An Innovator for Closed Captioning

Whether you are deaf, hard of hearing, in a noisy room, or learning through visual aids, you have witnessed or are familiar with closed captioning. Typically it can be found on–hopefully–every television show out there in the same format, same font, and same little white letters in black boxes. In an era where television has become such a big part of our daily lives, closed captioning has become one of the greatest innovations to technology for the deaf and hard of hearing. So, how many of you know where it came from and who invented it? No hands? Well, here’s some information to pack in that brain of yours.

Bill Kastner, not a name you’re familiar with, right? Way back when, Bill had a speech impediment, a stammer, and this would obviously impede his ability to communicate. Throughout high school, he would use Morse Code as a means of talking to others without stammering at them. This early affection for technology and innovation spurred an interest that would later on help him to invent a decoder that would change the world.

A few decades later, Bill Kastner would be hired as an engineer for the well-known company, Texas Instruments. In the mid ’70s the Public Broadcasting Service contracted Texas Instruments to create a device that would make it possible for the deaf to read what was being said on TV. Bill Kastner and his team designed a decoder that would decode the first message ever to transmit over the airwaves, “Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee.” The experiment was a success and would soon after be known as “closed captioning.”

Decoders were not as we know them to be today, teeny tiny chips akin to a computer chip or SD card. Decoders first started out as big black boxes that were separate from your television, and hundreds of dollars a pop at that! Aside from being widely inaccessible to the general deaf and hard of hearing communities, closed captioning was a hit almost from the beginning. Years later, this popularity would push the United States federal government to create a legislation in 1993 that declared all TV’s 13 inches or larger to have these decoders built into them.

Even though closed captioning was not an invention per se, it was an idea that would never have existed without the invention of the decoder by Bill Kastner. To this day, closed captions are widely used, and by more than just the deaf and hard of hearing. Even Bill himself can be caught reading them while working out at his local YMCA. They have evolved and inspired so much so that we are seeing different types of captioning styles and new avenues of equal accessibility, for example, described audio and subtitling glasses for movie theaters. The future looks bright, and it’s thanks to Bill Kastner.

Book Review – The Face of Death by Cody McFadyen

Reading and editing for a living, I’ve waded through a lot of books. It’s been a long time since a book grabbed me, drew me into the story, and kept me turning pages. The Face of Death, by Cody McFadyen not only grabbed me, but it took me by the collar and dragged me across the pages, while keeping me on the edge of my seat.

Written in first person, from the point of view of our protagonist, Smoky Barret, a battered and beaten but not broken FBI special agent, the reader gets a glimpse inside Smoky’s head, listening in on her thoughts. There is a very intimate feeling to the relationship between reader and Smoky.

This book stumbles into Smoky’s life about a year after she lost her husband, daughter and good friend at the hands of a serial killer, and nearly lost her own life too. Left with the emotional and physical scars–ones on her face for all to see–Smoky is trying to pick up the pieces of her life while moving forward in her job and becoming mom to her dead friend’s now mute daughter, Bonnie.

Once the reader has a handle on Smoky’s world, Smoky is called to the scene of a crime, where a sixteen-year-old, blood-covered Sarah asks for her by name. Soon, the reader is pulled into a new story, third person from Sarah’s point of view, written by Sarah. The reader is exposed to it while Smoky reads it.

This back and forth between Smoky’s thoughts and Sarah’s story is skillfully woven through the pages of the book. Sarah has been targeted by a serial killer, who considers himself an ‘artist’ who is shaping and molding Sarah’s life as a work of art–A Ruined Life–by killing most everyone Sarah could possible love, and hurting or damaging those in her life he does not kill. For ten years, Sarah lives with the horror alone.

Smoky’s job is to outwit the ‘The Stranger’ in Sarah’s life, unveil the corruption and reasons ‘The Stranger’ is doing what he considers justice, and keep everyone Sarah knows and loves alive, and with any luck, sane too.

Packed with action, a bit of blood and gore, and plenty of suspense, there were only two things that bothered me about this book that will prevent it from getting a five star rating: 1) McFadyen has Smoky revealing in dialogue to other officers things even a rookie should know (likely for the sake of the reader). It interfered with my ability to suspend disbelief. Fortunately, this doesn’t happen often. 2) The scene in which The Stranger killed Sarah’s parents, and the manner in which The Stranger creates that scene, in my opinion, loses integrity. I simply cannot bring myself to believe Sarah’s mother would respond the way McFadyen, through Sarah, says she did.

The story ends with a small twist, ties up all loose ends skillfully, answers any questions the reader might have had while reading, and brings some humor and happiness back to story. No, it’s not a perfect happily-ever-after ending, but it’s real, honest… life.

The Face of Death, by Cody McFadyen left me wanting more, and I have already decided I will be reading and reviewing the next Smoky Barret book, The Darker Side. The Face of Death receives a 4 1/2 out of a possible five-star rating from this reviewer. Good book, highly recommended.

Orthopedic Doctors, Surgeons Delhi – Affordable Low Cost Delhi

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Orthopedic Doctors In Delhi

Our Associate Orthpaedic Hospitals in Delhi

India is one of the most reputed medical tourism destinations in the world. It is known in general for heart surgery, hip resurfacing and other areas of advanced medical science. The private hospital groups are committed to the target of making India a world leader in the industry. The industry’s main focus is low cost health services. Many estimates say treatment costs in India start at around a tenth of the price of comparable treatment in America or Britain….

Orthopedic Surgery in India describes all major medical treatments and surgeries for different orthopedic procedures. Arthroscopic, Arthrotomy / Endoscopic surgery, Elbow Replacement, Hip Replacement, Knee Replacement, Shoulder Replacement, Sports Injury Surgery are provided by Specialised Orthopaedic Surgeons working at the We Care India partner hospitals. With us each patient is individually evaluated and managed in the context of the underlying background health status and activity level.

Delhi is also well placed for the convenience of medical travelers as being the capital it is well connected to major air hubs, has some of the major shopping places, accommodation outside the hospital is not costly and tourist vehicles are freely available to move about. If interested in excursions, places like Taj Mahal in Agra, dessert cities of Udaipur, Jaipur etc., hill stations like Shimla, Kullu-Manali, Mussouri are located within 4-8 hr driving distance….

Advanced Diagnostics and Support Infrastructure – 64 slice CT , High end MRI, Neuro-navigation surgical systems, Neuro-physiology and Comprehensive Rehabilitation services, Finest quality implants, prosthesis and Consumables of international repute most of them imported from overseas countries are used….

Orthopedic Doctors

‘We Care ‘ panel of carefully selected orthopaedic surgeons are highly qualified, having the experience of thousands of Joint replacement surgeries – both primary and revision surgeries of the hip, knee, shoulder as well as Uni-Compartmental Knee replacement.

