Understanding X-Rays and a Minor Fracture

However minor a fracture is, there is always a chance that its treatment fails to gauge the full extent of the damage caused. X-Rays come in handy even when the diagnosis is complete, simply because they are best form of imaging that allows for the emergence of a primary yet comprehensive understanding of the injury.

What a Minor Fracture Might Consist Of

Bones break, but they do not always break cleanly. Around the fracture, there can be much damage caused to the structure itself or surrounding tissues. This subterranean damage may not be immediately perceivable or felt by the affected person. This is why sometimes people who may have suffered a mild fracture in a foot during a sports-related activity go on walking on it for at least for a week thereby making the pain worse. This, however, is not a good practice especially as older you get, since a broken bones, no matter how minor, can be difficult to heal.

X-Rays Give You The Right Picture

Doctors require an X-Ray for the simple reason that there is much more to know about a fraction than the simple fact there is a bone broken somewhere. Bones areiable to break into pieces or move out of their normally set configurations. Moreover, tendons, muscles or ligament-like entities surrounding or supporting the bone could be torn as a result of a broken bone and this is difficult to detect without an X-Ray.

Lastly, there are certain kinds of fractures such as fractured ribs, where no matter how minor the break is, it is essential to understand the severity of the injury as part of the diagnosis.

Narrow Down Curative Procedures With X-Rays

A primary procedure that might follow the X-Ray diagnosis is that the doctor, having understood the amount of the damage will know if the bone has broken the skin. If that is the case, he would have to open up the injured portion and remove the minutely fractured pieces and only then can the bone be returned to its normal alignment. This also requires cleaning of the affected area to prevent infection.

Following this, the decision of whether to fix a cast on the injured area is taken. The cast itself could take different forms. And in some cases, the nature of the fraction as determined by the X-Ray will prompt wherever the cast has to be applied in conventional ways or wherever, as in the case of ribs, some light fixing by tape has to be used.

Cerebral Palsy Lawyer

Children with cerebral palsy will most likely experience a lifetime of treatments for physical debilitation, behavioral problems and mental deficiencies and they will have to deal with a condition that will only worsen. The costs for the medical care for families with children with this disorder is extremely high and insurance does not always cover it. There are many organizations that help families with resources needed to care for their child. However some families are entitled to more compensation by a medical malpractice lawsuit.

Medical Malpractice?

It is known that there is a connection between cerebral palsy in children and medical malpractice. In these types of cases, families can depend on a medical lawyer for help obtaining money that is due to them because of malpractice. There are financial losses and emotional losses that result.

A lawyer can assist in recovering damages include the following:

* The lifetime medical expenses

* Costs of therapy

* Emotional pain

Although you can not always know if medical malpractice contributed to the condition of the child, there are cases that may point to it. There are cases in which the causes are unknown. Parents need to be aware of any incidents that may have occurred during and after birth, including infections to the baby, seizures, unexpected C-section just to name a few.

If you or your baby had experienced any if the mentioned above, you need to have your case evaluated by a flags were present during the delivery of your child, you should have your case looked at by a lawyer. Medical lawyers know your rights.

Damage to the Brain

When there is damage to an infant's brain, a fetus' brain or even a young child's brain; cerebral palsy can result. Many times the reasons are unknown to why children develop this disorder but lack of oxygen to the brain is sometimes the cause ..

It is the doctors' and the medical personnel's responsibility to make sure that the mother and her baby receive the proper care during childbirth. If an infection goes without treatment, C-sections are not taken care of in a timely manner, or any failure of recognizing issues can hurt the child, and possibly cause cerebral palsy.

Contact a Medical Malpractice Lawyer

Contact a medical malpractice lawyer if you think your child's cerebral palsy was caused by medical malpractice. A lawyer knows your rights involving medical malpractice. These cases have a statute of limitations so act as soon as possible.

Canine Paralysis – What Are the Causes of Paralysis in Dogs?

Canine paralysis is disturbing for both dogs and their owners. Is your dog having trouble moving around? Sometimes this can be caused by arthritis, but if you have a young dog this is unlikely.

Did the symptoms suddenly appear? Then this is quite likely to be canine paralysis and while this is a symptom rather than a disease in itself, it can be upsetting if your dog is affected. However a lot of cases can be quickly cured.

Now if you live in Australia, chances are your dog's condition could be caused by a tick bite. Simply remove the ticks and the paralysis will go away.

Canine paralysis can also be the result of constipation. Changes in your dog's diet will help here, as will providing plenty of fresh water. There are natural remedies available for dog constipation if you need them. Do act quickly as constipation can lead to toxins entering the body.

