Rett Syndrome – Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment

Rett syndrome is a rare neuro-developmental disorder found exclusively in girls, caused by defects in brain development due to a genetic defect. Individuals affected with this disease display an early normal growth, after which development eventually slows down and the characteristic symptoms of the syndrome start appearing. These include a loss of purposeful use of hands, distinct hand movements, brain and head growth retardation, a dysfunction of balance leading to difficult in walking, loss of coordination of eye movement and speech, convulsions, and intellectual impairment. The presentation of symptoms can vary considerably from person-to-person and the severity may therefore range from very mild to very severe. Treatment for this syndrome is complex and involves mainly supportive treatment by specialists from different heath care fields.

The basic aim of Ayurvedic herbal treatment is to help in brain development by attempting to normalise the metabolism of brain cells as well as neurotransmission between brain cells. It is not known whether herbal medicines directly help to normalise the abnormal expression of genes seen in this syndrome; however, the prolonged use of herbal medicines in high doses definitely improves symptoms and quality of life.

Long-term treatment for about one and a half years to two years can be given initially with a regular assessment for achievable benefits. Herbal medicines can be given to children in high uses without the risk of serious adverse effects even with prolonged use. Initial treatment gives an idea of the response of individuals to treatment and the objective benefits which are possible; this improvement with treatment can then be maintained or continued further with the use of small doses of herbs. Herbal medicines which act on the body and central nervous system, as well as herbal medicines which have a normalising action on metabolism, are especially useful in the management of Rett syndrome.

Medicines like Ashwagandha (Withanis somnifera), Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus), Shankapushpi (convolvulus pluricaulis), Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi), Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), Mandukparni (Centella asiatica), Bala (Sida cordifolia), Yashtimadhuk (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Vacha (Acorus calamus), Haridra (Curcuma longa) and Amalaki (Emblica officinalis) are especially useful in for reversing defects, both structural and functional, in brain cells as well as in the entire nervous system.

Medicines like Maha Vat Vidhvans Ras, Bruhat Vat Chitamani Ras, Dashmoolarishta, Kampvatari Ras, Ashwagandharishtta, Saraswatarishta, and Pathyadi Qadha are especially useful in reducing symptoms of abnormal movements and loss of balance and coordination.

Herbal medicines like Chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica), Kutki (Picrorrhiza kurroa), Punarnava (Boerhaavia diffusa), Patol (Tricosanthe dioica), Manjishtha (Rubia cordifolia), Saariva (Hemidesmus indicus), Musta (Cyperus rotundus) Nimba (Azadirachta indica), and Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), are especially useful in normalising the metabolism of different issues in the body.

Professionals from different fields need to be involved to adequately handle all the disabilities and medical issues related with this syndrome. The role of Ayurvedic herbal treatment is to reduce symptoms, bring about the maximum structural and functional improvement in the brain and central nervous system, improve quality of life and improve overall survival in individuals affected with Rett syndrome.

Hypocalcemia – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Hypocalcemia is a condition in which there is too little calcium in the blood. A common form of hypocalcemia in babies is called neonatal hypocalcemia. This condition may occur at different times with different causes, including the following:

Early hypocalcemia – occurs in the first three days of life.
Late hypocalcemia – develops between the fifth to tenth days of life, usually after several days of formula feedings. Some formulas have high levels of phosphate which can lower the blood calcium levels.

Symptoms

Symptoms of hypercalcemia can influence many organs and tissues of the body. For instance, in the skeletal system, hypercalcemia can lead to bone pain, spinal column curvature, and pathological fractures. Abnominal symptoms of hypercalcemia include nausea, vomiting, and constipation. Pschological symptoms of hypercalcemia could include depression, irritability, apathy, and dementia. In the musculoskeletal system, hypercalcemia can lead to the symptoms of weakness, muscle twitches, and muscle atrophy. Kidneys can be damaged and lead to frequent urination.

Causes

Some possible causes of hypocalcemia are:

You are not getting enough calcium or vitamin D from your diet. (Vitamin D helps your body take calcium from the food you eat and use it to build bone.)
Your intestines are not absorbing calcium.
Your parathyroid gland is not making enough parathyroid hormone, which affects calcium levels in the blood.

Treatment

Treatment is directed at the underlying cause of hypercalcemia whenever possible. In cases of hyperparathyroidism, surgery may be needed to remove the abnormal parathyroid gland and cure the hypercalcemia.
When hypercalcemia is mild and caused by primary hyperparathyroidism, patients may be followed closely by their doctor over time. A new medication named cinacalcet has been shown to lower calcium levels in the blood by reducing parathyroid hormone production.

Chronic hypocalcemia (hypoparathyroidism and so forth) is treated by administration of oral calcium and, if this is insufficient, vitamin D supplementation. The serum calcium level should be targeted to about 8.0 mg/dL. Most patients will be entirely asymptomatic at this level, and further elevation will lead to hypercalciuria because of the lack of PTH effect on the renal tubules. Chronic hypercalciuria may lead to development of nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, and renal impairment, and must be avoided.
When hypercalcemia is mild and caused by primary hyperparathyroidism, patients may be followed closely by their doctor over time. A new medication named cinacalcet has been shown to lower calcium levels in the blood by reducing parathyroid hormone production.

Treatment of hypocalcemia generally involves elucidating the cause for the inability to maintain normal levels of blood calcium, followed by correction of the problem. The most common cause of a low blood calcium is inadequate function of or damage to or surgical removal of the parathyroid glands. As most patients have 4 parathyroid glands, the function of at least 3 or more glands needs to be compromised before hypocalcemia develops. In most cases, treatment with oral calcium supplementation is effective in restoring the blood calcium to normal. In some instances, vitamin D supplements may be prescribed to enhance absorption of the calcium supplement. There are many different forms of calcium preparations, and similarly, there are several different types of vitamin D tablets.

Active Inquiry in Organizational Change

An essential part of Edgar Schein’s Process Consulting practice model (discussed in-depth in my book) is the use of Active Inquiry. A guiding assumption in Active Inquiry is that an insecure client will not reveal essential facts about the organization’s situation. Without these essential facts, the Organizational Change (OC) consultant is placed in a position of guessing. The consultant is then forced to rely on the dubious practice of projecting his or her prior experiences into the client’s current situation.

There are four essential elements in Active Inquiry:

1. Build up the client’s status and confidence.

2. Gather as much information as possible.

3. Involve the client in the diagnosis.

4. Create a situation that is safe for sharing both facts and feelings.

Schein describes three levels of Active Inquiry: pure inquiry, exploratory/diagnostic inquiry, and “confrontive” inquiry. It is important for the OC consultant to use the appropriate level at particular points in the process. The type of data being sought should determine the level of inquiry.

Pure inquiry, the first level, is designed to stimulate full disclosure. The consultant is simply attempting to get the story in as factual a manner as possible. At this level, “who” and “when” questions are appropriate; “why” questions are not.

Exploratory/diagnostic inquiry, the second level, is appropriate after the whole “factual” story is recorded. The consultant now redirects the client’s focus with questions such as:

“How did you feel about that?”

“Why do you suppose he/she did that?”

“What are you going to do next?”

