Paranoid Schizophrenia, the Krays, and Freud’s Confusion

There are various types of Schizophrenia, but Paranoid Schizophrenia is the most common. The patient has delusions that people are deliberately trying to persecute her, she may well consider herself of exalted birth, or maybe that she’s been sent on a special mission by the Government, although she’s not always sure what that mission might be.

Jealousy is another unpleasant symptom, together with hearing voices that are either of a threatening tone, or which threaten her directly. Sometimes she smells and tastes things which aren’t real.

The onset of this disease is usually between the ages of 15 and 35, and while there’s no cure, it can be controlled by conventional medications such as Thorazine, Prolixin, Haldol and Stelazine. These drugs became available in the 1950s.

In the last decade, more advanced medications appeared, such as Abilify, Zyprexa, Seroquel and Geodon. However, doctors recommend that if you’ve been placed on a course of the older drugs, you should stick to them and not try to change.

The DSM-IV, (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, volume four), defines the illness as follows:

1 ‘Preoccupation with one or more systemized delusions, or with frequent auditory hallucinations related to a single theme.

2. None of the following must be present. Incoherence, marked loosening of association, flat or grossly inappropriate affect, catatonic behaviour, grossly disorganized behaviour.’

A man with a classic case of Paranoid Schizophrenia was Ronald Kray. He, together with his twin brother Reggie, were two of the most vicious villains that London, especially the East End, has had the displeasure of encountering. Their reign of terror spanned nearly two decades, through the 1950s and ’60s.

Their gang, or ‘The Firm,’ as they insisted it be called, included a character named Jack ‘The Hat’ McVitie. They employed him as a hit man and general enforcer. Now Reggie was a lot more balanced than Ronnie, and often fell beneath his twin’s spell.

Jack the Hat had been given 1500 pounds to eliminate a rival gangster. For some reason, he failed to deliver on the contract, and the Krays invited him to a party at a house in Hackney, East London. Except that there wasn’t a party. Jack was the only guest.

As soon as he walked through the door, Ronnie told Reggie to shoot him. The gun misfired twice, so Ronnie took Jack in a bear hug, slipped Reggie a knife and told him to do the necessary. Reggie did so with a vengeance.

That’s just one example. Nobody knew where they stood with Ronnie. He could be your best friend one minute and carve his name between your shoulder blades the next. No reason. Just sudden violence, a sudden desire to kill or maim.

The brothers owned an upscale nightclub in the West End of London, and of course this suited Ronnie’s feelings of self importance. Violence, a dominant symptom of the illness, and jealousy were two of the foremost traits that Ronnie displayed.

Finally, he and his brother were arrested by Superintendent Leonard ‘Nipper’ Read of Scotland Yard, and imprisoned for life.

Freud was of the opinion that patients would be in the grip of serious mental disorders for life and that slowly but surely they’d be dragged down to the gutter. He was wrong, as we’ll see later.

The Triangular Bandage

The triangular bandage is the most useful bandage for first-aid work. It is strong and can be used for a variety of purposes. The first way to try it is to fold it so that it looks something like a necktie. This is called a cravat bandage. If you have a triangular bandage handy you can try this. Spread it out on a table with the long side near you. Now take the point and fold it over until it touches the base. Fold in half again and still a third time.

You have now formed the “cravat which will be about three inches wide and about a yard long. The cravat can be used for holding dressings in place. It is much easier to use than the roller bandage. For example, if a friend scratched his leg, you could keep a dressing in place over the scratch by tying the folded cravat bandage around the dressing and the leg, and tying the ends in a square knot. You could tie this cravat around your own head while playing, to stop the sweat from getting in your eyes. Or you could soak the bandage in cold water and then tie it around your forehead to keep you cool. The cravat can be used to support a sprained ankle. Place the middle of the cravat under the heel of the foot.

Then bring the bandage up in back of the heel and around to the front of the ankle. Now criss-cross it in a sort of figure-eight form around the ankle. Tie it firmly in front of the ankle. The cravat is also easier to use than a roller bandage in keeping a moist compress on the eye. The cravat is simply placed over the compress and then tied around the head. The cravat can be used as a pressure bandage. This is called a tourniquet. When a person has a cut artery, so that the blood spurts out strongly, you must act at once to stop the bleeding. Tie a cravat around the limb, close to the wound, but not touching it. Tighten the bandage until the bleeding stops. Get the injured person to a doctor as quickly as possible.

A tourniquet is a very dangerous kind of bandage. It should be used only in cases of extreme emergency. The triangular bandage makes a good sling to support the arm. You can make this readily by placing the triangle under the arm, with the point of the triangle extending away from the body. One end of the bandage is placed over the opposite shoulder. Then the other end is brought up over the shoulder of the injured man. It is tied in back of the neck to the first end. The point can now be tucked in and pinned at the elbow.

Setting Boundaries With Your Difficult Adult Child Who Has A Mental Illness

Are you wondering how to set boundaries with your difficult adult child who has a mental illness? It is hard to have adult children that make poor choices that cause problems in their lives and in their parents’ lives; it is even more difficult to have adult children who have mental illnesses that contribute to those choices. When our children have eating disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, ADHD, OCD or any other mental illness, it poses additional complications and we may be inclined to “help” too much. Here are four questions to answer that will enable you to figure out whether you are helping too much. Answering them will give you guidance for setting boundaries.

