What is the Alimentary Canal?

The alimentary canal is the digestive system which starts from the mouth, where food is ingested, and ends at the anus, where the waste is eliminated. There canal consists of six major components, namely the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines and the anus. The system is also known as gastrointestinal tract, and is divided broadly into two regions, the upper gastrointestinal tract and the lower gastrointestinal tract. The tract can measure about six meters in an adult human being.

The upper tract consists of mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach and the uppermost part of the small intestine. The process of digestion starts at the mouth itself, where the saliva, teeth and tongue help start the process. The food then moves down into the pharynx and the esophagus. A series of muscular contraction in the esophagus, called peristalsis, forces the food into the stomach through the cardiac orifice, where the second stage of digestion starts.

Gastric juices secreted by the stomach, which contains two ferments, namely, rennet & pepsin ferment and hydrochloric acid & salt speed up the digestive process. The gastric juice, which is an antiseptic too, neutralizes the effect of saliva swallowed along with the food. The juices mix with the food and a continuous churning process involving contraction and relaxation of the stomach muscles brings the consistency of the food to a thick liquid form. The process usually takes up to four hours depending on the food swallowed.

Once the food is made into this liquid form, it is passed into the duodenum. At this stage, the food would be in an assorted mixture of undigested, partly digested and digested forms where some of the starch has been turned into sugar, some peptides turned into peptones and fats set free from the food particles. At this stage, pancreatic secretions and juices from the liver mix up with the food and further digestion would take place in the intestines.

The lower alimentary canal consists of the intestines and the anus. The small intestine is divided into three parts, the duodenum, the jejunum and the Ilium. The jejunum works as tract to transport food from duodenum to the Ilium and also aids in absorption of nutrients from the food. Once the food is in the Ilium, all soluble molecules are broken down and absorbed by blood vessels. The large intestine also is divided into three. The cecum is the connecting point where the two intestines meet. The second portion, the colon absorbs all water and salt from the digested food and the rectum is where the feces is kept for excretion through the anus.

Side Effects of Conventional Drugs

A serious side effect may include excessive bleeding caused by the use of an anticoagulant to reduce the clotting capacity of the blood. Such drugs are usually prescribed to avoid the risk of developing clots in the lower limbs.

A step further from side effects is an adverse reaction. An adverse reaction is an unusual and unexpected reaction and it can be minor, major or dangerous. A drug induced allergic reaction, for example, is one type of adverse reaction. An example of minor adverse reaction is hives caused by taking penicillin. This same drug can also lead to a life threatening shock reaction.

Some of the drugs and the side effects/adverse reactions attributed to them are:

Type of drug                 –           Side/Adverse effects

  • Analgesics, anti inflammatory – Heartburn, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, stomach or intestinal bleeding, constipation, diarrhea, headache, drowsiness, dizziness, skin rash, hives, itching
  • Antibiotics
    • Cephalosporins – Secondary infections, which may result in rectal and vaginal itching; diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, skin rash, itching, hives
    • Erythromycins – Secondary infections, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and rarely, skin rash or irritation
    • Tetracyclines – Secondary infections, skin rash, photosensitivity, appetite loss, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, sore tongue, mouth or throat, damage to teeth in infancy
    • Anticonvulsants (epileptic seizures) – Staggering, confusion, slurred speech, vision changes, skin rash, swollen gums, nausea, vomiting, constipation, hepatitis
    • Antidiabetics  (Oral) – Skin rash, heartburn, jaundice, bone marrow depression; overdose may even result in abnormally low blood sugar
    • Antihistamines – Drowsiness, fatigue, weakness, dry nose, mouth or throat, headache, nervous agitation, double vision, reduced appetite, nausea, vomiting, reduced tolerance for contact lenses
    • Antihypertensives – Low blood pressure, impotence, fainting or lightheadedness in general. As there are a lot of different hypertensive drugs, their side effects are also varied
    • Beta blockers (for high BP) – Fatigue, cold hands and feet, dizziness, skin rash, appetite loss, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, indigestion, vivid dreams, hallucinations, depression, wheezing, heart failure
    • Diuretics (for increased urination) – Lightheadedness, dizziness, increased blood sugar and uric acid levels, muscle weakness and cramps, skin rash, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice and, rarely, bone marrow depression
    • Anti Ulcer medications – Dizziness, headache, skin rash, diarrhea, muscle pain, tremors, irregular heartbeat, breast swelling and tenderness in men and rarely, lowered white blood cell count
    • Thyroid hormones – Overdose may cause heat sensitivity, excessive sweating, skin rash, menstrual problems, tremors, irritability, insomnia, rapid and irregular heartbeat, chest pain, diarrhea, weight loss
    • Tranquillizers – Drowsiness, lethargy, confusion, unsteadiness, fainting, skin rash, blurry vision, slurred speech, nausea, changes in libido
    • Xanthine bronchodilators – nervousness, irritability, insomnia, headache, skin rash, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, diarrhea, rapid and irregular heartbeat, excitability, muscle spasms, convulsions

The reason for these side effects is that most of these drugs have chemicals that have certain toxic properties. These conventional drugs are made from one isolated or synthesized active ingredient so each one does only one job and this generally causes side effects. This is why there have been so many prescription drugs that got pulled from the market after enjoying several years of FDA approval. 

The sad thing is that very few doctors nowadays bother to inform patients about possible side effects due to close and cozy relationships with the pharmaceutical industries. 

Half of the truth is that pharmaceutical companies will only tell doctors as much as they want to and not reveal the complete picture. Therefore, the doctors are not completely to blame because they cannot warn patients against side effects of chemicals they are not aware of.

The trouble is that the business is so profitable is that these medicine manufacturers are more concerned with profits and FDA approval rather than the overall effect on the patients. 

This is one reason why several doctors are now beginning to recommend complementary alternative treatments, like herbal therapies and medicines.

In fact, the number of herbal remedies available for different ailments equals (if not exceeds) the number of regular drug treatments provided by pharmaceutical companies. The point is that prevention always was and always will be better than any cure, mainstream or alternative.

The advantage of herbal remedies is that they move an individual towards a lifestyle more geared toward prevention and cure in the early stages of any affliction. Herbalists use the whole herb, because the dominant ingredient seems to work more effectively, without side-effects, and for the benefit of the whole body. This is known as synergy.

Pharmaceutical drugs work only after the problem has development, they do not try to prevent problems because then the manufacturing companies would go into a loss. This is where herbal remedies leave the mainstream drugs behind. This is also the reason why so many people are daily turning to herbal therapies. 

Herbal remedies treat the cause of the disease and not the symptoms (like conventional drugs).

What is good to know about natural herbal remedies is that they are much more well-tolerated than clinical drugs, hence causing fewer side effects. If you are prone to experiencing side effects when you take conventional drugs, natural herbal remedies may just be the solution that you seek.

Natural herbal remedies also tend to be much cheaper than drug remedies as they are grown and not cultivated inside a laboratory.

Because of their balancing effect, herbs such as ginseng are adaptogenic (help the body cope with stress, mainly by supporting the adrenal glands). This term is also used to apply to herbs that have a normalizing effect. Hawthorn is an adaptogen for the heart and circulation as it can stimulate a weak heartbeat or slow a rapid one, depending on what is needed at the time.

Lymphedema Massage

Any obstruction in the lymphatic vessels will prevent the smooth flow of the fluids in the body and lead to a pooling effect. This is the cause for lymphedema or swelling, particularly in the extremities of the body. Lymphedema massage is conducted to stimulate the obstructed lymph flow and direct it to the bloodstream. Excess fluid is eliminated from the body along with waste material in the elimination process.