Exploratory/diagnostic inquiry gets the client to explore at a deeper level. At this level, feelings, hypotheses, cause and effect relationships, and forecasted actions can be discussed. This level reveals organizational and client member expectations, perceptions, and values.

“Confrontive” (not “confrontational”) inquiry, the third level, must not occur before pure inquiry or exploratory/diagnostic inquiry. At this level, the consultant interjects his/her ideas about the situation. The goal here is to move the client members from unproductive thinking to creative and critical thinking about the current situation.

Schein’s model gives the OC consultant much insight into how to approach clients in a constructive and helpful way. The other important parts of Schein’s process consulting model are discussed later in my book, “Strategic Organizational Change.”

Your Pharmacist Is A Bottleneck

You’ve been there. You go to the pharmacy to drop off your prescription. You start by waiting in line to give the technician your prescription. Once you hand it off, he tells you it will be, say, twenty minutes until the medication is ready to be picked up. You roam the store and come back in twenty minutes to find that your prescription is not ready. Naturally, you’re a little perturbed. Ever wondered why it isn’t ready?

When you drop off a prescription, it goes through multiple stages before it is sent to the register to be picked up by the customer. Once the pharmacy obtains the new prescription, the patient’s name, date of birth, address, phone number, allergy information, and insurance information all have to be verified and updated if necessary. The prescription is then scanned into the computer so that an electronic copy can be made. The technician then has to manually input the data from the prescription. Once this happens, it is sent to the pharmacist, or in this case, the bottleneck. A bottleneck occurs when the limited capacity of a process causes work to pile up or become unevenly distributed in the flow of a process. Unless your pharmacist is Superman, he is going to be a bottleneck of the prescription filling process. With several technicians inputting medications, there is bound to be a pile of work at the pharmacist’s station, since the typical ratio of technicians to pharmacists is 4 to 1.

The pharmacist must perform a function called “Four Point”. This is where he checks to make sure that the technician input all of the information correctly and verifies that the doctor wrote for an appropriate therapy. At this point, insurance often plays a role in the delay of filling your “script”, another bottleneck, of course. Insurance problems go back to the technicians, for troubleshooting. Once problems are resolved, the work is sent out to technicians who actually count your medication. Ever seen a technician starving? It happens. Starving occurs when the activities in a stage must stop because there is no work. Technicians cannot count the medication until the pharmacist gives the o.k. to do so. Since the pharmacist is the bottleneck in the whole operation, he starves the technicians of work. Once the technician counts the medication, it is set on racks in front of the pharmacist. This part of the process is called “Visual Verification”. The pharmacist checks each medication to ensure that the correct drug and the correct quantity has been dispensed. Again, there is one pharmacist per four technicians. There tends to be a pile in front of the pharmacist at this point. Blocking may occur at this point. Blocking occurs when the activities in a stage must stop because there is no place to deposit the item just completed. Often, there is no room to put the basket or tote that contains the medication in front of the pharmacist. Sometimes, it comes to the point where the pharmacist is so backed up that there are no totes available. When no totes are available, the technicians cannot carry on with work and count more medications, or your medication. Once the pharmacist ensures that the medication is correct, it is bagged.

The prescription must be checked in multiple ways at this stage. If the prescription is new to the patient, it has to be bagged separately and differently than if the prescription is a refill. If the prescription costs more than a certain amount, say $50, the bagger indicates that the medicine must be paid for at the pharmacy and cannot be taken to another register in the store. Finally, the prescription is taken to the area for pick up. Now imagine a pharmacy that fills 700 prescriptions daily. An average pharmacy is open 12 hours. Your pharmacy is filling 58.3 prescriptions per hour. There are four technicians to do the labor, which amounts to 14.5 prescriptions each, per hour. A pharmacist checks all 58.3 prescriptions each hour. Of course we want to be certain that the pharmacist has done his job and we obtain the correct medication and are consulted and treated in a respectful manner. Pharmacies have found ways to install processes that ensure a smooth flow of work between the technicians and pharmacists. However, pharmacists are humans, not machines, and they have a major responsibility and liability towards each patient’s health. We trust that they spend the appropriate amount of time reviewing our health history, the therapy suggested by the doctor and the implications it may have for us. Now, are you still mad?

Location economies

Location economies:

Introduction:

Economic growth can be associated with the growth in urban areas, the urban areas are densely populated and this is where we have job opportunities, high levels of productivity and many firms. Urban areas have differing functions in that some are political cities, administrative cities, industrial cities, religious cities, educational cities, commercial cities, tourist cities and finally military cities.

In economics the size of an urban area is determined by the level of output by the firms and households and not by the size of the urban area. Urban area emerge when firms tend to gain opportunity cost by locating in the area, this aids the firm to generate more profits in the area. Urban areas will generate demand for labour who work in the firms that are located in the area, as more and more labour is demanded labourers tend to locate near the city in order to save on transport cost, as more labourers locate near the city then the demand for goods in the city will expand leading to more expansion of the city.

This paper discusses the factors that a firm will consider when locating its production process, this include transport costs, production cost and amenities.

Location economies:

A firm will locate in an area where it reduces both its procurement costs and also the distribution costs, procurement costs are those costs associated with the transportation of the raw materials into the firm. Distribution costs are those costs associated with transport costs in distributing the goods and services to the consumers.

When the procurement costs are lower than the distribution costs then a firm will locate near the source of its raw materials in order to gain competitive advantage through its reduction in its cost of production.

When the distribution costs are lower than the procurement costs then the firm will locate near the market, this reduces the costs of producing the goods and therefore the firm gains competitive advantage.

If the firm is a monopoly then the firm does not necessarily take into consideration the location, a firm will also locate near its competitors in order to experience a reduction in the costs of production, they will locate near competitors in order to reduce the cost of marketing because consumers are closer to them, the consumers will have a variety of goods and services to choose from.

Therefore the firm will locate in an area where there is a possibility of reducing the price of production. The level of output by firms in an area will determine the economic size of the area, when output by firms and household is high then the area experiences economic growth.

Production costs:

Cost of energy:

Minimising the cost of energy is one of the factors that a firm will consider when locating its production process, the reduction in the cost of energy will result into a reduction in the cost of production. This is reason why most of steel and iron producing firms will locate near coal mines. This way they are in a position to save on energy costs because coal is cheaper than any other source of energy.

Firms will also locate in areas where there is abundant supply of electric power in order to save on costs of energy where other sources of energy tend to be more expensive than others, minimising the cost of energy in the economy will therefore result into m a reduction in the cost of production and this will reduce consumer prices. When consumer prices are reduced then there will be increased demand for goods and services in the economy promoting growth.

Cost of labour:

Firms will also locate in areas where the cost of labour is low, in areas where the cost of labour is low then the cost of production is low therefore the final price of its products will be low and competitive, for this reasons most firms locate less developed countries where the cost of labour is low as compared to developed countries where the cost of labour is high.

Labour is a factor of production in almost all firms, as depicted by the cost push inflation theory by Keynes then labour cost will increase or decrease the level of final prices in the economy, therefore if a firm is able to reduce the cost of production through tapping low paying labour then the final prices of its products will be low.

