Role of Microbes in Human Welfare

1. Microbes in Household Products-

Micro-organisms such as Lactobacillus and others commonly called lactic acid bacteria (LAB) grow in milk and convert it to curd. LAB produce acids that coagulate and partially digest the milk proteins. It also improves its nutritional quality by increasing vitamin B12. In our stomach too, the LAB play very beneficial role in checking disease causing microbes.

The dosa and idli is also fermented by bacteria. The dough, which is used for making bread, is fermented using baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). A number of traditional drinks and foods are also made by fermentation by the microbes. ‘Toddy’, a traditional drink of some parts of southern India is made by fermenting sap from palms.

Microbes are also used to ferment fish, soyabean and bamboo shoots to make foods. Cheese, is one of the oldest food items in which microbes were used. The large holes in ‘Swiss cheese’ are due to production of a large amount of CO2 by a bacterium named Propionibacterium sharmanii. The ‘Roquefort cheese’ are ripened by growing a specific fungi on them, which gives them a particular flavour.

2. Microbes in Industrial Products-

In industry, microbes are used to synthesize a number of products valuable to human beings. Beverages and antibiotics are some examples. Production on an industrial scale requires growing microbes in very large vessels called fermentors.

A) Fermented Beverages-

Microbes like yeast are used for the production of beverages like wine, beer, whisky, brandy or rum. The same yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae used for bread-making and commonly called brewer’s yeast, is used for fermenting malted cereals and fruit juices, to produce ethanol. Wine and beer are produced without distillation whereas whisky, brandy and rum are produced by distillation of the fermented broth.

B) Antibiotics-

Anti is a Greek word that means ‘against’, and bio means ‘life’, together they mean ‘against life’ (in the context of disease causing organisms); whereas with reference to human beings, they are ‘pro life’ and not against. Antibiotics are chemical substances, which are produced by some microbes and can kill or retard the growth of other (disease-causing) microbes.

Alexander Fleming while working on Staphylococci bacteria, once observed a mould growing in one of his unwashed culture plates around which Staphylococci could not grow. He found out that it was due to a chemical produced by the mould and he named it Penicillin after the mould Penicillium notatum. Its full potential as an effective antibiotic was established by Ernest Chain and Howard Florey. This antibiotic was extensively used to treat American soldiers wounded in World War II. Fleming, Chain and Florey were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1945, for this discovery.

Antibiotics have greatly improved our capacity to treat deadly diseases such as plague, whooping cough (kali khansi ), diphtheria (gal ghotu) and leprosy (kusht rog), which used to kill millions all over the globe. Today, we cannot imagine a world without antibiotics.

C) Chemicals, Enzymes and other Bioactive Molecules-

  • Aspergillus niger (a fungus) produces citric acid,
  • Acetobacter aceti (a bacterium) produces acetic acid
  • Clostridium butylicum (a bacterium) produces butyric acid
  • Lactobacillus (a bacterium) produces lactic acid.
  • Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is used for commercial production of ethanol.
  • Enzymes like Lipases are used in detergent formulations and are helpful in removing oily stains from the laundry. The bottled juices are clarified by the use of pectinases and proteases.
  • Streptokinase produced by the bacterium Streptococcus and modified by genetic engineering is used as a ‘clot buster’ for removing clots from the blood vessels of patients who have undergone myocardial infraction leading to heart attack.
  • Cyclosporin A, which is used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ-transplant patients, is produced by the fungus Trichoderma polysporum.
  • Statins produced by the yeast Monascus purpureus have been commercialized as blood-cholesterol lowering agents. It acts by competitively inhibiting the enzyme responsible for synthesis of cholesterol.

3. Microbes in Sewage Treatment

The municipal waste-water including human excreta is also called sewage. It contains large amounts of organic matter and microbes. Many of which are pathogenic. This cannot be discharged into natural water bodies like rivers and streams directly.Before disposal, hence, sewage is treated in sewage treatment plants (STPs) to make it less polluting. Treatment of waste water is done by the heterotrophic microbes naturally present in the sewage. This treatment is carried out in two stages:

Primary treatment: These treatment steps basically involve physical removal of particles – large and small – from the sewage through filtration and sedimentation. These are removed in stages; initially, floating debris is removed by sequential filtration. Then the grit (soil and small pebbles) are removed by sedimentation. All solids that settle form the primary sludge, and the supernatant forms the effluent. The effluent from the primary settling tank is taken for secondary treatment.

Secondary treatment or Biological treatment: The primary effluent is passed into large aeration tanks where it is constantly agitated mechanically and air is pumped into it. This allows vigorous growth of useful aerobic microbes into flocs (masses of bacteria associated with fungal filaments to form mesh like structures). While growing, these microbes consume the major part of the organic matter in the effluent. This significantly reduces the BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) of the effluent. BOD refers to the amount of the oxygen that would be consumed if all the organic matter in one liter of water were oxidized by bacteria. The sewage water is treated till the BOD is reduced. The BOD test measures the rate of uptake of oxygen by micro-organisms in a sample of water and thus, indirectly, BOD is a measure of the organic matter present in the water. The greater the BOD of waste water more is its polluting potential. Once the BOD of sewage or waste water is reduced significantly, the effluent is then passed into a settling tank where the bacterial ‘flocs’ are allowed to sediment. This sediment is called activated sludge. A small part of the activated sludge is pumped back into the aeration tank to serve as the inoculum. The remaining major part of the sludge is pumped into large tanks called anaerobic sludge digesters. Here, other kinds of bacteria, which grow anaerobically, digest the bacteria and the fungi in the sludge. During this digestion, bacteria produce a mixture of gases such as methane, hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide. These gases form biogas and can be used as source of energy as it is inflammable.

4. Microbes in Production of Biogas

Biogas is a mixture of gases (containing predominantly methane) produced by the microbes and which may be used as fuel. Certain bacteria, which grow anaerobically on cellulosic material, produce large amount of methane along with CO2 and H2. These bacteria are collectively called methanogens, and one such common bacterium is Methanobacterium. These bacteria are found in the anaerobic sludge during sewage treatment. These bacteria are also present in the rumen (a part of stomach) of cattle. A lot of cellulosic material present in the food of cattle is also present in the rumen. In rumen, these bacteria help in the breakdown of cellulose and play an important role in the nutrition of cattle. Thus, the excreta (dung) of cattle, commonly called gobar, is rich in these bacteria. Dung can be used for generation of biogas, commonly called gobar gas.