Traditionally, a massage is aimed at relaxing the muscles, loosening the tendons and ligaments. Firm strokes applied with pressure serve to increase the arterial blood flow, thus relaxing the tense muscles. With lymphedema, the massage technique is different. With a gentle rhythmic movement, the massage therapist will stimulate the flow of lymph to the blood stream. This is known as manual lymph drainage, performed with a gentle touch. Combined with other methods of therapy like use of compression garments, compression bandaging, exercise and skin care, lymphedema massage has proven to be an effective method of treatment.

Extreme care should be taken while performing manual lymph drainage. Too much pressure on the skin may inadvertently increase the blood flow, leading to accumulation of water in the tissues which is not a good sign. It may lead to unnecessary complications for a lymphedema patient. It is therefore advisable to visit a trained massage therapist who has the knowledge of the techniques of manual lymph drainage and is also aware of the contraindications.

A lymphedema massage done rightly can prove to be extremely useful to the patient. But the effectiveness of the massage lies in the skill of the therapist to direct the flow of lymph correctly. Therefore, training is essential for manual lymph drainage. The patient may himself learn the technique – it is the ideal way to keep lymphedema in check. Another essential factor is to keep note of the progress or the decline of the condition after beginning the lymphedema massage treatment. If the condition worsens, you may have to reassess your options and make the changes accordingly.

Whether a massage can prevent lymphedema is a matter of debate. However, the fact remains that a massage therapy can have a very soothing effect which, in many instances, helps to alleviate the pain and swelling, post surgery. It helps a patient relax and deal better with the trauma and stress that is the result of the painful condition.

The body can heal itself much faster due to the therapeutic effect of the lymphedema massage. Nevertheless, it is advisable to use the services of a massage therapist, especially trained to deal with lymphedema patients. Patients who are at high risk of contracting lymphedema must remain alert to the earliest signs of the disease and opt for preventive measures to keep the problem at bay.

Theoretical explanations of depression in children (Childhood Mental Health)


Over recent years, there has been an extreme attention in the concept of depression in childhood. The issue is particularly complex because sadness and tears are common parts of all children’s lives and so cannot form any true basis for a diagnosis of a depressive illness. In addition, the term itself has become so much part of common usage that it has begun to lose value as a description of a particular illness process. Even within professional circles the word ‘depression’ is used synonymously to describe three discrete levels known as depressed mood, depressive syndrome and depressive disorder (Kadzin 1990).

The depressed mood of a child is a state of profound unhappiness and sense of dejection (dysphoria) that is more than normal sadness. The child cannot see any real bright spots to his or her life, and there is a loss of emotional involvement with either other children or activities. Repeatedly it is associated with negative styles of thinking about the young people themselves (giving rise to feelings of failure and guilt) or about the future (giving a sense of hopelessness).  Table 1 shows how much thoughts create a wider shift in mood, which then becomes attributed to all aspects of life. The presence of such feelings is a normal reaction to a distressing event, but they are in proportion to the importance of the event, and the overall intensity is not great (Elliott and Place 1998).

Table 1 (Thoughts creating a shift in mood)

When reflecting upon:      personal achievements              ability to influence events

The past                         feeling of guilt and shame         fearful of acting in case of repeats

The present                    believes self to be a failure        feels helpless

The future                      experts the worst to happen       feels hopeless

(Elliott and Place 1998).

The depressive syndrome as part of the concrete levels is a cluster of symptoms including depressed mood, tearfulness and petulance, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance and interruption, poor concentration and loss of energy. While depressive disorder can be viewed as a psychiatric diagnosis of depression, such as the one given in the diagnostic and statistical Manual (DSM-IV) of the American Psychiatric Association (1994), is based on typical symptoms but they must be present for a specific time, and clearly impair the person’s functioning, persistence and impairment are what distinguishes the disorder from the syndrome (Elliott and Place 1998).

The world depression has been used in different ways, to describe somewhat different issues. Since it usually relates to affects, it belongs to the class of Affective Disorders in DSM-III (American Psychiatric Association, 1980).  Depressed individuals undergo mood changes, thus depression is included in DSM-III-R (American Psychiatric Association, 1987) in the class of mood disorders (Wolman and Stricker, 1990). Depression, in general terminology, can refer to severe mood swings or to mild variations in effect. In the clinical context, depression refers not only to a state of depression but to a syndrome with psychomotor and somatic/vegetative state lasting weeks or months. Additionally, clinically significant depression generally affects the person’s ability to live a normal life. Persons may lose interest in school, friends, television programs, and other activities previously enjoyed. Unlike other disorders, such as schizophrenia, that adversely affect thought, the principal symptoms of depression are mood and effect. Typical of these symptoms are sadness, low self-esteem, and loss of interest in activities. The disorder occurs so frequently that it is referred to as the “common cold of emotional problems” (Matson, 1989).

The concept of childhood depression is still a matter of considerable controversy. Until recently the prevailing view was that depressive disorders rarely occurred in children or that if they did occur they took a “masked” form. In the previous fifteen years, however, there has been an in recognition that depressive conditions resembling adult depression can and do appear in childhood (Rutter, 1988a; Angold 1988a; Harrington, 1990). Indeed, it has been suggested that they are quite common in clinical samples. Nevertheless, there are continuing uncertainties about the comparability of depressive disorders in adults and many writers remain doubtful about the true frequency of depressive syndromes in prepubertal children (Lefkowitz and Burton, 1978; Graham, 1981; Shaffer, 1985).

There is no best way of diagnosing or classifying depression in children. Several systems of classification have been developed with considerable overlap among them. The most popular of these systems is the Diagnostic and statistical Manual (DSM-III-R) (American Psychiatric Association 1987). The ICD-10 has also been used in classifying the diagnostic criteria for depressive disorder and it’s been commonly used in Europe for diagnosing depression. However, to confirm that a depressive syndrome is present, the young person must not only appear miserable and unhappy, but demonstrate a negative style of thinking and present a daily routine which illustrate a loss of interest and concentration. For some clinicians, there must be clear anhedonia which means that the young person has lost all enjoyment of life and now portrays a picture dominated by gloom and despondency (Elliott and Place, 1998).

Recently, it has been established that the definitions of the depressive syndrome and disorder which are used in adults are also the ones to use when try to assess children. With the acceptance that adult-type depression is present in children, there has been an increasing interest in whether the mixture of depression and mania, which is seen in adults, can occur in childhood. Having confirmed that the adult diagnosis can be used in children, the next problem is to determine how often such illness in young people. The summary of results from such studies has pointed to about 2 percent of children developing a depressive illness before they reach puberty (Kashani et al. 1983), with perhaps as many as 30 per cent of those who present with depression before puberty going on to show the bipolar illness in later life (Geller et al. 1994). The presence of depressive symptoms does not mean that the disorder of depression is actually present. Indeed, up to 25 per cent of the general adolescent population show some symptoms of depression at some point (Roberts et al. 1990), and although only a small proportion of these will go on to develop the full disorder, this group is more likely to show the full disorder in the following two years than the general population (Weissman et al. 1992).