Cost of land:

Land is also an important factor in the production process, firms will locate on land or even use land in producing agricultural products, therefore a reduction in the price of land wills highly contribute to a reduction in the cost of production. This will reduce the final price of goods which will highly benefit the economy in terms of growth.

External economies:

External economies can be defined as the advantage that a firm gains as a result of producing more, a firm will gain advantage if it finds a location where there is a large market and the firm expands its production process. As the number of units produced increase then the fixed costs of the firm are distributed to more units and this is what is referred to as economies of scale, therefore an increase in the market size wills reduce the cost of production of a firm and therefore the final price of its goods will be low.

Amenities:

Firms will locate in area where there is abundance of amenities. The abundance of social amenities such as hospitals, schools will encourage households to locate in these areas, because the households are both providers of labour into firms and at the same time consumers of final products. Therefore an increase in amenities in a location will attract labour into the area who will be also consumers of products encouraging economic growth.

Export:

Exports tend to encourage growth in the economy. Exports are sources of foreign currencies and also help solve the problem of balance of trade. Exports will also create market for excess production encouraging higher levels of production in the economy due to availability of a larger market. Firms will only exports goods only if the prices of their commodities are lower in the export market.

Exports will also encourage specialisation where economies will specialise only on those goods and services it has both absolute and comparative advantage. Specialisation encourages efficiency and effectiveness of the production process reducing the cost of production.

Therefore the export market will encourage growth and development in an economy when the exports bring in foreign currency, encourage the expansion of production of goods and services and at the same time improve the balance of trade an economy.

Conclusion:

The size of an urban area is determined by the level of output by the firms and households. Urban areas emerge when firms tend to gain opportunity cost by locating in the area which helps the firm to generate more profits in the area. Urban areas will generate demand for labour who work in the firms that are located in the area, as more and more labour is demanded labourers tend to locate near the city in order to save on transport cost, as more labourers locate near the city then the demand for goods increases.

A firm will locate in an area where it reduces both its procurement costs and also the distribution costs, when the procurement costs are lower than the distribution costs then a firm will locate near the source of its raw materials and when the distribution costs are lower than the procurement costs then the firm will locate near the market.

Labour and land are factors of production, labour cost as depicted by the cost push inflation theory by Keynes then labour cost will increase or decrease the level of final prices in the economy, therefore if a firm is able to reduce the cost of production through tapping low paying labour then the final prices of its products will be low. Land is also an important factor in the production process, firms will locate on land or even use land in producing agricultural products, therefore a reduction in the price of land wills highly contribute to a reduction in the cost of production.

The abundance of social amenities such as hospitals, schools will encourage households to locate in these areas, because the households are both providers of labour into firms and at the same time consumers of final products. Therefore an increase in amenities in a location will attract labour into the area who will be also consumers of products encouraging economic growth.

Therefore the firms will encourage growth if only the above advantages are associated with the area they locate their production process, they will consider all the factors discussed in this paper. When firm increase their production then this eventually encourages economic growth and development.

References:

Anthony Samuelson (1964) Economics, McGraw-Hill publishers, New York

Brian Snow (1997) Macroeconomics: introduction to macroeconomics, Rout ledge publishers, UK

Stratton (1999) Economics: A New Introduction, McGraw Hill Publishers, New York

Philip Hardwick (2004) Introduction to Modern Economics, Pearson Education Press, UK

Five Teen Drug Trends You Shouldn’t Ignore

Experienced parents know that fads come and go. Something that ignites teen fever one day may fizzle into nothing a few weeks later.

But when it comes to teen drug use, trendy designer drugs can be just as dangerous as the substances we’ve been warned about for decades. Even those that quickly lose their appeal among teens do their share of damage along the way.

Here are five of the most dangerous teen drug trends you shouldn’t ignore:

Teen Drug Trend #1: Bath Salts

Bath salts hit the teen drug scene in 2010 and have since become a serious concern among law enforcement, hospitals, drug rehabs and parents. According to the American Association of Poison Control Centers, calls about bath salts are up from 303 in all of 2010 to 3,470 between January and June of 2011.

Bath salts are stimulants similar to meth and cocaine, but they are being sold legally under the names Vanilla Sky, Aura, Hurricane Charlie, Ivory Wave and many others. To get around the laws that would make bath salts illegal, manufacturers label them “not for human consumption” and sometimes market them as plant food or other seemingly innocuous products.

The active chemicals in bath salts are mephedrone and MDPV, but there is currently no reliable way to test for these drugs. At least 35 states have banned ingredients found in bath salts and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is considering making these drugs controlled Schedule I drugs like heroin and ecstasy, yet teens are still easily accessing these drugs.

Bath salts can make a perfectly “normal” teen psychotic – literally. Physicians throughout the country have been shocked to see their emergency rooms inundated by delusional, violent teens who are high on bath salts. Teens present with dangerously high fevers, high blood pressure, racing heartbeat and muscle agitation so severe it can lead to kidney failure. In addition to being highly addictive, these drugs can cause heart attack, seizures, muscle damage, stroke and even death.

After being treated with heavy sedatives and antipsychotics in some cases, adolescents sometimes end up in the psychiatric hospital because the bath salts made them so violent, paranoid and out of touch with reality. Even after days of being sedated, the psychosis can come back, causing some to fear that the effects of these drugs may be permanent.

Teen Drug Trend #2: Kratom

Kratom is the newest drug gaining popularity among teens in the U.S. Derived from a plant found in southeast Asia, kratom has been used for a variety of medicinal purposes in other countries. Kratom is sold in the form of leaves, powder, extract or capsules, and can be swallowed, drank as a tea or snorted as a powder.

Kratom is not controlled by the DEA and is known by the names Thom, Kakuam, Biak, Thang or Ketum. The effects of kratom vary from alertness, increased energy and weight loss (in small doses) to relaxation, dry mouth, sweating and reduced sensitivity to pain (in large doses). The drug takes effect within minutes of use, producing a mild high that typically lasts two to five hours.

Even though it is legal and readily accessible, kratom is addictive. Once addicted, teens who stop using kratom may experience withdrawal symptoms such as cold-like symptoms, depression, diarrhea and insomnia. In an effort to cope with these withdrawal symptoms or to amplify the high, teens may begin using harder drugs or mixing kratom with alcohol or other drugs.

Teen Drug Trend #3: Spice / K2

Another drug that has likely made its way into your community is Spice, also known as K2, skunk or J-dub. Spice is a blend of herbs sprayed with a potent psychotropic drug that contains synthetic cannabinoids. The drug impacts the same receptors in the brain as marijuana (hence the name “legal marijuana”), but Spice can be up to 10 times stronger than marijuana, producing a high that typically lasts one to two hours after smoking.

Spice has landed many adolescents in the emergency room. It can cause vomiting, agitation, panic attacks, hallucinations, seizures, high blood pressure, paranoia and elevated heart rate.

Despite these dangers, Spice is legally sold as “incense” or “potpourri” in head shops and on the Internet. A few states have banned Spice but teens continue to find ways to skirt the laws by purchasing the drug online. Because Spice does not show up on drug tests, many parents falsely believe that their teens are drug-free.

Teen Drug Trend #4: Salvia

Salvia is a powerful hallucinogenic herb that is being used as often as Ecstasy and even more often than LSD, according to The New York Times. The drug comes in a variety of forms, including seeds, leaves or liquid extract, and takes effect within seconds if smoked.