If your dog's paralysis is caused by a disease affecting the central nervous system, you may have to accept this as a long term situation. If your dog can not move at all this may also mean he is suffering with incontinence and he will require a lot of care and nursing.

If your dog is showing any symptoms of being paralysed that can not be easily explained, take it to a vet without delay. Your vet will be able to advise you what is wrong, how long it may last and how to look after your dog until he is better.

If your dog is only partially incapacitated and is making an attempt to get up and walk, he may be helped by means of a dog sling or other device to support his body. If he can not move at all he should be kept warm and turned every so often so long as this does not cause any pain, until he reaches the vet.

Although canine paralysis is a challenging condition to nurse, and may take a long time to heal, your dog has a good chance of complete recovery so long as the nervous system is not irreparably damaged. So do not be in a hurry to have him put to sleep unless the vet advises that his condition will never improve. I wish both you and your dog all the very best.

Hiatal Hernia, Acid Reflux, GERD, Heartburn: The Causes And The Symptoms


Hiatal hernia can be caused by a number of things, often unique to each sufferer. One common cause, however, can be described as "mechanical": that is, caused by lifting improperly, heavy bouts of coughing, attacks to the abdomen, tight clothes, or poor posture. Lifting a heavy item while holding your breath (which happens often among people not trained in proper lifting techniques) can force the stomach into the esophagus and cause a hiatal hernia.

Another common cause of hiatal hernia is to do with the ileocecal valve. This is located between the small and large intestines. Its function is to allow material to pass from the large intestine into the colon, but not vice versa. The ileocecal valve can become swollen and irritated; This causes it not to close properly, and permit material to travel back into the small intestine from the colon.

Although it can not be determined whether a faulty ileocecal valve or hiatal hernia occurred first, a problem with this valve is known to further aggravate a hiatal hernia. Diet is a major factor in this: overeating, eating when upset, and poor combination of food can lead to this condition.

Interestingly, as well as "eating when upset" as being a contributory factor, emotional stress in itself has been raised as a possible cause of hiatal hernia – particularly the emotion of anger. One theory states that when some people get angry, they breathe and suck air upward, and then fail to release it properly. These results in the stomach remaining up, and repeated instances causing a hiatal hernia.


The stomach is forced into the sphincter that is designed to stop acid or food returning into the mouth or throat. The sphincter does not close properly and its function is compromised. This allows acid to travel into the esophagus and cause burning sensations, also known as heartburn or acid reflux.

The condition can also cause stress to the vagus nerve. Its function is to control the release of hydrochloric acid. As it may not work properly, this can cause either too much or too little acid to be secreted.

The diaphragm muscle's movement is impeded. Its function is to pull downwards to cause the chest capacity to expand and fill the lungs with air. A hiatal hernia sufferer may find that their diaphragm muscle is affected to the degree that they experience shallow breathing unless they help the process consciously using their chest shoulders and take a deep breath.

The esophagus has been known to form a kink. This would then cause difficulty in swallowing. Sufferers may get the sensation that material is often stuck in their throat.

Through the vagus nerve, which has significant links to a number of other organs in the body, such as the heart, lungs, kidneys, and even the external genitalia, imbalances can be spread through the patient's body and other important systems.

Hiatal hernia sufferers often experience poor digestion. This leads onto rotten food staying in the body longer than it should be, and causing toxicity in the patient. Naturally, there is a lack of nutrition and the usual symptoms of this, such as constipation, allergies, and immune weakness.

Hiatal hernia can also aid the development of asthma and heart disease. As previously mentioned, the lungs' capacity is affected. Intestinal gas can put pressure on the hernia and then the heart, and can in sever cases bring on a heart attack.

There are ways to treat a hiatal hernia and acid reflux naturally and safely. For more information visit: http://www.hiatalherniahelp.com

Primary Causes of Lower Back Pain

For any person trying to learn the causes of lower back pain, it is important to recognize first that it is not a condition but rather a sign of irregularities in the muscles, ligaments, and nerves in the lower area of ​​the back and possible diseases found in that specific area, like the kidneys.

Lower back pain is commonly one-sided; depending upon the pinched nerve root, it may occur on the left side or the right side.