Is your helping necessary? There are times when “helping” prevents your child from taking responsibility and growing into what he/she “should” be doing. There are also times when “helping” is truly necessary. You have to weigh the positive against the negative benefits of stepping in. You also have to take into consideration what your child truly cannot do for himself/herself due to the mental illness. This is an important determination and needs to take all aspects into consideration and may require you to accept less than perfect behavior and/or do more than you would if your child were mentally healthy.

Is your helping encouraging? All of your “helping” should encourage your adult child to do better and become more independent. It shouldn’t be so controlling that it takes away the incentive for your adult child to try or that it sends the message that he/she is incapable of handling his/her own life. Helping someone to help themselves is the goal. All of us learn best when we are in control of our choices and directly experience the consequences of them.

Is your helping healthy? You care about your child and feel responsible for him/her especially because he/she is “sick;” but, do you care about yourself too? It is critical that you do. What do you need? What do you want? What are you feeling? What is good for you? Is it good for you to talk to or see your child? Is it good for you to help? Is it good for you to have your child live in your house? Is it good for you to let go? Because of your legitimate concerns, you have hyper-focused on your child and what your child needs. This is natural, but it needs to shift. You may have worn yourself out to save your child. You have given emotionally, mentally, spiritually, financially, physically, and relationally. Now it is time to consider yourself too, because you can’t lose yourself to save your child and end up losing both of you.

Is your helping working? The definition of “insanity” is doing the same thing over and over and expecting different results. Think about all the things you have done over and over that haven’t worked. It is good to have hope but it needs to be grounded in reality. If certain things have never worked, try something different. You have to analyze the effects of the things you are doing by looking at how they are affecting your child. Make a cost versus benefit analysis and decide whether each thing is working and whether something else might work better. Your expectations might also have to be more reasonable to be in line with what is possible.

The mental illness makes your situation more complicated and obviously has to be taken into consideration. When setting boundaries with your difficult adult child with a mental illness, answer these four questions so that your boundaries will be good for both of you.

3 Reasons to Wear Motorcycle Gloves

Motorcycle gloves, gear and apparel seem like just accessories, not much of a necessity, especially something as minute as motorcycle gloves. Truth be told, motorcycle gloves can be very useful, here’s why.

Reason #1 — No Motorcycle Gloves Equals Wet Palms

Motorcycle gloves seem like a useless accessory, maybe just to look cool, but motorcycle gloves really do serve a purpose. Motorcycle gloves prevent your palms from sweating all over the grips of your handlebars. While they may not prevent them from sweating inside the motorcycle gloves, at least they give you a better grip.

Consider this, you are driving down the highway at 60 or 70 miles per hour and your palms are sweaty and you are not wearing motorcycle gloves, you decide to change lanes. You tighten the hold on the grips and move to adjust your handlebars in the direction of the move. Suddenly, you find your hands slipping off the grips causing you to go careening either into the median and heading into oncoming traffic, or into a ditch. Either way, the simple decision not to wear motorcycle gloves that day, could cost you your life along with the possibility of taking others with you.

Reason #2 — No Motorcycle Gloves means Hand Injuries

From the time a person is very small, the first instinct when falling is to put the hands out in front to brace the fall. It doesn’t change as we get older. When you watch someone falling, even if they are falling backward their hands flail in front of them. When you ride a motorcycle, this doesn’t change. When you see a fall coming, your hands go out in front of you, trying to brace yourself for the fall. Without motorcycle gloves, your hands could get broken, bruised bloodied and even severed from the wrists, depending on how bad the accident it.

For your hands, protect them with motorcycle gloves. Without motorcycle gloves, you could bruise your hands badly or worse making it difficult to ride again. motorcycle gloves seems like a simple solution right from the start.

Reason #3 — No Motorcycle Gloves means Numb Fingers

Anyone who has had cold fingers and tries typing on a computer or doing something with the hands that needs great dexterity knows how hard it is to type or grip something when the hands are cold. This same concept applies to motorcycles. Motorcycle gloves can keep the hands and fingers warm. This seems so obvious, but many people don’t understand the importance of warm hands when your at the controls of such a heavy piece of machinery.

Loss of control of a heavy piece of equipment can mean loss of life. Motorcycle gloves can mean the difference between thinking you hit the cruise control and then quickly slowing in front of a car coming at 70 miles per hour. It can mean not putting on the brakes fast enough because without the motorcycle gloves you can’t feel the amount of pressure on the hand controls. Cold hands mean numb fingers, and numb fingers means an accident waiting to happen. Motorcycle gloves aren’t just to look cool.

Hair Loss in Women Over 40 – What You Can Do About It

Everyone’s hair thins out to a degree as we age. We’re aging, and so is our hair. The number one complaint from second act women, after sagging skin, is thinning hair. 

More than 20 million women in the United States alone suffer from some form of “female pattern baldness.” Consequently, a big question in my chair is, “How can I make my hair appear fuller?” It’s likely, if you want volume (or height), you are going to have to lift your arms above your shoulders and spend sometime creating it. Some time is not an hour. Some time is 15 to 20 minutes. When hair starts to thin, we often cannot rely on a good haircut alone. Hairdressers can’t just cut “height” in to your hair. To make thinning hair look thicker it takes us both working together.

The most common cause of thinning hair in women is hereditary hair loss, or androgenetic alopecia. In fact, 95 percent of all hair thinning in women can be put down to hereditary hair loss. Few women have heard about this condition and even fewer realize that this may be the cause of their hair loss.

The word ‘alopecia’ is used to describe types of significant hair loss. Androgenetic alopecia describes hair loss that is caused by androgens, which are hormones present in everyone, man or woman. Hormone changes affect many things, including hereditary hair loss. Specifically, it is your genetic sensitivity to the male hormone testosterone that is the key. The testosterone is converted to a more potent hormone called dihydrotestosterone, which causes sensitive hairs and follicles to become smaller.