The biogas plant consists of a concrete tank (10-15 feet deep) in which bio-wastes are collected and a slurry of dung is fed. A floating cover is placed over the slurry, which keeps on rising as the gas is produced in the tank due to the microbial activity. The biogas plant has an outlet, which is connected to a pipe to supply biogas to nearby houses. The spent slurry is removed through another outlet and may be used as fertilizer. Cattle dung is available in large quantities in rural areas where cattle are used for a variety of purposes. So biogas plants are more after build in rural areas. The biogas thus produced is used for cooking and lighting.

The technology of biogas production was developed in India mainly due to the efforts of Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) and Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC).

5. Microbes as Biocontrol Agent

Biocontrol refers to the use of biological methods for controlling plant diseases and pests. Use of chemicals like insecticides and pesticides causes great harm. These chemicals are toxic and extremely harmful, to human beings and animals alike, and have been polluting our environment (soil, ground water), fruits, vegetables and crop plants. Our soil is also polluted through use of weedicides to remove weeds.

Biological control of pests and diseases: It is a method of controlling pests that relies on natural predation rather than introduced chemicals. A key belief of the organic farmer is that biodiversity furthers health. The organic farmer works to create a system where the insects that are sometimes called pests are not eradicated, but instead are kept at manageable levels by a complex system of checks and balances within a living and vibrant ecosystem. This is a holistic approach that seeks to develop an understanding of the webs of interaction between the myriad of organisms that constitute the field fauna and flora.

The very familiar beetle with red and black markings – the Ladybird, and Dragonflies are useful to get rid of aphids and mosquitoes, respectively.

An example of microbial biocontrol agents that can be introduced in order to control butterfly caterpillars is the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (often written as Bt ). These are available in sachets as dried spores which are mixed with water and sprayed onto vulnerable plants such as brassica and fruit trees, where these are eaten by the insect larvae. In the gut of the larvae, the toxin is released and the larvae get killed.

A biological control being developed for use in the treatment of plant disease is the fungus Trichoderma. Trichoderma species are free-living fungi that are very common in the root ecosystems. Baculoviruses (genus Nucleopolyhedrovirus) are pathogens that attack insects and other arthropods. These viruses are excellent candidates for species-specific, narrow spectrum insecticidal applications. The beneficial insects are being conserved to aid in an overall integrated pest management (IPM) programme, or when an ecologically sensitive area is being treated.

6. Microbes as Biofertilizers-

Biofertilisers are organisms that enrich the nutrient quality of the soil. The main sources of biofertilisers are bacteria, fungi and cyanobacteria.

  • The nodules on the roots of leguminous plants formed by the symbiotic association of Rhizobium. These bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen into organic forms, which is used by the plant as nutrient. Other bacteria can fix atmospheric nitrogen while free-living in the soil (examples Azospirillum and Azotobacter), thus enriching the nitrogen content of the soil.
  • Fungi are also known to form symbiotic associations with plants (mycorrhiza). Many members of the genus Glomus form mycorrhiza. The fungal symbiont in these associations absorbs phosphorus from soil and passes it to the plant. Plants having such associations show other benefits also, such as resistance to root-borne pathogens, tolerance to salinity and drought, and an overall increase in plant growth and development.
  • Cyanobacteria are autotrophic microbes widely distributed in aquatic and terrestrial environments many of which can fix atmospheric nitrogen, e.g. Anabaena, Nostoc, Oscillatoria, etc. In paddy fields, cyanobacteria serve as an important biofertiliser. Blue green algae also add organic matter to the soil and increase its fertility. Currently, in our country, a number of biofertilisers are available commercially in the market and farmers use these regularly in their fields to replenish soil nutrients and to reduce dependence on chemical fertilisers.

Important terminology-

Fermentors – Production of beverages and antibiotics on an industrial scale, requires growing microbes in very large vessels called fermentors.

Antibiotics– Antibiotics are chemical substances, which are produced by some microbes and can kill or retard the growth of other (disease-causing) microbes.

Primary treatment: The treatment step of sewage for physical removal of particles – large and small – from the sewage through filtration and sedimentation is called Primary treatment.

Secondary treatment or Biological treatment: After primary treatment.the primary effluent is passed into large aeration tanks where it is constantly agitated mechanically and air is pumped associated with fungal filaments to form mesh like structures).

BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) -BOD refers to the amount of the oxygen that would be consumed if all the organic matter in one liter of water were oxidised by bacteria.

Activated sludge– Once the BOD of sewage or waste water is reduced significantly, the effluent is then passed into a settling tank where the bacterial ‘flocs’ are allowed to sediment. This sediment is called activated sludge.

Anaerobic sludge digesters– A small part of the activated sludge is pumped back into the aeration tank to serve as the inoculum. The remaining major part of the sludge is pumped into large tanks called anaerobic sludge digesters.where anaerobica bacteria and the fungi digest the sludge.

Methanogens– Certain bacteria, which grow anaerobically on cellulosic material, produce large amount of methane along with CO2 and H2. These bacteria are collectively called methanogens.

Biocontrol refers to the use of biological methods (using biological agents for natural predation) for controlling plant diseases and pests, rather than using chemicals.

Biofertilisers– In agriculture Biofertilisers are organisms that enrich the nutrient quality of the soil.

Organic farming -Agriculture by using only biofertilisers is called organic farming because there are problems of pollution, associated with the overuse of chemical fertilizers. The main sources of biofertilisers are bacteria, fungi and cyanobacteria.

Mycorrhiza– Fungal symbiotic association with plants which helps plants to absorb phosphorus from soil, is called mycorrhiza. Many members of the genus Glomus form mycorrhiza.

Cyanobacteria -Cyanobacteria are autotrophic microbes widely distributed in aquatic and terrestrial environments many of which can fix atmospheric nitrogen, e.g. Anabaena, Nostoc, Oscillatoria, etc.

Anup Singh Yadav M.Sc. M.Ed. M.Phil. NET Lecturer in Biology

Handling Syncope With Homeopathy

Syncope accounts for almost 40 percent patients visiting a clinic for the complaints of ‘sudden fall episodes’. It is a transient loss of consciousness associated with the loss of body tone. Most of the patients recover spontaneously. It may occur as a single event without any specific causation or can also be recurrent when it is associated with some organic pathology. The basic pathophysiology includes reduced cerebral blood flow.