Because many conditions could generate the pain, cited here are the primary causes of lower back pain:

  • Poor form, particularly when carrying large items (the mere act of carrying an object larger than your body weight could cause lower back pain). Sitting for a long-period of time with arch back can also cause pain on your lower back. If you work 8 hours a day in work office, sitting the whole time is inevitable. Take a break, stand up and stretch your back at least every three hours, and make sure that you are sitting up straight. Bad sitting posture can not be corrected by trying harder, you need to stop sitting badly and let your body resume its natural posture.
  • Stress and fractures.
  • Non-specific anxiety or sprain of the back muscles, ligaments and soft tissues.
  • Physical factors such as disc degeneration in spondylosis, stenosis of the spinal, disc herniation, spinal abnormalities such as scoliosis, and leg length discrepancy (one leg is shorter than the other)
  • Inflammation related illnesses, such as rheumatoid arthritis and spondylitis.
  • Infections, like osteomyelitis, epidural abscess and Post-herpetic neuralgia, bring about nerve irritation.
  • Metabolic problems, such as osteoporosis and osteomalacia.
  • Cancers of the bone and spine that would constrict upon the nerves.
  • Related soreness, such as in kidney disease and prostate cancer.
  • Pinched nerve, which is appropriately called as nerve root impingement (direct irritation on a nerve) or nerve root syndromes, such as sciatica and cauda equina syndrome.
  • Standard pregnancy (the rising weight and the strain of lugging a child causes strain on the lower part of the back, nerve irritation, and elongating of pelvic ligaments).
  • Bone and joint pain syndromes, such as fibromyalgia (described by generalized ache, tenderness, rigidity and fatigue) and myofascial pain (with pain and tenderness experienced in localized areas referred to as "trigger points", which observes the dermatomal or radiating pattern of a peripheral nerve).

Depression has also been mentioned as one of the causes of lower back pain. However, reports on patients suffering from the pain and making use of anti-depressants as remedy have generated inconclusive outcomes.

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Ceramic Disc Taps

Taps drip. It's inevitable, like death and taxes.
Traditional taps seal using a rubber ring screwed down over
the end of a metal pipe. Sooner or later the rubber is
going to go hard, split or just wear away and it will no
longer seal. Then water seeps through, and the tap starts
dripping. Left alone the problem gets worse as the water
wears away the valve seat. Then you'll have to either
re-grind the valve seat (Do you own a valve seat re-grinder?
Who would?) Or replace the tap. Tedious in either case.
But, it need not happen. Many taps now use ceramic disks.

Method of Operation

Instead of creating a seal by forcing a rubber washer onto
the end of the water feed pipe, they use two ceramic discs
each with matching slots in them. These are held over the
end of the water feed pipe. The lower disc does not move
while the upper disc is turned over the lower disc by the
tap head. Water will only flow when the upper and lower
slots match up.


There are a number of benefits to this arrangement. The most
obvious is that ceramic discs are much harder than rubber
and much more resistant to erosion by water seepage. Here
they have a much longer life before needing replacement.
Additionally, because the water flows between the two discs,
the disks erode not the metal of the valve. Also, because
of the way the disks are arranged, the taps go completely on with
only one quarter of a turn and tap needs only light pressure
to operate. This light action has the advantage that they
They are easy to operate with the back of the hand if your hands
are dirty and for people with restricted movement.

Where they are Used

The ease of operation and the long life mean that most good
quality sink mixer taps have been made using ceramic disks
for a while, but basins taps with ceramic discs are
surprisingly less common. The more use a tap gets, the more
attractive the use of ceramic disc technology becomes. This
is doubly true in hard water areas, which can be murder on
traditional taps.


Everything has it's downside, and there are cons to ceramic
disc taps. They do usually wear out and are more
expensive than old style taps and are not suitable for very
low water pressure. Unusually, many of the manufacturers
seem to use standard sizes, so getting a replacement is
often straightforward. Because taps on basins can be either
handed or not, one can not always be sure which way to
turn each tap on, this can be annoying! Lastly, unlike
traditional style taps, which take a number of turns to be
on full, you may easily turn the water flow on far more than
mean. The unexpected vigor water flow and splashing
can cause water going everywhere, including over your
clothes. Not Good!

Inflammatory Disorders of Thyroid Gland


Inflammatory disorders of thyroid gland are a mixture of various disorders characterized by variable clinical presentations, etiologies and treatment modalities. These disorders cause the thyroid gland to be diffusely enlarged, nodular. Functionally speaking these patients may be euthyroid, hypothyroid or hyperthyroid. These patients may not suffer from pain except in cases of post viral and suppurative thyroiditis.

Inflammatory thyroiditis are often associated with certain characteristic triggering factors:

1. Partition

2. Viral infections

3. Medications

Classification of inflammatory thyroid disorders:

This takes into account the subjective history (painful or painless), its temporal course (acute, subacute or chronic), histopathologic features (hyperplastic, lymphocytic, granulomatous, or fibrous), and the name of the physician who first described them (Graves, Hashimoto, DeQuervain, and Riedel). These parameters cause a lot of confusion when classifying this disorder.