Why Hair Thins Out

Normally, each of your hairs grows for two to seven years, takes a three-month “rest,” and then falls out to make room for new hair. But if you have a genetic predisposition to thinning locks, your hair follicles may become more sensitive to the male hormone testosterone sometime in your twenties or thirties, or even in your teens. (It’s not that you produce more testosterone than other women; the hormone just affects you differently.) Over time, your follicles shrink and can produce only finer, shorter, weaker hairs, or none at all. In some women, the process accelerates at menopause, when natural estrogen levels decline.

This is why you may notice short hairs that never seem to grow, particularly around the hairline and center part. You know the “little fuzzies” that you see at the top of your head. A reason why adding layers and texture helps create the illusion that those fuzzies are supposed to be there, rather than oddly shorter than the rest of the hair.

What Can Be Done for Thinning Hair?

The three common methods for treating hair loss are medical, surgical, and cosmetic. Medically, the topical drug minoxidil is used to stop hair follicles from shrinking in about 60 percent of the women who try rubbing it into their scalps twice a day. About two-thirds of those women will also see some regrowth within eight months, although the new hair is usually much finer than the old.

Medical therapy is more effective at stopping the progression of hair loss than regrowing already lost hair, but a lucky percentage of patients may see some significant regrowth. Minoxidil is available without a prescription, but you must use it continually for the rest of your life to maintain any new hair growth. Hair loss will begin again within a few months after minoxidil treatment is stopped. Some women find that the solution causes itching or headaches.

Minoxidil is the only drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a treatment for female-pattern hair loss. Finasteride, a prescription pill that functions by moderating testosterone levels, seems to work only in men. It is not safe for women.

Hair restoration surgery is another option for women, although it works best if you happen to be thinning out primarily on top, as men do. A surgeon removes hair from a denser area on your head and transplants the follicles individually to wherever you need them most. Surgical treatment has progressed dramatically over the past 10 years, and now the most advanced surgical technique is follicular unit transplantation, which consists of replacing lost hair with microscopically obtained, tiny, natural-looking units of only one to three hairs each. It is so natural that, when done properly, even delicate areas such as eyebrows and eyelashes can be recreated. You can expect to pay between $4,000 and $30,000 over time.

Finally, cosmetic enhancement is the use of products such as thickener, concealer, and techniques that create the illusion that your hair is thicker than it actually is. As you read further you will discover the most effective cosmetic treatments available today.

 Need volume? Here is what works.

o    Back-combing: No, it doesn’t damage your hair. No, it won’t look like a beehive if you do it right. Learn how. It will always and forever give you control over that split in the crown.

o    Styling products like mousse are often best applied just to the scalp and root area.

o    Blow dry your hair in every direction with tension (pulling hair strongly away from the scalp with a brush or your fingers) with heat at the scalp, and voila, Volume! Bending “upside down” will help, but only if you also use tension with a brush or your fingers so the hair dries pulled 90 degrees from the scalp.

o    Volumizing products do temporarily plump the hair shaft. You get more volume. More tangles, but more volume. They can also weigh certain fine hair types down.

o    Velcro rollers: On dry hair: set, spray with hairspray, heat with the blow dryer, allow to cool. Poof! Volume. Back comb for more.

o    Curlers: Rollers, magnetic rollers, rags, bendies, anything you wrap wet hair around and allow to form to that shape will add volume through wave or curl.

o    Hot rollers: Always make sure the ends are neatly wrapped to avoid “fish hooks.”

o    Curling iron: Start at the base of the hair, over direct up and away from the direction your are rolling for lift at the scalp, roll then up and close the clamp slightly to click the hair through, heat, release, allow to cool before styling.

o    Round Brush utilizes the same concept as Velcro rollers. The more you heat and lift the hair at the scalp and allow to cool before removing the brush, the more volume created.

Creating Illusion Through Shadow

One of the simplest but least used techniques for creating the illusion you have thicker hair is to fill in the hairline or scalp area with scalp shader. Like brows with brow color and lashes with liner, your hair will look thicker when you conceal the scalp with color that matches your hair.

There are several scalp shaders on the market. My favorite is a product called Dermatch. Simply apply the shadow-like powder to thinning areas and voila – the illusion of thicker hair. This is particularly effective at hairline, temples, hair part, and that nasty split in the crown. Also great for men.

Nexium is an answer to Heartburn, Acid Reflux, and Peptic Ulcer

Who would have thought that the simple pleasure of eating food that you relish could lead to nightmarish problems, making you stay up nights when you would rather sleep!  Acidity – Causes you burning, even Pain, in the abdomen [especially upper part]; Nausea; maybe vomiting; and, maybe Trouble in Swallowing your Food.  At that point of time, you might feel heartburn – nothing to do with love or love lost – so, the pain in your chest is not related to a heart attack.

By a strange paradox, it is only with the help of stomach acid that the stomach can empty its contents into the intestines; if sufficient amount of acid is not present, the contents are pushed back into the esophagus, where they cause Acidity – burning, pain and maybe inflammation – in short, Gastroesphageal Reflux Disease [GERD].

