How to Stop Panic Attacks Effectively

If you are suffering from panic attacks, chances are that it will come without warning and render you helpless when it strikes. No matter the number of times you have faced such attacks, at the instant of the attack, the first reaction you feel is fear. Only with knowledge and understanding of the symptoms and causes of the attacks can you take steps to stop them.

The first step to stop the attacks is to recognize the symptoms of the attack. These can be one or many of the following:

– Hyperventilation

– Choking or smothering sensation

– Sweating

– Nausea or dizziness

– Chest and stomach pain or discomfort

– Depersonalization

These symptoms can be frightening but they are not so harmful. They are only displayed due to some imagined danger by the mind. Once you realize that they cannot harm you, you can take steps to combat them.

Secondly, you need to learn about the cause of these attacks. The attacks occur because they are triggered because of some reason. Most of these reasons are related to stress due to situations or events in your life. The causes can be:

– Genetic or hereditary- family history of anxiety disorders

– Medical- mostly heart problems

– Substance abuse and withdrawal

– Phobias- extreme fear about certain objects or events

– Traumatic events in the past.

People with panic disorders are unable to handle the amount of stress brought on by these events and thus suffer from attacks.

Once you learn about the causes and symptoms of your panic attacks, you can take steps to stop them effectively. You can avoid situations or objects which trigger the attacks in the first place. You can stop them by following one or more of the following methods.

– Learn relaxation techniques as they help you to keep yourself in control during the attacks.

– Get professional help such as counseling and therapy to stop the attacks. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is the most successful therapy for panic attacks. The therapist will help you learn more about the causes of your attacks and then you can deal with the problems and stop them from happening again.

– Medication should only be used under medical supervision in very severe cases. They have side effects which might cause more problems instead of reducing them.

It is important that you have a positive approach towards stopping your panic attacks. They can be avoided and are curable.

Toenail Fungus – What Causes Toe Nail Fungus

More than 35 million people in the United States get toenail fungus. It is not the same as athlete’s foot, but similar. You can have both at the same time. In this article you will learn what causes toenail fungus.

The Mayo Clinic reports you may have nail fungus if one or more of your nails are:

Thickened Brittle, crumbly or ragged Distorted in shape Dull with no luster or shine A dark color, caused by debris building up under your nail. Infected nails may also separate from the nail bed. You may even feel pain in your toes or fingertips and detect a slightly foul odor. There is no fast cure for nail fungus Understanding how fungi reproduce will help you understand why it is so difficult to get rid of.

Just like Dandelions that grow in your yard and hard to get rid of, it is hard to get rid of toe nail fungus. Dandelions make seeds that float away on the wind. Fungi do not make seeds like dandelions. They make spores or buds, which serve the same purpose of reproduction. These buds comes from the cell walls, and are expelled outwards with force. The new bud lands in a spot of a new source of food (your skin) and begin to grow.

Sometimes there is a period of dormancy. At a glance, you will think the nail fungus is gone, only to discover that it is back again. It was never really gone anyway, but the new buds or spores were just resting before getting on with the work of building a new home and feeding off your skin. This is why we encourage you to keep using a toenail fungus treatment for at least six months. It may clear up nicely in three months, but the spores, just like dandelion seeds, could just be waiting to sprout again.

Fungal cannons explosive spore discharge. Spores, the most recognizable of fungal cells, are produced in prolific quantities and sent forth to colonize fresh substrate… If you are a pet lover, you know how hard it is to keep your dog or cat free of fleas. You may shampoo and treat your pet, but the flea eggs are lying dormant in the carpet, waiting to hatch.

Only persistent care and time will finally solve your problem. Fungus can be just as much of an issue. Persistent care with a anti-fungal solution and time will resolve the problem.Self-Care and prevention Self-care is very important. It is very important to keep your immune system fully nourished. Eat a wholesome diet with lots of fruit and vegetables. This will help your body fend off invaders.

Here are some ways that may help to prevent fungal infections:

Keep your feet dry, avoid constant moisture Avoid nonporous, closed shoes made of synthetic materials Wear absorbent socks, preferably cotton or wool Wear water-proof sandals when public showers Also, after showering or swimming, dry your feet completely with a clean towel. Keep your nails cut short. Additionally, if you are going to a salon for a manicure or pedicure, be selective about the salon and how they sterilize their instruments. Never borrow or lend nail files, emery board, nail clippers, etc.

If you have nail fungus, avoid artificial nails, as they give even more protection to the fungus and prevent medication from reaching the fungus. Be sure to wash you hands with soap and hot water after touching your own nail fungus or someone else who has nail fungus.

Cautions and precautions

Many people have used anti-fungal solution without reporting any side effects. Anti-Fungal Solution should never be put in your mouth or swallowed. Severe reactions could occur if you do. Keep away from children. Nail fungus is not a serious disease in itself, but it should be looked at by your doctor. People who have diabetes need to be especially careful with their feet because of diminished circulation.

Your doctor can give you oral medications for nail fungus. However, they must be taken consistently for months in order to be effective. The medications also have potential side effects to other body organs especially the liver, skin and bone marrow. To monitor side effects your physician must order periodic blood tests during treatment.

Use anti-fungal solution to support and maintain your nails. Your hands and feet can be beautiful, reflecting your radiant good health. Good health is attractive, appealing and sexy. When you look sick, even something as small as nail fungus can be repellent and disgusting to others. Now that you know what causes toenail fungus and how to prevent it, take good care of your self, and you will be welcome everywhere.

Learn How Reiki Can Improve Your Health And Long Term Function

Spiritual practice is recognized for its powerful ability to promote relaxation and alleviate stress. While Reiki is associated with rejuvenation, it can provide a multitude of health benefits for the mind and body encouraging greater levels of balanced operation and relief from both chronic and acute ailments. The following tips can help you determine the ways this procedure can best support your general well-being.

Experiencing regular sessions can promote a healthier physical state, but also encourages emotional wellness without having to rely on prescription medication or invasive surgery. All techniques are created in support of individual healthcare and performed by a skilled and certified practitioner. The efficacy of this approach is attributed to the non-invasive and supportive techniques incorporated in applied therapy.

The natural and spiritual therapy assists in supporting healthier operation by targeting and redirecting energy within the body. The practice is based on the belief that redirecting energy and removing blockages can facilitate a state of balanced functioning and remove the restrictions placed on general health. The powerful practice has received much attention in terms of its long term benefits that it can provide.

An experienced and certified healthcare provider will use his or her hands to deliver energy to the body and encourage a state of balance. The energy is forced is channeled through intense meditation and concentration as the practitioner holds their hands above the body and slowly moves across the targeted areas. The process is initiated through specific wellness techniques with the purpose of redirecting energy.

Health benefits include emotional balance and correction as the mind and body are allowed to enter into a deep state of relaxation. The ability to channel energy includes natural practices and non-invasive healthcare solutions that aim to correct the limitations placed on general health and well-being. The application of the necessary wellness measures can aid in producing effective results for specific requirements.

If you are suffering from hypertension, seeking alternative relaxation techniques can assist in facilitating optimum levels of wellness. The ability to focus thoughts and correct the blockages within the body responsible for poor health can facilitate improvements in general function. The assistance provided by Reiki healing will encourage a reduction in high blood pressure.

The benefits of this process includes pain relief, balanced healthcare strategies, improved well-being, and steps taken to alleviate the experience of severe symptoms with its limiting impact on normal operation. Individuals suffering from emotional difficulties and constraints can improve general functioning with non-invasive care strategies that are developed in support of specific wellness requirements. The healthcare plans that are delivered with the assistance of a practitioner will encourage mobility and greater range of motion.

A reduction in the experience of severe physical restrictions can promote mobility and encourage greater range of motion when addressing individual needs. The natural therapy has received much attention in terms of its application for a wide range of health disorders that cause imbalances. A practitioner will use channel energy and redirect or release blockages to encourage healthier function and protect against severe debilitating symptoms.

Guggul Health Benefits- Cholesterol Lowering Herb

Guggulu , commonly known as guggul in Hindi language, is very important and trustworthy herb in ayurvedic system of medicine. It is an important content of very famous ayurvedic classical medicines like yograj guggulu, kaishore guggul, triphala guggul, chandraprabha vati, arogyavardhani vati etc. It finds its use in almost every kind of illness due to its miraculous treating power.

Commiphora mukul , biological name of guggulu or Indian bedellium as in English language, is a small shrub or a tree, which reaches a maximum of 4 – 6 ft in height. It bears thorns on its branches. It possess small leaves those very similar to that of a neem tree. Its flowers are of red in color and bears fruit that are oval in shape and pulpy in nature. Guggulu is the gum resin that is being excreted by bark of the plant. It is generally found everywhere in India.

Guggulu is an ushan virya herb ie it has hot potency, therefore has a killer instinct of the diseases cause by vata dosha prominence. But its effects are also seen in suppressing all the three aggravated dosha since it works as tridosha suppressant. Guggulu gets these properties as it contains tickt and katu rasa. In chemical composition guggulu (extracted toxin) consist of octanordammarana terpenes manusumbionic acid and manusumbinone as obtained from chemical analysis.
Guggulu is only used after purification (shudhikar) in milk; It should never be used in raw form.

As mentioned earlier guggulu is indicated in many ailments. Following are its few of the indications:

· Guggulu is very often used as an anti inflammatory and pain relieving herb by Indian herbal doctors, as it has ushan virya in potency thereby possess the power of suppressing vata which is pain causing factor.

· It has been very dominantly used in arthritic pains. It also possesses the property that helps in reversing the degenerative changes that has occurred in joint and bones. It helps in relieving pain and swelling. Due this property is also believed in strengthening nervous system of the body. Here widely used in diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, gout, Osteoarthritis, sciatica, paralysis, hemiplegia, lymphadenopathy etc.

· Guggulu is widely used in skin diseases as it acts as blood purifier. It promotes the production of red blood corpuscles (RBC) and improves the action of white blood corpuscles (WBC), which are helpful in fighting against any kind of infections. Guggulu is also known for improving our immune system. Good results are seen in leprosy and eczema.