A simple classification of inflammatory thyroiditis has been evolved. It divides the various disorders into four main groups:

1. Autoimmune

2. Amiodarone induced

3. Infectious

4. Idiopathic

Autoimmune thyroid disease:

This is the commonest of inflammatory thyroid disorders. Disorders under this group include:

a. Hashimoto's thyroiditis (chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis)

b. Subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis

c. Postpartum thyroiditis

d. Grave's disease

This group of disorders is characterized by immune reaction against thyroid autoantigens. There are three serologic marks for disputes belonging to this group. They are:

1. Antibodies against thyroid globulin (the large protein on which T3 and T4are synthesized and subequently cleaved)

2. Thyroid microsomal antigen (also known as thyroid peroxidase)

Thyrotropin receptor

The presence of thyroid antibodies facilitates lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid gland which is a feature of autoimmune thyroiditis. If thyroid receptor stimulating antibody is present, it can cause hypertrophy of the gland with minimal lymphocytic infiltration. This picture is seen in Graves disease.

Autoimmunity also can induce a thyrotropin receptor antibody which blocks normal thyrotropin from activating it causes hypothyroidism without lymphocytic infiltration.

Autoimmune thyroid disease may present either with thyroiditis or as a hyperplastic disorder ie Graves disease. When a clear precipitating factor could be associated with this disorder then it could be used to name the subtype of the disorder ie (Postpartum thyroiditis, interferon induced thyroiditis) etc. Sometimes these various subtypes of autoimmune thyroiditis could have seen in the same patient.

Hashimoto's thyroiditis: is the most common inflammatory disorder of thyroid gland. Patients present typically with goitre, nodules, with hypothyroidism. High titres of circulating thyroid antibodies is a feature of this disorder.

Histologically, the gland shows follicular degeneration with a diffuse lymphocytic infiltration. There may also be associated fibrosis. These features are identifiable in FNAC. If there is palpable cervical node associated with Hashimotos thyroiditis then FNAC of thyroid should be performed to rule out malignancy.

Subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis: This disorder compounds of three subtypes. They are Postpartum thyroiditis, silent thyroiditis and interferon induced thyroiditis. All these three subtypes have positive microsomal antibodies.

Postpartum thyroiditis: affects 5% of females. Women with positive thyroid antibodies during the first trimester of pregnancy have roughly 50% chance of developing postpartum thyroiditis. Hyperthyroidism usually develops during the first three months following delivery. It is usually mild and may last for a few months. The patient may then become euthyroid and later hypothyroid. These patients commonly have a mild to moderately enlarged thyroid gland. TSH levels may be raised. Antithyroid drugs are not indicated in these patients on the other hand steroids may have a role to play.

Silent thyroiditis has no clear cut precipitating risk factors. Silent thyroiditis may precede or succeed other types of autoimmune thyroiditis. The diagnosis is usually one of exclusion.

Interferon a commonly used immunoactivating agent in the treatment of viral hepatitis can cause thyroid dysfunction. Pre existing auto immune thyroiditis is considered to be a risk factor in the development of interferon induced thyroiditis. This type of thyroiditis is generally mild and self limiting.

Graves disease: is an autoimmune disorder involving the thyroid gland. It also carries with it the risk of developing other subtypes of autoimmune thyroiditis. The classic presentation of Graves disease include:

1. Hyperthyroidism

2. Goitre

3. Opthalmopathy

4. Dermopathy (unusual)

5. Acropachy

Tests used to diagnose Graves disease:

  • Serum TSH estimation (elevated)
  • Total or free T 4 assessment
  • Presence of microsomal antibodies
  • Radioactive iodine uptake

Hyperthyroidism in Graves disease is caused by activating thyroid stimulating antibody against the thyrotropin receptor. There is also an increased incidence of thyroid carcinoma in these patients.


In the short term these patients can be managed with antithyroid medications. Long lasting effects can be produced with ablation of gland function by 131I administration, followed by life long supplements of thyroid hormones.

Surgical ablation of the gland is another option. Before embarking on it the patient should have made euthyroid by use of antithyroid drugs. Oral administration of Iodine should be discouraged in these patients without and until the patient has been started on antithyroid drugs.

Amiodarone induced thyroiditis: Amiodarone is a potent antiarrhythmic drug. This drug is structurally related to thyroxine. It actually causes hyperthyroidism which is unwelcome in cardiac patients. The types of thyroid dysfunction caused by amiodarone is as follows:

Type I: This type behaves like toxic multinodular goitre or graves disease with normal or high radioactive iodine uptake. It responds well to antithyroid medications.

Type II: Behaves like chemical thyroiditis and is responsive to stereoids.