An orthopedic surgeon is trained in the preservation, investigation and restoration of the form and function of the extremities, spine, and associated structures by medical, surgical, and physical means.

An orthopedic surgeon is involved with the care of patients whose musculoskeletal problems include congenital deformities, trauma, infections, tumors, metabolic disturbances of the musculoskeletal system, deformities, injuries, and degenerative diseases of the spine, hands, feet, knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow in children and adults. An orthopedic surgeon is also concerned with primary and secondary muscular problems and the effects of central or peripheral nervous system lesions of the musculoskeletal system…..

The key considerations while selecting our partner doctor are:

  • Qualifications and Training
  • Experience
  • International Exposure
  • Board Certification
  • Proven Results and Success Rate….

Your Orthopedic Surgeons

  • Ashok Rajgopal
  • B. D. Chatterjee
  • Jaswant Rai
  • R. Gopal Krishnan……

Orthopaedic Surgery Procedures at hospitals in Delhi

Facilities at Orthopaedic Hospitals in Delhi

  • Operation Theatre equipped with Laminar Air flow
  • State of art Instrumentataion
  • Image Intensifiers….

Joint replacements at hospitals in Delhi

  • Total hip replacement
  • Total knee replacement
  • Total shoulder replacement…

Arthroscopic surgery

Key hole surgery for disorders of knee, shoulder, elbow and ankle are offered, in the following manner One day admission….

Trauma and Fracture surgery

  • High quality Swiss ‘AO’ systems, help stabilize fractures
  • Image intensifier, confirms perfect fracture fixations….

Ilizarov and External Fixation Device

  • Management of open fractures
  • Infected non-union of long bones
  • Limb lengthening
  • Correction of deformities
  • Fusion of joints….

Spinal Surgery

  • Disc surgery
  • Micro surgery for disc
  • Fixation Systems for fractures…


  • Osteoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis….

Paediatric Orthopaedics

  • Congenital limb & spinal deformities
  • Bone & Joint infections….

The orthopaedic department at our partner hospital in India is supported by the most elaborate intensive care services, a modern Accident and Emergency department, and state of the art Physiotherapy and rehabilitation department. They have established trauma protocols for the care of the critically injured patients and principles of Advanced Trauma and Life Support System (ATLS) are applied for the prompt and efficient treatment of accident victims…

The list of of Orthopedic hospitals in Delhi is as follows : –

A  ]  Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi, India

Indraprastha Apollo Hospital New Delhi is one of the largest corporate hospitals in the world. It is the third super specialty tertiary care hospital set by the Apollo Hospitals Group, jointly with the Government of New Delhi, India’s capital….

B  ]  Fortis Hospital, Delhi, India

Fortis Healthcare flt. Lt. Rajan Dhall Hospital (FFLRDH), like every other Fortis hospital, is a manifestation of the founder’s vision of “creating a world-class integrated healthcare delivery system in India, entailing the finest medical skills combined with compassionate patient care”…..

C  ]  Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon ( Delhi ) , India

Artemis Health Institute (AHI), at Gurgaon is a 500-bed super-specialty flagship hospital established by Artemis Health Sciences (AHS) – a healthcare venture launched by the promoters of the Apollo Tyres Group. Artemis aims at creating an integrated world-class healthcare system by leveraging the best medical practices backed by cutting-edge technology…..

D  ]  Max Devki Devi Heart and Vascular hospital, Delhi, India

Max Healthcare state-of-the-art facilities designed in accordance with international norms include 225 critical care beds, 20 operation theatres, 3 cathlabs, 4 MRIs and 4 CTs across an integrated network….

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We Care Core Values

We have a very simple business model that keeps you as the centre.

Having the industry’s most elaborate and exclusive Patient Care and Clinical Coordination teams stationed at each partner hospital, we provide you the smoothest and seamless care ever imagined. With a ratio of one Patient Care Manager to five patients our patient care standards are unmatched across the sub continent.

Autism Diagnosis And Treatment – Don’t Miss The Early Signs

The earliest signs of autism and other autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs)

ASD children can seem fairly normal in the first year of life. If the ASD child is your first, it may be very difficult to recognize a problem since you don’t really know what to expect. Even if this is not your first parenting experience, we are constantly told by pediatricians, educators, well meaning family members, and so-called experts that all kids develop in their own way and time. This is certainly true, but in retrospect, most parents of ASD kids can recall some early signs of a problem, such as these very telling traits:

  • Not making eye contact when talking, talked to or called
  • Don’t smile when they see familiar people
  • Limited or no baby talk (babbling or pre-speech)
  • Don’t point or understand pointing
  • Failure to play infant games like peek-a-boo, patty-cake or waving bye-bye
  • Fixation on certain toys, objects, movies
  • Failure to learn and consistently use familiar words
  • Loss of words
  • Odd non-verbal vocalizations (squeals, squeaks, grunts, melodic utterances)
  • Lack of interest in family members
  • Don’t like to be hugged or cuddled
  • Repetitive rocking and twirling
  • Arm and hand flapping
  • Walking on toes
  • Looking sideways (glancing out of side of eye)
  • Easily upset by changes to routine or changing activities
  • Don’t turn towards sudden noises (but can hear)

Or these traits which are harder to interpret as specific to ASD:

  • Sensitivity to certain textures or being touched
  • Sensitivity to bright light, especially fluorescent lights
  • Sensitivity to loud or unusual sound
  • Very limited diet and refusal to even try certain types of food. Often this is based on texture more than flavor.
  • Frequent severe abdominal pain
  • Long periods of screaming with no recognizable cause
  • Weak muscle tone and uncoordinated movement
  • Insensitivity to pain
  • Unusually strong ability to memorize
  • Inability to sleep or frequent waking during the night / gives up napping at an early age
  • Self-injurious behaviors like biting and head banging

In addition to these clues, many ASD children have repetitive and unexplained rashes, frequent ear infections, frequent bouts of diarrhea and/or constipation, and severe colic. Some ASD children are just the opposite – never sick.

The Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT)

The checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) is a set of diagnostic criteria that can be used to screen children at 18 months of age. This is a big improvement over the more traditional criteria because it can catch ASD earlier. It is designed to be administered by a physician but is easy enough that any parent capable of being objective can administer it. The first part consists of nine YES/NO questions:

  1. Do they like to be swung and bounced?
  2. Are they interested in other children?
  3. Do they climb?
  4. Do they play peek-a-boo or hide and seek?
  5. Do they pretend?
  6. Do they use their finger to point to something they want?
  7. Do they point to indicate interest or to have you look?
  8. Do they play properly with small toys?
  9. Do they ever bring toys over to show you?