Salvia affects a different area of the brain than other drugs such as opiates or other hallucinogens. The experience is not a “high” but a sometimes disturbing altered sense of reality. Teens abuse salvia for its intense but short-lived hallucinogenic properties. Other effects include disconnectedness from reality, dizziness, a sense of being in many places at one time, and bizarre sensations of “hearing” colors and “seeing” sounds.

Salvia is not currently regulated by the DEA, though it is considered a drug of concern. A number of states have regulated Salvia, but the process is slow to catch up to the severity of the problem.

Teen Drug Trend #5: Prescription Drugs

Teen prescription drug abuse is not “new,” but is so pervasive, and so dangerous, that it merits a place in the top five teen drug trends. There are as many new abusers of painkillers as there are of marijuana, according to SAMHSA’s 2007 National Survey on Drug Use & Health (NSDUH). This means that when your teen is deciding which drug to try, they’re as likely to try prescription drugs as they are marijuana.

The most popular prescription drugs abused by teens are painkillers such as OxyContin and Vicodin, but a significant number of teens abuse stimulants and depressants as well. In the majority of cases, teens get prescription drugs for free from a friend or relative. Because they are legal when prescribed by a physician, teens believe prescription drugs are less dangerous and less likely to get them in trouble with parents or the law.

The consequences of teen prescription drug abuse can be as severe and life-threatening as illicit drugs like heroin and cocaine. Painkiller abuse can cause teens to stop breathing. Abuse of depressants can result in decreased heart rate, depressed breathing and seizures. Stimulant abuse has caused heart failure, high body temperature, irregular heart rate and seizures. These effects are worsened when teens take prescription drugs with alcohol or other drugs.

Every day, 2,500 youth ages 12 to 17 abuse a prescription painkiller for the first time (NSDUH, 2007). Drug use starts young – 13 is the mean age for abuse of stimulants and sedatives, and more than half of teens who have abused prescription pain relievers first tried them before age 15. Studies show that the earlier drug use begins, the more likely teens are to struggle with drug addiction in adulthood.

You Are Not Powerless

What all of these drugs have in common is that they are easy to obtain, difficult to detect and are legal in certain forms. Because there is a strong demand for these drugs, experts believe we will continue to see new variations on designer drugs in the years to come.

Talk with your teen early and often about the dangers of drugs, whether legal or illegal, and be vigilant about safeguarding your medications and setting clear expectations for your child’s behavior and attitudes around drugs. Drug trends come and go, but the one that sweeps up your teen could impact their life forever.

Most Effective Herbal Medicines For Hypothyroidism

Maybe, you are sick and tired already of the countless herbal medicines for hypothyroidism now available in the market. You may have saved a lot from not going for mainstream medicines, but still ended up paying for worthless herbal concoctions. A more careful look into the causes of hypothyroidism will likely give you effective hints on what specific herbal medicines to look for.

Known causes

According to the study conducted by Jack DeRuiter publish last 2002, 3% of the general population in the world suffer from hypothyroidism. Aside from iodine insufficiency, other factors were identified are primary causes of this disease. Many clinical studies suggested strong links between this disease and exposure to iodine-131, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and some congenital diseases, such as the absence of the thyroid gland. Deficiencies in the production of hormones secreted by the hypothalamus and the pituitary glands also cause hypothyroidism. Among mothers, 5% of them suffer from this condition within one year after giving birth.

Symptoms

Normally, earlier symptoms include poor muscle tone, fatigue, reduced ability to stand against cold, varying levels of depression, goiter and paleness on the skin. As the disease progresses, people with hypothyroidism also exhibit slow and slurred speech, dry puffy skin, especially on their arms and legs, and irregular menstrual cycles among women.

Oyster shells

Fortunately, there are several identified herbal medicines that have been proven most effective in treating this disease. Now, after knowing the inherent causes of hypothyroidism, we must be able to identify naturally occurring plants and other materials that could best address this condition. In Chinese medicine, oyster shells had been popularly considered as very potent treatment. Oysters are bivalve mollusks that live mostly in sea and brackish waters. The strong shells are actually highly calcified valves that are known as rich sources of calcium and iodine. Medicines prepared from the oyster shells are taken in the form of pills and capsules containing very fine powdered oyster shells.

Helpful study by Dr. Kar

Another 2002 study conducted by Dr. A. Kar and colleagues and published in the Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies investigated the use of water hyssop, also known as Bacopa monnieri, and its effects in the regulation of thyroid hormone concentrations in male laboratory mice. The pioneering study showed that the leaf extracts have the capacity of stimulating thyroid production naturally by around 41%. Water hyssop is a perennial creeping shrub that is commonly found in wetlands and similar environments. In separate studies, the leaf extracts also effectively increase the memory capacity and motor learning ability among the subjects. The plant is also rich in anti-oxidants.

Another plant that holds the promise of effectively curing hypothyroidism is Bael, also known as Aegle marmelos. Many localities also call it as Bilva, Beli fruit, stone apple or wood apple, among others. It is commonly found in many South and Southeast Asian countries, most notably in southern India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and the Philippines. The same study made by Dr. Kar showed that Bael extract was able to deliver around 61% efficiency in boosting thyroid production in the body. In several parts of central and southern India, the fresh fruit is squeezed to produce lemonade and sharbat, a refreshing drink composed of the dried pulp mixed with tamarind. Other sources are St. John’s wort, aloe vera and black cohosh.

Some important reminders. Since most of these herbal medicines are taken orally, it is most especially important to also consult medical experts pertaining to allergic reactions and other side effects. And no matter how potent the medicine is, it should always be coupled with a healthy lifestyle and balance diet rich in iodine. Only then could get optimal benefits from these herbal medicines for hypothyroidism.

Aromatherapy to Shrink Fibroids Naturally

Uterine fibroids treatment largely is dependent upon the size of your fibroid tumors and the number. In case your uterine tumors are large in size and big in numbers your fibroids symptoms will be severe. The pain and bleeding caused due to fibroids can become unbearable for women with such fibroids. For immediate relief fibroids surgery becomes necessary in such cases. However in case of small fibroid tumors in uterus, natural fibroids treatment is always worth as a first try. Natural fibroids treatment methods concentrate on a number of aspects like dietary changes, liver detoxification, herbal medicines, meditation and aromatherapy to shrink fibroids naturally.

Natural remedies for treating fibroids work on the basis that fibroid tumors in uterus occur because of multiple factors. Each and every cause of fibroids must be got rid of in a systematic manner to shrink the size of your existing fibroids and prevent the growth of new ones.

In this article I am going to share information on how aromatherapy can help in uterine fibroids treatment and shrink fibroids naturally.

Essential oils help in increasing the blood circulation to the pelvic organs. It relaxes the tense uterine muscles, eases cramps, and encourages a state of total relaxation that is essential for healing. You can make use of the following essential oils in sitz baths, massage oils, and abdominal compresses.

a) Ginger is a potent circulatory stimulant with warming properties. In addition it improves the functioning of the liver. With a mild spicy scent it is great to relax the body in general.

b) Marjoram has potent sedative properties. This too helps in relaxing tense muscles and eases uterine cramps. Marjoram has a spicy,

herbaceous, sweet fragrance.

c) Rose oil is very gentle and pleasant with mild hormone balancing properties. It is therefore considered to be a tonic for the uterus.