The impacts of depressive disorder on young people are persistently miserable, gloomy and unhappy. They may feel so bad that the effort to express such negative emotions is too much, and they then become inert and withdrawn. There is often an associated slowing of speech and movement which can sometimes be mistaken by the uniformed as disinterest. Not surprisingly, such behaviours cause these young people to have impaired peer and family relationships, and there is usually deterioration in school performance (Puig-Antich et al. 1993). In some cases these features rather than the depressive symptoms themselves may be more evident to the casual observer (Kent et al. 1995). A particular problem can occur in adolescence because this period of development does tend to exaggerate existing psychological traits such as needing to tidy or compulsively checking that lights are switched off. If the young person was already prone to be gloomy, then adolescence itself may make this more marked, but such symptoms still fall short of the features that would allow it to be called a depressive illness. The nature of the disorder can have a significant impact on trying to find out details of history from the young person. The withdrawal and general slowing up of thought processes mean that they are unlikely to volunteer information and any answers they do give are likely to be slowly given. Many questions will be met with ‘don’t know’, but since this is almost a universal adolescent reply, it is not very helpful diagnostically (Elliott and Place 1998).

Cognitive-behavioural model

Among investigators of childhood depression probably the most influential of the psychological approaches have been the so called cognitive-behavioural models. There is much overlap between the ideas behind these models, but three stands out:

1.  Seligman’s theory of depression

2.  Beck’s cognitive theory of depression

3.  Lewinsohn’s behavioural view point of depression

Seligman (1975) theories of depression are rooted in animal experiments. Seligman and his co-workers observed that dogs exposed to uncontrollable electric shocks failed subsequently either to learn the response to terminate the shock or to initiate as many escape attempts. In human terms, there was an expectation of helplessness that was generalized to the new situation. These findings were thought to have direct implications for the development of depression. Seligman suggested that reactive depression in humans is a state of learned helplessness. The individual has learned expectations that external events are largely beyond his control and that unpleasant outcomes are probable. It is the expectation of loss of control rather than the event that is crucial. This state can produce many of the features of depression, such as some of the cognitive deficits and motivational difficulties (e.g. psychomotor retardation). However, a particular problem for learned helplessness theory was to explain why depressed people so often had guilt. If depressed subjects thought they were unable to control events then why did they so often experience guilt? (Harrington 1993).

The theory of learned helplessness was criticised because it failed to address the issue of why some depressed people tend to blame themselves for their depression, whilst others blame the external world, and the observation that depressed people tend to attribute their successes to luck rather than to their own ability. Abramson et al.’s (1978) revised version of the theory of ‘learned helplessness’ went further than talking about a lack of control. The revised theory was based on the attributions or interpretations people make of their experiences. According to Abramson and his colleagues, people who attribute failure to internal (It’s my fault’), Stable (‘It’s going to last forever’) and global (‘It’s to affect everything I do’) causes and attribute their successes to luck are more likely to become depressed, because these factors lead to the perception that they are helpless to change things for the better (Gross and MclLveen, 1996).

The researchers argue that this attributional style derives from learning histories, especially in the family and at school. Support for the learned helplessness theory of depression comes from research which indicates that questionnaires assessing how people interpret adversities in life predict (at least to a degree) their future susceptibility to depression. However, although cognitions of helplessness often do acceptance accompany depressive episodes, the pattern of cognition has been shown to change once the individual’s depressive episode ends. According to Barnett & Gottlib (1988), people were formerly depressed are actually no different from people who have never been depressed in terms of their tendency to view negative events with an attitude of helpless resignation. This finding could be interpreted as indicating that an attitude of helplessness is a symptom rather than a cause of depression (Gross and MclLveen, 1996).

A similar account to that advanced by Seligman’s has been proposed by Beck (1974), whose cognitive model of emotional disorders state that ‘an individual’s emotional response to an event or experience is determined by the conscious meaning placed on it’. Beck believes that depression is based is based in self-defeating negative beliefs and negative cognitive sets (or tendencies to think in certain ways) that develop as a result of experience. According to Beck, certain experiences in childhood and adolescence (such as the loss of a parent or critics from teachers and other adults) lead to the development of a cognitive triad consisting of three interlocking negative beliefs. These concern the self, the world and the future, and cause people to have a distorted and constricted outlook on life. These beliefs lead people to magnify their bad experiences and minimise their good experiences. The cognitive trait is maintained by several kinds of distorted and illogical thinking that can contribute to depression (Beck and Freeman, 1990).

There is evidence to suggest that depressed children do describe their world in the ways that Beck outlined (White et al., 1985). However, it could be that feelings of depression and logical errors of thought are both caused by a third factor (which might be a biochemical imbalance). In addition, as Hammen (1985) has pointed out, the perception and recall of information in more negative terms might be the result of depression rather than the cause of it. Recent research has looked at the role of depressogenic schemata that is cognitions that may provoke depression, which remain latent until activated by Stress. Haaga and Beck (1992) have specified several types of stressor that may activate dysfunctional beliefs in people. For example, sociotropic individuals may be stressed by negative interactions or rejections by others, whereas autonomous individuals may be stressed by a failure to reach personal goals (quoted in Teasdale, 1988).

The explanation of depression from Lewinsohn’s (1974) behavioural viewpoint proposed that depression is the result of a low rate of response-contingent positive reinforcement. However, this low rate occurs not only because few positively reinforcing events are available in the environment, but also because people with depression do not engage in forms of behaviour that lead to pleasant consequences. In order words, depression can also be the result of a lack of the social skills necessary to obtain rewards. The whole situation can be made worse by the fact that once depressed, depressed subjects are less likely to experience positive social reinforcement (Harrington 1993).

Psychodynamic model

Psychodynamic approach to depression was first address by Abraham (1911), who was once a student of Freud. However, it was Freud himself, in Mourning and Melancholia (1917), who attempted to apply psychodynamic principles. Freud noted that there was a similarity between the grieving that occur when a loved one dies and the symptoms of depression. Freud saw depression as being excessive and irrational grief which occurs as a reaction to loss that evokes feelings associated with real or imagined loss of affection from the person on whom the individual was most dependent as a child. Freud argued that both actual losses (such as the death of a loved one) and symbolic loses (such as the loss of a job or social prestige) lead us to re-experience parts of our childhood. Thus, depressed people become dependent and clinging or, in very extreme cases, regress to a childlike state. Freud believed that the greater the experience of loss in childhood, the greater was the regression that occurred during adulthood. The evidence for this account is, however, mixed. For example, whilst some studies do suggest that children who have lost a parent are particularly susceptible to depression later on (Roy, 1981), other studies have failed to find such a susceptibility (Lewinsohn and Hoberton, 1982).

Freud also argued that unresolved hostility towards one’s parents, which has been repressed so that we are no longer consciously aware of it, was also important. The reason for this is that the outward expression of anger is unacceptable to the super ego, and so is turned inwards. The self directed hostility creates feelings of guilt, unworthiness and despair, which may be so intense as to motivate suicide (the ultimate form of inward-directed aggression). Freud further believed that grief was complicated by inevitable mixed feelings. As well as affection, Freud felt that mourners were likely to have had at least occasionally angry feelings towards the deceased. However, because such feelings are unacceptable, they too are redirected towards the self, leading to lowered self-esteem and feelings of guilt.

The above accounts explain the depression that occurs in response to some sort of environmental stress. Freud explains depression in the absence of any immediately identifiable stress as the symbolic loss of a loved one. A person might, for example, interpret a short-tempered response from a loved one as a sign that affection will no longer be returned. At least four reasons suggest that the psychodynamic model is inadequate in explaining mood disorders in general and depression in particular. First, there is no direct evidence that depressed people interpret the death of a loved one as desertion or rejection of themselves (Davison and Neale, 1990). Second, if anger is turned inward, we would not expect depressed people to direct excessive amounts of hostility towards people who are close to them. However, Weissman & Paykel (1974) reported evidence to suggest that this does occur. Third, as Crook & Eliot (1980) have observed, there is little evidence for a direct connection between early loss and the risk of depression in adult life. Finally, since symbolic loss cannot be observed, this aspect of the theory cannot be experimentally assessed (Gross and MclLveen 1996).