Dyspepsia [Indigestion] also reflects some of these symptoms, which can be linked to the presence of a stomach ulcer.  Then, there are Peptic Ulcers, which could be because of a bile/pancreatic reflux, cause pain and burning in the upper abdomen, and copious vomiting [even blood may appear in vomit] and loss of appetite/weight.  The symptoms are similar as in Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome [ZES] though this is a rare disease that reveals itself in the form of one or more tumors in the pancreas, duodenum or both, but persons suffering from ZES could experience diarrhea and loss of weight also.

While at the extreme end, surgery could help, in solving some of the problems those having Peptic Ulcers or ZES, there is a simple answer – Esomeprazole, which is a proton pump inhibitor [PPI] – for all these ailments.  Esomeprazole reduces the gastric acid secretion by inhibiting the functioning of the enzyme that produces this acid in our bodies.   This PPI is available in capsule formulations of 20mg and 40mg.  Take the medicine as prescribed, with food, or on an empty stomach.  The tablet has to be swallowed whole, but if the doctor permits, you can sprinkle the contents in half a glass of water, drink it at once and down it with another half a glass of water to make sure the entire dose has been consumed.  For those who want to take it with food, the granules of the capsule can be mixed with soft food [cold applesauce or yogurt] and swallowed immediately.  

The doctor will want to know your medical history, all medications you are taking, the drugs you are allergic to, and, especially if you have suffered from any serious liver or stomach-related problems.  The side effects of this PPI could be headache, diarrhea, nausea, gas, stomach pain, constipation, or dryness in the mouth.  If you experience any unlikely side effects such as severe stomach/abdominal pain/tenderness, vomit that looks like grounded coffee, dark/black stools, numbness/tingling sensation in the hands/feet, rash, swelling, uneasy breathing, chest pain, then immediate medical attention will be necessary.  Pregnant women or nursing mothers have to check the risks and benefits of this drug with their doctor before they proceed to take it.

It is difficult to detect GERD in infants or children; especially babies, who burp/hiccup frequently, have excessive possetting/vomiting/dribbling/ running nose, loose stools, foul smelling breath and diapers. Babies usually outgrow GERD by the end of their first year, but if the problem continues, it could very well be GERD.  Burping is encouraged in infants several times during feeding, and it helps to hold the baby upright for half an hour after a feed.  For older children, small meals can be given at frequent intervals to avoid GERD.

What adults have to give up to get over acidity-related problems includes their daily smoke – cigarette smoking is out, try to wear loose-fitting clothes, and sleep by keeping your head raised by adding 6-8 inches by attaching woodblocks under the head section of your bed.  Doctors also tell such patients to avoid citrus fruits/juices, tomatoes, vinegar, spicy/fried/fatty foods and sodas.  Meals should be taken at least 2-3 hours before sleeping, so that the food travels down easily in the body.  Hot beverages just before retiring are a ‘No-No’.  And you have to bid farewell to that delicious peppermint and your favorite brands of chocolates!

The dosage and length of treatment depend upon the patient’s response to it, but once it has been prescribed, the full course has to be taken even if a person starts feeling better midway.  Try not to miss your dose, but don’t double it either.  The medicine has to be stored at room temperature, away from moisture, heat and light, children and pets; not to be shared with anyone.

What Are the 13 Categories of Disability For Special Education Eligibility?

Does your child struggle with academics, and you are concerned that they may have a disability? Have you been told by special education personnel that your child does not fit any of the 13 eligibility classifications to receive special education services? This article will discuss the 13 classifications of disability, that are covered in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), and make a child eligible for special education services. Whether a certain child is eligible is up to the parent and the IEP team, but having a disability in one of the 13 categories is required in order to be found eligible.

The categories are:

1. Autism: A developmental disability that can affect the verbal and nonverbal communication, social interaction, and can have a negative affect on the child’s education. The prevalence of autism is 1 in 150 as determined by the CDC or Center for Disease Control.

2. Other Health Impaired (OHI): The child exhibits limited strength, alertness, due to chronic or acute health problems, including but not limited to asthma, ADD/ADHD, cancer, diabetes, which negatively affects the child’s education.

3. Mental Retardation: Defined as significantly below average general functioning, with deficits in adaptive behavior, which negatively affects the child’s education.

4. Emotional Disturbance (ED): Exhibits one of the following conditions over an extended period of time and these conditions negatively effect a child’s education. An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory or health factors. For a child to be ED they are not supposed to have any other type of disability negative affecting their education.

5. Deafness: Residual hearing is severely impaired in processing the spoken word, negatively affecting the child’s education.

6. Hearing Impairment: Exhibits a hearing loss that is permanent or fluctuating, which even with amplification negatively affects the child’s education.

7. Visual Impairment: Impairment is such that educational potential cannot be fulfilled without special services and materials.

8. Deaf-Blindness: Child has both hearing and visual disabilities.

9. Specific Learning Disability (LD): Exhibits a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological process (such as visual, motor, language etc) which negatively affects a child’s education.

10. Multiple Disabilities: The child exhibits two or more severe disabilities, one of which is mental retardation.

11. Orthopedic Impairment: Displays severe impairments that are the result of congenital anomaly, developmental, or other causes (such as CP) which negatively affects the child’s education.

12. Speech or Language Impairment: Exhibits a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a receptive and/or expressive language disorder, that negatively affects the child’s education.

13. Traumatic Brain Injury: The child has an injury to their brain resulting in total or partial functional disability.

By knowing what categories are covered under IDEA you will be able to understand if your child has a disability that makes them eligible for special education services. You are the only advocate that your child has-do not let them down!

How Do Bees Communicate With Each Other?