· Guggulu is considered as ayurvedic antibiotic and is blindly used in infectious diseases with great results.

· Guggulu finds its application in problems related to heart. Great results have been seen in people who suffer from high cholesterol levels. Significant lower in blood cholesterol levels has been reported by regular use of guggulu. It helps in maintaining LDL and HDL levels in blood in normal limits.

· Guggulu has properties, which is indicated in hypertension. It helps in lowering in blood pressure levels and helps in maintaining it to normal levels.

· A good result has also been seen in reducing fat levels from body. As guggulu is ushan virya in property and has well penetrating power because of tickt and katu rasa, gives it the property that can be very helpful in obesity-realized problems. Ayurvedic doctors have used it as anti obesity agent since centuries.

· It also works in strengthening our digestive system, assists in easy secretions of digestive juices, works as appetizer, avoids indigestion and constipation, also beneficial in hemorrhoids and colitis. It is helpful in relieving from hyperacidity and belching. Good results have also been seen in liver related problems.

· Guggulu is also seen helpful in upper respiratory tract infection. It works as expectorant by helping in suppressing kapha dosha, which is the main culprit in causing wet cough. Benefits are also seen in asthmatic conditions.

· A great benefit has been seen in patients suffering from renal calculi. It works as diuretic and also helps in crushing the calculus thereby relieving and striving a person from renal stones.

· Gargles done by guggulu water (guggulu dissolved in water) have been widely used in tonsillitis, mouth ulcers, upper respiratory tract infection, throat irritation, pharyngitis and stomatitis.

· It has been seen that by regular usage of guggulu helps in improving sexual ability and sperm count. It also helps in improving sperm quality. Therefore also works as aphrodisiac.

· Menstrual disorders and painful menses are another disease where guggulu gives wonderful results and has been a part of many classy ayurvedic medicines.

· Guggulu also works as rasayan ie used in promoting youthnesss with longitivity. This is the reason it is the part of well-known rasayan known as Chawanprash.

Know more about Guggul, Guggul Health Benefits, Cholesterol Lowering Herb, Guggul Extract, Supplements and Tulsi- Basil, Holy Basil (Tulsi) Benefits, Research, Uses, Supplements by visiting

Home Remedies for Oral Thrush that You Can Try at Your Home

Oral thrush is basically a result of the fungus called Candida. The Candida results in diseases like oral thrush, vaginitis, and other dangerous infections. The infections are caused by the superficial skin disorders causing inflammation and uneasiness. It is mainly targeted at the new born babies. It is symbolized by the white spot which at latter stage bleeds. During intake of food the mouth often gets opened up and causes the mouth to get a burned feeling. Home remedies are there to treat the oral thrush. Brushing of teeth daily can be an easy means by which the infection can be restricted.

Teeth must be washed 2-3 times a day and if the hands are dirty then electrical tooth brush can be used. Sharing of toothbrushes can be a dangerous affair. Usage of mouthwash must be avoided for better result. Yogurt devoid of any sweetness is the best means to treat oral thrush. Yogurt kills the fungus inside and retains the bacterial presence within the mouth. Usage of Yogurt alone cannot kill the fungus but it can lessen the infection. Frequent use of cotton pads to wipe the fluid can minimize the production of the fungus.

Onions is one of the best remedies to treat this problem. Eating of onion can heal the infected area. Coconut can be handy giving the infected person a hope to get his infection cured. Coconut can be taken in any form raw or cooked form. It has a great healing property against oral thrush. Buttermilk can also serve as remedy to cure oral thrush. An appropriate mixture of apple juice, warm water and salt can be used to cure the infection. There are many useful home remedies to treat this kind of disease but one must be careful about the particular application to the patient.

Chocolates and tablets that contain greater proportion of nystatin or miconazole can be used to treat this infection. The natural home remedies might be helpful in fighting the infection without stretching it further. Too much sugary food might be dangerous proper healthy diet must be maintained. If you have the infection you must not neglect it you must see a doctor as soon as possible. A proper guidance is needed for a quick recovery. Hence infectious diseases like oral thrush need to be taken care of at the right time, at the right moment. All these home remedies are safe and effective.

Hemochromatosis – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Methods

Hemochromatosis is an inherited condition of abnormal iron metabolism; it is not a blood disease. This disease is the result of an abnormality, usually a single site mutation, in the HFE gene, which is located near the HLA complex and produces a glycoprotein. It is the main iron overload disorder. Signs and symptoms of hereditary hemochromatosis usually appear in midlife, although they may occur earlier. The most common complaint is joint pain, but hereditary hemochromatosis can also cause a number of other symptoms, including fatigue, abdominal pain and impotence. It is characterized by improper processing by the body of dietary iron which causes iron to accumulate in a number of body tissues, eventually causing organ dysfunction. Individuals with hemochromatosis absorb too much iron from the diet. Genetic or hereditary hemochromatosis is mainly associated with a defect in a gene called HFE, which helps regulate the amount of iron absorbed from food. It is a disorder that interferes with iron metabolism, which results in too much iron in the body.If left untreated, hereditary hemochromatosis can result in the progressive accumulation of iron in the liver, pancreas, heart, joints, and pituitary gland leading to potentially serious complications including cirrhosis of the liver, diabetes, and heart problems. Primary hemochromatosis (also termed hereditary hemochromatosis or idiopathic hemochromatosis) is an autosomal recessive disorder.

The genetic defect of hemochromatosis is present at birth, but symptoms rarely appear before adulthood. Type I Hemochromatosis is also called classic hemochromatosis is due to mutations of HFE, a gene located on chromosome 6. A person who inherits the defective gene from both parents may develop hemochromatosis. If hereditary hemochromatosis is suspected, your doctor will order a genetic blood test to look for the HFE mutation that is responsible for the disorder. Hemochromatosis is also known as iron overload, bronze diabetes, hereditary hemochromatosis and familial hemochromatosis. Most people with hereditary hemochromatosis show no signs of the illness until they are middle-aged. They might have only mild signs, like tiredness, or they might have arthritis or impotence. HFE interacts with the transferrin receptor and causes a clear decrease in the affinity with which the receptor binds transferrin. This interaction also may modulate cellular iron uptake and decrease ferritin levels. Patients who receive multiple blood transfusions also develop iron overload, occasionally termed hemosiderosis or secondary hemochromatosis. In rare cases, iron overload begins before birth. These cases are called neonatal hemochromatosis.

Causes of Hemochromatosis

The common causes and risk factor’s of Hemochromatosis include the following:

Hereditary hemochromatosis can occur when a person inherits two mutated copies of a gene called the HFE gene- one from each parent. Men and women have the same chance of inheriting two copies of this gene.

People who inherit the HFE gene mutation from both parents.

Certain anemias, such as thalassemia and aplastic anemia.

It can also result from blood transfusions and over consumption of dietary iron, especially among people with a genetic predisposition to accumulate iron.

Bronze colored skin.

Hereditary hemochromatosis is passed by an autosomal recessive trait on the genes.

Chronic liver disease, such as hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (“steato” means “fatty”).

Symptoms of Hemochromatosis

Some sign and symptoms related to Hemochromatosis are as follows:

Chronic fatigue.

Loss of drive (libido) or impotence.

Abdominal pain.


Depression, disorientation, or memory problems.

Early menopause.

Abnormal pigmentation of the skin, making it look gray or bronze.

Thyroid deficiency.

Damage to the adrenal gland.

Liver disease, including an enlarged liver, cirrhosis, cancer, and liver failure.

Damage to the pancreas, possibly causing diabetes.

Treatment of Hemochromatosis

Here is list of the methods for treating Hemochromatosis:

Doctors can treat hemochromatosis safely and effectively by removing blood from your body (phlebotomy) on a regular basis, just as if you were donating blood.

Treatment involves the removal of 500 milliliters (about 15 ounces) of blood weekly until normal plasma iron levels are established.

Once iron levels return to normal, maintenance therapy, which involves giving a pint of blood every 2 to 4 months for life, begins. Some people may need it more often.

Avoid taking vitamin C supplements, especially with food. Vitamin C increases absorption of iron. Try to drink vitamin C-rich juices, such as orange juice, between meals.

Another approach to treatment is called chelation therapy, in which a medication called deferoxamine (Desferal) binds to iron, removing it from the body and lowering the amount of stored iron.

Loss of desire and change in secondary characteristics are improved with testosterone therapy.

Nexium is an answer to Heartburn, Acid Reflux, and Peptic Ulcer

Who would have thought that the simple pleasure of eating food that you relish could lead to nightmarish problems, making you stay up nights when you would rather sleep!  Acidity – Causes you burning, even Pain, in the abdomen [especially upper part]; Nausea; maybe vomiting; and, maybe Trouble in Swallowing your Food.  At that point of time, you might feel heartburn – nothing to do with love or love lost – so, the pain in your chest is not related to a heart attack.

By a strange paradox, it is only with the help of stomach acid that the stomach can empty its contents into the intestines; if sufficient amount of acid is not present, the contents are pushed back into the esophagus, where they cause Acidity – burning, pain and maybe inflammation – in short, Gastroesphageal Reflux Disease [GERD].

Dyspepsia [Indigestion] also reflects some of these symptoms, which can be linked to the presence of a stomach ulcer.  Then, there are Peptic Ulcers, which could be because of a bile/pancreatic reflux, cause pain and burning in the upper abdomen, and copious vomiting [even blood may appear in vomit] and loss of appetite/weight.  The symptoms are similar as in Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome [ZES] though this is a rare disease that reveals itself in the form of one or more tumors in the pancreas, duodenum or both, but persons suffering from ZES could experience diarrhea and loss of weight also.