Diagnostic tests to clinch the diagnosis include:

1. TSH estimation

2. Free T3 T4 estimation

3. Microsomal antibodies

4. Radio active iodine uptake scan

Management: In most of the cases it is necessary to discontinue the drug. Thyroidectomy may be considered in patients who need to continue taking amiodarone because of their heart condition.

Infectious thyroiditis: Is commonly caused by viral infections. Post viral thyroiditis is also known as De Quervain's disease, whereas bacterial thyroiditis tend to suppurate. Suppurative thyroiditis is painful.

Fibrous thyroiditis: Also known as Riedel's thyroiditis. This is a very rare entity causing fibrosis of thyroid gland and surrounding tissue. Etiology is unknown. It is associated with retroperitoneal fibrosis, pseudo tumor of orbit and sclerosing cholangitis. Majority of patients are women in the fifth decade of life.

Diagnosis involves use of biopsy. In cases of tracheal compression, excision of isthmus will suffice. Otherwise it is a self limiting disease.

Medical therapy includes glucocorticoid administration. Tamoxifen could also be used.

Radioactive iodine uptake studies:


RAI Scan

Inflammatory thyroiditis


Minimal trapping

Toxic multinodular goitre

Normal to high

Cannonball pattern

Grave's disease


Homogenous / diffuse

The Effects of Using "Cocktails" to Treat HIV-AIDS

What are "cocktails" in the context of treating HIV / AIDS and how are they used? What are their side effects? If you know of someone with HIV / AIDS and want to know more about the side effects of using "cocktails" to treat HIV / AIDS, read on to learn more.

When people started dyeing from AZT treatments, many shied away from being treated at all. Then the "cocktails" appeared, with some positive results. But the results were only positive in as much as the T-cell count rose, and the viral load lowered. But the patients, who did not feel so bad before the treatments, felt terrible while taking them.

Some decided that the side effects of the "cocktails" were not worth it, and after they stopped taking them, began to feel much better. The side effects of the treatment soon became known as the "Cocktail Hangover."

The weight loss was another thing that caused some to discontinue the cocktails. The fusion inhibitors made many people take on a starved look, while the body fat just melted away. This is called "fat dystrophy". Once they quit the treatments, they found they regained weight. It's like saying – it's not your condition that will kill you, but the cure.

Doctors always try to balance the relationship between the benefits and the side effects of treatment. But it sees that down through the years, many wrong diagnoses have been made.

The cocktails contained a powerful combination of drugs that were supposedly to knock the AIDS virus out. But the drugs contained in the "cocktails", waked havoc on people's bodies. One of the drugs, Intellence, caused simple disorders like rashes, nausea, and abdominal pain, but still, it was only one of the milder drugs in the make-up of the "cocktails."

Even as a "one-two punch", the combination "HAART" "(Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) treatment is not a cure for AIDS. There are reverse transcriptase inhibitors that most of the time make up two drugs in the HAART treatment, and that restrain one of the enzymes that plays a critical role in the early duplication process, in early stages of HIV infection. The drugs AZT, Virumune (nevirapine), and protease inhibitors, pack a powerful punch, but do not clear the infection. The "cocktail" DOES NOT cure AIDS.

Doctors are concerned now that the protein inhibitors may actually cause permanent alteration of the fat metabolism. The weight re-distribution factor is already seen, as patients experience a thinning in the face and limbs. Then as those areas thin out, the stomach, breasts, and neck swell up. Some of the fat gets placed into the back of their shoulders, causing what's known as a "buffalo hump". When these deposits appear in the belly, they call it "Crix Belly." Named after "Crixivan," another drug used in the war on AIDS.

Many patients today, after all the confusing information and experience have just decided to do their own research. They want to make up their own minds about whether or not to risk treatment. The side effects of the cocktail may be worse than where you are now. It's a hard decision that is totally in the hands of the individual.

Read This Before You Have Your Tonsils Removed!

Your Tonsils are actually a very important part of your body's immune system. Before you just get your tonsils removed, read this article. It may just save you from making a huge mistake!

What Are They?

Tonsil Stones, which are also called tonsilloliths are collections of various matter which have bonded together. They collect at a point near the back of the mouth and also in the area that the glands are located – more toward the back of the throat.

These stones have a smell much similar to rotten eggs and will look either yellow or possibly creamy white. The worst thing about stones is the horrifyingly foul odor they produce. Many people who are living with bad breath are probably suffering from these annoying nuisances.

The tonsilloliths are not always seen, sometimes you just feel them. In some cases they are even taken up. There is no pain. This is not tonsillitis. Amazingly, "t-stones" are very common.

Tonsil rocks occur because food particle gets trapped in the tiny holes on the glands called crypts. These food particles then slowly accumulate bacteria inside the crypts, which is the reason for the foul smell.