An occurrence of syncope needs to be differentiated from a seizure episode, since it mimics the later very closely. A recurrent an d unexplained episodes of syncope need to be examined for possible structural cardiac pathologies, since it can lead to death if not attended in time. Most of the times, syncope occurs suddenly without any warning, but few patients can experience pre-syncope manifestations like light-headedness, dizziness, a feeling of warmth, nausea, and visual blurring.


The transient reduction in the cerebral blood flow is mostly due to three basic causes

1. Disturbance in the vascular tone or blood volume

2. Obstructive cardiovascular disorders and rhythm abnormalities

3. Cerebrovascular diseases

The disturbance of vascular tone or blood volume can be due to situations like cough, micturition, defecation or valsalva maneuver as well as due to carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Also due to orthostatic hypotension because of some vasodilator drugs, pure autonomic failure, peripheral neuropathy, and decreased blood volume. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities like sinus bradicardia, sinus arrest, atrioventricular block or atril flutter and fibrillation can also lead to syncope. Vetebrobasilar insufficiency or basilar artery migraine are one of the cerebrovascular diseases causing syncope.

Disorders that can mimic syncope are few metabolic disorders like hypoxia, hypoglycemia, anemia or hyperventilation or some psychogenic events due to anxiety attacks or hysterical fainting.

Neurocardiogenic or vasovagal syncope is usually associated with both sympathetic withdrawal [vasodilatation] and increased parasympathetic activity causing bradicardia. These are precipitated by alcohol consumption, severe pain, extreme fatigue, hunger, prolonged standing, exposure to hot or crowded environment, and during emotional situation.


The above mentioned pathologies should be ruled out by conducting diagnostic tests after a thorough clinical history – including serum electrolytes, glucose and blood counts. Electrocardiogram, cardiac enzymes need to be checked in case of cardiac causes. An electroencephalogram will rule out the possibility of a seizure activity.

Homeopathic treatment:

Sporadically occurring syncope attacks do not need any treatment if you diagnose them of vasovagal origin. Remedies like gelsemium, belladonna, conium and phosphorus have been most effective in treating intermittent episodes of syncope.

Thrush Cure – The Secrets Doctor's Won't Tell You

To find a thrush cure today isn’t easy. Where we used to have too little data, with the explosion of the internet there is now too much data! First, what is thrush? Thrush is an oral problem within the mouth that starts when there is an overgrowth of yeast in that area. And the term yeast infection refers to infection in any area of the body.

Everyone has candida, it’s just whether an individuals immune system can moderate the levels of yeast. The difference between someone healthy and someone in pain is how well the body moderates the candida albicans levels – meaning, the immune system.

Prior to Using the Cure:

Without knowledge of how and why you originally suffered with yeast infection, the cure is wasted on you. It’s so important that you understand the how and the why. By realising this you will undoubtedly see more lasting results. Here are just 3 reasons:

1.    The symptoms you have will now be in context. By not possessing an understanding of the condition, how will you be able to accurately make decisions on your health? Another issue is that of people ending the use of medication because they mis-read a feeling they had. Unfortunately, fear has gripped them when the medication was in actual fact helping them.

2.    The effectiveness of cures depends on many factors and your lifestyle (READ: Diet) can impede the results. By knowing what causes yeast infection you are able to evaluate your lifestyle and see where the issues are. This, in turn, will make the cure a lot more effective.

3.    I want you to believe that people who understand their condition (versus people who rely on their doctor) stand a much greater chance of recovery. It’s not like your doctor can follow you around all day long!

Why people suffer with yeast infection – explained:

Immune System…

Purchasing Antibiotics

–    Good bacteria is killed by antibiotics. Its good bacteria that regulates your yeast levels.


–    It’s not rare for toddlers to come down with a thrush infection. Immune systems have to grow in effectiveness. Infants are essentially born with a clean slate for an immune system.

Problems With Health

–    Diabetes

–    HIV

–    Chemotherapy

–    The Common Cold

Illness of all kinds affect your immune system.



–    Thrush infection is a fungal disease and so effortlessly transmittable Sexual intercourse with an infected partner can overcome your immune system leaving the condition to grow.

Mouth Contact

–    Kissing is the same law as sexual intercourse and leads to thrush. Contact is made with an infected person and the immune system becomes overwhelmed.

Self Hygiene…

–    Shower gels

–    Toothpaste/Mouthwash

–    Soaps

–    Perfume

The body’s natural pH balance can easily be disturbed by bathing products. Try to buy health care products that advertise with pH levels of the body. These will help you immeasurably while your immune system is feeble.

Thrush Cure:

I believe the best remedy for thrush is the completely organic strategy with no side effects. I have created a list of the ultimate cures.

Tea Tree Oil:Tea tree oil is a fantastic antifungal solution. Treat the area using a tuft of cotton dipped into the oil.

Garlic Extracts – Garlic Extracts have been utilised as a home remedy for eons – they are naturally antifungal and really should be considered a super food for sufferers of yeast infection. It’s useable in many varieties (as seen earlier) and is the truest natural enemy of yeast. The benefits are quick to act and side effects are uncommon.

Apple Vinegar (Cedar) — This solution recovers the pH levels in your body – leading to better control of yeast levels.

Loose apparel will help enormously if you are used to wearing tight fitting clothes – ensure there is plenty of air between your clothes and skin. Another small point: Try to stay as dry as you can. Moisture and lack of light seems to be yeast’s best friend so keep keep your body light and airy!

Yogurt (Probiotic) — If you enjoy your yogurt make sure that it contains ‘acidophilus’ – a type of bacteria. There are ‘probiotic’ yogurts out there that don’t have the strain of bacteria. The candidiasis will be moderated by good bacteria.

It’s critically important that you don’t eat pure sugar.

Fresh water is vitally important for your health overall. Are you drinking atleast 2.5 litres everyday? If not, a yeast infection is the perfect reason to start doing so now!

Brush Your Teeth Twice a Day:

Yes, we all know we should but many people neglect to clean their teeth just twice a day! Further, I recommend you to rinse your mouth out with a quality mouthwash to take care of unwanted bacteria. Flossing is also a suggested practice.

I hope you benefited from this article. I wish you all the best in your hereafter health.

5 Proven Techniques on How to Attract Women With Cancer Zodiac Sign!

Ever wondered how you could attract a cancer woman? Have you been disappointed before attempting to start a relationship with a cancer women?