While at the extreme end, surgery could help, in solving some of the problems those having Peptic Ulcers or ZES, there is a simple answer – Esomeprazole, which is a proton pump inhibitor [PPI] – for all these ailments.  Esomeprazole reduces the gastric acid secretion by inhibiting the functioning of the enzyme that produces this acid in our bodies.   This PPI is available in capsule formulations of 20mg and 40mg.  Take the medicine as prescribed, with food, or on an empty stomach.  The tablet has to be swallowed whole, but if the doctor permits, you can sprinkle the contents in half a glass of water, drink it at once and down it with another half a glass of water to make sure the entire dose has been consumed.  For those who want to take it with food, the granules of the capsule can be mixed with soft food [cold applesauce or yogurt] and swallowed immediately.  

The doctor will want to know your medical history, all medications you are taking, the drugs you are allergic to, and, especially if you have suffered from any serious liver or stomach-related problems.  The side effects of this PPI could be headache, diarrhea, nausea, gas, stomach pain, constipation, or dryness in the mouth.  If you experience any unlikely side effects such as severe stomach/abdominal pain/tenderness, vomit that looks like grounded coffee, dark/black stools, numbness/tingling sensation in the hands/feet, rash, swelling, uneasy breathing, chest pain, then immediate medical attention will be necessary.  Pregnant women or nursing mothers have to check the risks and benefits of this drug with their doctor before they proceed to take it.

It is difficult to detect GERD in infants or children; especially babies, who burp/hiccup frequently, have excessive possetting/vomiting/dribbling/ running nose, loose stools, foul smelling breath and diapers. Babies usually outgrow GERD by the end of their first year, but if the problem continues, it could very well be GERD.  Burping is encouraged in infants several times during feeding, and it helps to hold the baby upright for half an hour after a feed.  For older children, small meals can be given at frequent intervals to avoid GERD.

What adults have to give up to get over acidity-related problems includes their daily smoke – cigarette smoking is out, try to wear loose-fitting clothes, and sleep by keeping your head raised by adding 6-8 inches by attaching woodblocks under the head section of your bed.  Doctors also tell such patients to avoid citrus fruits/juices, tomatoes, vinegar, spicy/fried/fatty foods and sodas.  Meals should be taken at least 2-3 hours before sleeping, so that the food travels down easily in the body.  Hot beverages just before retiring are a ‘No-No’.  And you have to bid farewell to that delicious peppermint and your favorite brands of chocolates!

The dosage and length of treatment depend upon the patient’s response to it, but once it has been prescribed, the full course has to be taken even if a person starts feeling better midway.  Try not to miss your dose, but don’t double it either.  The medicine has to be stored at room temperature, away from moisture, heat and light, children and pets; not to be shared with anyone.

How to Get a Six Pack

You may have huge biceps. You may have a bullet-proof chest. You may even have massive lats, but if you do not have a six pack your body just will not look its best. Learning how to get a six pack is vital for complete development of your physique.

The Right Conditions for a Six Pack

The truth is that everyone has abdominals. Some are more developed than others but everyone has them. Those who have a visible six pack have been able to develop the muscles enough to make them fairly solid and they have also become lean enough that the abdominals can be seen benefit the skin. In other words, their midsection is lean enough that the fat just benefit their skin does not obstruct the visibility of their abs.

Those are the foundations – build the muscles to increase their size and make them stronger while becoming lean enough for the muscle definition to show through.

The problem is how to go about completing both of these tasks. The muscle development is accomplished through routine exercise. There are the traditional ab workouts we all know – the crunches, the sit-ups, and the leg raises. You should also incorporate other exercises that are not as commonly talked about which target specific portions of the abdominals. Remember, this is only part of how to get a six pack .

The Hard Part of Getting a Six Pack

Getting lean is the hardest part of achieving abs that is worth showing off. Unlike what all of those infomercials will try to tell you, you can not just do ab targeting exercises and expect to get a smaller waist. The reason for this is that doing ab exercises does not specifically burn fat on your stomach. Yes, it 's but but true. The only way to get lean is to have a full workout regimen and burn fat over your entire body.

Other factors such as diet and which ab exercises you perform will influence how your core develops. Learning how to get a six pack is not difficult. As you can see the fundamentals are easy to grasp. With the right information and determination, you can definitely pull it off in no time.

Relaxation Techniques in Managing Ulcer Pain

Pain brought by ulcer is not easy to deal with even with proper diet or prescribed medication. But those who suffer from ulcers can get relief from different kinds of relaxation techniques. These types of relaxation techniques include deep breathing, meditation, and yoga. Relaxation techniques are recommended for practice by ulcer sufferers to lessen and deal with ulcer pain.

The following is a guide that can help you in managing ulcer pain with the use of relaxation techniques:

Massage therapy.

Get a massage therapy regularly. Massage, which is commonly used in Ayurvedic medicine, can prevent pressure ulcers. Massage therapy is not only a good way to relieve ulcer pain, but it is also a perfect way to relax the body.

Proper digestion.

It is very important to allow your food to be properly digested before doing any kind of strenuous work or activity. See, engaging in any kind of strenuous activity after eating tends to increase the amount of acid in the stomach, thus, causing upset stomach and irritation.

Chamomile tea.

Try drinking a cup of chamomile tea after meals. This can aid in digestion and relaxation, for chamomile relaxes the mind and the body.


Meditation is known to relax the digestive system and ease pain. This is a perfect ulcer pain relief and stress reliever.


Enroll in a yoga class as this is a perfect option in managing ulcer symptoms. Once you know the drill, you can then practice yoga at home on a daily basis. Yoga keeps the body moving and healthy. This exercise technique helps the body in digesting the food better as well as keeps the body balanced.

Breathing exercises.

The trick to remember in breathing exercises is to have a clear mind and be mindful of your body. As much as possible, do not strain or tense your muscles while you are doing this exercise.

Contact Lenses' Case Care Guidelines

Many people who use contact lenses always try to focus on the right selection of style and color. They try to give more attention to the fitting of lenses and completely over look the case in which these lenses are used to store. Lens case is an important thing to consider which is mostly over sighted by many individuals.

However, remember if lenses are not properly stored, they may result in infectious eye diseases. Current researches show that there are many eye diseases that are caused by contaminated and infectious lenses. Many studies also show that most of the cases are never replaced by their users. This is really an alarming situation because when cases are not properly replaced and cared, they become the reservoirs for hazardous bacteria that further threaten the well being of the wearer.

Remember, infectious cases are very dangerous and may lead into serious implications. They may cause grave microbial threats which may lead into the ulceration of cornea. Some symptoms that may cause due to infected cases include teasing, sensitivity to light and irritation.

It is very important to mention that many eye complications in the current day world are just due to the lack of knowledge for the care and maintenance of contact lenses. People do not apply essential techniques in this regard. They just remember that these lenses are fashion accessories and nothing more than that.

Here I am briefly citing some essential tips to protect your lenses and cases. It is mostly recommended that case should be replaced after a month. Moreover, it is also very important to properly care the case. First of all always wash and clean your hands before handling or using lens or a case. Never try to use tap water for cleaning of your lenses. Tap water is usually contaminated water. Always clean the lens with the help of lens solution and properly dry it. Do not allow the solution to touch any part of the body, as it leads into infection. Moreover, totally avoid expired solutions.

General Knowledge Pt.- I (a)

What are filoviruses?

The Filovirus has string-like structures. Ebola and Marbarg viruses come under this category. These viruses cause haemorrhaging. The incubation period is 2 to 21 days. Death can occur in only 10 days. Compare this with the dreaded HIV or the AIDS virus that has an incubation period of a decade.

What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is the most steroid in the human body. Due to its association with the cardiac disease, cholesterol has got a bad name. However, it is a critically important molecule. It is essential to the formation of bile acids that aid digestion of fats, vitamins D, male and female sexual hormones as well as certain other important hormones.

What is the largest bird?

Ostrich is the largest of living birds. It is 8 feet tall and weighs up to 300 pounds. The ostrich cannot fly. However, it runs at an amazing speed of 50 km per hour. The ostrich egg is white in color arid weigh almost 1.2 kg; equivalent to almost two dozen chicken eggs.

What isatp?

ATP or Adrenosine TriPhosphate is a chemical compound present in all living cells. It is the immediate provider of energy.

What is thalassemia?

Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder that causes anemia. It is thought to be caused by a defect in hemoglobin synthesis. Thalassemia is common among Mediterranean people.

Who determined the structure of vitamin b12?

Prof Dorothy Hodgekin, a British chemist, spelled out the structure of B12, the most complex vitamin. She also analyzed the structural details of the first known antibiotic. Penicillin. Prof Hodgkin was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1964.

What is mosaic disease?

Many people do not know that it is a viral disease that causes leaf blotching in plants like tobacco, maize and sugarcane.

What is a zoophyte?

The first part of the word, ‘zoo’ means animal while ‘phyte’ implies a plant. Any invertebrate that resemble a plant are called zoophytes.

What is a double helix?

A DNA (Deoxyribo-Nucleic Acid) molecule is a carrier of genetic code and a link between life and matter. There were several models describing its structure. Watson and Creek conceived of a model of DNA molecule like a spiral staircase or the doubly helical structure. This model has successfully described all properties of this giant molecule.

What is a prehensile tail?

Animals living in trees use their tail adapted as an extra appendage by curling it around a branch to get additional support. Several monkeys and lizards are endowed with a prehensile tail.

Why are dogs, unlike cats, supposed to be loyal?

Dogs were domesticated for hunting and herding some 14,000 years ago. While they evolved from wolves, they displayed sociable characteristics that resemble those of human beings, particularly affection and loyalty. On the other hand, cats are domestic creatures but not domesticated, which is why they are not considered as loyal as dogs. In fact, it is said that we don’t own cats, cats own us.

What is chicken65?

Chicken 65 is known to many Indians as a mouth-watering recipe. However, there is a scientific explanation for the term. When a chick is born, its weight increases linearly with its intake. This is valid for a couple of months – on an average about 65 days. Afterwards, the weight saturates but the intake goes on increasing.

What is a migiraine?