The second part requires observation of the child then answering five questions:

  1. Does the child make eye contact?
  2. After getting the child’s attention, pointing across the room at some object and asking the child to look, did they look at the object or your finger?
  3. Can you get them to demonstrate pretend play?
  4. After getting the child’s attention and asking them to show you some unreachable object, do they point to the object?
  5. Can the child build a tower?

The test scores a severe risk of autism when the child fails (answer is NO) the bold questions (Part 1, questions 5,7 and Part 2, questions 2,3,4). There is score of mild risk if the child fails only the pointing tasks (Part 1, questions 6,7 and Part 2, questions 2,4). A child is at risk for other developmental disorders if they fail more than three questions. This test and has been given to more than 15,000 infants with some success in predicting ASD.

AAP indications for immediate evaluation

The American Association of Pediatrics (AAP) has published a set of red flags that indicate a child should have an immediate ASD evaluation. These are:

  • No babbling, pointing or other gestures by 12 months
  • No single words by 16 months
  • No 2-word spontaneous phrases by 24 months
  • Loss of language or social skills at any age

The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC)

The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) was designed to assist parents, physicians and researchers to evaluate treatments for autism. The Autism Research Institute (ARI) offers a no-cost internet scoring procedure that calculates four subscale scores and a total score from the ATEC. The scores are weighted according to the responses and the corresponding subscale. The higher the subscale and total scores, the more impaired the subject (your child). You can get a copy of the ATEC here. If your child has a diagnosis of autism or an ASD, or if you suspect there is a problem you should fill out an ATEC form to record your ASD child’s starting or baseline score. Be sure to be very honest, you do them no favor by exaggerating their skills. Once it is filled out, you can go to the ARI website and fill in the information. They will score the information and send you a report.

A word of caution concerning pediatricians and the medical establishment

If you even suspect that your child has a problem, you should seek professional advice immediately. Children with autism or related disorders do not usually get better on their own and may get much worse. Treatments are available and are much more effective when started early.

Pediatricians are the doctors best placed to be on the front line of autism diagnosis and treatment. They usually see our children first and most frequently. Unfortunately, pediatricians and the medical establishment in general, have a very distorted and unhelpful understanding of these disorders. Commonly, pediatricians take a conservative approach to diagnosis, preferring a wait-and-see approach to aggressive action. ASD children do not have the luxury of time! If your child gets a referral for further tests and if they get a diagnosis, parents are likely to be told that the best they can hope for is management of symptoms with prescription drugs. This might sound reasonable, but it fails to acknowledge what is known about causes and effective treatments. This means that most parents are not told that there are ways to determine what is at the root of their child’s problems and that once these problems are addressed, children with autism or ASDs can get better!

Stuttering Caffeine Link

Stuttering is a condition experienced by some people while speaking, wherein they tend to prolong a few words or parts of words. Also known as stammering, the exact cause of this condition is not known even to physicians and specialists in this field. The problem of stuttering is assumed by specialists to be caused by numerous factors and it is can also sometimes be caused by the excessive intake of caffeine. Though caffeine cannot be considered to be one of the primary causes of stuttering, it could aggravate the problem of stammering.

Regular intake of caffeine has known to have an adverse effect on people who stutter. Various studies have shown that when the intake of caffeine becomes excessive, an area of the brain is found to contain high levels of Dopamine. Dopamine is responsible for activating the pleasure centre of the brain and when it is present in huge amounts, it tends to have an effect which may or may not affect stuttering. Also, caffeine can sometimes stimulate vocal tensions which further increase stuttering.

The consequences of caffeine intake are not the same in all stutterers. While some may feel that the intake of caffeine does no harm to them, some others swear by the fact that their stuttering increases with caffeine intake. It can be assumed that the level of consumption of caffeine plays an important part in such cases; a high portion may be the cause of an undesired bout of stuttering. Hence, stutterers must watch the amount of caffeine intake to pro-actively prevent stuttering difficulties.

Since stuttering is more prominent in the childhood and because of the link known between stuttering and caffeine, it is better to avoid caffeine and sugary foods in children’s diet. Generally, the amount of stuttering reduces as years go by, but this must not mean that the precautions against caffeine can be evaded. This is because caffeine may induce the stuttering effect in former stutters hence causing an inconvenience.

The removal of caffeine from diet has known to completely eliminate the stuttering problem in some children, thus proving there is a link between stuttering and caffeine and hence showing that it is best that it is not included in the diet. As the saying goes, “Prevention is better than cure”, and it is always advisable to refrain from taking caffeine, than to consume it and then face the trouble of stuttering.

Prolotherapy for Temporal Mandibular Joint (TMJ) Disorder

Headaches can come from many different sources. Aside from relying on pain medication, permanent relief comes from figuring out the pain’s source. One of the sources of headaches to keep in mind is Temporal Mandibular Joint (TMJ) Disorder.

The most common symptom in TMJ Disorder is headache. These headaches present themselves in the temple area and can include piercing pain behind the eyes. Facial pain can occur due to tight chewing muscles. TMJ Disorder can be a contributing factor in migraine headaches. This situation occurs when jaw protrusion leads to postural compensation. As the head and neck protrudes forward, strain occurs on the neck muscles, leading to migraines.

Other symptoms of TMJ Disorder include: 

  • clicking

  • popping

  • irregular movement

  • lock jaw

  • ear pain

  • tinnitus

  • dizziness

The temporal mandibular joint attaches the mandible to the skull. The mandible is separated from the temporal bone by a fibrous disc. This disc moves with the mandible during all jaw movements. The disc is limited in its movements by ligaments that control the alignment of the disc and the jaw.

The disc can be displaced by trauma, including whiplash. Displacement of the disc can also gradually occur with a bad bite. From either source, the ligaments become injured, keeping the disc out of place and limiting or extending the jaw’s movement.

Common solutions for TMJ disorders include night mouth guards, stress reduction, physical therapy, and avoiding chewing gum. These therapies often have limited success in relieving TMJ associated pain. This is because none of the above solutions address the underlying ligament instability in the joint.

Prolotherapy, or Regenerative Injection Therapy, is an effective treatment for ligament instability. Prolotherapy is the injection of a substance that causes a local, controlled inflammatory response. This response draws cartilage cells and fibroblasts into the area. The treatment enhances the growth and formation of new ligaments and cartilage in the joint. Four treatments are typically given over a twelve week period. The end result is that Prolotherapy improves range of motion of the joint, helps prevent dislocation and relieves pain.

To explore if Prolotherapy would resolve your headaches, contact your naturopathic doctor.