Aromatherapy is very useful in assisting and supporting the reproductive organs. It basically helps to rebalance the hormones in our system in a gentle manner.

Aromatherapy is popularly used by herbalists to shrink fibroids naturally. Normally it is a part of all herbal treatment plans which is combined with other measures like dietary changes, physical exercise and herbal medicines for total fibroid cure to shrink fibroids naturally. If you are really looking to treat fibroids naturally, it would be worthwhile to consult a qualified herbalist. In the current digital age you can also identify online herbal guides which will provide you step by step instructions for natural uterine fibroid treatment.

Do you want to get rid of Uterine Fibroids permanently? Do you know of a proven fibroids treatment that will start giving you relief within a few weeks of use? Although this may seem impossible it is 100% true. If you are serious about getting rid of fibroids naturally, discover the excellent insider secrets by clicking – Uterine Finroid Treatment

Delayed Ejaculation – The Third Most Common Sexual Dysfunction

If it takes you forever to orgasm during sex, you may have delayed ejaculation. Delayed ejaculation, also known as retarded ejaculation, a type of sexual dysfunction in men that occurs in approximately 7% of the population, and doctors say it is becoming more and more common. For men who have experienced premature ejaculation, this “problem” of delayed ejaculation may sound like a dream come true. But in actual fact delayed ejaculation, when it becomes chronic, can cause tension, anxiety, relationship problems, and just make sex feel like a lot of work. Vitamins and minerals, herbs, hypnosis, counseling and medications are among some of the options available to men who want to combat this issue. Go to your doctor to rule out any underlying problems first.

Causes

Often men with ejaculatory problems have no problems attaining or maintaining erections — quite the opposite. However, in these cases orgasm only occurs after a long period of time, if at all. For some men this condition is a lifelong problem, while for others it can begin quite out of the blue. Possible causes of delayed ejaculation include prostate disease, infections, male hormone imbalances, prescription medications, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, nerve damage, spinal cord damage, multiple sclerosis, dry or rough skin, and physical trauma to the local genital region. According to Michael A. Perelman, Ph.D., in a feature article published online by The International Society for Sexual Medicine, men suffering from delayed ejaculation, unrelated to a disease or medical condition, often have fears around impregnating their partners, experience guilt or anxiety over masturbation, and are often from a orthodox/fundamentalist religion background.

Treatment

When experiencing delayed ejaculation, it is common for men to seek out medications such as PDE-5 inhibitors or herbal sex pills. These options might help to restore a lost erection, but men with delayed reactions may experience mixed results. In some cases an erection is maintained, but orgasm is just as difficult to attain. The Mayo Clinic recommends several medications as possible treatments for delayed ejaculation, but only in combination with treating the root cause — be it the emotional and psychological tensions around sex, or a physical condition that may be at the root of the delayed ejaculation. Before a man self-medicates for his condition, the best option is to go see the doctor and get tested — blood tests, urine tests and physical examinations will rule out possible physical causes that may be easily remedied.

Alternative medicines

There are alternative medicines that may help with delayed ejaculation, but it always depends on what is causing the problem in the first place. Many vitamins and supplements such as Kava (Piper methysticum), B-Complex and magnesium are known to reduce anxiety and stress. Some supplements and nutrients modulate male hormones, such as Ginseng (Panax ginseng), Nettle root (Urtica dioica), vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin B5, zinc and whey protein. These may be beneficial for libido, arousal and firmness. The A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia suggests that hypnosis may also be a useful adjunctive treatment option for men suffering from delayed ejaculation. But one word of warning: a study published in The Journal of Sexual Medicine in 2007 suggests that high serotonin and oxytocin levels may be involved in the inhibition of orgasm and ejaculation. While more research in this area is required, some herbs are thought to affect serotonin and oxytocin levels — in particular St John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum), Rhodiola (Rhodiola rosea) and Griffonia Bean (Griffonia simplicifolia). Use these herbs and supplements containing these herbs with caution.

Topical treatments

Using topical products on the penis can have a range of benefits for men with delayed ejaculation. Specialist formulas (most professionals recommend Man1Man Oil) contain a range of beneficial nutrients and oils that support healthy circulation and nerve function. Vitamin C, E and B5 support testosterone production and effect nitric oxide (NO) levels for healthy erections. Alpha-lipoic acid is another active ingredient that has been well-researched for its ability to support nerve function and regenerate damaged nerves. Apply penis health crèmes as directed to improve penis sensitivity — a completely natural approach to increase arousal, pleasure and promote a healthy male orgasm.

Best Places For Medical Treatment in Damascus, Syria

Damascus is the capital of Syria; it is also an important hub for science, culture, politics, art, and commercial activities. The city is also known to be oldest city in the world that has been inhabited continuously. The country has state hospitals in every province but most of the good hospitals are concentrated in the capital Damascus. The treatment at government hospitals is almost free and the fee charged by private hospitals is also regulated by the government.

The New Medical Center is one the prime healthcare centre in Damascus. The hospital was set up in the year 1991 and has facilities and knowhow for almost all medical and surgical practices. It is outfitted with highly advanced infrastructure and the team at the hospital is well trained. The hospital is equipped to conduct pediatric surgery, plastic surgery, general surgery and kidney transplants. The address for this hospital is Misat sq. Bernia Street, P.O.Box 7465.

The Dr. Shami-Attar-Bdeir-Medical Care Center was established by the Attar Group in 1981. The MCC provides excellent medical care to its patients and is equipped with latest medical technology and a well trained staff. Surgeries in the fields of obstetrics, gynecology, ENT, ophthalmology and neurology apart from plastic surgery and general surgery are carried out at the hospital regularly. The hospital has advanced scanning systems and a modern Intensive Care Unit. The hospital carries out open heart surgeries and the hospital has a 100 bed capacity.

The Italian hospital in Damascus was built in 1936. It is one of the important healthcare facilities in the city. Through the years the hospital has come to be known as a modern hospital that provides good services at treatment to its patients. The hospital is located at Tilyani and the contact numbers are 332-9404; 332-6030/1.

The Al-Asadi Hospital located in Mazzeh, Western Villas Damascus specializes in heart surgery and Bridi Clinic at Rawda Street, near Arnous Square has facilities for both medical and dental ailments. The contact number is 3338210.

Medical Clinic is located on Youth City Street, Building 27, East Villas, Mezzeh Damascus 7937; the contact person in this clinic is Dr Al-Hussein Saied Moshaaoeh. The clinic offers treatment for general medicine related issues.

International Medical & Digestive Clinic found on Salhia Street, Cinema Amir Building is run by Dr M Jaber is and provides treatment for digestive and other stomach related illnesses.

Apart from the hospitals listed above there are some well known doctors in Damascus that can be contacted depending on the nature of the problem. Dr. Moufid Jokhadar is a famous cardiologist and is contact number is 331-2766/ 333-2337. Dr. Anan Haffar is a pediatrician and his address is Jisr Al Abyed, Damascus; phone numbers are 333-4283/371-2822. For obstetrics and gynecological issues you could contact Dr. Ahmad Dahman at 70, Mazraa Malek, Al Fadel Street.