As with most clinical disorders of childhood and adolescence, there is no clear-cut understanding of why depression develops in children or adolescents. The most likely explanation encompasses multiple factors that put the child at risk for the development of depression. For example, one study found that depressed adolescents of depressed mothers showed higher levels of cognitive distortions and poorer interpersonal behaviours than did depressed adolescents without a history of material depression (Phares 2003). There is also no proven value in treating depression in the young with medication, and no evidence that continued usage reduces the likelihood of relapse. In young people the evidence suggests that cognitive therapy is both a positive treatment and that it may reduce the like-hood of recurrence. This therapeutic approach can be combined with the factors which seem to be protective against further relapse: encouragement in developing outside interests; assistance offered to help foster positive relationships with family and friends; teaching good coping skills; correcting any educational deficits so that the young person can experience school achievement. Such a range of measures will also strengthen self-esteem and so reduce the likelihood of further problems (Elliot and Place, 1998).



Like other kinds of mental illness, childhood depression is a serious mental disorder which has a number of characteristics. Different explanations have been initiated and advanced in an attempt to explain the disorder. All of these have received some support from research studies, although they may not be a single acceptable explanation for the disorder. The existence of a number of overt symptoms of childhood depression is now largely accepted and this paper has used two major models in explaining this disorder.


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Practical Solutions on How to Stop Panic Attacks

Panic attacks are very sneaky little pests because they can creep up on you when you least expect them, come up in the most inappropriate situations, and pop up when you feel most unprepared to deal with them. This might sound like a worst case scenario, but there is something you can do to combat this. The key is to being well-informed about how to stop panic attacks.

Luckily, the list on stopping panic is a short one and with time and practice, you could readily remember when you feel a panic attack rising.

Early Signs and Symptoms of Panic Attacks

Knowing how to stop panic attacks begins with information on the early signs of it. Although panic attacks can come on suddenly without your knowing it, there are early warning signs. These include a quickening pulse, your vision becoming a bit blurry, your voice becoming high pitched, or feeling like you have vertigo. There are more signs and these might be on a case to case basis, but the ones mentioned are the most common. When you are in panicky situations, learn to identify these warning signs so you can shift to the next step.

How to Stop Panic Attacks When You’re Alone

Panic can creep up to you when you are alone — in your room, while driving your car, or when wherever you are by your lonesome. In this situation where nobody is around for you to ask help, the first thing you need to do is to get out. The claustrophobic feeling can also be a contributing factor, so get out of the room, your car or wherever and get a breath of fresh air. Stop and inhale ten times, close your eyes, and imagine yourself in a place where you find comfort. An image of a meadow or a stream might be effective.

After doing this, open your eyes and repeat a positive affirmation. Your positive affirmation could be something you have heard from somewhere, or something you have constructed yourself. For example, you could repeat the lines, “I can handle difficult situations” or “It is always darkest before dawn”. Whatever affirmation you choose, make sure it lends a feeling of confidence in yourself, which is the first step in dealing with it. Affirmation will calm the anxiety down, but additional strategies include pinching the bridge of your nose or slowly running your hands through your hair while massaging your scalp.

How to Stop Panic Attacks When You’re in Public

Surrounded by other people, you might feel rising panic alongside the knowledge that you might make a scene or make a fool of yourself. In this case, you could try some strategies that work. If you are with other people, ask for help immediately. A simple, “I feel a panic attack rising and I need help” could have your friend or companions assist you right away. In a public place, try to find an open area where you can get more oxygen to inhale and circulate in your system. You can also try to take to water right away — have a glass of water and gulp it down to let the hydrogen and the oxygen circulate through your body in an instant. Another effective strategy is to let someone help you wash your face — the soothing water could calm down your senses.

These tips need the help of someone if you think you cannot get a hold of yourself right away. It is also best to keep your friends and loved ones informed about your condition so when they are with you, they know how to stop panic attacks and act accordingly. And finally, once you have successfully overcome your panic attack, it helps to review the situation. Most people who suffer from this usually do not know what transpired, especially if they want to forget the painful scenario right away. The best thing to do is to assess and recall the situation immediately so you can accept it and be better attuned to it when it strikes.

Carcinoma of the Pancreas

Pancreatic carcinoma has lately become the fourth primary cause of cancer-related death in the Unites States, with an annual incidence and mortality approaching 40,000 instances per 12 months. Delay in diagnosis, relative resistance to chemotherapy and radiation, and intrinsic biological aggressiveness manifested by early metastatic illness all lead to the abysmal prognosis connected with pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Pancreatic cancer malignancy generally occurs after age 50 many years and increases in incidence with age, with most sufferers diagnosed between 60 and 80 many years of age. It's somewhat more frequent in men than in ladies. Autopsy series document that pancreatic cancer may be determined in as much as 2% of individuals undergoing a postmortem examination.

Many risk factors for pancreatic adenocarcinoma have been determined. Cigarette smoking has the strongest general association and is believed to account for one-quarter of cases diagnosed. The association in between cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer malignancy is thought to become related to N-nitroso compounds existing in cigarette smoke.

Exposure to these agents leads to pancreatic ductal hyperplasia, a feasible precursor to adenocarcinoma. Other elements connected with an elevated danger of pancreatic adenocarcinoma include a higher dietary intake of saturated fat, exposure to nonchlorinated solvents, and the pesticide dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), although the overall contribution of these elements is likely small.

Diabetes mellitus has also recently been determined as a danger element for the illness. Chronic pancreatitis increases the danger of developing pancreatic adenocarcinoma by 10- to 20-fold. The role of other dietary factors (coffee, higher body fat consumption, and alcohol use) is much debated. Diets containing fresh fruits and vegetables are believed to be protective.

There is an elevated incidence of pancreatic cancer malignancy among sufferers with hereditary pancreatitis, particularly amongst those who develop pancreatic calcifications. Rarely, pancreatic carcinoma is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion in association with diabetes mellitus and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

A genetic predisposition has also been identified in numerous familial cancer syndromes. Carcinomas occur a lot more often in the head (70%) and entire body (20%) than in the tail (10%) with the pancreas. Although the cell of origin of pancreatic cancer malignancy is presently unfamiliar, most pancreatic adenocarcinomas use a ductal phenotype.

Current reports recommend that the cell of origin might be an acinar or centroacinar cell that, when mutated, de-differentiates into this ductal phenotype. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and also the mucin-producing cystic tumors, mucinous cystic neoplasms and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, are thought to be precursor lesions of ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.

Results of molecular analyses (eg, for mutations in the proto-oncogene K-ras) recommend a monoclonal cellular origin in a minimum of 95% of cases. Grossly, pancreatic cancer malignancy presents as a profoundly desmoplastic, infiltrating tumor that obstructs the pancreatic duct and thus often causes fibrosis and atrophy with the distal gland.

Carcinomas with the mind with the pancreas often obstruct the common bile duct early within their course, leading to jaundice and, if the cancerous growth is big, to widening of the duodenal C loop on contrast x-ray film or imaging studies. Tumors of the body and tail tend to existing later within their course and thus have a tendency to become very large when discovered.

Microscopically, 90% of pancreatic cancers are adenocarcinomas; the remainder are adenosquamous, anaplastic, and acinar cell carcinomas. Pancreatic cancer tends to spread into surrounding tissues, invading neighboring organs along the perineural fascia, causing severe discomfort, and via the lymphatics and bloodstream, causing metastases in regional lymph nodes, liver, along with other more distant sites.