Unlike human beings, bees cannot exchange by talking to each other or writing down some words. Even they do not use antenna. They are even deaf and cannot hear any voices. You may feel puzzled that they cannot communicate with each other but they always find the best flowers and work well in groups. Many scientists have done a lot of researches on the actions of bees and they were surprised to find that bees are really very clever. Read on, you will find how the bees communicate and exchange information with each other.

The bees have a special kind of language, they communicate by dancing. There are many kinds of bees in the world, but the most beneficial should be honeybees or hive bees. They usually live in hives. Each of the hives will have a queen who is responsible for creating more babies. And there are some drones and the majority of the bees are worker bees. Most of the communication happens among the worker bees. Every day, some worker bees will fly out to find the food source, when they find, they will fly back to tell others with the using of different types of dancing.

If the worker bees find a food source that is near the hive, they will fly back to the hive and perform a round dance. If they find the source that is far, they will make a waggle dance. The direction of the dance will be the direction of the source. For example, they may dance from right to left or left to right which shows the generally direction of the food source. And the total times of the dance will show the distance. The more times they dance, the further the source is. Sometimes, they will find a very good food source that is very rich; they will make the dance in higher speed. Otherwise, they will dance at lower speed.

Although the bees cannot make sounds or write, they create a special way of communicating with each other. Different bees may have different types of dances, and they establish a kind of specialty for their own species. You can also do some researches by yourself and you may find it quite interesting to observe their actions.

The Importance of Perseverance

Thomas Edison refused to give up when his first efforts to discover a filament for his carbon incandescent lamp failed. Edison continued his search by doing countless experiments with a variety of materials, but each failed. With each failure, Edison, perhaps out of pure frustration, tossed the worthless element out the window until the pile eventually reached the second story of his home.

Then, on October 13, 1879, after thirteen months of repeated failures, Edison finally succeeded in his search for a filament that would stand the stress of an electric current His persistence against discouraging odds had given the world the wonder of the electric light bulb!

Perseverance is the commitment you make to yourself to do whatever is necessary to accomplish your most treasured dreams and goals. Perseverance means you refuse to give up in spite of the difficulty that may surround you and in spite those who tell you that your goal is unattainable. Perseverance is a fundamental attribute of a winning character.

To accomplish something that is easy is something anyone can do. However, to accomplish that which is difficult – even seemingly impossible – is something that sets you apart.

History is replete with examples of men and women who have persevered in spite of the odds:

An editor once told Louisa May Alcott, author of Little Women, acclaimed as one of the best children’s books ever written, that she would never write anything popular.

Even deafness could not stop Ludwig Von Beethoven. He composed many of his greatest works unable to hear the grandeur of the music he was creating.

At nineteen months of age, Helen Keller contracted a serious illness that left her blind and deaf. In spite of the odds being stacked against her, and with the help of her family and friends, she developed a winning character with a fierce sense of perseverance. She set herself apart from those with similar handicaps by refusing to give-up and give-in. She became the first blind and deaf person to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree, and ultimately became a prolific author, political activist, and lecturer.

A coach to former Angels’ shortstop, David Eckstein, once told him that he would never play major college baseball. “That was hurtful but not defeating. I did not believe him. I was raised to believe in myself, so I just kept playing hard and giving 100%.” A winning character, armed with perseverance, remains undaunted by the negative comments of others and simply continues moving forward toward the goal.

Jim Abbot, a former pitcher for the Angels enjoyed frustrating his cynics by continually proving them wrong. He overcame incredible odds and reached his goal of becoming a major league pitcher. He was born without a right hand.

Abraham Lincoln rose from a humble childhood in the Indiana frontier to become the 16th President of the United States. Before his election in 1860 Lincoln had been a country lawyer, an Illinois state legislator, a member of the United States House of Representatives, and twice an unsuccessful candidate for election to the U.S. Senate.

His life is a testament to winning character and perseverance. “Honest Abe,” as friend and foe affectionately labelled him, was largely self-educated. He was an avid reader and would sometimes walk several miles to borrow books in order to learn.

His accomplishments set him apart from the ordinary politician. He successfully led a fledgling country through its greatest internal crisis, the American Civil War, preserving the Union and ending slavery.

He overcame incredible odds to accomplish his goals including the loss of a son, suffering multiple illnesses, being plagued with frequent bouts of “melancholy” (clinical depression), and a host of betrayals by those in whom he had placed his great trust.

Albert Einstein was slow in learning how to speak. In fact, his parents were so concerned about their child’s lack of normal speech development that they consulted a physician. During Einstein’s youth, one headmaster expelled him from school; another said that he would never amount to much. Nevertheless, Einstein persevered. Best known for his theory of relativity and specifically mass-energy equivalence, expressed by the equation E = mc2 Einstein received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics “for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect.” Today his name is synonymous with genius.

The List Goes On!

John F. Kennedy the 35th President of the United States had to take the New York bar exam three times before he passed.

Ray Charles, world-renowned musician and singer was blind.

Thomas Edison – had a learning problem.

James Earl Jones – had a speech impediment.

Franklin D. Roosevelt – was paralyzed from polio

Itzhak Perlman – contracted polio at age four that left him paralyzed from the waist down.

Stevie Wonder- blind from birth.

Stephen Hawking – has amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a condition that has progressed over the years and has left him almost completely paralysed.

Woodrow Wilson – suffered from dyslexia and was ten years of age before he learned to read. As a teenager he compensated for his handicap by teaching himself shorthand. His academic achievements were largely due to his absolute determination and self-discipline.

Terry Fox – diagnosed with osteosarcoma at age fifteen. His right leg was amputated several inches above the knee. Three years later, the young athlete decided to run from coast to coast in order to raise money for cancer research. His goal was to raise one dollar from each Canadian citizen.