Ayurveda – 7 Distinctive Differences Between Modern and Ayurvedic Medicines

The medical systems, whether it is Ayurveda or the conventional Allopathic, Modern, medicines, each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Without any intention to criticize any system of medicines and/or to force you to follow a certain medical practice, the article presents with a detailed comparison between the modern and Ayurvedic medicines.

1. Approach

Modern medicines treat the physical body, considering each organ or component as separate from the other. Thus, we find specialists in modern medicines. For instance, a cardiologist will most likely refer you to a gastrologist if you came to him complaining of suffering from severe hurt burn

In contrast, the field of Ayurveda treats the whole body in a holistic manner. This system believes that a complete Ayurvedic physician is one who is conversant with all systems of medicines associated with Ayurveda. To the Ayurvedic practitioner, body mind and spirit are connected and treating any condition involves balancing all three aspects.

2. Side Effects

It is a common fact that modern medicines are full of side effects. For instance, a woman taking birth control pills often finds herself getting obese.

In contrast, Ayurveda is based on herbs, which are found in nature and Ayurvedic natural herbal remedies do not have any side effects.

3. Natural Treatment

In the last few decades, the influx of Ayurvedic knowledge in the west has sensitized them to the concept of natural treatment but they are far away from applying the understanding of natural medicines. Conventional medicines believe in prescribing synthetic and chemical substances to treat any condition

In contrast, Ayurveda believes in herbalism, which is derived from nature. They believe that intimate communion with nature is the only way to gain ideal wellness.

4. Evidence-Based

Conventional medicine is purely evidence based even though modern doctors engage in lots of trial and error. How many times have you visited a doctor who gave you a particular medicine for an ailment only to be changed on your next visit?

In contrast, it is a misconception that Ayurveda is not based on scientific principles. In fact, Ayurveda has its own set of principles which is followed by every Ayurvedic practitioner religiously. Ayurvedic treatment is nature-based and the system follows the natural wisdom and universal truth that plants and the derived herbal remedies can be used to prevent and, if necessary, to cure all health issues. It has been said that “there is no beginning and there is no end to Ayurveda.” Its range of knowledge cannot be contained in books.

5. Roots

Modern medicines and treatment is more inclined towards suppressing the symptoms of a disease rather than eradicating it from its root. A simple case – when you visit a doctor when you have flu, often the doctor prescribes medicines which will suppress the symptoms. But does the medicine cure it? No.

In contrast, Ayurvedic remedies are not concerned with suppressing symptoms. In fact, initially the prescribed remedies will, very often, intensify the symptoms so that the problem can be treated from its root. Rather than suppress a fever, the Ayurvedic doctor will allow it to rise, while controlling it, to allow the high fever destroy whatever bacteria that has invaded the organism.

6. Diet and Lifestyle

Modern medicine rarely considers the diet and lifestyle of the suffering person. They are just interested in the disease and in doing so a disease is never prevented and, at best, it is suppressed until the next episode. However, in the last few years, modern medicine practitioners have slowly warmed up to the idea of including the diet and lifestyle too while prescribing treatment.

In contrast, Ayurveda believes that our well-being depends on what we eat and the way we manage our life. A healthy diet, a balanced life-style that includes spiritual enhancement, will ensure balance and harmony in the life of a person. If this balance is maintained, there is no need for any kind of medicines. It is only when the balance is disrupted that health problems arise.

7. Detoxification

Modern medicine is more concerned with suppressing the symptoms, as mentioned above. It simply does not understand the concept of prevention through body detoxification, for example. Even if a handful of doctors are aware, they shy away from recommending it because it is not prescribed under the rules of modern medicine.

In contrast, detoxification is the basis of all Ayurvedic remedies. They stress on the fact that removing the toxins from the body play the most important role in eradicating the disease causing factors which will also prevent the disease from erupting again and again.

Summary

These are the 7 primary differences between Ayurveda and Modern, conventional, medicine. They are brought to your with the hope that they will invoke in you the curiosity and hunger to explore and discover for yourself the enormous benefits that Ayurveda has to offer.

How to Care For Orphaned Guinea Pigs in Five Easy Steps

There is nothing more stressful than finding oneself responsible for caring for a litter of orphaned pups in the event the mother dies or refuses to nurse for whatever reason. While this is going to require time and commitment, never fear – this is something you CAN do.

Supplies You Will Need:

  • Shoebox
  • Water bottle
  • Insulating materials like towels, old socks, etc
  • Additional cloths to wrap babies in when handling
  • Wash cloths
  • A scale – either postal or kitchen to weigh the babies
  • A chart to track their weight
  • Special food like Oxbow Critical Care (can be obtained from a veterinarian)
  • A small needless syringe
  • A selection of real food like hay, grass, veggies, greens, etc.

Supplies You Will Not Need

A number of resources recommend using milk, milk blends, or diluted evaporated milk as a replacement for mother’s milk. This is not necessary as babies are able to consume real food with assistance. Animal products are, as always, harmful for guinea pigs.

Step 1 – Set Up the Living Area

Take the hot water bottle and fill with warm, but not HOT water. Place it along the side wall of the shoe box. Fill the remaining areas with insulating materials. Do not Pack tightly as you want the babies to be able to burrow around. Be sure to check the water bottle regularly to make sure it is still warm. Refill as necessary.

Step 2 – Weight Each of the Babies

Immediately after birth weight each baby. This is going to be a task you will do every day so making a chart is going to be helpful. The weight of a baby is going to be an indication of how well he or she is thriving. Do not be worried if you see small declines in weight over a couple days, this can be normal. Just take the time to provide a little extra food and see if that helps. If not, please make an appointment with your veterinarian.

Step 3 – Feed Every Two Hours During the Day For the First Two Days

Have the food solution prepared in advance. To prepare the food, take the Critical Care and soak in water to soften. Then mash into a liquid. Place in needless syringe. Aim to feed approximately one to two cc’s of solution per baby. Lift the baby you plan to feed and wrap in a cloth to keep warm while feeding. Gently feed them using the syringe (or if you want, a spoon is okay too if it works.) It is important to be slow and gentle, not forceful as it is easy for babies to choke or inhale the food.

Step 4 – Encourage Elimination

Young guinea pig babies will not eliminate wastes without help. All you need to do is wipe each baby’s genitals with a warm wash cloth after each feeding. Then watch to make sure normal eliminations are happening. If elimination does not occur for a prolonged period, this can be life threatening, so you may need the assistance of a veterinarian.

Step 5 – Introduce Solid Foods

In addition to keeping an assortment of adult guinea pig food available in the babies’ cage, young guinea pigs also learn by modeling. If you have another guinea pig in your home this can serve as a role model for the puppies. Allow the puppies to observe the adult guinea pig eating.

Concept of Mizaj in Unani system of medicine

Mizaj is the quality or power produced in the compound after intermixing of Ustaqissate Arba’ (four elements) with their equal or unequal quantities, which is equally distributed in the whole compound. This is the quality which provides a power to the compound, because of which the compound performs its functions. If this quality or power of the compound is good, normal functions will be produced from it and vice versa.