Migraine is a headache that affects only one side of the head and is associated with nausea. The word originates from the combination of ‘hemi’ or half and ‘cranium’ meaning the skull. Migraine continues to baffle practitioners of modern medicine. However, it seems to have a link with hormonal activity especially in the case of, females.

What is symbiosis?

Symbiosis is an association or togetherness of two dissimilar organisms for survival. The Hermit crab-sea anemone and the lichen or the algae and fungus are well known examples of symbiosis. The ‘crocodile bird3 wanders through the open mouth of a resting crocodile and gets its food by cleansing the crocodile’s teeth, in the process getting rid of parasites and leeches. In New Zealand, the puffin, a bird and the tuatara, a lizard, share the same cave. The puffin builds the nest while the lizard keeps the cave clean by devouring insects. Human beings have a lot to learn from the nature.

How do medicines cure people, though they are taken in such small quantities?

MOST processes that take place in the body are basically chemical reactions. Digestion too is the result of many chemical reactions. The moment the food enters the mouth, saliva is secreted. There is an enzyme called amylase (or ptyalin) in the saliva, which converts the starch in the food into the sugar, maltose. Amylase is found not only in the. saliva, but also in the pancreatic juices and intestinal juices. Saliva is alkaline. The gastric juice in the stomach is acidic. Therefore physicians advise you to keep certain tablets (that are likely to be affected by acidity) below the tongue (sublingual), till they are dissolved and absorbed. Some such tablets are coated so that the effective ingredient inside the tablet may remain unaffected by the acidity in the stomach. When the food enters the stomach, gastric juices act on the food and help in the digestion process. From the stomach, the food enters the small intestines. Starches, that have already, been reduced to maltose further break down into glucose In the small intestines and that is absorbed by the wall of the intestine into the blood. Similarly because of chemical reactions, the proteins as well as fats in the food are digested. When you take any medicine that too is absorbed in the blood, mostly through the was of the intestines and reaches every comer of the body. Some balms and ointments are meant to provide relief at particular points.

How does potassium cyanide kill a person within minutes?

POTASSIUM Cyanide (also Sodium Cyanide) is a highly dangerous poison. Cells in the human body need oxygen for their survival and functioning. This oxygen is carried to the various cells of the body by haemoglobin, to be found in blood. Hence haemoglobin is the actual oxygen-carrier. Cyanides have great affinity for haemoglobin and they prevent oxygen being carried to the cells. Lack of oxygen causes instant death.

What is bronze diabetes?    

Bronze diabetes is another name of hemochromatosis, an iron overload disease which causes the body to absorb and store too much iron. It is a genetic disorder, wherein deposition of excessive iron in the body damages the pancreas causing diabetes, apart from affecting other organs like the liver and heart and the joints too.

Why is it said that an elephant never forgets?

In general, vertebrate species with large brains like the elephant have developed complicated parts of the cerebral cortex (a part of the brain) to a greater extent and have greater capability for learning complicated tasks. It also seems that larger animals with large brains have the ability to retain information for longer periods. Based on evidence available, elephants seem to remember individuals, places and learned skills for many years. Accounts by observers indicate that elephants are able to remember the voices (and perhaps scents) of some people for over 12 years. Thus, it’s said that an elephant never forgets.              

What causes absent-mindedness?

Recent studies suggest that absent —a family of viruses causes mindedness. Picornaviruses are said to attack at least 1 billion people every year. Viruses from the same family are also said to cause polio, cold and diarrhoea. Scientists say that this sort of virus-induced memory loss could accumulate over the years to form clinical cognitive memory deficits.

Why does a human body float like cork in the dead sea?

The buoyancy is caused due to the high salinity of water. The Dead Sea is the most saline lake in the world. The salinity is due to the accumulation of salt flowing into it from different water bodies and due to the lack of a drainage system the salt gets deposited there. As the temperature increases, the water evaporates leaving behind the salt, thus increasing the concentration. Hence, the density becomes higher than normal water. Consequently, it provides greater upward thrust on a floating body. Thus, a swimmer floats like a cork.

Why do we feel thirsty when we eat salty things?

The salt in salty foods consists mostly of sodium chloride, which is hygroscopic i.e. salt has a strong tendency to absorb water from its vicinity. This is evident from the fact that table salt, when left in the open, becomes lumpy in a short while by absorbing the moisture from air. For the same reason, when a person eats salty foods, the salt causes the mouth to become dry by absorbing the moisture in the mouth and throat. As water is an important component of our body, water level in the various parts of our body is constantly monitored by the receptors in the hypothalamus of the brain. As soon as the mouth is depleted of its moisture, the above receptors detect the dryness and trigger signals that cause the person to feel thirsty.

Why are there only 60 seconds in a minute?

A minute is a unit used to measure both time and angles. A circle was divided into 360 degrees by ancient civilizations, probably Babylonians who figure everything in units of 10’s and 60’s instead of 10’s and 100’s as we do. The degree was divided into 60 parts and each of these parts was divided into 60 parts. The Romans called the first division of the degree ‘the partes minutae primal’ or the first part. The second division they called ‘the partes minutae secundaes’ or second small parts. These terms were finally shortened to minutes and seconds.

When an animal is called a mammal?

The word mammal is derived from the word mammae which mean milk. The groups of animals, which possess milk-secreting glands or mammary glands, are called mammals. These are the only animals which feed then- offspring by their body secretions. In addition to mammary glands, mammals possess some other unique characteristics like external ear (pinnae) and body hair. 

What is an okapi? 

An okapi is a ruminant forest mammal belonging to the giraffe family, but smaller in size and has a short neck. It is found generally found in the belt of Africa territory embracing Congo, northern Zaire and Uganda. Sir Harry Johnston reported spotting the okapi in the Semliki forest near Lake Albert (now Lake Mobuto Sese Seko) in 1901.

Though climatic conditions are similar in both cases, why are polar bears found only at the arctic circle and penguins at the antarctic circle?

It’s because of: i) Evolution —polar bears are totally reliant on the sea ice as their primary habitat. Penguins evolved in the southern hemisphere taking advantage of the very rich fish stocks in the cold currents of the southern ocean; ii) Difficult journey — to cross over the much warmer tropical waters to reach the cold northern waters has proved to be too great a journey for the penguins and iii) Ecological niche and adaptation — polar bears are an essential part of a food chain there. For them, sea ice is a critical platform.

Why does dry soil emit an odour when water falls on it?

The soil-inhabiting bacteria called streptomycetes produce the peculiar smell. They are abundant in dry warm soil — a million or so of them are present in a pinch of soil. They release compounds such as geosmin and 2-methyl isoborneol, which vaporise easily when water falls on them after a dry spell. That’s why dry soil emits an odour when water falls on it.

Why do we hiccup?       

Hiccups occur when the diaphragm and the muscles between the ribs suddenly contract. This causes a sharp, uncontrollable inhalation of air which does not reach the lungs because the muscle spasm has closed the windpipe. Hiccups are commonly induced by minor stomach upsets, like hot food irritating the phrenic nerve near the oesophagus, or when gas in the stomach presses upward against the diaphragm. Mild cases of hiccups usually disappear without treatment. What precisely causes hiccups is difficult to say; in most cases, there is no obvious cause. 

What material was used to wrap mummies?

Ancient texts state that a complete mummy treatment required 70 days. Embalmers removed the brain through the nostril by using a hook. They removed the internal organs, except the heart and kidneys, through an incision like the ones made by surgeons. They usually filled the empty abdomen with linen pads, and sometimes with sawdust. Then they placed the body in natron (sodium carbonate) till the tissues were dried out. Finally they wrapped the body carefully in many layers of linen bandages and placed it in a coffin.

Which is the world’s largest tree?

As of now, the world’s largest tree, that is, the one with the greatest mass, is the ‘General Sherman’, a giant sequoia located in Sequoia National Park, California, US. It is 84 meters tall and has a girth of 31.3 meters.

To which family does the giraffe belong?

The giraffe belongs to the Giraffidae family its scientific name is Giraffa camrleopardalis. It is the tallest animal and can grow up to a height of 5.5 m. Giraffes live on tree-dotted grasslands south of the Sahara in Africa. It feeds on acacia and mimosa leaves. It has a life span of 15 to 20 years. It can run up to a speed of 45km/h.

What is a jarvik heart?

The Jarvik Heart or Jarvik-7 refers to an artificial heart first implanted in a patient named Barney dark in 1982. However, this device, invented by Dr Robert Jarvik, required the patient to be permanently tethered to a large console. Recently, an American company has come up with the abiomed device, a fully implantable artificial heart. Although the people in whom the mechanical heart was implanted didn’t survive, the FDA exempted the company manufacturing it on humanitarian grounds, and has allowed it to sell about 4,000 devices every year.

Why isn’t there a nobel prize for mathematics?

Nobel prizes are principally for those inventions or discoveries of greatest practical benefit to mankind, possibly having in mind practical rather than theoretical work. Mathematics was not considered a practical science from which humanity could benefit, a key purpose for the Nobel Foundation. Nobel’s final will of 1895 bequeathed $9,000,000 for a foundation whose income would support five annual prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Medicine Physiology, Literature, and Peace. Four of the original five prizes were in fields which were close to Nobel’s own interests, medicine being the exception. A sixth Nobel prize in economic science was added in 1969.

What’s special about hummingbirds?

Hummingbirds have the ability to hover in mid-air and fly deliberately backwards or vertically and to maintain their position to drink from flower blossoms. Bee hummingbird is the smallest bird in the world, weighing 1.8 gms. They typically consume more than their own weight in food each day Their heart beat can reach as high as 1260 beats per minute. During torpor (hybernation-like stage) the heartbeat slows down to 50-180 beats per minute.

Are home lizards poisonous?

The wall lizard or gecko, found in most homes, is not poisonous at all. It only checks insect population. The only poisonous lizard in the world is the heloderma, also called the gila monster and beaded lizard. It’s found in large numbers near the Gila river in south-western United States.

Why does milk overflow when boiled but water does not?