As with other malignancies, it seems that specific molecular genetic alterations happen throughout improvement of pancreatic cancer, such as overexpression of receptor-ligand techniques, activation of oncogenes, inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and mutations of DNA mismatch repair genes. For instance, activating point mutations in the proto-oncogene K-ras at codon 12 have been determined in> 90% of pancreatic cancers.

Mutation in the TP53 cancerous growth suppressor gene may be detected in 50-75% of adenocarcinomas with the pancreas. Concurrent loss of TP53 and K-ras function might contribute towards the clinical aggressiveness of the cancer. Additionally, in approximately 90% of cases, the P16 tumor-suppressor gene, located on chromosome 9p, is inactivated.

Mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes may also lead to pancreatic cancer malignancy. It appears that several mutations must happen for pancreatic cancer malignancy to create. Familial pancreatic cancer malignancy syndromes arise from germline mutations. Examples include mutations in STK11 in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and in DNA mismatch repair genes.

The mismatch repair gene BRCA2 is inactivated in around 7-10% of pancreatic cancers. In long-term pancreatitis, a typical pathway for the development of pancreatic cancer might be through the long-term inflammatory procedure, such as a pronounced stromal reaction.

Mediators of long-term inflammation in the stroma most likely assistance a transformation to malignancy, although the exact mechanisms remain unknown. Cytokines created through the activated stroma look to promote the aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer malignancy cells.

The clinical presentation of pancreatic cancer malignancy may occasionally be indistinguishable from that of long-term pancreatitis, in part simply because inflammatory changes generally occur in both long-term pancreatitis and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The clinical manifestations of pancreatic cancer malignancy differ with location and histologic cancerous growth type.

Patients with carcinoma of the mind of the pancreas usually present with painless, progressive jaundice resulting from common bile duct obstruction. Occasionally the obstruction triggered by carcinoma in the mind with the pancreas is signaled through the presence of both jaundice and a dilated gallbladder palpable within the correct upper quadrant (Courvoisier's law).

Sufferers with carcinoma of your body or tail with the pancreas usually present with epigastric abdominal pain, profound weight reduction, abdominal mass, and anemia. These patients generally present at later on stages and frequently have distant metastases, particularly within the liver. Splenic vein thrombosis might occur like a complication of cancers within the body or tail of the gland.

About 70% of patients with pancreatic cancer malignancy have impaired glucose tolerance or frank diabetes mellitus. While this may be because of proximal ductal obstruction and atrophy with the distal gland, some patients look to have resolution of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes with surgical resection, suggesting that pancreatic cancers elaborate a yet unidentified diabetogenic substance.

Adenocarcinomas with the pancreas are sometimes connected with superficial thrombophlebitis or DIC, believed to become related to thromboplastins within the mucinous secretions of the adenocarcinoma. The uncommon acinar cellular carcinomas sometimes secrete lipase into the circulation, causing body fat necrosis in subcutaneous tissues (manifested as skin rashes) and bone marrow (manifested as lytic bone lesions) throughout the body.

A range of tumor markers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 19-9, alpha-fetoprotein, pancreatic oncofetal antigen, and galactosyl transferase II, could be found in the serum of sufferers with pancreatic cancer. Nevertheless, none of these tumor markers have adequate specificity or predictive value to be helpful in screening for the illness.

CA 19-9 might be helpful to predict recurrence in sufferers following surgical resection or to adhere to disease burden in patients who're becoming treated with systemic chemotherapy. In evaluating patients who are suspected of getting pancreatic cancer malignancy, the initial diagnostic test of choice is a contrast-enhanced, thin-cut helical CT scan.

For sufferers with an equivocal or inconclusive CT scan, endoscopic ultrasound with or without having fine needle aspiration is suggested to aid in analysis. Endoscopic retrograde cannulation of the pancreatic duct (ERCP) with stent placement is useful to relieve obstructive jaundice. In sufferers with pancreatic head lesions, brushing with the biliary or pancreatic duct during ERCP might confirm the analysis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

With the new imaging technique of positron emission tomography (PET), an increased uptake with the radiolabeled tracer 2- [18F] -fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose is observed in about 95% of patients with pancreatic cancer. Such uptake is not observed in sufferers with long-term pancreatitis.

Additionally to aiding in analysis, helical CT is helpful for delineating the regional vascular anatomy and to look for main vascular invasion by tumor, a sign of unresectability, or to figure out the presence of metastatic illness. Clinical prognostic elements have been identified.

These include tumor size, cancerous growth site, clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, type of surgery, anemia requiring blood transfusion, overall performance status, and adjuvant radiation therapy. Prognosis is influenced also by histologic characteristics this kind of as capsular invasion, blood vessel invasion, multicentricity with the tumor, epithelial atypia within the uninvolved areas of the pancreas, and a lymphocytic infiltrate at the cancerous growth margin.

Regrettably, only about 15% of pancreatic carcinomas are diagnosed at an early stage when cure by surgical resection is possible. At present, the general 5-year survival rate is much less than 5%, and only 15-20% of patients undergoing curative tumor resections reside longer than five many years.

The poor prognosis is primarily due to the advanced stage of illness by the time of presentation, its extraordinary local tumor progression, and its early systemic dissemination. Sufferers with metastatic illness use a short median survival (3-6 months), and individuals with locally sophisticated, nonmetastatic disease reside on typical only slightly lengthier (6-10 months).

Death Anxiety Among the Elderly- the Impact of Children

Journal of Psychological Researches, 1998, Vol. 42, No. 1, P: 32-34


Death anxiety became a topic of psychological interest in the late 1950’s. From its inception “thanatology” has been a multidisciplinary field including contributions from all disciplines. The definition of death anxiety has been the most perplexing task for a researcher till today. In the opinion of earlier reviewers, such as Kastenbaum & Costa (1977) much confusion in the literature on death attitudes can be traced to the “careless interchange of ‘fear’ and ‘anxiety,’ each of which implies different approaches”, for e.g., if fear represents a more realistic reaction to a specific danger, anxiety refers to a more neurotic response that is out of proportion to any actual external hazard (Choron, 1974). Peterson (1980) concluded that the study of death and dying “is severely limited in terms of both methodology and on theory.

Death is reality in the lives of adults; in adolescence, it may still be regarded as a stranger, but by old age it has come to be viewed as frequent, unwelcome companion of life’s journey (Stillion, 1995). Lieberman and Tobin (1980) maintain that older people do not generally have the same reluctance to discuss death and may, openly resolve fears on mortality as they review their lives. They suggested that elderly may have simply accumulated enough unpleasant life events over the years to make dying seem less traumatic. Sinha (1971) indicates that “fear of death in the elderly is a result of psychological deterioration.”

Kogan & Wallach (1961) found that adults of all ages ranked death as the most aversive of a wide range of concepts, even though every one evaluated death negatively, the elderly persons rated it more positive than else. Mullins & Lopez (1982) show evidences that old (75+) may become more death anxious than young old (60-75). There is not yet enough evidence to provide a secure interpretation of older respondents’ lower death concern.

Elderly with sound emotional health, married and with more number of children received lower death anxiety scores (Baum & Boxley, 1984). Elders who perceived time as slow and those who lived in institutions tends to feel more anxious about death (Baum, 1983). Elderly with satisfactory family-ties and more life satisfaction received less death anxiety scores (Tate, 1982).