Steps to Improving Your Perseverance

1. Don’t Give Up! When you are working toward a goal and someone or something offers you an excuse to give up, say “NO.” So many people are living lesser lives today than what they could have had if only that had not allowed someone or something to steal their dreams.

2. Overcome Fear with Faith. Do not let fear dictate who you are or what you are able to accomplish.

Have faith in yourself; know that God has a plan for your life and that it is He who places opportunities in your life fully expecting that you will make the most of them.

3. Learn from your Failures. Each of us experiences failures along life’s journey. There is a reason for this: wwithin every failure there is the seed of a lesson well learned. Each failure we experience reinforces an emerging solid character trait. It is our failures that contribute most intensely to our character development.

4. Welcome Difficult Times. Recent studies in psychology and biology, are confirming what our grandparents knew intuitively: exposure to diffiicult times makes us stronger, and psychologically more resilient. When difficult times arise here are some suggestions to consider: a) Focus on what you have, not on what you’ve lost; b) Do not be blinded by difficulty, search for opportunities that may exist as a result of the situation; c) Think about how you have been helped by the difficulty: how it has changed your personal values, what effect it has had on your relationships with your spouse and family members, how it has changed you spiritually; d) Think about the benefits of the event: perhaps you have rediscovered some personal values, or rediscovered a dream, or learned more about your mission and purpose in life; e) Consider how the circumstance has made your life more meaningful.

5. Be Totally Committed to your Goals. Whatever you embark upon do it with all of your heart. Invest your whole self in each project. If you cannot make a 100% to a goal, you should come to terms with the fact that it is unattainable. Extraordinary success demands extraordinary commitment.

6. Always Do your Best. Never make the mistake of thinking that something less than your best will due, it will not. There is an old adage that will forever be true: Do your best and the best will be returned to you. This is another law of the universe that is immutable. Use it to your advantage.

7. Meet the Challenge. This requires discipline and hard work, but doing whatever is required to meet the challenge is exactly what it takes to succeed. There are no short cuts, no side steps, and no cheats.

8. Never Give Up. In the words of Norman Vincent Peale, author of The Power of Positive Thinking, “If you want to get somewhere, you have to know where you want to go, and how to get there, and then never, never, never give up!

The Role of the Trumpet Within a Big Band

The trumpet has always been an integral part of the traditional big band, both as a lead instrument and as a soloist. The section consists of four players, with the first chair being labeled the “lead” chair and the second part generally considered the “jazz” chair. Although improvised solos can be played by any of the four players, the second trumpet is usually depended upon to cover the solos within the section when needed.

It is the “lead” trumpet that carries the melody over all other musicians during full band sections. This important position carries quite a large responsibility, mainly because it is he/she who is called upon to play the highest notes within the ensemble sections.

Melodic and Harmonic Roles

In traditional big band repertoire, the trumpet section provides both melodic and harmonic roles. Melodies can be played by one or up to all four players at one time. Melodic roles are often coupled with instruments of similar timbre, such as the alto saxophone. As a melodic instrument, the trumpet is generally in the middle range when matched with other instruments. The upper register is used for full ensemble sections where the lead player must carry the melody over the rest of the band.

When fulfilling a harmonic role, the section is usually voiced in either three or four distinct parts. Since the trumpets are set in the upper register of the ensemble, they have the responsibility of covering the upper extensions of the given chord. In harmonic roles, the section often extends the basic chord tones (i.e. root, 3rd, seventh) that are played by the trombone and saxophone sections. These upper extensions often take the form of a simple triad when played alone, but create sophisticated extended chords when playing with saxophone and trombones.

Mutes and Utility Instruments

Modern trumpeters today are expected to own and carry a variety of mutes to alter the sound of the instrument. In every trumpeter’s bag are a straight mute, a cup mute, a harmon mute and plunger. Each of these “tools” are designed to alter the color and sound of the instrument by bringing out low (cup and plunger) or high (straight and harmon) overtones. The use of mutes can significantly alter the overall sound of the section with a wide variety of colors. Gil Evans was one famous arranger that used muted trumpets extensively in his arrangements and compositions.

In addition, most professional trumpeters today own a flugel horn. This instrument looks like a large trumpet, but sounds much more mellow and with a limited high range. Flugel horns are used primarily for melody, but can also be used as harmonic pads with the big band. Modern writers such as Maria Schneider utilize flugel horns in this role quite often

Famous Big Band Trumpeters and Sections

Trumpet players and big band trumpet sections can be found throughout the history of jazz. Maynard Ferguson, for example, made his debut with the Stan Kenton Orchestra during the 1950s. Maynard played lead trumpet and was featured as a high note virtuoso at a young age. He later went on to lead his own big and small bands for more than half a century. High note artists such as Stan Mark and Lynn Nicholson were members of famous Maynard Ferguson trumpet sections.

Bill Chase led one of the more famous trumpet sections in the 1960s with the Woody Herman orchestra. Known for his high range, Bill Chase provided the high note excitement for the band. In 1974, Chase met an untimely death in a plane crash near a small airport in Minnesota, Among the most famous trumpet sections of all time might have been in the Duke Ellington Orchestra. Cootie Williams and Cat Anderson filled soloist and high note roles, respectively, for Duke’s band for many years. Duke often wrote entire compositions to feature Cootie (Concerto for Cootie) on trumpet.

The trumpet will always play an integral role within the realm of big band jazz ensemble music. Because of this, skilled lead players and gifted soloists will always be in demand in the jazz and commercial music industry.