Learning how to attract women cancer can sometimes be really overwhelming, because they are always capricious and most often seems distant. But in this article I intend to give you some simple techniques to help you attract the cancer women.

The zodiac sign of Cancer is a cardinal sign of water. Women born under this sign are characterized by its capricious behavior and are always very sentimental. They have strong personalities, but they are at the same time very sympathetic, loving and compassionate.

The Cancerian woman is often an introverted woman. They desire to develop confidence before leaving their shells. But once she builds that confidence she could really be sticky!

They are also very protective when in a relationship.

Here are some techniques you can use to attract cancer woman:

1. Stimulate her emotions:

Cancer in women thrive emotions, hence, create situations that affect their emotions. Being able to talk about their most emotional moments, such as childhood, family, etc. might be useful to bring cancerian women out of their shell.

2. Get to know her better:

One of the major means of attracting cancer women is trying to get in a position where she will be able to become more familiar with you. Get close enough and then when the opportunity offers itself, open a conversation with her.

3. Be careful with the issue of money:

Cancer women are very careful Spenders. You should try as much as possible to avoid a question of money if you want to attract women cancer. The situation is such that you need to think twice before paying for the drink!

4. Solicit her sympathy:

Being emotional people cancer women love to show empathy. This is an advantage for you and you can use this to your advantage. You can attract women cancer, therefore, by providing an opportunity for her to sympathize with you. You can easily make an emotional connection with a woman cancer by asking for her constructive criticism about something that has been troubling you. This request will definitely bring out her sympathy thereby drawing her closer to you.

5. Always make her wanted:

Remember that cancer women can be very suspicious and easily feel rejected or excluded. She demands an emotional connection with you. To attract her, hence, you should be able to show that you are really interested in her.

The question of how to attract cancer women may be a difficult one at first but once you are able to gain the cancer woman’s trust you’d be really glad that she is not only a lovable woman but an affectionate one. It may take some time but if you’d be patient enough and will use these techniques to gain her trust you would easily attract the cancer women.

Does Your Organization Have a Learning Disability – Disability # 4 – Fixation on Events

Disability 4 – System what system?

Think systems not events.

When we first came to this earth it was important to feed ourselves every day, not get eaten by the local saber tooth tiger and, more importantly, grow the population in leaps and bounds. Life was simple, eat or be eaten. This only required the ability to understand each separate event and have a means to handle the event. Learn to hunt and enjoy ourselves. There was no need to appreciate the larger systems at work or be able to connect events.

Life, however, has become more complex and our survival is now dependent on understanding gradual processes such as global warming, a slow decline in sales, a growing obesity problem in the US, a loss of market share. Each is caused by a complex array of systems and events that interact with each other causing even more complex outcomes and effects. We know we cannot hope to keep track of all these events so we select a few that make sense and focus on them. Does business have it right?

We usually choose to see our lives in terms of events. Board meetings in companies are dominated by what to do about last quarters sales, the latest product the competition has launched, how to finance the latest deal, etc. Each is an event that we think has a single solution. We seek single solutions for single problems. We do not see how the latest product that the competition launched affects our sales. We do not see that bad employee relations lead to a low morale which in turn affects design quality and therefore the final product that we attempt to sell to our customers.

As long as we try to find one single reason for each problem we will never get to the bottom of our problems. As long as we fight fires, concentrate on operations and ignore the big picture we will never see any improvement in our business.

Learning is never sustained within a business that has managers focused on short term events. By focusing on events managers, at best, become predictive so as to react optimally. Most business and econometric models are developed in this manner. This however means that business really never learns to create, to think holistically defining the systems in the business.

Concentrate on strategy, think in terms of systems. Learn.

Essential Oil Recipes – How to Make Natural Products Using 5 Essential Oils Or Less

Enjoy using Essential Oils and making your own recipes that give you products that are quick and simple to make.

Using only 5 Essential Oils – keep the cost down but not make inferior products for your use. I never compromised on effectiveness in these recipes if it wouldn’t work with the five its not listed.

Costing you less – by reducing the number of Oils and combining them with common household ingredients you spend less, waste less and are able to make more as you want it.

Simple recipes – by keeping the recipes simple to do and easy to follow you can save yourself time along with money.

It was amazing how simple but still effective these products were and how easy they are to make and store or make up quickly when you need them. They are great for you, your family, and for inexpensive gifts that look (and smell) a million dollars.

If you love natural chemical free products then this article is for you. If you love to also save money, then this article is definitely for you.

If you love making your own products, you will love the simple step by step recipes.

Even if you have never blended a product before this article is design to give you the easy instruction and all the information you need to make you own products.

There is several great recipes in each of these sections

• Household cleaning

• First aid and Common Ailments

• Relaxation and Stress Relief

• Skin Care

• Hair Care

• Gift Ideas

When we first decided to create recipes with a smaller number of oils we tested three, four, five and six Essential Oil blends and found that five oils give you the most versatility and best value for money.

When selecting our Essential Oils we tested and tested them until we found the best for –

• Value for Money – why use an expensive oil if a less expensive will work just as well

• Essential Oil versatility – what oils have many benefits and usages

• Essential Oil properties – what oils have a larger range or properties and work the best with our bodies and environment

• Simplicity – more common known oils

• Practicality – easy to find oils so you don’t have to search for them


Here is a quick summary of the Five Essential Oils used to create this complete article

1. Lavender

2. Geranium

3. Lemon

4. Chamomile

5. Tea Tree

Lavender Essential Oil – The most popular Essential Oil is Lavender; if you were only ever going to buy one Essential Oil then Lavender would be the one. It is used in all sections of The Essential 5. This amazing oil is one of the most useful of all essential oils. Lavenders properties include antiseptic, relaxant, antitoxic, for burns, sedative, tonic, deodorant to name a few, and blends well with most other oils. It is bridging oil for perfumes and is a very common known aroma.

Geranium Essential Oil – Geranium has a strong herbaceous aroma with similar notes to rose. This great all round Essential oil has therapeutic properties as an astringent, antiseptic, anti-depressant, tonic, antibiotic, and as an anti-infectious agent. Aid against travel sickness, assists with irritations associated with dermatitis, eczema and psoriasis.