The answer given last week is not correct. Milk overflows when boiled for the first time because it contains entrapped air. The air expands on heating and tends to escape lilting the surface of milk. Once all the air is expelled, the boiling would be regular and smooth. A second boiling would not lead to overflow. Entrapped air in mother’s milk is the cause of pain for babies that go under the name ‘colic pain’. Breast-feeding is therefore to be done in small doses at a time.

Why does milk overflow when boiled but water does not?

Milk is not a simple liquid — it contains tiny globules of fat and casein, which are not dissolved but suspended in water. On heating milk, there occurs a separation of constituents and some elements like cream, being lighter, float up. After some time, a membrane-like film containing cream and casein is formed. When milk begins to boil, the heat energy is used for the conversion of water into steam. As a result, the pressure below the film increases suddenly and the rising bubbles of steam makes the milk overflow. On heating water, no such film is formed and the bubbles of steam formed by boiling escape easily without any resistance. Hence, water does not overflow on boiling.

What’s the origin of the word chikunguhya?

The dreaded disease, which is quite a pain in the joints, has its etymological origins in the African language Swahili. The word is derived from the description of the contortion caused by the illness.

What is cryopreservation?

Cryopreservation is the preservation of any living tissue at low temperature. This can include anything from human tissues to vegetables. It is basically used for preserving living tissues, which need to be surgically implanted or transplanted to a human. Some examples include cornea, heart, etc Temperatures usually used are sub-zero temperatures. Low tem- perature leads to a decrease or almost total cessation of metabolic processes of the living tissue, which increases its preservation life. Human sperms are also stored in a sperm bank at lower temperatures using this principle.

Why is peacock the national bird of india?

In 1963, the peacock was declared the National Bird of India because of its rich religious and legendary involvement in Indian traditions. The criteria for this choice were many. The bird must be well distributed within the country so it could truly ‘national’. It must be recognisable to the common man. It must lend itself to formal depiction, i.e. abstract depiction on government publications, etc. It must not be confused with the bird emblem of any other nation. It should be associated with Indian myths and legends. The peacock fit the bill.

To which family does the moose belong to?

The moose is the largest species in the deer family (cervidae), found in North America and Eurasia. It is called elk in Europe. Males have enormous, flattened antlers that are shed and regrown annually and they weigh up to 820 kgs.

When was the dog domesticated?

Dogs were domesticated about 15,000 years back in the Mesolithic period when humans were hunter-gatherers. They were domesticated first probably in China. Several qualities associated with dogs such as great speed, agility, strength and ability to follow scent, helped men in their efforts to hunt animals. These were main reasons that favoured domestication. There are several theories to support domestication of dogs, ranging from companions in hunting to garbage disposal to early warning system for approaching strangers and predators and even as beasts of burden.

A person stops growing tall beyond a certain age. But why does hair keep growing longer?

A person grows tall when the person’s bones increase in length. This is governed by the coordinated action of several hormones, chiefly the growth hormone (GH) produced by the anterior pituitary gland. The secretion of GH is the highest around puberty and declines progressively thereafter. Although the decrease in GH secretion with age is not well understood, one factor is the increased secretion of a growth-inhibiting hormone called somatostatin. The growth of hair is not due to hormones, but the production of new cells in hair follicles.

Why do doctors wear green in the operation theatre?

The sight of red stains of blood over white didn’t go well with many doctors and would perturb them psychologically By the 1950s, white gave way to shades of green, which produced lesser eye fatigue besides providing a better contrast in the environment.

Which nutrients are created or soyed when curds are made from milk?

Curds are made by mixing a few spoonfuls of commercial yoghurt made with live cultures of bacteria into pasteurized milk. A mixed culture of Lactobacilus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus consumes the milk sugar or lactose for energy and excretes lactic acid, which curdles the milk. Curds retain the fat; mineral and vitamin content of milk, but have only one-third to two-thirds the amount of lactose. Curds are therefore, more digestible than milk foe lactose intolerant people.

Who devised the sign language used by the hearing impaired?

Jerome Cardan devised the sign language. Deaf and mute people faced unreasonable brutality at one point of time. Jerome Cardan was an Italian doctor who believed that the mute and deaf people could be taught to communicate by using written characters. Finger characters were worked out for them in the seventeenth century, which was very similar to the present-day finger alphabets. About seventy-five years ago the deaf were taught to communicate ideas almost entirely by means of signs, facial expressions and finger alphabets.

How do microwave ovens cook food?

Microwave ovens contain a magnetron tube, which converts electricity into microwaves (high-frequency electromagnetic waves similar to radio waves) rather than heat, when they contact food. Microwaves are not hot, but are attracted to and absorbed by water, fat, salt and sugar in food. The microwaves cause the water, fat, salt or sugar molecules to rotate rapidly and bump into each other, causing the food to heat by friction of the molecules. Though microwaves don’t actually cook food, the friction resulting from the vibrating molecules produces the heat which does the cooking. Microwaves do not actually touch most of the food they cook. However, the heat generated by the vibrating molecules on the outer edges conduct this heat inward, layer by layer, to cook the food.

What is’a genethip?

It is a newly developed diagnostic tool that can immediately identify the exact type of infectious disease a person is afflicted with, such as malaria, influenza, ebola or any other type of bacterial infection. It does so using tissue, blood, and urine and stool samples. The gene chip is essentially a glass slide with several rows of DNA and RNA samples from about 30,000 types of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. When the tissue or fluid sample is applied on the side, it would stick to the genetic material that is closely related to it.

What is the origin of the white tiger?

All white tigers are a colour variation of Bengal tigers. They are not separate sub-species of the Bengal tiger. White tigers are only born to parents that both carry the recessive gene for white colouring. The white tiger origin was record- ed in India from 1556 to 1605 AD. The first documented case of a white tiger being captured was in 1915. The local maharaja who kept the tiger till its death caught him. The first mutant white cub is believed to be the one trapped by the Maharaja of Rewa, who found it orphaned in the jungle in 1951. Named Mohan, the cub was later mated with a normal-coloured captive tigress that produced three litters with normal colouring. A few years later, Mohan mated with one of the offspring, producing the first litter of white cubs — these were to be the ancestors of others now in many zoos worldwide.

What are the edge species?

EDGE species refers to animals that are Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered (hence EDGE). These species are considered to be one of a kind and, as its acronym suggests, are nearing extinction. Hence, scientists are trying to preserve them through a project, which will aid conservation efforts. Currently, on the endangered list are 10 creatures, the most well known being pandas and elephants. Scientists hope to add 100 more species and kick off conservation efforts to preserve them over the next five years.

What is hyponatremia?

Hypo means below normal and natrium means sodium. Various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, bicarbonates, etc. are dissolved in blood plasma and they are maintained within a normal range. Normal sodium concentration in blood plasma is 136-145 milliequivalent per litre. If plasma sodium concentration falls below 135 milliequivalent per litre, it’s known as hyponatremia. It is caused by various medical conditions like excessive vomiting or diarrhoea, medicines that cause more urination (diuretics), some kidney diseases, hormonal imbalance, etc. In sodium deficiency, more body water accumulates in cells leading to cell swelling, especially brain cells. Patients mainly have neurological symptoms — nausea, headache, drowsiness, seizures, lethargy confusion and even coma. It is treated by restricting water intake and promoting water loss and by correcting underlying disease.

What is heavy water? 

Heavy water is chemically called deuterium oxide. Deuterium is one of the isotopes of hydrogen and also known as heavy hydrogen. The credit for discovering it goes to Urey who first proved that ordinary water contains one part of heavy water in 6,000 parts of it. In 1933, Lewis & Donald were able to isolate pure heavy water by continuous electrolysis of water containing alkali. Heavy water acts as a moderator in fission in uranium235. It also has germicide and bactericide properties. In India, it is manufactured at Trombay Nangal, Rourkela, Namrup and Neyveli.

Why is a hermit crab called so?

Usually the entire body of a crab is covered with a hard, calcified Armour. The hermit crab, however, lacks this protection on the hindmost part of its body, the abdomen, which is soft and vulnerable. It protects its abdomen, which contains important organs like the liver and the gonads, by inserting it into a gastropod shell. Most hermit crabs salvage empty seashells to shelter and protect their abdomens, from which they derive the name hermit. The abdomen is bent, so that it fits in the curvature of the snail house. In case of danger, the hermit crab withdraws deep into the shell where there isn’t room for two big pincers. When the crab grows and does not fit in its shell any longer, it looks for a bigger one. The original occupant, if still present, is picked out. Then, quickly and nervously the crab moves over into its new home.

Do animals suffer from diabetes and blood pressure too?

Yes, definitely Diabetes mainly occurs as a genetic disorder, mostly in dogs. It can also occur due to hormonal changes mainly due to insulin deficiency It can be treated with hormonal therapy and dietary regulations. Problems related to blood pressure also occur significantly in animals. Congestive cardiac failure, cardiac murmurs, ventricular fibrillation, cardiac arrest, etc. occur in dogs and other animals. Treatment is limited mainly to medicinal therapy Surgeries are seldom done.

Why a group of fish is called a ‘school’?

Some fish tend to swim in groups in order to protect themselves from their predators. The collective noun, which denotes such a group depends on the species of the fish in the group, as, exemplified by the terms a troop of dogfish, a swarm of eels and a glide of flying fish. The most common collective nouns for a group of fish in general are school and shoal. Both the words have evolved from the same common Dutch root ‘schole’ meaning a troop or crowd.

Why is ethyl alcohol called ‘grain alcohol’?

Ethyl alcohol or ethanol is mainly prepared by fermentation of various sugars. These are obtained from sugarcane and sometimes from starchy grains like barley etc. That’s why ethanol is sometimes referred to as ‘grain alcohol’. For example, ethanol used in beer is extracted from barley.

What is bitchology?