Low Frequency Hearing Loss – What is it and What Causes It?

Most loss of hearing follows a standard pattern. As the person gets older, they lose the ability to hear the higher frequencies. By the time most people reach their mid-twenties, they can’t hear the highest pitched sounds that teenagers can hear anymore. Women and children become harder to understand than men. This is high frequency hearing loss — the most common loss of hearing and the form most hearing aids are designed for.

But what about the people whose loss is the exact opposite of this? The people that can hear women better than men and can’t hear the roar of machinery that bothers most sufferers? These people have low frequency hearing loss.

You can probably already tell that it’s uncommon. There are only a few things that bring about this condition.

The first and most common cause is Meniere’s Disease. It’s a rare condition caused by a weakening of the membrane in the ear, and in addition to low frequency hearing loss, it causes episodes of vertigo, uncontrollable falling down, nausea, ringing in the ears, and feeling that the ears are blocked up. Sufferers of this disease usually feel exhausted after these episodes. The low frequency hearing loss is one of the milder symptoms of this disease.

The second is genetic factors. Low frequency loss of hearing often runs in families, and many people with it can trace it several generations back. People with the genetic form usually start losing their ability to hearing lower frequencies in childhood. In many ways children with this form of hearing loss are more fortunate than those with others, since all the sounds needed for normal speech are audible, and they can learn to talk normally without the need for speech therapy.

The third possible cause is childhood illness. In some instances, diseases such as Measles and the Chicken Pox can lead to low frequency hearing loss, though this is very, very rare. The advent of vaccines for such diseases is making it even rarer.

People unable to hear low frequencies have different sounds causing them problems than the average high frequency sufferer. As said earlier, men will be more difficult to understand than women. In addition, consonant sounds are slightly higher-pitched than vowel sounds, and so they’re easier to hear. Thunder, car engines, appliances, and other machinery are often difficult to hear or inaudible. Traffic noises are also hard, which is one of the dangers of this form of hearing loss.

Yogurt Yeast Infection Treatment – The Best Natural Cure for Candidiasis?

Yogurt yeast infection treatment has been touted as a highly effective natural cure for Candida infection. Women who suffer from vaginal yeast infection and male patients with penile Candidiasis are often advised to treat their infection with the natural yogurt cure.

There are a number of ways by which this natural cure is prepared. Its level of efficacy and how it is administered are discussed below.

Yogurt is made from fermented milk. It contains milk, protein and is rich in vitamins B12 and B6. People who are lactose intolerant can still consume it because the process of making it converts the lactose into lactic acid through bacterial culture.

Aside from being a highly recommended natural cure for Candidiasis, yogurt is also said to be good for people with gastrointestinal diseases. The probiotic properties also help prevent gingivitis and other gum-related diseases. Another nutritional advantage it offers, aside from being rich in protein and vitamins, is that it can be eaten by individuals who watch their weight; and this without having to lose out on healthful benefits.

This dairy product has been promoted by natural cure enthusiasts as one of the most effective remedies for both male penile Candidiasis and vaginal yeast infection. People who have other types of Candida infection can also benefit from consuming unsweetened yogurt daily.

For women who have vaginal Candidiasis, they can either eat yogurt to help alleviate symptoms or they can use it as a suppository. One method of using it to treat vaginal Candidiasis is by dipping a tampon in yogurt and inserting it in the vagina. Applying it on the vulvar area is another way of treating yeast infection.

For male patients suffering from penile yeast infection, applying unsweetened yogurt on affected areas will help cure the condition and ease the feeling of burning and itchiness. Although yogurt is often recommended for yeast infection, it can also be applied directly on other parts of the body affected by Candidiasis. Just remember to use unsweetened and unflavored yogurt.

Yogurt yeast infection treatment has become a popular natural cure. Although using this dairy product to treat Candidiasis seems harmless enough, seeking the opinion of a doctor is still the best first step to take to cure the infection.

Reliable Stuttering Cures

Stuttering (also known as stammering) is an involuntary speech disorder that involves disinclination’s and involuntary repetition and prolongation of certain sounds. This includes abnormally elevated activity in the muscles that involve in speech production such as lips, jaw, tongue, and vocal folds.

Facts about Stuttering and Its Cures

Stammering can ruin the life of the affected individuals if it is not treated. It is a significant disorder. It is easy to treat; however, it is difficult or almost impossible to cure it. Stutters can talk in a fluent manner when they are alone or by modifying the style of speaking by concentrating only on their speech. There are many treatments available for stuttering. Some of them are breathing exercise, energy medicine, herbal remedies, homeopathic remedies, hypnosis, and so on. The medical practitioners use these medications to strengthen the mental state and to build self-confidence.

Breathing Exercises and Yoga

Certain yoga postures such as Suksham Vyayama, Surya Namaskar, and Simhasana and some breathing exercise such as Bhastrika, Nadi Shodhana, and Pranayama seem to very effective in treating stuttering. Oxygen deficiency is one of the causes of stuttering. Yoga and breathing exercises will help you avoid stuttering by providing more oxygen and reducing your stress level.

Energy Medicines

There are certain energy medicine kits such as GSR (galvanic skin response) available in the market, which are believed to be effecting in treating stuttering. Most of the kits contain CD, DVD, and booklet to teach you how to use the kit.