Review of literature on death anxiety leads to the conclusion that not much research has been done both in abroad and in India to study the role of children in the experience of death anxiety. Hence this study has been attempted to find out the influence of children in the experience of death anxiety among the elderly. It has already been proved that presence of more children results in lower death anxiety among the elderly (Baum & Boxley, 1984).



Sample comprised of 30 men and 30 women elderly ranging in age from 50 to 82 years (mean age= 63.1 years) forming a sample size of 60. The samples were selected from Coimbatore District (Manchester of South India) in Tamil Nadu. The participants were contacted individually by the researcher and data was collected by face-to-face interview.


The tools used in this study for data collection by the researcher were:

1. Personal Information Schedule: An “Information Schedule” was designed by the investigator to procure demographic and biographic information from the samples required for the study.

2. Leming’s fear of death scale (1979-80): This scale comprised of 26 statements with 6 possible response outcomes i.e., 1 as ‘Strongly Agree,” “Agree,” “tend to agree,” “tend to disagree,” and “Strongly disagree.” Each statement carries scores from 1 to 6 and the respondent is to circle the category which he/she feels suitable. All such scores are added to give the total score. The maximum score is 156 and minimum is 26.


Mean, standard deviation and “t” test were the statistics calculated.

Table I: Shows the influence of children in the experience of death anxiety among the elderly

Variable More Children

(n=24) No/less Children

(n=36) “t” p







Death Anxiety






Since no significant gender differences were found in the experience of death anxiety, the results are presented with data combined. The results summarized in Table I shows that the‘t’ value for 58 df is significant below .05 level of confidence which indicate that elderly with more children experience less death anxiety than elderly with less and no children, this is in accordance with prior findings (eg., Reinhardt and Fisher, 1988; Baum & Boxley, 1984; etc) which described the relationship with children as providing more stimulation, ego-support and utility in latter life.


Baum, S.K (1983). Older People’s anxiety about after life. Psychological Reports. Vol. 52 (3), 895-898.

Baum, S.K & Boxely, R.L (1984). Age denial: Death denial in the elderly: Death Education. Vol. 8(5-6), 419-423.

Choron, J (1984). Death and modern man. New York: Mac Millan.

Kastenbaum, R & Costa, P.T (1977). Psychological perspectives on death. Annual Review of Psychology, 28, 225-240.

Kogan, N & Wallach, M.A (1961). Age changes in values and attitudes. Journal of Gerontology, 16, 272-280.

Liberman, M.A & Tobbin, S.S (1983). The experience of oldage, stress, coping and survival. New York: Basic Books.

Mullins, L.C & Lopez, M.A (1982). Death anxiety among nursing home residents. A comparison of the young old-old. Death Education, 6, 75-86.

Peterson, J.A. (1980). “Social aspects of death & dying and mental health” in Birren, J.E and Sloane, R.B (Eds.). Handbook of mental health and aging. Engle Wood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall.

Reinhardt, J.P & Fisher, C.D (1988). Kinship versus friendship: social adaptation in married and widowed elderly women. Women and Health. Vol. 14(3-4), 191-211.

Sinha, S.N (1971). Lonely Old Man. Indian Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 3 & 4.

Stillion, J. (1995). Death in the lives of Adults: Responding to the Tolling of Bell. In Wass, H and Neimeyer, R (Eds.) Dying: Facing the facts, Washington, Taylor & Francis, 303-322.

Tate, L.A (1982). Life satisfaction and death anxiety in aged women. International Journal of Aging and Human Development. Vol. 15(4), 299-306.

Thorson, J. A & Powell, F.C (1988). Elements of death anxiety and meanings of death. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 696-701.

What To Do About a Recurring Chest Cold

Colds are no fun, but they are especially unpleasant when they stick around for weeks or months at a time. Sometimes it just means you need to rest up to get better. Other times, you might need medicine to get rid of a chest cold that’s been sticking around.

Lots of doctors will give you antibiotics to take care of a chest cold, but that does not necessarily mean those meds will help you get better. Unfortunately, antibiotics have not been shown to improve a chest cold faster than not taking anything. On average, a person has a cough for nine days before they go to the doctor, but a cough can take another two to three weeks to go away fully. However, you should see a doctor if you have a cough that lasts more than two weeks and is not getting better.

You can speed a chest cold on its way out by resting up and drinking lots of fluids. People with compromised immune systems, smokers, the elderly, and children often have symptoms that last longer or are more susceptible to getting colds in the first place. Normally, this kind of illness is not accompanied by a fever, so if you do have a fever, that’s a sign it might be something more serious. In that case, you really should see a doctor.

Pneumonia can look like a chest cold, but have different symptoms. If you have a fever, feel shortness of breath, breathe faster than normal, cough up bloody phlegm, or feel super weak and tired, you may have pneumonia. Only a doctor will be able to tell you this for certain.

Another possibility is that it may be allergies. If your symptoms seem to stick around during the spring months, you may have an allergy to pollen or mold. Allergies can happen year-round though and are worth getting checked out by a doc.

Another illness that has similar symptoms to a chest cold is sinusitis. This happens when your sinus tissues become inflamed. This illness and other infections can even be caused by the common cold. If you have a lot of mucus discharge, nasal pressure, and cough, it may be sinusitis, but only your doctor can know for sure. Chronic sinusitis can last more than 8 weeks, too.

Asthma also could be another sickness that shows up like a chest cold. Asthma is a chronic illness where the person’s lungs swell and make it difficult to breathe. It can cause you to become more congested as well. The good news is that asthma inhalers can take care of this swelling and make you feel a whole lot better.

If you’ve been battling a chest cold for a long time, it may be time to check in with your doctor and look at other possibilities. Your doctor will want to see you if you’re concerned about yourself or a loved one so don’t hesitate! Just think about how happy you’ll be when you’re feeling better again.

Tips to Cure Insomnia – Fight Insomnia and Get to Sleep Easily

When people say “insomnia,” the mental picture is usually that of the red-eyed man trying his hardest to get some sleep. With fluffy sheep prancing in front of him and the numbers ticking off to the thousands, we are so used to the belief that we have to count sheep when we get to sleep. But we can actually fight insomnia, if we knew what caused it in the first place. So read on, absorb and apply the following tips to cure insomnia.

Tip to Cure Insomnia # 1: Get yourself checked.

When you have a hard time either falling asleep or staying asleep, then you may be suffering from insomnia. Worry not, you are not alone. Insomnia is actually a common sleep disorder and so many people go through sleepless nights at some point in their lifetime.

Around a third of the world’s population, actually, are full-fledged insomniacs. May the cause be: stress, anxiety, fatigue, or depression–consult your trusted medical professional for a more accurate assessment. It may well be a sign of some unseen illness.

Tip to Cure Insomnia # 2: Have your bed companion checked too.

There is a possibility that the person you share your bed with is the very factor for your situation. If his or her snoring just jars you awake, tell your partner to see a medical professional and have his or her snoring problem checked. It may be the result of an allergy, an effect of hypothyroidism, sleep apnea, or a deviated septum. In any case, seek medical opinion. Deal with the snoring so you’ll both snooze well.

Tip to Cure Insomnia # 3: Use relaxation techniques.

Practice relaxation exercises such as yoga, meditation, and tai chi. Rest in bed and take deep breaths for five minutes or until you drift off to sleep. Picture yourself in a peaceful and quiet place, your own personal paradise. The idea is to be free of stress, even if it’s just in your dreams. Address any conflicts or problems before bedtime so you may have peace of mind and be freed to go to bed worry-less.

Tip to Cure Insomnia # 4: For crying out loud, get that leak fixed.