Bitchology is the theory, practice and technique of being successful in a man’s world. A bitch should be Strong and self-confident but should remember to use feminine wiles, such as her attractiveness and, whenever useful, she should try to come across as a helpless creature. The 20th century definition of a bitch was a mean, spiteful, bad-tempered and unpleasant woman. In the 21st century, it’s an empowering name, a compliment, a title that all women should embrace. It’s a woman who is proud of who she is, stands up for herself, knows what she wants, willing to take risks, all in a pleasant but in a strong feminine manner.

What does the term agroecosystem mean?

An ecosystem modified for agricultural use is called agroecosystem. It includes dynamic association of several biotic and abiotic factors viz. crops,pastures, livestock, flora and fauna, atmosphere, soil, water, etc. Design and functioning of an agricultural pattern with inputs and outputs, as well as integration of social, economic and ecological factors makes agroecosystems complex in comparison to natural ecosystems. The level of an agroecosystem varies with the agricultural system designed for more efficient use of natural resources which results in higher agricultural productivity.

Is there any scientific proof to confirm the concept of rebirth?

Reincarnation holds the notion that some essential part of a living being (or sometimes, only humans) can survive death in some form, i, with its integrity partly or wholly retained, to be reborn in a new body. This is often referred to as the spirit or soul. In such beliefs, a new personality is developed during each: life, based on past-integrated experience and new acquired experiences, but some part of the being “remains constantly present through successive lives. Many persons have claimed to record memories of past lives. Dr Ian Stevenson has researched the subject extensively but it hasn’t been proven scientifically

Why is mesokaryotes called so?

‘Meso’ means ‘in between’ and ‘karyon’ means ‘nucleus’. As mesokaryotic cells contain a well organised nucleus like that of eukaryotic cells, but its nucleus divides through amitosis like that of prokaryotes, so the cells are termed mesokaryotes which indicates its nucleus resembles both eukaryotic and prokaryotic nucleus. It has been found that the Peridinium balticum din flagellate contains both a mesokaryotic nucleus and a eukaryotic nucleus.

Why the roaring forties are called so?

Western winds move in both the hemispheres (northern and southern) between 35 to 60 degrees latitudes. In the southern hemisphere, these winds show a very stormy nature after 40 degree latitude. This remains constant in summer as well as in winter. In the olden days, sailors called them ‘roaring forties’, ‘furious fifties’ and ‘crying sixties’ since these winds create a very noisy atmosphere and were not favourable for them at all.

Why is international diabetes day celebrated on november 14?

The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) established world Diabetes Day, celebrated every year on November 14, in 1991 with the aim of coordinating diabetes advocacy worldwide. Since then, it has become the primary global awareness campaign of the diabetes community. World Diabetes Day commemorates the birthday of Frederick Banting, who with his colleague Charles Best, discovered insulin in 1921. The disease is a leading cause of blindness, kidney failure, amputation, heart attack and stroke. It is one of the most significant causes of death, responsible for a similar number of deaths each year as HIV/AIDS.

What is the difference between quagmire and quicksand?

Quagmire is a bog or swamp i.e. a lowland area permanently saturated with water. The word is also used to denote a situation fromwhich it is almost impossible to escape. On the other hand, quicksand is a bed of loose sand and mud mixed with water, which forms a soft, shifting mass, which sucks down any object that comes on it. For instance, you may get stuck in a quagmire, but you won’t be swallowed by it. But you would be in quicksand.

What is the significance of crab shaped bread?

The crab-shaped loaf of sourdough bread is baked at Fisherman’s Wharf in San Francisco. The crab shaped loaf is a long-standing holiday tradition that coincides with the local Dungeness crab season. The Fisherman’s bakery produces about 3,000 loaves of bread per day. The famous Dungeness crab owes it name to the small village Dungeness near Sequim, Washington and now it is well known around the world.

What is oxygen toxicity?

Although, oxygen is essential for our survival, breathing it in excess can cause harm to our central nervous system and lungs. The harmful effects caused by oxygen in people breathing it at excessive pressure and for prolonged periods is called oxygen toxicity Divers breathing from their own gas cylinders and patients in intensive care units of hospitals are susceptible to the above problem, if they violate the safety limits on the pressure of the gas mixture and period of breathing. Some of the symptoms experienced by divers violating the pressure and time norms are dizziness, nausea, twitching and convulsions. Breathing oxygen at excessive pressure for a long time can also damage the lungs, which in turn leads to breathlessness.

Why is mercury used in thermometers despite being the poorest conductor of heat? 

Most metals are good conductors of heat and they are solids at room temperature. Mercury is the only one in liquid state at room temperature. It’s used in thermometers because it has high coefficient of expansion. Hence, the slightest change in temperature is notable when it’s used in a thermometer. It also has a high boiling point which makes it very suitable to measure higher temperatures. Also, it has a shiny appearance and doesn’t stick to the glass surface of glass.

Why is refined sugar more harmful than jaggery for diabetes patients though both are produced from sugarcane?

Sugar contains various types of carbohydrates like glucose, fructose, glactose, lactose, ribose, maltose and sucrose. Sucrose is further converted into glucose which provides energy to the body Insulin, which is secreted by the pancreas, converts sucrose into useful sugar. In diabetics, the insulin secretion doesn’t take place, so the sugar which is not useful gets accumulated in the body. Jaggery is a natural sweetener made from sugarcane juice simply by evaporation or the method called centrifugation without the use of any chemicals, synthetic additives or preservatives. It contains an enormous wealth of minerals, protein, vitamins and useful sugar.

Who invented the biometric system?”

The use of biometric technology, which utitilises body characteristics to identify a person, goes back to the ancient civilisations of Egypt and China. However, modern-day biometrics has evolved thanks to the contribution of several minds. Joao De Barros, a European explorer is credited with recording the first known system of fingerprinting in the 14fh century Alphonse Bertillon, a policeman from Paris, studied body mechanics in an effort to identify criminals. In recent years, John Daugman, a physicist, has done pioneering work in developing the biometric iris recognition system. Owing to its accuracy, biometric systems are being used to help nab terrorists. Pakistan recently installed biometric systems at its border to keep a check on cross-border militancy from Afghanistan.

Is there any logical answer to the question: what comes first — the chicken or the egg?

Human beings evolved from apes. However, a male and female ape did not reproduce to give birth to a human child. As per Darwin’s theory of the survival of the fittest, Nature always chooses the fittest form of a species and allows it to exist and reproduce further. Due to this competition, a continuous gene mutation and development occurs in every living being until and unless a stable form is achieved. This happened among birds too, whose outputs were genetically different and these laid eggs. Finally, an egg was laid after many additive and subtractive combinations, from which came the chicken. Therefore, we can conclude that the chicken came first.

What are the patagonia calves?

The Patagonia calves are clonedand genetically modified calves which can produce human insulin. Scientists are hoping to extract this hormone from the Patagonia calves 1, 2, 3 and 4, which will be produced in these calves when they mature, and thereby bring down the cost of treating diabetes. The project was conducted by a Buenos Aires-based biotechnology company Bio Sidus.

Why do our veins appear green when the blood flowing in them is red?

Under normal light, blood appears red because most colours are absorbed except for red, which bounces back from the blood. Every colour but red is absorbed by the oxygen-carrying pigment haemoglobin (Hb). If a filter that blocks the reflected colour is positioned between the blood and the eyes of the person looking at the veins, the perceived colour changes. In the case of humans, the skin serves as a filter for the colour red, and the colour is therefore perceived as green. The exact colour spectra is determined by the relative levels of oxygenated iron (HbO) and carbon dioxide in the blood. High levels of oxygen reflect red, and high levels of carbon dioxide reflect blue, which, when mixed with the yellowish colour of fat and or the skin, end Up looking green.

How was curd first prepared?

According to a popular legend, while travelling across a desert, some Turks kept milk in a goatskin bag and slung it across the back of a camel. On opening the bag a few ‘ hours later, they found that it had been transformed into a thick, tangy custard. The desert sun and the bacteria in the bag had enabled preparation of curd, also known as yoghurt.

How were the pharaohs of egypt mummified?

The title ‘pharaoh’ was given to a ruler of Egypt. Egyptians believed in life after death and made elaborate arrangements to preserve their king’s body First, the body was dried thoroughly using the desert sand. Then, the internal organs were removed because they decay easily The body was embalmed with preservatives like palm wine, natron, oils, herbs, resins and spices. Later, the body was wrapped in strips of linen bandages in the process called mummification and placed in a coffin and put in a pyramid.

What’s unique about the insula?

Insula is the region in the brain that’s considered to be the seat of social emotions such as disgust, pride, humiliation, lust, guilt and atonement. The insula also seems to react to body states such as hunger and craving. Scientists believe it holds the key to tackling addiction of all sorts. People who’ve suffered damage in this prune-sized region of the brain were able to effortlessly give up the smoking habit.

Why is plastic surgery called so?

The word plastic is derived from the Greek ‘plastikos’ meaning to mould or to shape. Plastic surgery is the technique used to change the appearance or function of human bodies through either cosmetic or reconstructive operations. The use of plastic in this context is not connected with the most common synthetic polymer material known as plastic. It is interesting to note that the knowledge of plastic surgery existed in India as early as 8 B.C. when ancient physicians utilised skin grafts for reconstructive work. The Sushruta Samhita describes the knowledge of plastic surgery in the form of rhinoplasty and otoplasty.

Although plants give out carbon dioxide at night, why is the morning air fresh?

Plants give out carbon dioxide not only at night but during the day too. It happens because of the process of respiration in which plants take in oxygen and give out carbon dioxide. As soon as the sun rises another process called photosynthesis starts, in which carbon dioxide is taken in and oxygen is given out. Thus, the proportion of oxygen becomes greater in comparison to carbon dioxide in the lower atmosphere. The morning air has lesser amount of vehicle exhaust, dust, soot and smoke. All these make the morning air fresh. This is the reason why doctors advise patients to take morning walks.

Why aren’t flying birds pulled to the earth’s surface due to gravitational force?