Lemon Essential Oil – Well known for its clean refreshing aroma it has high anti-bacterial properties. On skin and hair it can be used for its cleansing effect, as well as for its Antiseptic properties, and being refreshing and cooling. Lemon may assist with the ability to concentrate. The strong clean smell is commonly associated with cleanliness.

Chamomile Essential Oil – It is useful in the treatment of aches and pains in muscles and joints. Treatment of symptoms of PMS with Chamomile is also beneficial especially when the symptoms are related to stress. It has long tradition in herbal medicine and the flowers were used in many cures including an herbal tea During World War Two. The strong aroma of chamomile is fruity and herbaceous and ideal for children and those with sensitive skins.

Tea Tree Essential Oil – Most of us have use or own this oil at one stage. It is use in two sections and is best known as a very powerful immune stimulant. It can help to fight off infectious. Used as part of an inhalation it can help with colds, measles, sinusitis & viral infections. For skin & hair, Tea Tree has been used to combat acne, oily skin, head lice & dandruff.


The main benefit of using Essential Oils when making your own products are that a little goes a long way.

Usually you can buy your Oils in 17ml, 15 ml, 12ml or 6 ml bottles and for every 1 milliliter you get 20 drops that means for your 15 ml you get 300 drops and your 12 ml bottle you get 240 drops.

With different Products ranging from only 10 drops or more you can see now a little goes along way.

This is why they are a cost effective way to create your own blends. By simply changing the quantities and the mix of oils and the base products you are able to make many products with only a few oils.

I love that I can make up some products that I use all the time and then I can just make up enough of a product if I want it for a single use, for example when my son had warts I made up a half bottle and applied as per instruction for the two weeks and I have not needed to use it again.

Whereas I always have Air Freshener and All purpose Cleanser available as well as Antiseptic Cream and Bath Bombs, (ideal to throw in the bath with cranky kids).


Add to this some great base products and your away. Using base products combined with Essential Oils for household cleaning and gifts has been used for centuries with records showing uses as far back as ancient Roman Times and in Egypt, Greece and India.

Base products range from everyday common products – Bicarb (bicarbonate soda), Soaps, Salt, Vinegar, Vitamin V creams, Aloe Vera, Eggs along with many other commonly used ingredients.

By understanding that Base Oils and Products have their own properties (attribute, characteristic or ability) allows you to expand the range of recipes and products you may create, by combining of Essential Oil and base product properties.


Some people enjoy cleaning, some people love cleaning, some tolerate it and some do it because ‘it has to be done’, I’m somewhere between tolerate and ‘has to be done’, definitely not in the love area. Put on some music; grab the kids, grab my great products and I get it done.

I want products that work; I don’t want to have to repeat it. So if I can have effective products that are natural, chemical free, and smell divine, then that’s a bonus.

• Air freshener – room deodorizer, ironing aid, curtain freshener

• All Purpose Cleanser – any room in the house the needs an abrasive cleaner; ovens, showers, fridges, air conditioners, bathrooms, benches, cups, drawers, microwaves

• Baking Soda Shaker – general all round all purpose abrasive, stainless steel, shoes – odor

• Vinegar Spray – antibacterial surface cleaner, polishes car chrome, Spray car windows to keep them frost free, clean eye glasses, must have for jellyfish and blue bottle stings, removes fruit stains from hands, removes onion smell from hands


250 ml Spray bottle

15 drops Essential Oils as below (blend suggestions)

250 ml Boiled (cooled) Water

To freshen and deodorize your house, don’t mask the bad smells; eliminate them. Any of the below blends are great of create your own air freshener, using the blend to suit your needs.

MIX 1 – 10 drops of Essential Oils into bottle of water and shake well. Shake before each use.

Blend suggestions:

Welcoming – welcome people into your home, invokes memories of peace in most people.

Lavender – 15 drops

All purpose – a blend suitable for every room; freshens the air and contains bacterial properties.

Lavender – 8 drops, Lemon 4 drops, Geranium 3 drops

Bloom – Ideal for kitchen and eliminating cooking odor.

Lavender 6 drops, Lemon 5 drops, Tea Tree 4 drops

Smell Ease – remove the unpleasant odor associated with bathrooms and laundries

Lemon 10 drops, Chamomile 3 drops, Lavender 2 drops

Other Uses –

• Ironing Aid – spray directly onto clothes and iron

• Room deodorizer – eliminating stale and unpleasant smells

• Curtain freshener – spray directly onto curtains and allow the warm of the sun to intensify the beautiful natural Essential Oil aromas.


Large Salt Shaker


Large salt shaker or talc powder bottle or container (jar) with holes pierced into lid may be used. If Bicarb is needed as an abrasive, it can be used alone, with Surface Spray or All Purpose Cleaner for added removal of built up grime. Easier and more practical than having in a box and pouring it out, you seem to use less as the powder is evenly distributed.

Other Uses –

• Kids – will love using this – shake onto surface, spray with vinegar and watch it fizz let the kids wipe the bench and love the fizzing feeling on their fingers – cleaning done with fun!

• Stainless Steel – cleans and removes minor rust stains

• Odor eliminator – shoes, carpets and pet areas


250 ml sauce (squirt) bottle

140 ml Boiled (warm) Water

60 ml Vinegar

50 ml soap or washing liquid

2 tablespoons Bicarb

10 drops Lemon Essential Oil

5 drops Lavender Essential Oil

5 drops Tea Tree Essential Oil

A wonderful All Purpose Cleanser that can be used throughout the household. Heavier than a surface spray with a gentle abrasive quality and soap for removal of grease build up. This Cleaner is antibacterial, disinfectant, and cleansing.

MIX: – Mix this mixture in a glass bowl or jug, cool and pour into bottle.

Pour in 1/2 of warm water add Bicarb, stir until dissolved,

Add to this mixture 1/2 vinegar (1/2 vinegar quantity, allow mixture to rinse and lower, add rest of Vinegar) and add liquid soap stir until blended. Add Essential Oils and pour in remaining warm water. Stir well, allow cooling before use.

Other Uses –

• Benches – Cleaning any surfaces with gentle abrasive cleaner

• Fridges – for fresh odor and sparkling clean look

• Showers and bathrooms – helps eliminate build up

• Air conditioners Cups – great for removing coffee stains

• Drawers – removes grime and marks

• Microwaves – cleans inside and out


250 ml Spray bottle

250 ml vinegar

A pure blend of vinegar can be used by itself or part of a cleaning system. This spray is ideal for cleaning mirrors, glass and windows, and for use with Bicarb for cleaning.