For years, the treatment for tonsilloliths was the removal of the tonsils, but that is no longer necessary. There are now three simple steps that one can take to completely eradicate tonsil stones. These steps come from a Chinese Herbalist. If you do not want to lose your tonsils or live with foul breath, learn how a Chinese herbalist cures them.

Vestibular Disease in Dogs: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Vestibular system aids in providing equilibrium and a sense of spatial orientation to dogs. But a dysfunction can have serious effects on the balance systems of the dog’s body. This system includes the parts of the inner ear and brain, which are responsible for the balance and eye movements. If the network is damaged by illness, aging, or injury, serious disorders can result, and are often associated with one or more of these signs, among others: Vertigo and dizziness.

There are two types of this disorder in dogs:

  • Central Vestibular Disorder
  • Peripheral Vestibular Disorder

The first one is less common but more serious form of this disease that originates inside the central nervous system.

The second type of this disease happens when there is annoyance to the nerves connecting the inner ear with the brain. This results in failure of balance and other symptoms resulting in vertigo and dizziness. This illness can look to be quite melodramatic to the dog owner if this is the first time the dog has been affected. But most of the times the dog recovers with supportive care and treatment.


  • Chronic and perennial inner and middle ear infections
  • Overzealous cleansing of the ears leading to perforated eardrum
  • Trauma from head injury
  • Stroke
  • Tumors
  • Polyps
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Meningoencephalitis

Signs And Symptoms

  • Head tilting
  • Loss of co-ordination
  • Circling and stumbling
  • Staggering
  • Falling and rolling

Congenital Vestibular disease is seen between birth and three months of age. Certain dogs are more predisposed to this condition, including Doberman Pinschers, English Cocker Spaniel, Beagle, German Shepherd, Tibetan Terrier and Smooth Fox Terrier.

This disorder is often mistaken as a stroke. The vertigo originated by this disease has an adverse effect on older dogs having symptoms like difficulty to stand up, circling, nystagmus, nausea, and head tilt. Older dogs are more stressed out due to this disease and so there is a need reduce their stress through earthy calming agents like amino acid, L-theanine and herbs including hops, Valerian, chamomile, and passionflower. Other remedies, including GABA, flower essences, tryptophan, and Homeopathics are also good in calming overwhelmed dogs.


The veterinarian would conduct a physical examination to determine whether the disorder is peripheral or central. In case, a peripheral form of the condition is found, the veterinarian would use an otoscope to look deep into the ears of the pet. There are times when X-rays would be required. The veterinarian would also take the aid of blood tests, culture, sensitivity and cytology to get rid of other likely causes of specific symptoms. For tumors and polyps your veterinarian would propose a surgical biopsy. In case the central Vestibular disease is determined, the veterinarian would use an MRI or CT scan along with spinal fluid taps to find the root cause. If it is due to infection, then it has to be resolved.


It is possible to alleviate nausea and vomiting with motion sickness treatments, but there is no specific treatment to manage Congenital Vestibular Disease. For middle or inner ear infection, antibiotics might be required to improve the condition. In case an under-active thyroid is the reason, the disorder will get resolved when the metabolic condition is managed precisely. If the treatment is the root cause then discontinuing the treatment can bring about complete resolution. But there are times when there can be some residual hearing failure. To completely cure this situation, the veterinarian would remove the polyps, but if there are cancerous tumors, then the conclusion is generally less positive.

This disease has a poor prognosis than peripheral form as a result of potential dangers to the brain stem that can be quite devastating. If there is an infection found, it has to be treated. In case of an inflammatory condition, it may react to treatment at first, but it can advance to a point where it could be untreatable. But the most common form of Vestibular disease – the peripheral form – improves swiftly, once the inherent cause is addressed and symptoms of vertigo are managed with supportive care.

Can You Eat Pizza With Type 2 Diabetes?

When you are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, you must come to grips with the fact that you are going to have to alter some of your habits and your lifestyle. It is a serious illness that must be attended to if you want to live a long and active life. The good news is that you can easily manage diabetes through your diet and exercise routine.

Type 2 Diabetes is a disorder that displays an unhealthy and uneven level of sugar in your blood. This often comes about through diet choices that have been made. You can manage your Diabetes through diet and exercise, but that does not always mean that that is the only thing that you need to manage it. In fact, in some cases you will need medication to maintain healthy blood sugar levels.

That being said, you cannot depend on medications to maintain your health and well-being. You must be sure to adjust your diet so that it is rich in the foods that you need. When you are looking at your diet, you may come up with some simple questions about everyday foods that you really enjoy. You may wonder; can you eat pizza with Type 2 Diabetes?

