inflammation of the stomach (gastritis), migration of the stomach above the diaphragm (hiatal hernia), inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), dehydration, abdominal pain, gas (flatulence), chest pain and infection.

In general gastric lap band surgery, particularly when performed laparoscopically, carries fewer risks and complications than other forms of weight loss surgery, but these risks are nonetheless significant and should be fully discussed with your surgeon and understood before any decision is taken to undergo surgery.