The Mizaj or power of the compound depends upon the quantities and qualities of Ustaqissate Arba’ that participate in the formation of the compound. When these elements intermix with each other, in the compound, with suitable or appropriate quantities and qualities as per need of the compound, as a result a specific Mizaj is formed in the same which is suitable for its normal functioning and the other round.

There are nine types of Mizaj, one is Mo’tadil and eight are Ghair Mo’tadil (Tibbi Mo’tadil); four Mufrad and four Murakkab. For example, if the dominant element (part) in the compound is Nar (fire), the compound would be considered as of Har Mizaj (hot temperament). Similarly, if the dominant element or part of the compound is Maa (water), the compound would be considered as of Barid Mizaj (clod temperament).

Likewise Ratab and Yabis Mizaj are obtained from dominance of Hawa (air) and Arz (soil) respectively. Similarly, if two elements out of four Ustaqissat (fire, air, water and soil) become dominant, the compound would be called by their qualities. For example, if fire and air both are dominant together in the compound, it would be considered as Har Ratab. Like wise, there are four types of Murakkab Mizaj as Har Ratab, Har Yabis, Barid Ratab and Barid Yabis. Because of intermixing of elements in different proportion in the different compounds, numbers of Mizaj may exceed the and can reach beyond the limit of counting. That’s why each individual has its specific Mizaj. Human being is also considered as a Murakkab (compound) and gets its Mizaj (temperament) in uterus in the form of Nutfa (zygote) after intermixing of Maddae Manviyah with each other.

These Maddae Manviyah are also made from Ustaqissate Arba’ i.e. Juze Nari, Juze Hawaee, Juze Maee and Juze Arzi. If these Ajzae Manviyah are intermixed with proper quantities and qualities, an appropriate compound (foetus) is formed having Mizaje Asli as Mizaje Mo’tadil as a result the structures of growing foetus will be proportionate anatomically and functions will be normal and the foetus or a child will carry a good health and good character, and when these Ajzae Manviyah do not intermix with each other in proper quantity, as a result Mizaje Asli will not be Mo’tadil and the Sakht (structure) and the Afa’al of the body will be abnormal, because of which so many kinds of congenital deformities may be developed in baby in place of health i.e., if the Maddae Manviyah (semen) is less or more in quantity, foetus will not be developed properly. If Maddae Manviyah is less in quantity, any organ may be smaller in size as “Microcephally”. Similarly, if the quantity of Maaddae Manviah is more, any organ of the body may enlarge as “Macrocephally” . disturbances There are so many kinds of congenital diseases that develop in foetus due to in the genetic material (chromosomes and genes) like, Down’s syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome, PKU (phenylketonurea), Tay-sachs disease, galactocemia etc.

Till now, over 2300 hereditary diseases have been identified. If a person is born with such Mizaje Asli that has deviated towards Sue Mizaj but is not out of the range of Mizaje Mo’tadil Shakhsi, he will be more prone to develop such diseases having same Mizaj as of foetus. That’s why, a close relationship between temperament and disease of the patient is observed. People of one type of temperament may be prone to develop a particular group of diseases in different stages of life and under different climatic conditions.

For example, a person of cold temperament is generally prone to obesity and of hot temperament is prone to acute fever, heat stroke, dehydration, hypertension etc. There are some factors, having their specific temperament, responsible for influencing the temperament of an individual and causing diseases like age, air, place (residence of an individual), season, diet and occupation. If persons having Mizaj Har adopt Har Tadabeer, they may develop diseases like Hummae Yaum, acute fever, heat stroke, dehydration, hypertention, diabetes, increased thirst, insomnia, weak digestion, soft and delicate constitution of body. Similarly, if a person having Mizaj Barid and gets Barid Tadabeer, he will be more susceptible to develop diseases like Hummae Balghamiah, decreased metabolism, obesity, Suddah (obstruction) which may cause so many diseases in the body for example, if Suddah (obstruction) occurs in the brain vessels, it may causes Falij (paralysis).

If it occurs in the vessels of the heart, it may cause angina and MI (myocardial infarction). If obstruction occurs in the arteries supplying genital organs infertility may be developed. If Suddah occurs in deep vein of the body, it may cause deep vein thrombosis. Sue Mizaj Barid is the most common cause of Aa’sabi Amraz (Nervine diseases) like Isterkha, Ra`sha, Ikhtilaj, Khadar, Falij, Laqwah etc. There are some other diseases which may develop because of Sue Mizaj Barid as cough and common cold, Buhtus Saut (hoarseness of voice), Asthma, Ascites etc. The persons having Mizaj Ratab if adopt Ratab Tadabeer, they may acquire some diseases as Hummae Balghamiah, infections (frequently), laziness, Buhtus Saut (hoarseness of voice), increased sleep, heart pain, Zo’fe Hazm (dyspepsia), general weakness, prolonged fever, diarrhoea, piles, dysmenorrhoea, ulcers, fistulae, epilepsy, stomatitis. Similarly, the persons having Sue Mizaj Yabis when adopt Yabis Tadabeer they may be susceptible to produce diseases of Sue Mizaj Yabis i.e. Hummae Ruba’, Laghri (leanness)3, asthma, anosmia, body ache, Zo`fe Aa’za and male infertility.

Everything (animate or inanimate), which is present in this world has its own specific Mizaj. Like this, each and every individual has specific kinds of Mizaj but these are suitable for them. Not only the human being having its specific temperament but also a species, race and organs of the body are furnished distinct temperament that are Mo’tadil (suitable) for them. For example, Africans and Indians having their specific Mizaj which differs from each other, but are suitable for their body functions i.e. if African temperament is replaced by Indian temperament, it will be harmful for them and they will feel discomfort and cannot adjust themselves with that.

Same like this, if an organ having Mizaje Asli as Mizaje Har acquired Mizaje Barid, it will lose its harmony; as a result abnormal functions will be manifested from it. There are some factors responsible for change in temperaments of human being like age, place or residence, weather, diets, tadabeer (regimens), occupation and habit etc. Out of all these factors, everyone has its specific Mizaj. Therefore, for maintaining health of an individual and avoidance of disease, it is necessary to be acquainted with these factors and their temperament. Following assessment of Mizaj of human being and the factors responsible for changing the Mizaj, we can predict about the health status of an individual as well as of a community in a region or a country for example a person having Mizaje Barid and adopts cold Tadabeer like cold diet, stays in cold place and cold weather, surely he will fall ill. And when he reaches Sinne Kuhoolat and Sinne Shaikhookhat, he will not pass his life as better as that of the persons having Sue Mizaj Har, and he would fall ill frequently and vice versa. Similarly, if a person having Sue Mizaj Ratab and use Ratab Tadabeer, he will frequently feel discomfort in comparison of the person having Sue Mizaj Yabis.

In this way, we may aware about the health status of a community and an epidemiology of diseases in a region or a country as a whole, following determination of Mizaj of the region, because every region or country influences the Mizaj of its inhabitants, due to which they become susceptible to develop some specific diseases i.e. inhabitants of Masakine Harrah (hot places) usually suffer from digestive problems and more loss of Rutoobate Badan (body fluids) because of which they shortly become cold. Similarly, inhabitants of Masakine Rataba (wet places) usually tend to be obese and more susceptible to devolop chronic fever, Ishal (diarrhoea), piles, menorrhagia, infections and epilepsy etc.