Do You Stutter on the Trombone? You Are Likely Doing the Valsalva Maneuver, Learn How to Control It!

This article will provide useful information to help to further one’s control of stuttering on the Trombone. I am going to discuss a condition that quite a few brass players (including myself) have dealt with. It is known as the VALSALVA MANEUVER, a condition that causes stuttering. If you don’t stutter on the Trombone, than this article is not intended for you. It is intended for people who are having trouble starting a note on the Trombone during stressful situations. Stuttering is a very complicated subject, and the remedies are so numerous that I can only list a few in this article.


Trombone players who have a problem starting notes.

Other brass players who stutter (french horn, trumpet, tuba etc).

Band teachers who have trombone students (or other brass instruments).

All other Stutterers (music or not).


The Valsalva Maneuver (V.M. as I will call it now) is a natural process that occurs when muscles in your body create high levels of air pressure, while holding the air in your body. In normal life, V.M.s occur naturally during body functions such as sneezing and coughing. But during speech or brass playing, V.M.s can cause major problems which cause stuttering.

When the brain mistakenly activates these muscles, they work together, tightening up, creating extra pressure and making it almost impossible to start a note on the trombone. Problems like these usually occur in nervous situations (like during a solo in band, a quiet passage in orchestra, or even during tuning time at a band rehearsal).

The Valsalva muscle network (muscles which are used in the V.M.) include the throat, tongue, mouth, abdominal and rectal muscles.

To get a sense of a Valsalva muscles and how they work together, try this exercise: 1. Shut your lips as if saying the word “M.” 2. Keep them lightly shut and don’t let them open apart 3. As you’re keeping your lips shut, try to whisper the word “TOE.” 4. Remember not to let any air escape your lips as you whisper TOE.

At the moment you try to whisper with the “T” part of TOE, pay particular notice to how the ABDOMINAL MUSCLE (the tummy muscle) gets activated and tightens up. Try to whisper TOE even louder and notice how the throat and tongue tighten up as well. Perhaps you also noticed the muscles in the rectum tightening up. These are the muscles of the Valsalva Network.

After trying the above exercise a few times, I want you to try adding a 5th step: After getting stuck on TOE, completely relax the abdomen, paying particular attention to how the tongue and throat follow suit. Notice that when you RELAX THE ABDOMINAL MUSCLES, the rest of the V.M. network does the same. This is a very good exercise to get touch with those muscles and learn to relax them.

In the remainder of this article, I want to show you some of the exercises I have acquired from various books in controlling the Valsalva Maneuver when performing:


PHYSICAL EXERCISE: At least 20 minutes of relaxing exercise (in my opinion, the best is walking, but other good sports are swimming, running, biking, and aerobics). As we all know, exercise helps relax the body; so use it to your advantage.

GETTING RELAXED: 10 minutes of Deep breathing exercises a day. Find a nice quiet place to sit down. Take deep, open, relaxed breaths. Breathe big and relaxed.

STAYING RELAXED: Stay calm all day long (wherever you are and whatever you are doing) by taking deep relaxed breaths (also, try counting 4-8 counts for the inhale, and 4-12 counts for the exhale). If you are walking somewhere, count your steps and breathe to them (see if you can walk 8 steps while breathing in, and then breathe out for 8 steps). Counting your breathing in rhythmic ways can also be done while bike riding, swimming, jogging, and many other rhythmic sports.


PRACTICE WITH NO TONGUE: Practice about 15-30 minutes each day without the tongue. Most trombonists who stutter (or who don’t produce a good trombone sound) are not using enough airflow. When you remove the tongue from practicing, it becomes a matter of “AIRFLOW” to play well. Later on, you can add a soft and relaxed tongue to your playing. Play a few scales, a few petal tones, a few songs and other various music without the tongue; then play them all again just like before, but with the tongue. When you add back the tongue, the focus is still on blowing very relaxed. We want to keep a natural air flow with no pressure anywhere.

FOCUS ON PROPER BREATHING: Always guard against using pressure when inhaling. Just allow your body to naturally expand (make sure your abdomen is always relaxed). focus on inhaling relaxed and take in plenty of wind (breath in relaxed, blow out more relaxed). When you’re about to start a sound, relax your abdomen as you blow out. Breathing should always feel like ONE MOTION OF CONTINUOUS BREATH.

PLAY 5 MINUTES ON YOUR MOUTHPIECE: Try starting a sound just on your mouthpiece. At first, don’t use the tongue at all (just like in the last exercise). First buzz some sirens (start low and siren up to really high, then back down). Also, buzz some easy songs (or Christmas songs) on the mouthpiece without using any tongue. Then play them again, adding the tongue.


All of these tips I’m showing you are for practice, not performance. When performing you need to go on what I call “Automatic Pilot” which means that you leave it to your unconscious mind to do the details (that you practiced so hard on). This allows you to focus on making music! During performance, if the focus is on technical things like starting a note, it gets in the way of more important things like being a brilliant artist.

Count yourself in (silently) when starting a song. Feel free to tap you toes with the beat to help keep you rhythmically grounded. You can do it like 1 – 2 – Ready – Go. Or even better, do it like: 1e&a 2e&a Ready&a Goe&a. This is called subdividing your beats and it helps keep you steady. Always keep a steady tempo, even if you stutter.

Always BREATHE TO EXPAND instead of EXPAND TO BREATHE. When doing the latter (Expanding to Breathe) it is possible to fool yourself into thinking you’re breathing, when actually you are not.

When breathing in, you can pay attention to the coolness of the throat, which is a good indicator if you’re moving wind in or not. If your throat is feeling cool when inhaling, you are probably moving plenty of wind.

Practice at least 1 hour EVERY day.

The Valsalva Maneuver is never a good thing for trombone players. A recent study has shown that professional trombone players never use Valsalva in their playing.

There are many great books written on the subject of stuttering (in regards to stuttering during speech) that can be really helpful for trombone players. I recommend reading all the books you can on the subject.

The act of trying not to do a V.M. will make it more likely to happen. Therefore, it is better to just let it happen. Don’t make a big deal out of it if it happens. Instead try to relax and remember what you were doing and thinking right before it happened. When you get home, immediately write in your journal anything that you noticed. Were you too tense? Did you breathe in tight? Were you worried that other people might laugh at you? Write down everything that comes to mind.

There is a book that is considered one of the greatest books ever written on stuttering (for talkers) which works the same for Trombonists! If you read the Amazon reviews (at the Valsalva link below) you will see that a few trombone players have testified to this book (as well as many talking stutterers). It absolutely works if you read the book from beginning to end (the very end of the book has a gold mine of information). Customers rate it 5/5 stars. To see it, just go to this site: []

Eat Your Way Out of Your Sinus Infection Symptoms – A Simple 5-Day Detox Plan

Do you send your car for maintenance after some time so that when it comes out from the mechanic’s garage, you can hear the vroom sound again?