Herbal Remedies as Stuttering Cures

A few coriander seeds and a quarter teaspoon of palm candy (a candy obtained from palm tree) can chewed along with 3-4 dried leaves (or powdered leaves) of the herb Gotu Kola (also known as Brahmi, Centella asiatica) on a regular basis (twice or thrice a day, until you get rid of stuttering) will give better result in controlling stammering.

Homeopathic Remedies

Some of the homeopathic remedies are very effective alternative medicines in treating stuttering. You can use these homeopathic medicines successfully for treating stuttering and for many other psychological symptoms, which are associated with stuttering. However, you must consult a homeopath before you start using these medicines, as homeopathic medicines are unique.

Hypnosis as Stammering Cure

Many speech therapists are using hypnosis for treating speech disorders. Various triggers (e.g. mental condition in certain situations) induce stammering; hypnosis help to bring down the influence of these triggers by teaching you behavioral methods and meliorating self-confidence.


A speech impediment is not a disease; it is just a disorder. You can easily get rid of this problem by following the above-mentioned stuttering cures.

Sinus Infection Symptoms Like Throbbing Teeth Versus Dental Pain

Our teeth are connected to our sinus cavity via the alveolar process which is a ‘U’ shaped process. Throbbing teeth are a symptom of sinus infection. It occurs when a person’s maxillary sinuses get infected. This can also occur if a person has some kind of infection in the teeth or gums. This infection spreads to the maxillary sinuses creating sinus infection symptoms like throbbing teeth.

Poor oral hygiene can cause bacteria to grow in the teeth and gums. The bacteria build up may cause the bacteria to enter the maxillary sinus. This can also result in a sinus infection. Proper care should be taken of the teeth and gums to avoid sinus infection symptoms like throbbing teeth.

Toothache or throbbing teeth due to sinus is similar to the toothache we have during other dental trouble. Cheeks become swollen or sensitive to touch in both cases. Sinus infection symptoms like throbbing teeth accompanied by other symptoms like a headache, runny nose, fatigue and fever are sure shot signs of a sinus infection.

Though dental pain is always confused with pain associated with sinus, there is a difference between the two. Sinus pain occurs when there is trouble with the maxillary sinuses whereas dental pain occurs when there is trouble with the teeth. It is recommended that you visit a dentist as soon as possible in both cases.

Sinus infection symptoms like throbbing teeth are very spontaneous. They are caused by a fluid build up in the maxillary sinus. It normally occurs in the upper and back teeth. Dental pain can occur in any part of the teeth. A gum infection is normally called gingivitis.

Other symptoms associated with dental sinus pain are swollen gums, tenderness in the cheek bones, facial swelling and a throbbing headache. This type of sinusitis is no different from other types. The same course of treatment is given for this type of sinus.

Sinusitis in the maxillary cavity can be avoided by taking proper care of the teeth. Brushing twice a day, flossing regularly and periodic visits to the dentist can help in avoiding sinus infection symptoms like throbbing teeth.

Home Natural Remedies and Methods to Prevent and to Fight Cold and Flu

The cold and flu season does not end with winter and low temperature. One can catch cold or flu at any time during the year.

Here are few advices and great natural remedies you can use to prevent the cold or flu, or to fight them successfully in case you already have caught them:

-Ginger is one of the most effective remedies to prevent or to fight cold and flu. Make an infusion. Place one teaspoon of ginger into one glass of boiled water for 20-30 minutes, add honey, if you would like and drink it 3-5 times a day. You can also add a green tea to double the effect.

-If you suffer from cough, make the same infusion, mentioned above, but also add cinnamon, fresh squeezed lemon juice and clove. You can also add fresh peppermint if you want. Drink this during the day.

-Garlic and onion are well known as “cold and flu enemies” but you have to know how to prepare them properly. They have to be chopped in small peaces and have to be kept openly for 10-15 minutes – after this period they would have maximum power. Then you may add them into your food, or put them in the plate and leave it in your room for a day or night. They will kill all bacteria around, protecting the atmosphere in your room and even help you to fight the cold or flu if you already caught one.

-If you do not want to eat, do not force yourself, your body needs some rest, even from food just keep drinking pure water or tea with fresh lemon juice. However if you get hungry, try something light, for example, oat meal or buckwheat would be a good choice to start with, then consider a CHICKEN SOUP as your next meal. This soup is known as a very powerful substance that fights bacteria and gives energy to those who feel weak after the cold is almost over, it helps to recover. Of course I mean NATURAL HOME MADE CHICKEN SOUP, not from the concentrate.

-If your have a running nose, do not use something to dry it that means that your organism, your body tries to eliminate toxins and it does it throughout your nose. In order to expedite this process and to reduce the running from your nose wash your nose and gargle your throat with SALT WARM WATER. Add ¾ of a tea spoon of a SEA SALT to 0.5 l of warm water and use this infusion. You can also add 3 drops of 5% IODINE. Do it every 2 hours and you will be amazed by results for next day.

Note: Do not do this procedure before going outside, do it while staying home, last time it should be done before going to bed.

-The one and very effective method to help you to get well soon is: The use of a DRY MUSTARD POWDER. This method has been used for centuries. With the first signs of cold or flu, take a dry mustard powder, put it into socks, put them on and go to sleep with socks on. In 2 (two) hours take the socks off. If you are lucky, you may get up next morning absolutely healthy, without any signs of cold, if you have already caught it, the cold may go away much faster and easier, just keep applying that powder every night for at least three nights. If you can not find mustard powder, just take a plain rubbing alcohol and rub your feet vigorously until you feel hotness down there, then put on your socks immediately and do to bed.

Note: Should you have any questions or any certain physical conditions, consult your doctor before doing any of these procedures.