As far as seasons are concerned, each season has its specific Mizaj and causes some specific diseases in the persons having same Mizaj as that of the season. For example, in winter season, persons with Balghami Mizaj develop more Balghami Amraz like, Zukam (common cold), pleurisy, Buhtus Saut, backache nervine disease etc. than that of the persons having Mizaj Har. Unani medicine is distinct in its concept of disease and health. Both disease and health are described in the context of Mizaj and Sakht (structure) hormoney, when both Mizaj and Sakht are in hormoney with the environmental demands then the state is called health. Mizaj imparts a shape, the most suitable for performing the Mizaji functions in a given environment.

Sakht and its inherent capacities mediate the concordance between the Mizaji functions and environmental demand to establish a state of optimum adjustment and survival. Regarding disease causation, Unani physicians recognised a relationship between Mizaj, Sakht and environment, and thus relieved the medicine from the sling of demon dominance, demon entry, and influence of evil spirit and influence of evil eyes. In Unani System of Medicine diagnosis and treatment are based on Mizaj of the patients and the drugs are given to the patient. Therefore, for maintaining health and treatment of disease it is mandatory to determine the Mizaj of patients and disease. Like finger prints which are used to identify a person, similarly by determination of Mizaj, we can find out Halate Badan (health and disease condition of the body).

If we are aware about the temperament of an individual and the factors mentioned above, we can maintain the health and can treat the disease, by giving some instructions/ knowledge and drugs as per their temperaments. By doing this, we can improve health status and life expectancy of human beings at individual, community and country levels. 

The Use of Iodine in Wound Care

Iodine has long been in use as an antibacterial agent and a skin disinfectant. It was discovered in 1811, and gained widespread popularity during the American Civil War, where it was used liberally to treat the wounds of soldiers. In its original form, iodine caused pain and irritation when applied to wounds, it has been shown to impair the function of cells involved in wound healing, and it also had the unfortunate side effect of skin discoloration.

Since the late 1940’s, newer, safer, and less painful formulations of iodine in the form of iodophors have come into use. These products release sustained low levels of iodine, which bind to proteins, fatty acids, and nucleotides. These products have a broad spectrum of activity against bacteria, mycobacterium, fungi, and protozoa.

Cadexomer Iodine

Cadexomer iodine is a slow release antimicrobial which has the capability to absorb excess wound exudate while maintaining a sustained level of iodine in the wound bed. Cadexomer iodine is available both as a dressing and as an ointment. In studies it has been shown to be effective in reducing counts of MRSA (methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is estimated that 1 gram of Cadexomer iodine can absorb as much as 7 ml of fluid. The iodine is slowly released as the iodine is absorbed, which helps to reduce the bacterial load while simultaneously debriding the wound. It requires moisture to be activated. Unlike povidone iodine dressings which release iodine immediately upon application, the sustained release of iodine from cadexomer iodine dressings does not cause cytotoxic effects.

Potential Contraindications

Studies have shown that cadexomer iodine is effective in healing chronic ulcers; however, one of the serious potential side effects of using iodine for the treatment of wounds is that there is the potential for the absorption of iodine. For this reason, thyroid function should be monitored in patients who use this therapy for extended periods of time. In addition, iodine can interact negatively with lithium, and should be used with caution in patients who are on lithium concurrently. Iodine should not be used at the same time as mercurial antiseptics, such as mercurochrome.

Given the growing concern over the rise of antibiotic-resistant organisms, cadexomer iodine is an effective alternative for the treatment of chronic wounds. Reports of resistance to iodine are scarce, despite the fact that iodine has been in use for over 150 years. Cadexomer iodine can be safely used on most patients (providing they are not sensitive to iodine itself) and provides good coverage of bacteria, mycobacterium, fungi, and protozoa, as well as being effective against MRSA.

Iranian Marriages and Iranian Temporary Marriages

The majority of the population of Iran follows the “Shia” beliefs of Islam. Most Iranians follow the primary branch of Shia Islam called “Ithna Ashariyyah” (or “Twelvers” in English). Iran’s Shia population constitutes almost 90-95% of its Muslim population and almost 40% of the entire world’s Shia population.

“Sunni” Islam is the other major branch of Islam. Majority of the world’s Muslims are Sunnis and they constitute between 80-90% of the global Muslim population. Shias believe that Ali, who was Prophet Mohammed’s first cousin and son-in-law was his true successor, whereas Sunni’s believe that after Prophet Mohammed, the first four Caliphs were his rightful successors.

The institution of Shia marriage involves Pillars (“Arkan”) and “Statutes” (“Ahkam”). The pillars of marriage are “Sigha” (Formula) and “Mahall” (Persons). Other branches of Islam have additional pillars regarding Guardianship and Witnesses, but these are not entirely applicable to Shia marriages.

The “Sigha” (Formula) states that marriage is a legalized contract (“‘aqd“). There is a declaration (“ijab“) by the woman that she proposes to get married to a man and acceptance (“qabul“) by the man to take her as his wife.

The “Mahall” (Persons) lays down rules when a woman and man can not marry. Marriage is not allowed between a Muslim woman and a non-Muslim man, with blood relatives, with relations by marriage, with two sisters, with a foster mother who wet nurses a child, if the man already has four wives, if the man and woman have been previously divorced and the woman has not remarried and divorced.

Marriage statutes include Dower (“Mahr“), Support (“Nafaqa“) and Annulment (“Faskh“). The Dower/Dowry can be in the form of cash, property or other assets that belong to the husband. The Dower is given to the wife at the time of the marriage. Support indicates how the wife is treated (including food, clothes, shelter, etc) once she lives with her husband. Annulment relates to the annulment of the marriage in case of a disability. Disabilities can be mental or physical and can include insanity, impotence, leprosy, etc.

Shias allow a form of temporary marriage called “Nikah Mut’ah“. The duration of the marriage is fixed at the start of the marriage and the marriage gets annulled at the end of the period. This form of temporary marriage (“Mut’ah“) is mainly observed in Iran. There are four pillars of a Mut’ah (sourced from Murata (1987)); the first two, “Formula” and “Persons”, are similar to a permanent marriage. The third pillar is “Duration” (“Mudda“) and the fourth pillar is “Dower“. The Mut’ah must have a stipulated time period with a date on which it will be annulled and it must have a Dower/Dowry.

Most Islamic countries do not recognize temporary marriages. Most Western countries not only do not recognizetemporary marriages, they also do not recognize polygamy. Consider the case of an Iranian family that wants to immigrate to the USA. If there is more than one wife in the family, the man of the family will be able to take only one wife and will have to show to the US authorities that he has divorced his other wives. What complicates matters further is that diplomatic ties between Iran and USA are practically non-existent. Since the US does not have an embassy in Iran, Iranian applicants who want to immigrate to the US have to travel to Switzerland or UAE or Turkey. Furthermore, Iranian legal documents, such as marriage/divorce certificates, academic records, etc are in Farsi and the applicant has to provide Farsi certified translations for these documents.