It’s a misconception if one thinks flying birds are not pulled by Earth’s gravity Every object on Earth is influenced by gravity. Even the Earth is influenced by the Sun’s gravity So, if birds fly, they are doing so despite the gravitational pull, through their aerofoil structure. There are differences in velocity on the upper and lower side of aerofoil. This creates pres- sure differences i.e. the lower side gets more pressure and the upper side gets lesser pressure which lifts up the bird. The movement of wings creates the thrust to enable a bird to move forward. Thus, birds overcome gravity and gain height.

What is bilharzia?

A chronic disease, endemic in parts of Africa and South America, it is caused by infestation with blood flukes — leaf shaped, unsegmented flat worms calle schistosomes. Ii is named after the German physician T Bilharz. It is common in the tropics where ponds, streams and irrigation canals harbour bilharzla-transmitting snails. The worms feed on Red Blood Corpuscles and dissolved nutrients. Liver enlargement and kidney damage are mostly caused by these flukes.

Why does the planet venus rotate from east to west, not the other way around like other planets?

Venus is the hottest planet with a temperature of about 450 degrees to 500 degrees Celsius. Venus is not only close to Mercury but also has a similar temperature (Mercury’s temperature ranges from 400 to 450 degrees C). Venus repels Mercury away due to like charges. This makes Venus rotate from East to West.

What is the difference between a tortoise and a turtle?

A tortoise is a reptile of the order Chelonia and belongs to the family Testudinidae. Its body is enclosed in a hard shell. Turtles are freshwater or marine reptile whose body is protected by a shell. When in danger, a tortoise withdraws its head and limbs in to the shell. Turtles cannot retract their heads into their shells. Most tortoises are herbivorous and have no teeth. Turtles are generally omnivorous, feeding mainly on sea grasses and a range of animals including worms, frogs, and fish. Tortoise lay eggs in warm earth and are not incubated by the mother. Turtles often swim long distances to lay their eggs on the beaches where they are born. Turtles are excellent swimmers, having legs that resemble oar-like flippers. Unlike turtles, tortoise do not swim.

What is the bsx factor?

Bsx refers to the brain specific homeobox transcription factor, a gene mutation which causes people to fidget more, which experts believe also helps them in losing weight. They also believe that the sluggishness caused by the absence of the gene mutation can explain why they gain weight.

What is the significance of the cross in medicine?

The history of the cross in medicine seems to have originated with Christian monks running free hospitals. These monks either wore crosses hanging as pendants, or robes with crosses painted over them, or used the cross as a source of relief for the sick. In 1859, Swiss businessman Henry Dunant founded the International Committee for Relief to the Wounded to medically aid the war-wounded regardless of nationality. For its logo, Dunant reversed the Swiss national flag, a white cross on a red background. But the symbol gave a spiritual cloak to the organisation’s selfless service and became so identified with its work that people referred to it by the name of the emblem.

What is an e-cigarette?

It is a battery-operated cigarette which looks and feels like a real cigarette but it isn’t bad for health. It is being marketed by a Chinese company in the hope that China’s 40 million smokers will quit. Beijing-based SBT Co. first developed the e-cigarette technology in 2003 and it is now controlled by Golden Dragon. The cigarettes sell for around $208 apiece and are already available in China, Israel, Turkey, and a number of European countries. It’s not yet sold in Australia or the United States.

Is it all right to cook food in aluminium vessels?

Aluminium has good thermal conductivity for cooking. However, it can react with acidic foods and change the flavour and colour of the food cooked. Sauces containing egg yolks or vegetables such as asparagus may cause oxidation of non-anodised aluminium. Sometimes, Alzhelmer’s disease is linked to the use of aluminium but to date there is no proof that the metal is involved in causing, the disease.                   

What is fe-fortlfied rice?

Fe-fortified rice is rice enriched with iron- It’s a blend of premixed iron-fortified rice grains with ordinary rice. Ordinary rice grains are coated with iron in a suitable solvent and binder. A meal containing just one grain of iron fortified rice mixed with 100 grains of normal rice can make a lot of difference to malnutritioned children in India. Intake of approximately 4 to 6 cups of cooked iron-fortified rice will meet the daily Iron requirement of the body

Why are the heart, not any other organ, and the focus of all love stories?

As per Hindu mythology Lord Kamdev pierced the hearts of lovers with his arrow made of flowers. Lord Hanuman opened his chest to show Lord Ram and Sita seated in his heart. Images of an arrow through a heart is popular symbol the world overWe associate our emotions with the heart, although it is not the source of them. Had the focus of all love stories been any other organ, things would have been rather funny

Why are the heart, not any other organ, and the focus of all love stories?

Faster or stronger (or even irregular) heart beats are the most evident physical sign of any emotion we experience, not of love alone. Looking into the brain requires sophisticated instrumentation. Hence the millenia-old belief of lay persons that the heart is the seat of all emotions.

What’s special about the tomato trees?

These single vine tomato trees planted by Yong Huang (Epcots Manager of agricultural science), are the only single vine tomato trees in the US. It produces more than 32,000 tomatoes. Huang discovered the unique plant while vacationing in Beijing. They were planted in a specially designed experimental greenhouse. The vine now grows golf-sized tomatoes which are harvested and served at restaurants at Walt Disney World, Florida.

Why is the golden toad extinct?

The golden toad was once unique for its shimmering yellow colour and was found exclusively in Costa Rican jungles. Now, it has the dubious distinction of being extinct. Experts blame global warming for its disappearance from the planet. They believe that rising temperatures have led to a dangerous form of skin fungus entering their habitats. Also, two types of Harlequin frogs have become extinct, and several more reptiles and amphibians are on this ecological hit list.

What is the estimated age of the earth?                

It is believed that the Earth is 4-5 billion years old. Almost nothing is known of the Earth’s conditions during the first billion years before the consolidation of its crust. Through some methods like tidal force, sedimentation, rate of erosion, salinity of the ocean and radioactivity, the Earth’s age has been estimated but still debatable. The Big Bang theory, which explains the formation of the universe, was postulated in the 1950s and 1960s and its validity in 1972, proved by evidence received from the Cosmic Background Explorer to now accepted.

What is redshift in astronomy?

It is the increase in wavelength of the light from a stellar object towards the red end of the visible spectrum. This is usually caused by the object rapidly going away from the observer. The light spectra of distant galaxies show marked redshifts. This is normally interpreted as implying that they are rapidly receding from us.

What is the crigler-najjar syndrome?

The Crigler-Najjar Syndrome (CNS) is an inherited metabolic disorder caused by a liver enzyme deficiency which prevents the usual metabolic breakdown of bilirubin — a normal by-product in our body’s disposal of worn-out red blood cells. It is named after Dr Crigler and Dr Najjar who discovered this rare disease. Children with CNS must undergo daily 12-hour exposure to special blue light, just to survive. Without this, a child would suffer brain damage, muscle and nerve damage and die due to bilirubin toxicity.

Why the owl is considered wise?

Large eyes symbolise wisdom. As the owl has prominent eyes, some people consider it very wise. Perhaps for the same reason, it is associated with gods in some mythologies. Athena, the Greek goddess of knowledge and wisdom, transforms herself into an owl sometimes, and hence the Greeks consider the owl to be wise. In Hindu mythology, the goddess Laxmi is supposed to be accompanied by a white owl, and hence Hindus consider the owl a harbinger of prosperity. Due to its fierce appearance and mysterious nocturnal movements, some people feel the owl symbolises evil and death.

What is ‘wing-in-ground’ aircraft?

This is an aircraft that combines the power of a ship and a plane. Although it flies just above half a meter above the surface of the sea. It is six times faster than a ship and can go up to speeds of 300 km per hour. It can even carry up to four tonnes of weight, much more than the average plane. The ‘wing-in-ground’ aircraft is the brain child of Chinese scientists.

What is ramanujan number?

The number 1729 is known as the Ramunujan Number. It was Ramanujan who discovered that it is the smallest number that can be expressed as the sum of two cubes in two different ways. 1729 = I3 + 123 = 93 + 103.

What is palynology?

Palynology is the branch of science dealing with study of decayresistant remains of certain plants and animals. It can be classified as an interdisciplinary science and is a branch of earth science (geology or geological science) and biological science, particularly plant science (botany). The term Palynology was introduced by Hyde and Williams in 1944, on the basis of the Greek words paluno meaning to sprinkle and pale meaning dust.

What is the tangible 3d system?

Created by a Japanese firm, the tangible 3D system allows users to not only see but also feel a three-dimensional image with the help of a sensor-loaded glove. Possible commercial uses of this technology could include linking it to video phones, which will allow users to not only see but even touch their loved ones, even if they are far away.

What is no-till farming?

No-till farming is a cultivation technique of planting crops in previously unprepared soil or piece of land by opening a narrow slot, trench or band only of sufficient width and depth to obtain proper seed coverage. It requires no other preparation as required in conventional farming. Widely accepted in England and Europe, this soil conservation technique is also known as conservation tillage or zero tillage.

What does life-shirt refer to?

It is a vest that can be used to detect mental illness in a person, particularly manic depression and schizophrenia. The vest, which is lightweight and machine-washable, is filled with sensors which monitor several body functions including body movement. It gives a picture of the person’s physical activity, which scientists believe can be used to identify those who are in early stages of a bipolar disorder.

What is the hutchison effect?

The Hutchison Effect is a collection of phenomena discovered accidentally by John Hutchison during attempts to study the longitudinal waves of Tesla in 1979. The list includes levitation of heavy objects; fusion of dissimilar materials such as metal and wood; anomalous heating of metals without burning adjacent material; spontaneous fracturing of metals; changes in the crystalline structure and disappearance of metal samples. Hutchison and his supporters surmise that these phenomena arise from zero-point energy or the Casimir Effect. John Hutchison has not been able to replicate it on demand.

What is fringe science?

Fringe science may be a field of enquiry which is not yet considered a real science. It is also known as a proto-science. The phrase is used to describe scientific enquiry in an established field of study that departs significantly from mainstream theories. Fringe science is also used to describe unusual theories and models of discovery which have their basis in established scientific principles.