If the faucet is leaking and the sound of the water dripping is keeping you away from sleep, a temporary solution would be to tie a piece of string around the tap, going all the way down to the sink, so the water will merely run down the length of the string noiselessly instead of crashing down with a heavy plink. Then when you awake, seek a lasting solution and finally call the plumber.

Tip to Cure Insomnia # 5: Hide that clock.

With the clock making that annoying ticking, you get anxious; and in that agitated state, it will be all the more difficult for you to get some shuteye. So don’t look at the clock. Face it the other way if you must. If it’s the kind that ticks and tocks annoyingly, get rid of it. Use a silent one instead, the type that doesn’t have a second hand so you’re not tormented every night with the sound of each passing second of precious sleep you lose.

Tip to Cure Insomnia # 6: Sing yourself a lullaby.

There’s a reason lullabies were invented, and if they work for infants, then it will most likely work for you too. Glory in the sound of your own voice and sing in bed. I have tried this myself and found that it works miracles. Sing only the mellow stuff, however, as noisier numbers might keep even the cats wide awake.

Insomnia need not be something that makes you suffer mercilessly. With these tips to cure insomnia, I’ve shown you that the causes for your sleeplessness and even their cures may actually be so simple. Now throw those sleeping pills down the bowl, hide that clock, take deep breaths, and drift off to sleep.

Benefits of Fish Oil Supplements That I Gained

You don’t need to go far these days to hear about the benefits of fish oil supplements. Television ads, magazines articles, books on the subject, scientists and the heart foundation, all provide us with positive information on why we need to add omega 3 to our daily diet.

Unfortunately, omega 3s are scarce in our diet due to modern day farming practices where our food is mass produced for profit, rather than nutrition.This leaves us with nutrient deficient soils, producing nutrient deficient food.

What about the food from the ocean? Well, this depends on where your fish is sourced, but generally the abundant omega 3s come from the more oily types, which often contains toxic metals due to pollution.

Most of us understand the benefits of fish oil supplements as already mentioned, due to mass advertising. We know that omega 3, especially DHA and to some extent EPA, is ideal brain food for everyone, great during pregnancy and for nursing Mums, we know that it is good for our heart and is a very good anti inflammatory source for skin disorders, general aches and pains, irritable bowel disorders and rheumatoid arthritis.

Here, I would like to mention the benefits of fish oil supplements that I have gained. Being the “young” Grandmother that I am, I was visiting my Daughter, Son in Law and children. I could not get myself off the lounge due to back pain. Terribly embarrassed, I managed to roll myself off the lounge to get to a standing position.During this time, I said “I think I need some omega 3s.”

Following extensive research I discovered that not all omega 3 products are equal and finally found a very reputable company to purchase my product from. Within a few days of taking the omega 3s I noticed that my back pain was beginning to improve. Within 3 months I noticed a huge improvement, not only with my back pain but my eyes were brighter and my skin looked younger.

One of the benefits of fish oil supplements that I was not expecting is a major improvement to a severe fracture of my wrist seven years ago. I now have more flexibility than I have had during the whole time of the injury. The bump on the wrist has reduced in size and the wrist rotation has improved. Considering the only option that the Orthopedic Specialist offered was surgery with no guarantee of improvement and 3 months off work, I am very excited about this.

For whatever reason you may need the benefits of fish oil supplements, why not click on the link which will take you to all of the information that I gained and why I chose the one that I did. Health is wealth.

Common Medical Tests After a Car Accident

Whether the types of injuries you have sustained in an auto accident are internal or external, you may need to take one or more diagnostic tests to determine your exact condition. Here are some of the common medical tests your doctor may ask you to take in order to diagnose your condition.

X-rays are the radiation tests we are all familiar with. You have probably taken one at the dentist office if you had your wisdom teeth removed. They show the skeletal structure and bones in your body. So if you have suffered broken or cracked bones or suffered soft tissue injuries, x-rays may help diagnose those injuries.

A CT scan, sometimes called a CAT scan, is short for Computed Tomography. A CT scan uses multiple x-rays taken around the same point to build a better picture than one x-ray can provide alone, using a computer to combine them. A CT scan is likely to be ordered if the doctors believe you have an injury to your internal organs of your torso or abdomen, or multiple fractures to a hand or foot.

MRI is short for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. If you get an MRI, the doctors will ask you to lie down in a large tube that uses harmless magnetic radiation to look at soft tissues of the body. Sometimes, they will also ask you to drink or have an injection of a substance that makes those tissues easier to see. If your doctor suspects an injury to your brain or spinal cord, you might be asked to do this test. Because this technology uses magnets, you can not use it if you have a pacemaker or other metal implanted in your body.

A PET scan is often used with a CT scan. In a PET scan, the patient is injected with a harmless substance that can be seen by the scanner using radioactivity. Unlike CT scans, PET scans can show your body's metabolic activity rather than just structure of the body. The images they produce are also three-dimensional.

An ultrasound test uses high-frequency sound waves that bounce off internal structures of the body to build an image. The image it builds is not as detailed as images from other methods, but because it does not use radiation, it may be the best choice for people who certain conditions. It is also less expensive than an MRI. Doctors use it to look at internal organs, connective tissue, bones, blood vessels and eyes.

If your doctors believe you have a nerve injury, you may take a nerve conduction study, an electrical test that can detect problems with your nerves. In this test, one electrode is placed over the nerve being tested, while another is placed in a "downstream" area of ​​the nervous system. The speed it takes for the electricity to travel between them determines whether there is nerve damage.

An electromyography (EMG) shows muscles' activity by measuring the electrical current they produce when they are in motion. This might be used for people with nerve damage, muscle weakness or the conditions that might cause them. In an EMG, doctors either, insert a thin needle into the muscle being tested or place an electrode over the area, then measure the electrical impulse of the muscle.

An endoscopy uses a flexible tube with a light and a camera to look inside natural openings in your body, such as the throat. This is most commonly associated with tests on the stomach or colon, but can be used in area with a natural opening.

The Best Cure for Treating Toenail Fungus

Looking for the best cure for toenail fungus? Don’t worry; there are many treatments available for treating toenail fungus infection. You can opt for natural homemade treatments or you can go for an over the shelf treatment. However, whatever treatment you opt for, it is very important that you take proper care of your feet and toenails before, during and after the treatment.

 Benefits Of Home Remedies

 There are many benefits of using homemade natural remedies for toenail fungus. To begin with these remedies use ingredients that are easily found in your kitchen or home. Take for instance Listerine mouthwash. Soak your feet in the mouthwash and being an antiseptic it will treat your toe nail fungus infection.

 The second benefit of using homemade remedies is that they do not cost much. How much would apple cider vinegar cost you? Surely, not much! Mix equal amount of warm water and apple cider vinegar and soak your toenails in it for twenty minutes. Then dry your feet thoroughly. This is the best treatment for nail fungus. Plus it does not cost much.

 The main benefit of using home remedies is that they do not have any side effects. Since they do not require any chemicals, you can relax and use any number of such remedies for your toenail fungus treatment.

 Over The Shelf Remedies

 If you are one of those few who are not getting effective results with natural remedies, you can opt for over the shelf medications. There are many over the shelf nail fungus treatment in the market. Zetaclear, Fungusil, etc., are some of the most popular ones.

 Zetaclear nail fungus treatment is the best cure for toe nail fungus infection. It uses homeopathy ingredients to fight the fungus. It has proven to effectively kill the fungus. It is available as a topical solution that needs to be applied directly on the infected nail. It penetrates the nail and kills the fungus. It also improves your body’s anti-inflammatory and anti-infection capabilities. This helps in preventing the recurrence of the infection. Furthermore, Zetaclear also helps in clearing the discoloration of the nail.