Other Uses –

• Polishes car chrome

• Spray car windows to keep them frost free

• clean eye glasses

• must have for jellyfish, blue bottle stings

• removes fruit stains from hands

• removes onion smell from hands


Creating a First Aid Kit and treating Common Ailments is a great way to see the benefits of using Essential Oils.

Essential Oils bring their therapeutic benefits to the body as they are absorbed into the blood stream via the skin or lungs. The aromatic fragrances can have a pleasing and powerful effect on our general wellbeing. As the Essential Oils enter the bloodstream they take their healing powers to the part of the body that is in most need.

With First Aid and Common Ailments you will find over a period of time you will make up more products that you use regularly and this will bring even more benefits to you and your family.


50 ml dark colored glass jar

43 ml Base Cream

20 drops (1 ml) Lavender Essential Oil

15 drops Geranium Essential Oil

15 drops Tea Tree Essential Oil

Use of this antiseptic blend assists in the healing of cuts and wounds. Use directly onto injury and cover with bandage or band-aid for quicker healing.

MIX: Into glass jar spoon in Base Cream fill 2/3 of jar add in essential oils, mix with spoon, fill jar and remix.

BURN GEL, mild

50 ml glass jar

43 ml Aloe Vera Gel

40 (2 ml) drops Lavender Essential Oil

10 drops Chamomile Essential Oil

IMMEDIATELY apply cold water to area, run water over area for approx 10 minutes.

For small areas a few drops of Lavender (neat) straight from the bottle, onto area followed by ice pack is ideal.

For large areas apply blend above (I have this made up in fridge always) as it is even better if Aloe Vera Gel blend is cold. Apply clean gauze bandage and cover with ice pack. ALWAYS SEEK MEDICAL ADVICE IF SEVERE BURN.

MIX: Into glass jar spoon in Aloe Vera Gel fill 2/3 of jar add in essential oils, mix with spoon, fill jar and remix.


10 ml dark colored glass jar or container

10ml Aloe Vera Gel

6 drops Geranium Essential Oil

4 drops Chamomile Essential Oil

Apply regularly to lips to keep them moist and smooth.

MIX: Into glass jar spoon in Aloe Vera Gel fill 2/3 of jar add in essential oils, mix with spoon, fill jar and remix.


10 ml glass jar

10 ml Aloe Vera Gel

4 drops Geranium Essential Oil

3 drops Tea Tree Essential Oils

2 drops Chamomile Essential Oils

1 drop Lavender Essential Oils

This blend can assist in the reduction of the severity of cold sores. Apply when the tingling feeling starts, (if possible to help prevent cold sore from forming), or apply directly onto sore to help keep moist and encourage healing of inflammation.

MIX: Into glass jar spoon in Aloe Vera Gel fill 2/3 of jar add in essential oils, mix with spoon, fill jar and remix


10 ml glass bottle

10 ml base oil

10 drops Essential Oils as below

MIX: Lavender 10 drops

Assist in the relief of headaches. Inhale directly from the bottle, especially before leaving the bed in the morning. Massage onto pulse points, wrist, temples, and base of neck and across forehead. Drop 5-10 drops in bath or shower, may be used in oil burner.

MIX: Pour base oil to glass bottle, add Essential Oils and shake well.


Time to relax you’ve got to be joking. I have heard this time and time again and I know hard it is to fit it in. By making my own relaxation products I could adjust them to what I wanted, and vary them to suit my moods. For example I would you different oils for relaxing, for sleep, for stress or mediation.


5 drops Lavender, 3 drops Chamomile, 2 drops Geranium


4 drops Geranium, 2 drops Chamomile, 2 drops Lavender, 2 drop Lemon


7 drops Chamomile, 3 drops Lavender


15 ml glass bottle

15 ml Essential Oils (your blend)

Creating a blend of Essential Oils gives you a synergy of the oils. That means the combined benefit of the oils is higher than its individual oils. Remember your 100% Essential Oil blend is not for use on your body it must be a diluted blend for body usage. 100% Essential 100% Oil blends are ideal for oil burners, foot spas, baths, inhalations, humidifiers, diffusers and mediation.

MIX Add the total drops of each Essential Oil into the bottle as shake gently to blend.


15 ml glass bottle

30 drops (1.5 ml) Essential Oils (your blend)

13.5 ml base oil

Creating a blend of Essential Oils gives you a synergy of the oils. Blending it down with base oil allows you the versatility to use for body applications. 10% Essential Oil Blends are ideal for pulse point or quick relief, compresses, candles, direct application, showers and inhalations.


200 grams Epson salts

20 drops Essential Oil (your blend)

1 tablespoon Bicarb

1 teaspoon Food coloring or herbs or flower petals for coloring

Combine the properties of these truly amazing natural products to create a simple and effective bath product. Add your Essential Oils depending on your mood and desires and lets your troubles float away.

MIX: To the Epson salts stir in Bicarb and coloring product (if required) and mix well then add Essential Oil blend and mix again.


100 ml glass bottle

100 drops (5 ml) Essential Oils (your blend)

95 ml base oils


The recipe gives you great oil; use this if you prefer to use body oil, instead of a moisturizer cream. Body is great to give skin supple appearance and ideal for dry skin or sin in harsh climates where even the loveliest of skin has a tendency to dry up. Apply all over body, for added directly after bath with skin is still damp and gently pat dry.

one of the benefits of making your own skin care products is definitely price, but where you will really see the benefits is in the condition of your skin.

When I started making my own products I notice my skin loved the benefits of the Essential Oils and the high quality base products and it look so much better.

What I found was that I didn’t react to anything in the blends as there were no chemicals to irritate my skin. If a blend seems to strong on my skin I just added more Base product to reduce the strength of it, this make the blend lighter. I found this ideal for teenagers, when they first started using their own products as they usually have a tendency to be heavy handed with products and their skin is extra sensitive (hormonal). I found it was an ideal solution and over time if they felt the product wasn’t doing its job (i.e. not a clean feeling) I then increase it back up to the original blend ratios.

Normal Skin– Normal Skin usually has a flat appearance, with a healthy glow. It is supple and smooth and free if blemish (may get an occasional one).