If you do, just think about this. Your car is not on the go 24 hours a day, you do turn off your engine and allow it to rest. However, human do not rest, our heart has to keep pumping every second and all the other vital organs have to perform their specific functions, so how do we allow them to take their much deserved rest other than sleeping. Yes, we need to detox – time to make a clean start, as we know that too much accumulated toxins can aggravate your sinus infection symptoms , or do you feel low at times or need to shed a few pounds for that beach party.

Here is a 5-day detox plan which is safe and natural and especially for sinus sufferers as this diet has foods to avoid and to take when you are having the allergy.

If you have not been exercising, try to brisk walk for about 15-30 minutes, breathe deeply – relaxing and this simple breathing exercise can instantly relief your sinus!

Day 1-3

  • Eat a diet of fresh fruit and green vegetables only. The sources listed below are excellent for your sinus infections symptoms.
  • Sources of fruits:

  • Papaya – Vitamin C for its antihistamine effect.
  • Apples – an apple a day keeps the doctor or even the dentist away still rings true as it contains pectin and moves any accumulation of decayed residue from foods
  • Pineapples – has enzyme bromelain, purifies the stomach and kills offensive bacteria and sinus is caused by bacteria growing in your head!
  • Grapes, berries – cleanse the mucus.
  • Sources of vegetables : –
  • Carrots, spinach (converted to Vitamin A known to boost immune system to combat sinusitis), broccoli (Vitamin E), green peppers, parsley, eggplant (flavonoids), kale, asparagus, yellow corn, sweet potato.
  • Drink water, 5 or more glasses a day to flush out the toxins. No alcohol, coffee, tea, milk, sugar or salt and no smoking.

Day 4

  • Prepare a green salad with parsley as it contains zinc which helps to resist sinus infection symptoms and also to ensure good bladder health, watercress to help the liver to neutralize noxious pollutants invading your body, grated beetroot for production of red blood cells.
  • Sprinkle some raw onions or garlic (if you cannot stand the taste, roast lightly) as they are anti-viral and also make your mucus less sticky.

Ahh, you can now treat yourself to a cup of dandelion coffee – to stimulate the flow of bile.

Day 5 and onwards (if you wish to continue)

  • Make your favorite breakfast – whole grain bread and butter, some honey and a cup of dandelion coffee if you so wish. Have a salad of above which you can add some unsalted nuts – almonds, hazelnuts or walnuts, sunflower seeds as they contain vitamin E and high in antioxidants. You can also add oats, rye or barley.
  • Main meal – eat cooked vegetables (asparagus, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, spinach, peppers, carrots) and oily fish (salmon, sardines, mackerel, or any type of fish will do) as they have Vitamin C, E and beta-carotene, known for their healing benefit and preventing disease and sinus infection symptoms.

Detox yourself once every 3 months and you will feel your body restored and rejuvenated in mind and spirits.

Detox or no detox, you must always remember to eat your fruits and vegetables.

If you feel you cannot go through the 5-day detox plan, you can seek alternatives which can be as natural, healthy, effective, easy and convenient – natural supplements.

Rabbit Noises and What They Mean

Rabbits are primarily non-verbal and use body language as their main means of communication, however, they do make a surprising number of noises.


This can best be described as a little exhalation of breath and sounds a bit like a creaky door. The rabbit will be running around quickly, honking in time with its hops. Most commonly made by unneutered males as a sign of courtship, usually accompanied by circling of your feet or another rabbit. Females may also make this sound as they run around and males may continue to honk even after neutering.


This noise is very like honking but is usually made when the rabbit rolls on its side in contentment (the “bunnyflop”) or when you pick it up and are squeezing too tight around its tummy.


This sounds a bit like a car revving up and is usually made by an unspayed female defending her territory. Often the rabbit will lunge at you her front feet as she growls. This disappears or greatly reduces after spaying. Rabbits may also growl when scared or in pain.

Teeth grinding / purring

A soft grinding of the teeth indicates pleasure, for example when the rabbit is settling down for a nap on a full tummy or when you are stroking your rabbit in a way it enjoys. The rabbit’s jaws move slightly from side to side and the rest of the rabbit’s body language is peaceful i.e. ears in a relaxed position, eyes half closed.

Loud teeth grinding

This is a sign of pain and the rabbit will usually be displaying other symptoms such as unwillingness to move and lack of appetite. Consult your vet asap.

Snorting / sneezing

When confronted with a smell they find offensive, rabbits often snort or exhale quickly through their nose, making a noise like “ffnuff”. A rabbit that is sneezing frequently and has a runny discharge from the nose is ill and needs to see a vet asap.

Tummy rumbling

OK, so the rabbit is not consciously making this noise but it is very useful as an owner to know how your rabbit’s stomach should sound. Put your head against your rabbit’s side and listen – a healthy stomach should be ticking, gurgling and rumbling all the time. If you can’t hear anything and the rabbit has not been eating, there is a risk of gut stasis so see a vet immediately.


Rabbits thump on the ground with a back leg to warn other rabbits of danger. The strong vibrations carry through the ground even if the other rabbits cannot hear the noise. Thumping is also used by unneutered males as a sign of wanting to mate. House rabbits may also thump as a sign of annoyance or displeasure, for example if the TV is too loud or the vacuum cleaner is getting too close to them.

Screaming / squealing

Let’s hope you never hear this sound. Rabbits scream when they are in the grip of a predator and are terrified. Rabbits may also scream when in extreme pain, for example when suffering from VHD (Viral Haemorrhagic Disease), shortly before death occurs.

Copyright 2011 Hannah Davis / Bunnyhugga. All Rights Reserved.

Weird Skin With Chronic Lyme Disease? You May Have ACA

What is ACA?

It is Acrodermatitis Chronica Atrophicans, a skin condition that frequently accompanies late stage Lyme borrelliosis (afzelii) but almost exclusively by those of European heritage.

Originally discovered and documented by Dr. Buchwald in 1883, it was not until 1902 when Dr’s Herxheimer and Hartmann began to study the phenomena in earnest that clear evidence began to mount. (The full name of the disease now carries the name of Dr. Herxheimer in most references.)

Now it is estimated that close to 10% of all Europeans with Lyme disease have ACA and in fact it is the most common late and chronic manifestation of European Lyme disease. However, given the fact that most doctors in North America do not believe in chronic Lyme disease, it is not surprising that dermotologists would not be trained to recognize ACA, and even Lyme literate doctors are sadly lacking any significant training about ACA.

Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans is a skin condition that takes a progressive course that leads to atrophy of the skin in a variety of ways but sharing certain common characteristics.

Not surprisingly, involvement of the peripheral nervous system is frequently observed as a part of ACA (numbness, tingling, pain…)

As we know, clinical manifestations of Lyme borreliosis are almost unlimited. They can affect the skin, nervous system, muscles, joints eyes, ears, any organ including the heart. With ACA, the skin becomes papery thin and almost shiny and transparent so that the blood vessels, veins, arteries and tissue can be seen through the skin in various degrees which give the skin a pinkish/bluish color.

ACA is most commonly found on the hands and feet but can be found most anywhere on the body. Unfortunately, if you think you have it, there isn’t a very good chance of diagnosis.

Doctors absolutely despise patients who come into their office armed with information from the internet. However, you may have a chance if you come armed with the following article from WebMD: This site also has some remarkable pictures at

For your own understanding of ACA, a picture is worth a thousand words. There is a remarkable collection of pictures from (the lead picture for this post is from their site), make sure to click on your flag of nationality to read the text in the correct language:

Finally, there is a glaring and amazing point I would like to make – above and beyond the possible diagnosis that many may have been suffering with for years without a clue of its connection to chronic Lyme disease. Perhaps you will have jumped ahead to the obvious question this post raises by the accepted and even honored research by Dr. Hartmann and Dr. Herxheimer over one hundred years ago.

Why and how can it be that the respected doctors of the day believed without a doubt in chronic Lyme disease and studied symptoms and treatment of such while our “advanced doctors have disregarded over a century of research and documentation to cling to their platform of “there is no such thing as chronic Lyme disease.”

The next time you are challenged about chronic Lyme disease, you may want to bring up this ignored fact – that chronic Lyme disease is not debated in Europe. Do we even need to ask why?

Astro Analysing Eye Problems and Disorders

Eyes are the best gift of our life and play a major role in our life. Our eyes works as the most sophisticated electronic automatic camera. The pupils of the eyes open for the adjustment of focus; accordingly the muscles of eyes contract or expend to allow the entry of proper light inside. Colours are identified and a proper picture develops in our mind. All the process is automatic. Now due to different reasons if the functioning of eyes is disturbed there can be temporary or permanent damage to the eyes.

If proper care is not taken for the eyes diseases which appear mild or the wrong treatment is given, there is possibility of losing the eyesight.

Astrological factors influencing eyesight:

2nd/12th house: the 2nd and 12th signs of the zodiac rule over the right and left eye respectively.

Sun/Moon: Sun governs the right eye and the Moon governs the left eye.

Venus/Jupiter: Venus governs the second sign Taurus and Jupiter governs the 12th sign Pisces. Therefore if Jupiter and Venus are placed in 6th/8th/12th house along with the lord of ascendant may cause eye problems.

Mercury: governs the sight and optic nerves.

Astro analysing different eye diseases:

Optic atrophy:

  • Damage of optic nerves by agencies outside the eyes like syphilitic infection, increased intracranial pressure arising from the brain tumour, drug or chemical allergies, degeneration of optic nerves may cause optic atrophy.
  • Affliction of Sun and Moon on 2nd and 12th house and Mercury in heavy affliction in the chart may cause optic atrophy to the native.


  • This is a serious eye disease caused by increase or sudden pressure exerted by eye fluid against other parts. If this pressure is not relieved it will make the eye ball hard, damage retina and optic nerves and may also cause blindness.
  • Sun and Moon afflicted in 2nd/12th house by Saturn/Rahu the native may suffer from glaucoma.


  • The eyes can focus on near objects but vision at distance is blurred. It is also known as nearsightedness.
  • Afflicted Sun and Moon can give problem of Myopia.

Colour blindness:

  • The patient becomes unable to distinguish between red and green colour.
  • The Venus is in heavy affliction especially by Saturn and sign Taurus is also in heavy affliction may cause colour blindness to the native.


  • Due to clouding or crystalline of lenses of eye or its capsule the victim cannot see normal objects properly due to lost opacity of eye lenses.
  • Venus / Jupiter placed in 6th/8th/12th house in association of lord of ascendant and Sun and Moon are afflicted in 2nd/12th house.
  • Afflicted Mercury posited in 2nd/12th house may produce Cataract problem.

Squinted eyes/Boss eyed:

  • In this condition the eyes are not properly aligned to each other.
  • Native born in day time and Moon and Mars combined in 8th house indicated crossed eyes.
  • Moon/ Mars posited in ascendant and aspected by Jupiter/Venus indicates squinted eyes.
  • Mars placed in 7th house aspecting Moon being posited in Leo sign and lord of 9th placed in Aries/Leo/Scorpio/Capricorn squinted eyes is indicated.
  • Mars placed in 7th, aspecting Sun being placed in Cancer sign and Lord of 9th placed in Aries/Leo/Scorpio/Capricorn indicate a boss eyed native.
  • Moon and Sun placed in 2nd/12th house indicate definite crossed eyes disorder.
  • Sun and Moon combined with retro planets in 6th/12th house indicates squinted eye.

Problem in only one eye:

  • Any malefic placed in 6th house gives weakness to left eye and any malefic placed in 8th house gives right eye trouble.
  • Moon placed in 2nd and Sun placed in 12th house respectively gives problems of left and right eyes.
  • Mars placed in 12th house gives left eye problem whether as Saturn posited in 12th house gives right eye problem.
  • Sun placed in ascendant/7th house and aspected by Saturn the native will gradually lose the vision of right eye.
  • Sun combined with Rahu/Mars in ascendant/7th house aspected by Saturn indicate disease of left eye.
  • Moon Posited in Leo ascendant and aspected by Saturn and Mars the native will have diseased left eye.
  • Sun and Saturn combined in 9th house and without having any benefice influences indicate the native will have left crossed eye and Sun placed in Leo ascendant and aspected by Saturn and Mars indicates squinted right eye.
  • Sun/Moon placed 12 and 6th house indicated left eye problem.
  • Sun/Moon placed in 2nd and 8th house indicates squinted right eye.