What is bio-sensor technology?”

Bio-sensor technology utilizes enzymes and antibodies, to identify sugars and proteins in body fluids, contaminating agents in air and gases in air. Commercially; it’s most popular avatar is, the blood glucose bio-sensor which uses an enzyme to break down blood glucose. Thai scientists have almost developed a technology which uses bio-sensors to detect tuberculosis.

What are spiral waves?

A wave rotating in two dimensions is called a Spiral wave because of its shape. There is a mathematical theory for waves in negative viscosity media. This theory predicts spiralling waves. Spiral waves have been demonstrated experimentally in a variety of biological and non-biological systems (heart, brain, retina, various social amoeba, and auto-catalytic chemical reactions). The heart muscle is actually three-dimensional. The waves in 3-D are said to be ‘scroll waves’.

What is a persian astrolabe?

The Persian Astrolabe is a historical astronomical instrument used by classical astronomers and astrologers. Brass astrolabes were developed in much of Persia (Iran), chiefly as an aid to navigation and as a way of finding the qibla, the direction of Mecca. In the Islamic world, astrolabes were used to find the times of sunrise and the rising of fixed stars, to help schedule morning prayers. It was the chief navigational instrument until the invention of the compass and sextant. Its many uses included locating and predicting the positions of the sun, moon, planets and stars; determining local time given the local longitude and vice-versa; surveying, and triangulation. Astrologers of European nations used astrolabes to construct horoscopes. In the Islamic world, they are and were used primarily for astronomical studies, though astrology was often involved there as well.

What Are the Benefits of Having a Foreskin?

I just don’t go into the reasons for circumcision, which change with every decade depending on whatever disease is in the spotlight. In the 1880s, circumcision was recommended to prevent insanity and epilepsy, in the 1940s it was recommended to prevent STIs, the 1950s it was a cure for cancer and in the early 21st century, HIV is spread in the moist regions of the foreskin as opposed to the dry, keratinised layer of the glans.

In my opinion, circumcision violates a major principle of medical practice: First, do no harm. It also violates all seven principles of medical ethics. Some doctors and nurses refuse to perform or assist with circumcisions because of ethical considerations

To make it clear I have no problem with circumcision as long as the person gives their full consent and is informed, as they are supposed to be with all procedures. The fact is when circumcision is performed, it does not treat any disease, injury, or other health problem. Since there is no urgency to do it, it must be delayed until the child is old enough to make the decision for himself.

Therefore, a male may make a decision to be circumcised when he is older without losing the benefit of having foreskin.

The foreskin is an integral, normal part of the penis. It contains about 240ft of nerves, and around 1000 nerve endings. This fact explains why anesthetics provide incomplete pain relief during circumcision. Without the coverage of a foreskin, the glans penis dries out and becomes keratinised (i.e. dry, thick, insensitive – think what would happen to the moisture surrounding the eyeball if the eyelid was removed) and takes on the function of the outer foreskin – protection from dirt, chafing and otherwise outside threats.

Without the foreskin, around 80% of the penis’ erogenous zones are lost, keratinisaton occurs (as I mentioned above) and the gliding action of the foreskin over the erect glans is lost, not to mention any risks associated with such surgery, including the formation of ‘skin bridges’ where the foreskin reattaches itself to the glans, skin ‘tags’ where the foreskin was incompletely cut away, scarring and excess skin removal.

In a national survey, circumcised men reported they were more likely to engage in masturbation, heterosexual oral sex, and anal sex than intact men. The result suggests that circumcised men seek alternative forms of stimulation to compensate for reduced sensitivity.

The complex anatomy and function of the foreskin dictate that circumcision should be avoided or deferred until the person can make an informed decision as an adult.

Oral Herpes Virus Treatments – Effective Home Remedies

Oral Herpes is some of the most annoying issues in the world and also the second most annoying thing is discovering a proven cold sore treatment that works for YOU.

You can find some lucky individuals who have never had a cold sore in their lives, but for the rest of us we just need to discover to deal with them.

Below are three proven “home remedy” cold sore remedies for you to start with but your in all probability going to wish to move beyond these initial remedies to some thing that can provide you with long-term piece of mind.

1. Lysine-

This amino acid basically starves the herpes virus into submission. Most folks take a maintenance does of 500 milligrams each day and if they get a “breakout” up the dosage to 3,000 milligrams until the sore heal themselves. Lysine really should be part of any cold sore treatment program you’s that efficient.

2. Frozen Tea Bag-

Wet and then freeze a couple typical tea bags and as soon as you really feel a tingling sensation around your mouth or on your lips apply the frozen tea bag. This wants to be done at the first sign of breakout to be most beneficial.

3. Calcium-

The primary trigger for the cold sore virus is if you body is acidic. That’s why you might hear that coffee and chocolate are poor since they tend to raise your bodies PH level.which is a breeding ground for the virus.

By taking Calcium every day you’re keeping your body in an alkaline state which keeps the virus from replicating. Like Lysine this ought to be component of any on going cold sore treatment plan you start.

Once again these 3 cold sore remedies are excellent preventative measures but you ought to also analysis other proven therapies for those times when the virus does end up winning and you need to destroy those nasty blisters rapidly. Be certain to research only proven topical oral herpes treatments.

Because over 80% of the population is infected with the virus there are numerous remedies in the marketplace today. Using a daily regimen of vitamins, minerals and Lysine has proven to be a quite effect begin and regardless of which topical treatment you determine to make use of by all means keep attacking the virus from the inside. It has been proven that with correct nutrition you are going to start to experience much less and less out breakouts.

Five Common Tulip Pests and How to Stop Them

If you have been growing tulips for any length of time, you know that they require a great deal of patience. Most flowers you buy have blooms or soon will at the time of planting. With tulips, you have to prepare the soil and plant tulip bulbs in the fall, and then wait all winter for the payoff! If something has gone wrong in that time, you can be left with an empty flower bed instead of the bright spring blooms you were dreaming of in January.

That’s why it makes sense to minimize the probability of a tulip pest invasion. Instead of worrying if your tulips will bloom this spring, you can spend your time worrying if the red would have looked better next to the yellow.

Here’s a quick run down of five common tulip pests, and what you can do to minimize the damage.

1. Blight. Blight, or tulip fire, is a fungus that infects the bulbs and can cause brown streaks or spots on leaves and flowers. It is highly contagious and can live for years in the soil. Blight can be prevented by discarding any bulbs which have visible signs of damage such as bruising or cuts, dusting bulbs with fungicide before planting, and burning any bulbs and plants that show signs of blight.

2. Squirrels. Tulip bulbs are edible, and squirrels will dig them up for a tasty snack. To protect your bulbs from these bulb mining pests, plant your bulbs as usual, but then top them with a layer of chicken wire to keep them from being dug up.

3. Moles. Unlike deer and squirrels, these pests attack from beneath. To protect against them, build small cages from chicken wire to house your bulbs. You can also try placing dog hair or feces in their runs to encourage them to live elsewhere.

4. Aphids. These tiny little creatures probably won’t kill your tulips, but they can cause unsightly damage such as curling or yellowing of the leaves. For a mild infestation, just a spray of water will probably do the trick. For larger numbers, insecticidal soap provides a temporary cure. Also, controlling ants will help to reduce the aphid population, since many ant species actually protect aphids from their natural predators. Reducing the ant population will result in increased aphid predators.

5. Deer. Deer love tulips, and they will eat them right down to the ground if given the opportunity. The best way to rid yourself of these tulip pests is to apply a repellent specially designed for deer such as Deer Out. There are also home remedies available, but the results can be less than spectacular. Some people claim to have good results with decorative water fountains that make noise, but after a while the deer will become used to the sound and it will no longer frighten them away.

With a little planning and forethought, you can eliminate practically any tulip pests you may run up against. Here’s to a bright and beautiful tulip season.

General Information About Ulcer

Peptic ulcer is a very common disease across the world affecting a lot of people. Modern scientists have started to make serious brake troughs in understanding and fighting this disease. because of this we now have the ability to use numerous treatments against ulcer, treating it and even curing it.

It is a well known fact that in order to process our food the stomach produces variable amounts and concentrations of gastric acid. The acids are responsible for the breaking down the food before entering the next stage of the digestion: the small intestine. In order to protect the flesh from this acids , the stomach covers its self in a thick mucous layer.

The ulcer is an actual open wound in the lining of the stomach. Because the mucous layer has been punched through the acid and pepsin have reached the wall of the stomach and have literally started to digest it. We have two types of ulcer with whom to deal with: gastric ulcer which appears in the stomach, and duodenal ulcer that affects the first portion of the small intestine, just beyond the stomach.

Because the lining of mucous of the stomach is gradually destroyed, the gastric acid starts to actually dissolve the wall. This was believed to be the main cause of the appearance of the disease. Recent studies have actually shown that the factor causing the infection is a bacteria called helicobacter pylori.

Scientists have discovered that this bacteria causes the majority of peptic ulcers, which are quite different from those caused by medication like aspirin and arthritis drugs. The bacteria actually has the shape of a spiral and acts on the human body by infecting the protective mucous layer lining the wall of the stomach. The result is that the wall will eventually swell causing the gastritis and the burning pain. The body has an effective way of dealing will the virus actually creating an anti virus to fight it. It is considered that the virus is probably ingested by eating contaminated food or water. The actual ulcer develops after the bacteria has infected and started destroying the mucous layer.

In the other case arthritis medication and aspirin damage the mucous roughly in the same way, determining afterwards the development of ulcer. Moderate usage of the drugs is indicated if the ulcer is to be avoided.

The general and most common of the symptoms is growing pain in the stomach area. They usually appear after the levels of acid have grown and started affecting the wall of the stomach. The pain can be very severe sometimes. Others may feel extreme hunger or even feel bloated. If bleeding occurs in the stomach than the ulcer has reached critical levels and a surgery is needed.

More information about ulcer Symptoms or about Peptic ulcer can be found on this website