Deciding what to eat is always a challenge, especially with Diabetes. However, pizza is definitely one of those foods that everyone loves and craves. The question is, can you have it as part of your diet and still be able to maintain your health? Well, yes, you can, but you need to understand some of the nutritional content of pizza to figure out how to incorporate it into your new and healthier lifestyle.

Pizza does have healthy elements on it like cheese, and vegetables. However, the foundation of a pizza is crust, and crust is bread. Bread is not a bad thing when it is used in normal does.

However, bread is full of carbohydrates, and typically, pizza dough is built with simple carbohydrates, which are essential sugars. It is precisely these carbohydrates that can cause you problems in the first place. These are the types of carbohydrates that are essentially sugars, and those are the sugars that can affect the levels in your blood leading to diabetes. Knowing that is important so that you do not overindulge in the types of food that might drive your blood sugar levels up. It’s also important to note that another key component of pizza is tomato sauce. Though it is not unhealthy, it is full of sugars.

So does that mean that you cannot eat pizza if you have Type 2 Diabetes? No, not at all. What it means is that you need to be cautious about how much pizza you eat. You most certainly can have a few slices every once in a while. What you cannot do is sit down to a medium thin crust all on your own and devour it in one sitting. Though it will take discipline, it is within your reach without having to sacrifice one of your favorite foods!

Causes of Morbid Obesity

Eating too much can cause obesity – that is obvious. In addition, there are environmental factors that may contribute towards a person becoming obese. Given the typical American lifestyle, it is no wonder that so many people in our society suffer from this problem. The consumption of fast food, sedentary lifestyles, and the common usage of cars rather than walking or bike riding all contribute to obesity. Sometimes a serious change of environment is needed in order to combat the problem obesity.

Then there is the issue of metabolism. Back in the old days, we used to believe that weight gain and loss was equal to the number of calories ingested and burned, respectively. We now know that the case is not so simple. Researchers have recently come up with a theory that they call "the set point theory." In laymen's terms, the idea is that there is a "set point" in the brain that can make people resist either the gain or loss of weight. If you exceed your brain's set point by drastically cutting the number of calories you consume, your brain's response may be to slow down your body's activities and lower your metabolism. As a result of this process, any weight you might have lost is ever gained back.

There has also been an increase in the average serving portions of food since the late 1970s. That increase has been especially prevalent in soft drinks and salty snack food. Other studies have established that people of today no longer stick to the recommended servings featured in the food pyramid of the USDA. By having an unbalanced diet, people have a higher chance of becoming morbidly obese.

Hydrofera Blue

What is Hydrofera Blue?

Hydrofera Blue is a product which is made of a polyvinyl alcohol sponge impregnated with Methylene Blue and Gentian Violet, substances which have been in use for over 50 years and are proven to provide broad-spectrum bacteriostatic protection.

What types of wounds can Hydrofera Blue be used on?

Hydrofera Blue is highly absorptive and is effective against numerous bacteria, including MRSA and VRE. It can be used on a variety of wounds, including:

  • Pressure ulcers
  • Venous stasis ulcers
  • Radiation burns*
  • Orthopedic wounds
  • Arterial ulcers
  • Donor sites
  • Lacerations/abrasions
  • Post-op incisions

*Hydrofera Blue is not indicated for the treatment of third-degree burns.

Advantages of Hydrofera Blue

Hydrofera Blue dressings are highly absorptive and can be used on wounds which are draining heavily. They are also very durable and can be compressed to 1/10th their normal size. They are quite soft and unlikely to damage or irritate healthy tissue. Hydrofera Blue is biocompatible and is highly resistant to chemicals.

How to use Hydrofera Blue dressings

The dressing should be wet with sterile normal saline or sterile water. Squeeze the dressing and leave some fluid in for drier wounds; for heavily exudating wounds, squeeze the dressing until it is almost dry. Position the dressing so that it is in contact with the wound. Hydrofera Blue may be used as a packing or as a wound cover, overlapping the edges of the wound by at least 1 inch.

It is important to make sure that the dressing does not completely dry out. The dressing should be changed every one to three days, or when the area of dressing over the wound becomes saturated. Also, if the dressing turns white, this indicates that it has used all its antimicrobial substance, and the dressing should be changed.

Cover Dressings

Because it is so important to ensure that the Hydrofera Blue dressing does not dry out, care should be taken to choose an appropriate cover dressing:

If the wound bed is dry, a cover dressing which prevents the wicking away of moisture should be chosen. Good examples of appropriate cover dressings may include hydrocolloids, adhesive foams, film dressings, or composite dressings.