  • Due to infection, accident or degenerative eye diseases the native may lose total vision temporary or permanently.
  • Sun and Moon afflicted by Saturn in 2nd/12th house and affliction to signs Taurus and Pisces may give blindness.
  • 2nd house is aspected by Saturn and Moon and 12th house have conjunction of Saturn and aspects of Mars the native will be completely blind.
  • Sun and Moon and 2nd and 12th houses become subject to the aspects /association of Mars and Saturn the native may lose his eye sight.
  • Mars, Moon, Saturn and Sun should respectively occupy the 2nd, 6th, 12th and 8th house. The native will be stone blind.
  • Lords of ascendant, 2nd, 5th, 7th and 9th placed together in 6th/8th/12th house may give stone blindness to the native.
  • In Leo ascendant Sun and Moon combined in ascendant and aspected by Saturn and Mars indicates the native will be stone blind from birth but if the combination is aspected either by Saturn or by Mars than the native will become blind after birth.
  • Sun and Rahu combined in ascendant and Saturn and Mars disposed in trine may cause blindness.
  • Sun and lord of ascendant combined in 2nd/6th/8th/12th house the native will be blind from the birth.
  • Mars in 2nd and Sun in 8th house may give blindness.
  • Moon in 6th and Saturn in 12th house may also impair eye sight.
  • Saturn, Mars and Moon placed in 6th/8th/12th house indicates blindness.
  • Mars is the lord of 2nd, Sun and Moon placed in 8th house and Saturn situated in 6th/8th/12th house blindness is indicated.
  • Lords of 2nd and 12th combined with Venus and lord of ascendant in 6th/8th/12th house indicates lost eye sight.
  • Moon posited in 6th/8th/12th house and Saturn and Mars combined in any house shows lost eyesight.
  • From ascendant Moon placed in 6th, Sun placed in 8th, Mars placed in 2nd and Saturn placed in 12th house indicates the surety of losing eyesight for the native.

Eye twitching/flickering:

  • Involuntary eye muscles contraction causes eyelid to flicker.
  • Any malefic planet placed in 2nd house is also influenced by any benefice planet indicates flickering of eye.
  • Moon/Sun placed in Leo ascendant and aspected by malefic and benefice planets indicates eye flickering.

Night blindness:

  • The native is unable to see in night or in dim light.
  • Lord of 2nd combined with Venus and Moon in ascendant may cause night blindness.
  • Venus and Mars combined in 7th house and aspected by malefic may cause night blindness.

General eye problems:

  • Venus posited in ascendant/8th house and aspected by malefic planet indicates constant tears will roll from the eyes.
  • Lord of 2nd is associated or aspected by Sun and Mars indicates redness of eyes.
  • Rahu placed in 5th house aspected by Sun indicates eye problems.
  • Saturn posited in 4th house aspected by malefic indicates eye problems.
  • Mars and Rahu combined in ascendant indicate eye problems.
  • Debilitated Moon posited in 6th/12 house and aspected by malefic
  • Moon is places 2nd to Sun in horoscope and combined with malefic.
  • Moon placed in 10th aspected by malefic without having any benefice aspects may cause eye problems.
  • Malefic planets placed in 4th and 5th house and Moon posited in 6th/8th/12th house indicate eye trouble.
  • Sun is in opposition either to ascendant or to Mars gives impaired eyesight.
  • Sun and Moon combined in Cancer/Leo and aspected by Mars and Saturn indicate weak eyes.
  • Mon and Sun combined in 9th house indicates eye disorder.
  • Mars placed 2nd to Sun indicate eye problems and if Mercury placed 2nd to Sun indicates some mark on the Eye.




Cocker Spaniel Eye Problems

Cocker Spaniel eye problems can be serious to the point of causing your pup to go blind. What you know and what you do could save your dogs eye sight. This report highlights the most common problems you should be familiar with.

There are several health issues and Cocker Spaniel eye problems that seem to go along with the breed. This does not mean that every Cocker will inherit these problems. In general, Cockers are susceptible to several kinds of eye problems including “Cherry Eye” and “Cataracts”. Being able to reconize the symptoms early could save your dog for suffering needlessly and possibly its eye sight. Here is the list of Cocker Spaniel eye problems you could encounter.

Entropion – This happens when the bottom eyelid of the Cocker rolls inward. This causes the hair to start rubbing against the eyeball. This condition causes considerable irritation and can often be present in both eyes. Entropion can either be congenital or hereditary. Surgery is the answer for this Cocker Spaniel eye problem.

Distichiasis – This is a Cocker Spaniel eye problem where abnormal hair, or Distichia, begins to grow from the Cocker’s oil glands which are found in the eyelid. This can be a source of irritation on the eyeball. No visible symptoms may be present if the hair is soft and fine. However, if irritation is present, the eyes of your pooch may either become red or inflamed. In order to alleviate any irritation, and try to rub her eyes with her paws.

Several treatments are available for this condition. The abnormal eyelashes may either be removed manually, with a form of electrolysis or by surgery. A course of antibiotics may be given in order to prevent any infection after surgery.

Cherry Eye – Did you know that your Cocker has a third eyelid that protects its eye? It contains a tear gland which sometimes will burst out of its usual position thus appearing as a red swelling in the inside corner of its eye. If this condition is present in your Cocker, it will need surgery in order to suture the gland back in its place. Antibiotics and ointments only work temporary. Surgery has proven to be the best solution.

Cataracts – If your dog has cataracts, you will notice that its eyes are cloudy in appearance. Your Cocker’s vision may also be impeded. If this condition is left untreated, it will ultimately lead to blindness. However, cataracts can be removed quite well by surgery. This can be a hereditary problem. Therefore, when you go to buy a Cocker Spaniel puppy, be sure that you check to see that there is no history regarding this disease in either the parents or the grandparents.

Glaucoma – This condition is present when there is an abnormal increase in pressure inside of the eye. If there is a problem with drainage inside of the eye, the pressure will increase causing enlargement of the eyeball and will lead to blindness. This is perphaps the most concerning of all the Cocker Spaniel eye problems.

Symptoms include red eyes, protruding eyeball, pain and sensitivity to light. Treatment may involve either medication or surgery depending upon what type of Glaucoma it is. However, despite treatment, your Cocker may still lose its eyesight.

Conjunctivitis – This Cocker Spaniel eye problem is commonly called ‘pink eye’ and can result if your Cocker is allergic to grasses or pollens. This can also be caused from an infection cause by fungi, bacteria or a virus.

Symptoms of ‘pink eye’ include weeping of the eye, swelling and redness of the eyelid or a yellowish-green discharge. Your Cocker Spaniel may either rub its eye with its paw for relief or else rub the affected eye on your carpet. To get rid of this condition, ointment or antibiotic eye drops may be prescribed by your veterinarian.

You may never experience eye problems with your pup. However, it is a safe precaution to be aware and take corrective measures quickly to avoid complications if you spot any of the Cocker Spaniel eye problem symptoms.