Combination Skin – The most common skin type is combination skin, which usually has drier cheeks and the area from the chin up to the forehead and then across the forehead is oily (your t-zone

Acne – Acne skin needs to be treated with an antibacterial cream for the acne and a moisturizer than evens out the skin, helping to reduce the blemishes. Always seek medical assistance with severe acne as many times it’s an internal imbalance that needs to be corrected to assist with the external healing of the skin.

Sensitive Skin – Sensitive skin can be any of the different skin types, when making products for sensitive skin HALF the essential oils use in the recipe.

Use the correct Essential Oils for different skin types

Normal Skin – Lavender, Geranium, Lemon and Chamomile

Oily – Lavender, Tea Tree, Chamomile and Geranium

Combination – Lavender, Lemon, Geranium and Chamomile

Acne – Lavender, Geranium, Tea Tree and Lemon


100 ml glass bottle

100 drops (5 ml) Essential Oil

95 ml Liquid Soap Mix

Suggested Blends

Normal, Oily, Acne Skin Types

60 drops (3 ml) Lavender, 40 drops (2 ml) Lemon Essential Oils

Dry and Combination Skin Types

60 drops (3 ml) Lavender, 40 drops (2 ml) Geranium Essential Oils

Massage onto face, neck and decollete and wash off with warm water and cloth (or cotton wipes). You will need to wipe 2-3 times, to remove all oil and grime from skin. Rinse again, tone, pat dry and moisturize.

MIX: Pour in Liquid Soap Mix into bottle, add to this your Essential Oils and shake well. For babies and children up to 2 years, half the quantity of essential oils.


100ml glass bottle

40 drops (2 ml) Lavender Essential Oil

5 ml Vinegar

93 ml water

Apply to cotton ball and gently wipe of face

MIX: Add water and Vinegar to bottle and then add Essential Oil, mix thoroughly. Shake well before each use as no dispersant is used (ingredient found in commercial products to keep products from separating)


RATIO: 100 drops (5 ml) Essential Oils: 95 ml Base Cream

100 ml glass jar

100 drops (5 ml) Essential Oil blend (as below)

95 ml Base Cream

Blend Suggestions

dr = drop

Normal Skin

30 dr Lavender, 30 dr Geranium, 20 dr Lemon, 20 dr Chamomile

Oily Skin

40 dr Geranium, 25 dr Lavender, 25 dr Tea Tree, 10 dr Chamomile

Dry Skin

35 dr Lemon, 35 dr Lavender, 20 dr Geranium, 15 dr Chamomile

Combination Skin

30 dr Lavender, 30 dr Lemon, 20 dr Chamomile, 20 dr Tea Tree

Acne Skin

35 drop Tea Tree, 25 dr Lavender, 20 dr Geranium, 20 dr Lemon

After cleansing and toning you will need to add moisture back to your skin (even oily) Use this blend daily before apply makeup or as part of the morning / evening skincare ritual.

MIX: Into glass jar spoon in Base Cream fill 2/3 of jar add in essential oils, mix with spoon, fill jar and remix


Your “crowning glory” is an important part of your appearance and your confidence. If your hair is oily, messy or lifeless it doesn’t matter how well you dress your appearance lacks the finesse of the ‘together’ look. Why do you think there is the term ‘bad hair day’.

I found I could change this with the right products, and lots of expense, but I decided to find natural alternatives that didn’t break the bank and help my hair without filling it full of chemicals.

Your hair is usually categorized allowing for correct products to be used. Hair can be Normal, Oily, Dry, Damaged and Dandruff. You can tell your hair type by having a look at it in good light and noticing several different aspects.

Normal Hair – shiny and gloss with little or no frizz

Oily Hair – tends to have a buildup of grease, looks dull and lifeless

Dry Hair – usually frizzy and brittle, looks dry and messy

Damaged Hair – any of the above combined with easy breakage and lack of elasticity

Dandruff – flakes found on scalp and may fall onto clothing

Use the correct Essential Oils for different skin types

Normal – Lavender, Chamomile, Lemon, Geranium

Oily – Lavender,Chamomile, Geranium, Tea Tree

Dry – Lavender, Geranium, Chamomile, Lemon

Damaged – Lavender, Chamomile, Geranium, Tea Tree

Dandruff- Lavender, Chamomile, Lemon, Tea Tree


200ml bottle

200 ml Liquid Soap Mix (see soap for recipe)

30 drops Essential Oils as below

Blend Suggestions

dr = drops

Everyday Use for Normal Hair

10 dr Lavender, 8 dr Chamomile, 6 dr Lemon, 6 dr Geranium

Oily Hair

10 dr Geranium, 8 dr Chamomile, 6 dr Lavender, 6 dr Tea Tree

Dry Hair

10 drops Chamomile, 8 drops Lemon, 6 dr Geranium, 6 dr Lavender


10 dr Chamomile, 10 dr Geranium, 5 dr Tea Tree, 5 dr Lavender


10 dr Tea Tree, 8 dr Chamomile, 6 dr Lavender, 6 dr Lemon

This recipe gives you a base for all your Shampoo blends. For babies and children up to 2 years, half the quantity of essential oils.

If you don’t wish to make your own shampoo base buy a natural baby shampoo with no added aromas. You will not get as much foam when you wash with this shampoo as there is no foaming agent added, so don’t be worried you hair is getting clean just the same.

MIX: Pour in Liquid Soap Mix into bottle; add to this your Essential Oils and shake well.


200 ml bottle

47 ml base oil

1 cup Boiled (hot) Water

20 drops (1 ml) Chamomile Essential Oils

Massage into hair, leave on for two – three minutes and rinse off.

This recipe gives you a base for all your conditioner blends. If you don’t wish to make your own conditioner base buy a natural gentle conditioner (baby conditioner) with no added aromas.

MIX: To hot water add Essential Oil and then add base oil mix together (shake well) thoroughly. The ingredients in this mix may separate, as no dispersant was used (chemical use to keep blends from separating in store bought products), before use shake well to remix ingredients.


RATIO: 20 drops essential oil: 100 ml base oil

100 ml bottle

10 drops Lemon

99 ml base oil

Pour approx a tablespoon (2 tablespoons for long hair) into small bowl and heat in microwave or double boiler method until warm (not boiling) pour into palm and massage through hair add another tablespoon if required to give a nice coverage over hair.

Wrap hair in plastic wrap (or plastic bag, or shower cap) and then wrap around a towel, this will keep the heat in giving extra benefit to your treatment.