 Native Remedies Nail Rx is considered the best cure for nail fungus infection. The best part about Nail Rx is that it is 100% natural. It contains pure essential plant oils like Tea Tree Oil, Lavender, Lemon Grass, and Clove Oil. You need to apply it directly on the affected area two to three times a day. It not only kills the fungus infection, it also helps in preventing its recurrence. It cures the discoloration of the nail and encourages healthy nail growth. It also helps in relieving the pain and discomfort. With so many positive benefits, it is no wonder that many people call it the best nail fungus cure.

 Besides using the best treatment for nail fungus, you also need to take some precautions. It is important to understand that fungus thrives in warm and moist areas like spas, locker rooms and swimming pools. So if you are going to such public places, make sure that you wash your feet thoroughly afterwards. If your feet sweat a lot, wear clean cotton socks. Also, never share your linen with affected people.

 If you suffer from toenail fungus, it is important to understand how to treat toenail fungus with the help of the best cure available. 

Bodybuilding Diet

Defining Diet

Today diet has almost become synonymous with eating less than what your body demands. This is not the right way to look at diet. Whatever food choices we are making forms our diet. And hence, contrary to popular belief, we are all on a diet – even if we are packing in a couple of pizzas and a liter of ice cream every night. What an aspiring bodybuilder should focus on is to develop the habit of a healthy diet, one that helps him to get the most out of his body.

Basics of a Healthy Diet

The first thing that anyone interested in bodybuilding needs to get into his head is that being on a diet does not mean starving oneself. It also does not mean that you have to have a couple of bottles of sports drink everyday. There are a few simple rules that you must adhere to so that you know you are on the right track.

First of all, do not gorge at one go or do not under-eat. Have regular small meals throughout the day. This ensures that you never go hungry and at the same time you do not have cravings. It is all about getting the balance right.

Secondly, whenever you eat, make sure that your meal is a balanced one with carbohydrates, proteins and good fats all featuring in balanced proportions in the menu. Whatever you eat should have carbohydrate, protein and fat in the ratio of approximately 2:2:1.

Thirdly, after you have had a meal, undertake some activity so that the calories are cycled. Otherwise our bodies get used to the excess calories and you feel hungry even if you have enough energy already stored in your body. Your body understands what you make it understand. So never fool your body into thinking the wrong things.

The Perfect Diet

Now that you know what is the importance of your diet it makes sense to delve a little further and try to find out what exactly would qualify as a healthy bodybuilding diet.

For a bodybuilder a minimum of six meals over the day is of utmost necessity. You can start your day with a cup of dry oats and beaten eggs. While the oats provide you enough carbohydrate and fibers that are essential to your body, the eggs supply the protein and the slightest of fat that helps your body. Since you are not frying the eggs, you are staying away from the bad fats. You can have this meal at around 7am.

Two hours later you can have packet of the meal replacement nutrients that are especially designed for bodybuilders. These have the exact proportions of protein, carbohydrate and fat that your body requires and greatly helps you in developing the lean body mass that any bodybuilder desires so much.

At noon have your third meal of the day. For you carbohydrate intake you have the option to choose from brown rice or baked potato. Throw in some green vegetables, as your body will require a regular dose of vitamins. A bit of meat or fish will perfectly round off the meal with its contribution in the protein department.

As we approach mid day we often feel a need to eat and this is the most vulnerable hour of the day and we can end up snacking during this period. A much better alternative is to have the same meal you had at 9 in the morning. Have just what the body requires – no more, no less.

Don’t wait for a late dinner. You should allow your body enough time to digest whatever you eat so that none of the extra calories get stored in your body without them getting cycled. Have your dinner by 6 in the evening and the menu would be similar to what you had for lunch. But if you had chosen chicken for lunch now you can go for fish or even turkey.

End your daily diet again with some of the meal replacement nutrients.

Common Slip and Fall Injuries

Slip and fall injuries occur every day in a wide range of settings, from the home to businesses to public places, a fall can happen anywhere. It is one of the more common forms of serious injury accidents. In the workplace, slip and fall injuries represent the second leading cause of workplace death. To protect yourself against slip and fall injuries, it is important to understand these injuries and their consequences.

Causes of Slip and Fall Accidents

Slip accidents are commonly caused by:

• Wet or oily surfaces
• Spills
• Weather hazards
• Mats that are not anchored
• Inherently slick flooring

In addition, trips are a common cause of falling accidents and may be caused by:

• Clutter
• Wrinkled carpeting
• Cables in walkway
• Uneven walking surfaces
• Obstructed view
• Poor lighting

These slips and trips can result in falling injuries.

Common Injuries as a Result of Slip and Fall Accidents

Just as there are many causes for slip and fall accidents, there are also many different types of injuries that can result. Some of the more common injuries that result from slip and fall accidents, include:

• Sprains
• Cuts
• Bruises
• Broken bones
• Tailbone or spinal injuries
• Brain injuries

In some cases, these injuries can be serious and may require hospitalization or lead to long-term injury.

Premises Liability Lawsuits

If you have been hurt as a result of a slip and fall injury, you may be able to file a premises liability lawsuit to receive compensation for expenses, including new bills and lost wages.

Whether a premises liability lawsuit is appropriate in your case depends on many factors. First, did the slip occur at work? If it occurred at work, were you at your place of work, or were you at another location as a part of your work duties? If you were at your normal workplace, you cannot file a premises liability lawsuit. Instead, your injuries will be covered under workers’ compensation. If your injury occurred at another place or not during work, you can file a premises liability lawsuit against the property owner if you believe your injury was due to a hazard that the property owner did or should have known about.

Spinal Cord Injury – How Does Complete Spinal Cord Injury Affect Sexual Functioning in Men?

The following aspects of sexual functioning are likely to be affected when a complete spinal cord injury has occurred in men:

  • Genital sensation or orgasm. For women and men with spinal cord injuries that are complete at any level, there is not likely to be any genital sensation or orgasm. Some people learn to transfer erotic feelings from other parts of their bodies that do have sensation.
  • Erotic mental and physical feelings. A complete injury does not rule out erotic sexual feelings. Many people are able to shift their source of eroticism so that the brain receives sexual signals from parts of the body other than the genitals. The brain learns to react sexually to pleasurable touching in other areas of the body, such as the ear lobes and the back of the neck.
  • Erection to touch (reflex erections). Men who have injuries that are T10 and above are likely to experience uncontrolled reflex in response to touch on the penis. This occurs because the reflex arc (from the penis to the lower part of the spinal cord and back again) functions independently of the brain. This type of erection is often welcomed by men with spinal cord injury since it means they can get an erection for sexual activity. Sometimes men with SCI are unhappy with reflex erections because it may happen when they do not want it to – during a catheterization or anytime when the penis is touched. For some men with SCI, the reflex erection may not be completely reliable or may not last long enough for some type of sexual activity. In these cases, a form of erection enhancement may be used.
  • Mental erection. Reflex erection to touch is not possible when an injury occurs in the lower part of the spinal cord (below T10). However, mental stimulation such as a sexual thought or fantasy can lead to some enlargement of the penis. Some seminal fluid may flow. After this emission of seminal fluid, the erection is usually lost. Men who have a complete SCI below T10 generally choose to use some form of erection enhancement.
  • Ejaculation. Most men with a spinal cord injury experience some disruption in ejaculation, however, there can be much variation between individuals.