The Variety of Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms

Multiple sclerosis is a complex disorder of the nervous system which can generate a wide range of symptoms, varying in intensity and duration. Each patient’s experience with multiple sclerosis is different and symptoms are perceived differently from a person to another. Multiple sclerosis can involve visual, sensory and motor symptoms, depending on the body systems which are affected by the disease. In more advanced stages of progression, multiple sclerosis can also determine dysfunctions of the internal organs, often causing impairments of the kidneys, lungs and heart. In the absence of the specific medical treatment or in case of late medical intervention, multiple sclerosis can cause permanent disability or even death.

Multiple sclerosis is a very intriguing disorder of the CNS (central nervous system), encompassing multiple patterns of progression. While persons with slow progressing multiple sclerosis may perceive symptoms at low intensities or even have no symptoms at all, persons with fast progressing forms of the disease may be confronted with very intense symptoms and may be at risk of developing severe, life-threatening complications.

Due to the fact that multiple sclerosis primarily affects the central nervous system, the first symptoms experienced by patients are of sensorial or cognitive nature. Some of the first symptoms that occur in persons with multiple sclerosis are decreased visual acuity, blurred vision, double vision or difficulty in distinguishing colors. In addition, the tissues around the eye may become inflamed and painful; some patients may experience intense pain and discomfort when moving their eyes.

Most of these symptoms occur due to optic neuritis, condition often associated with multiple sclerosis. When the condition is timely discovered and patients receive the appropriate medical treatment, most visual symptoms can be completely eliminated within weeks. However, in the absence of medical treatment, patients may remain with permanent visual defects. In some cases, unattended visual symptoms of multiple sclerosis can even lead to permanent blindness.

When multiple sclerosis affects the cerebellum (the area of the brain responsible for motor function and balance), the results are poorly coordinated movements and difficulty to maintain balance. Sometimes patients may experience difficulty walking and performing various activities that require precise, properly coordinated movements.

When it affects other areas of the brain, multiple sclerosis can generate symptoms such as hearing loss, dizziness and vertigo. Patients with multiple sclerosis may also suffer from decreased judgment, inability to concentrate, short-term memory loss, states of mental confusion and pronounced difficulty in expressing themselves in speech.

Symptoms such as muscular weakness, numbness and pain, as well as decreased or increased sensitivity to heat or light stimuli are possible signs that multiple sclerosis has also reached the peripheral regions of the nervous system. At this stage, patients may also suffer from bladder or kidney dysfunctions, liver dysfunctions and impairments of the gastrointestinal tract. Internal organs such as the liver, lungs and heart may also be involved in advanced stages of multiple sclerosis.

How Kennel Cough Affects Your Dog’s Health

A simple coughing for dogs must need an attention. You might think that it is just a cough, a normal cough, but later you will know it will harm the health of your dog to the extent that it will not be treatable. It happened to my friend’s dog. He asked me if it’s just normal for dogs to cough and I told him to bring the pooch to the Vet right away. Luckily, the dog was treated.

Just like humans, dog’s health is sensitive too. They also need supplements such as vitamins to protect them plus the very powerful tender love and care. Most dogs are prone to infections, it could be infections on Tooth and Mouth, infection on their tonsillitis also known as Infectious tonsillitis or Infectious Tracheobronchitis better known as Kennel Cough . Among these infections, Kennel Cough is the most common one.

What is Kennel Cough and how it affects your Dog’s health?

Basically it is cause by the bacteria known as Bordatella Bronchiseptica. It is highly contagious illness which is characterized by inflammation of the upper respiratory system. It is contagious in the sense that it passes directly from dog to dog at kennels or places such as dog grooming parlors, pet stores, dog shows, parks and other humane societies. The most common sign of this disease is having soft dry coughs and sneezing are the two most common signs of this disease. Coughs occur due to the allergic or cancerous conditions. Symptoms can include a harsh, dry coughing, retching and sneezing.

To prevent your dogs from this disease, antibiotics are the most common medicine given. This is to treat the bacterial infection that is present. Others use humidifiers which help clear the mucous from the throat. This allows the dog to breath easier.  Cough suppressants can also be used only if the cough is not productive.

It is good if you try to isolate your dogs to avoid infection of others, keep all the cages disinfected, give them proper rest, monitor their temperatures and if the coughing is severe, over-the-counter cough syrup can be use. If your dogs have been exposed to other pets, it is better for them to have their kennel cough vaccination for every six to twelve months to avoid it from coming back.

It is always good for your dogs to be healthy. Protecting your dog’s health is something that they will thank you for. Giving them the attention, providing them foods and shelter are one of the best things we could ever give to them. Surely they deserve those treatments!

Top Reasons To Visit An Optometrist

According to Optometrists in Parker, Co, there are a number of reasons people visit an optometrist, as opposed to an ophthalmologist.

An optometrist is an eye specialist who provides primary eye care services of the following nature:

* They examine the eye for retinal diseases and other diseases like glaucoma and cataracts. In certain parts of the world, optometrists even treat these diseases

* They diagnose certain body conditions that ultimately affect the eye including hypertension or diabetes

* They diagnose and treat visual conditions like astigmatism, nearsightedness, farsightedness and presbyopia.

* They detect and correct vision problems through the prescription of glasses and contact lenses. They may also offer rehabilitation of vision problems through medication and minor surgical procedures.

An Ophthalmologist is an MD for the eye and is trained to provide full eye care and has the training to carry out delicate and complicated eye surgery. On the other hand, an optometrist completes and O.D (Doctor of Optometry) and is equipped to treat problems with vision and undertake minor surgeries.

According to expert optometrists in Parker Co, it is time to visit an optometrist, when:

* A patient requires basic eye exams, regardless of their age

* A patient requires their contact lenses or eyeglasses examined

* When young children require pediatric eye exams in Parker, Co

* When patients require specialty contact lens fittings like bifocals, high-astigmatism lenses, lens that is worn after surgery and so on

In addition to this, Optometrists also help when patients require highly specialized eyewear for different reasons. For instance:

* Parents often require a large selection of children’s eyewear when selecting glasses or lenses for them. An Optometrist will help.

* Often, people require special designer eyewear that is usually not found anywhere else. In this day and age where perceptions matter more than anything else, it pays to go to an optometrist.

* Specialized sportswear is another reason to visit the optometrist. Specialized sports goggles like ski goggles are provided by optometrists.

There are many reasons people like to go to an optometrists for their vision problems. Optometrists are not so much into eye care as they are into vision care. Therefore, they use state of the art detection systems and eye exams to diagnose the minutest of problems. They are also equipped to deal with these problems in the best possible manner. They can provide a wide variety of solutions for their patients.

When selecting an optometrist, it is important to choose a reputed specialist in the area. The optometrist must have a reputation for accurate eye exams. They must also provide the best solutions in a time bound manner.