If the wound bed is draining heavily, a dressing which will absorb this excess moisture should be chosen. ABD pads, foam dressings and composites may be used to serve this purpose. When the outer dressings are soaked, they should be removed, but the Hydrofera Blue dressing may be left in place until it changes color to white, at which time it should be changed.

Hydrofera Blue is a good multi-purpose dressing that can be used to treat a variety of wounds and is effective against a variety of microbes, including VRE and MRSA. The main components, Gentian Violet and Methylene Blue, have been used for many years and have proven to be safe. A major advantage of the dressing is its ability to handle large amounts of exudate, its durability, and its ability to conform to virtually any wound bed size or shape.

If you are interested in learning more about wound care management, or are ready to take the next step in becoming a certified wound care specialist, please contact us for more information.

Sun Poisoning Rash – Adverse Skin Reaction

A sun poisoning rash is most commonly the result of an allergic reaction someone has to the sun. Those who are most likely to get skin poisoning include people who are fair skinned, simply because they do not have enough pigmentation in their skin to protect them from the sometimes harmful UV rays emitted by the sun. Although these people are anyway the most vulnerable, absolutely anyone can get skin poisoning with enough exposure to the sun. Although the sun plays a major run in this type of irritation of the skin, there are also other factors at work, such as certain chemicals or drugs which are used by the person either internally or on the surface of the skin.

A sun poisoning rash is really a way to describe an adverse reaction on the skin from too much UV exposure. Many people are not aware that taking certain drugs can lead to increased vulnerability to the sun when exposed. Taking certain medications can lead to a rash or burn without even being in the sun for very long. For example, some of these include medicines prescribed for blood pressure, birth control pills, and tranquilizers.

If you have had a negative reaction from being in the sun too long, then you will want to seek out the appropriate treatment, which often times is the same for those who encounter poison ivy or have other miscellaneous skin allergies. Sometimes if the reaction is mild enough, a simple cold cloth or compress applied directly to the affected areas can be helpful. Those who have this type of rash might find that taking a warm bath with oatmeal added in can be extremely beneficial to reduce some of the irritation or swelling which sometimes can be a problem.

Preventing a sun poisoning rash means taking all of the proper measures to make sure that it does not happen again, which means figuring out why it happened in the first place. You will want to think back to all of the medications you took on the day you contracted the rash, and narrow down the possibilities of what could have caused it. If you are a fair skinned person, then you will want to think about simply staying out of the sun as much as possible, especially for long periods of time. If you must go out in the sun, make sure to put lotion on to protect it from burning or getting a rash.

Skin Cancer and Tanning Beds

Skin cancer continues to be the most commonly diagnosed form of cancer in the United States. Skin cancer remains the second most common cancer for women between the ages of 20-29 years old. Many skin cancers are directly linked to both indoor and outdoor tanning behaviors. Although outdoor tanning occurs through a variety of avenues (sports, workplace, etc.) indoor tanning in the United States mainly occurs within tanning salons with special tanning beds.

Tanning beds are specially designed devices that emit UV radiation and light during a predetermined amount of time. Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified tanning beds as carcinogenic to human. This is their most serious classification and helped to reinvigorate the decisions of many states to ban the use of tanning beds for people under the age of 16 and to require parental consent for anyone under the age of 18.

Interestingly, several high profile cases of skin cancer among the beauty pageant participants have led to multiple pushes for more restrictive tanning laws in a variety of different states. Although it may seem that this push against tanning is only in the United States, it has really become an international fight. Several western European Countries have enacted similar restrictions and Brazil and five of Australia's states have banned tanning completely.

Of people who do use tanning beds there are several behaviors that are particularly risky. These are:

  • Failing to wear the provided goggles (this can cause some eye issues or even ocular melanoma)
  • Beginning with long exposures – this can cause burning
  • Failing to follow the manufacturer recommended exposure times that are based on skin type
  • Tanning while using medications that may make you more sensitive to UV rays.
  • Tanning while under the age of 16 – the younger an individual begins tanning the more likely their chances of developing skin cancer.

Although many tanning companies may claim that indoor tanning is the "safest way to get vitamin D" this is simply not true. The majority of Americans are able to receive their recommended amount of Vitamin D through their diets and normal everyday sunlight exposure. The FDA and FTC have recently begun to investigate and prove major tanning bed companies in regards to multiple false claims regarding the vitamin D statements.

In conclusion, tanning beds are a dangerous habit. The United States still has thousands of salons that offer tanning, but regulations are becoming stricter and more prevalent. Of particular concern is the wide amount of false and misinformation regarding the safety of indoor tanning. The Surgeon general, along with the CDC and FDA, are steadily working to help raise public awareness about the dangers of indoor tanning.