Allow to remain on hair for 20 – 30 minutes. Rinse out and style as usual (if you find you hair is still to oily you may shampoo and condition your hair).

MIX: To give your hair a lovely revitalizing treatment, blend the base oil with the Essential Oils and shake thoroughly.


Do you love giving gifts, do you love giving high quality gifts that you know they will love?

I love giving gifts and usually try to get something that my friends and family will use and appreciate; sometimes this is hard especially if they are the sort of person who really has everything they need.

I have found over the years that people receive handmade gifts exceptionally well and I think this is because in this day and age where you can buy just about anything you want and people are having more and more ‘stuff’ a beautiful handmade gift that they can see you can taken time and effort to make means they are appreciated.

Another benefit of making gifts from Essential Oils is even though they are handmade they can look and will feel expensive and high quality. I remember giving some bath salts once and the person being quite happy about it, but a couple of days later I get a phone call saying how wonderful the Bath Salts where to use compared to other products she had used in the past and could she have more (I gave her the recipe).

For that added touch always present your gifts elegantly in boxes and package that looks a million.


160 grams Bicarb

40 gram of Citric Acid

20 drops Essential Oil (your blend)

1 tablespoon base oil

1 teaspoon Food coloring or herbs or flower petals for coloring

Combining the natural fizz of Bicarb, that invigorates your mind and body with the wonderful properties of pure Essential Oils to create bath bombs that help the body and mind and are fun for the whole family.

MIX: Combine all dried ingredients in a bowl add Essential Oils 5 drops at a time and mix extremely well and then add base oil. If required add more base oil, your mixture should hold together into a basic shape. Press mixture into mould and allow to set (2 -3 hours). Press out and store in air tight container.


Baths, Foot Baths

BATH OIL – Dissolving

200 ml bottle

100 ml (5ml) Essential Oils (your blend)

30 ml base oil

160 ml vodka

Love oil and baths and the way it gives moisture to your skin and relaxes you but don’t like the oil ring after, how about bath oil without the oil ring.

This blend will nearly dissolves completely in the bath water. A little goes a long way so don’t go overboard. Add to your bath, and enjoy the aromas for relaxations and stress relief.

MIX: Mix together the Essential Oils and vodka, stirring the mixture slowly to disperse all the Essential Oil droplets. Allow the mixture to stand for 2-3 days (in a cool dark place) and then add water. Allow the mixture for another 2-3 days (in a cool dark place) then you may use it (you can make it in all one go, but for a better product this time line is important).


200 grams Epson salts

20 drops Essential Oil (your blend)

1 tablespoon Bicarb

Place is clear jar with ribbon and label will delight your friends.

1 teaspoon Food coloring or herbs or flower petals for coloring

Combine the properties of these truly amazing natural products to create a simple and effective bath product.

MIX: To the Epson salts stir in Bicarb and coloring product (if required) and mix well then add Essential Oil blend and mix again.


As you can see the world of Aromatherapy and using Essential Oils is amazing and diverse. I love that you can create your own Products so simply and that you can adjust them to your individual likes and dislikes.

Using Essential Oil and making Natural Products for you, your family and friend is a great way to save money and benefit for the therapeutic properties at the same time.

Studies Show Vitamin B3 Aids Stroke Recovery

Studies show that Vitamin B3 aids stroke recovery, this was revealed by Henry Ford Neuroscience Institute’s director Dr. Michael Chopp last February during the International Stroke Conference held in Texas.

Commonly known as Niacin, Vitamin B3 releases energy from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats so that these can be used by the body. This way, it helps control blood sugar levels, keeps skin healthy, and maintains proper functioning of the digestive and nervous systems. It is useful in the treatment of osteoarthritis and prevent diabetes or delay the need for insulin.

Niacin’s role in stroke prevention is one of the new discoveries in terms of benefits. It prevents stroke, particularly ischemic stroke due to atherosclerosis, because regular intake of Vitamin B3, which is commonly found in most of the food we consume daily, actually helps increase good cholesterol in the blood and reduces arterial plaque. A fact most beneficial if combined with Vitamin A and E than Niacin alone, according to research.

Now, Niacin’s role in stroke care is increasing as the study of Dr. Chopp seem to indicate. The study involved rats induced with ischemic stroke and given niacin, which in turn revealed an increase in nerve cells and blood vessels. The study indicates that Niacin helps restore neurological functions after stroke.

Dr. Chopp’s team observed that the brains of the ischemic stroke-induced rats showed growth of new blood cells, sprouting of nerve cells, and improved neurological outcomes after these were given Niacin. Thus, they found that Niacin helps restore neurological function in the brain of animals following a stroke by rewiring the brain.

However, since testing of its benefits on stroke treatment is still in animal level, human testing is still needed before Niacin can be proven effective in treating stroke. They are now in the process of conducting human trials through an extended-release form of Niacin in stroke patients.

Their study also confirmed the effectivity of Niacin to increase High-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C) in the blood, also known as the good cholesterol, which helps get rid of fatty deposits in arterial walls that lead to atherosclerosis. Niacin’s increasing of HDL-C in the blood also increased blood vessels in the brain and axonal and dendritic growth leading to a substantial improvement of neurological function.

Niacin is a water-soluble vitamin that can be found in red meat, poultry, potatoes, yoghurt, pasta, fish, nuts, milk, eggs, and foods fortified with it such as breads and breakfast cereals.

Studies show that Vitamin B3 or Niacin aids stroke recovery by rewiring the brain and recreating aspects of it. While studies such as these are still underway for human trial, the fact remains that, as of this time, Vitamin B3 or Niacin is still best for stroke prevention. Meanwhile, stroke victims have NeuroAid to use for their stroke treatment as it still remains effective in neurological functions recovery.

Home Remedies for Kidney Stones

Kidney stones, also known as renal calculi, are rock like structures formed in the kidney. The stones are made out of certain substances that are found in the urine and can block the flow of urine and cause bladder inflammation.

The kidney stones can appear in the kidney and the ureters and cause pain during urination. It is possible to reduce the kidney stones by drinking lots of water

The most common type of kidney stone is indited of calcium oxalate crystals, and factors that promote the precipitation of crystals in the urine are associated with the development of these stones. The kidney stones can occur in the kidney and the ureters and cause pain during urination.

Kidney beans (dried French beans or Rajmah) are very effective natural remedy for kidney stones. Remove the beans from inside the pods, then slice the pods and put about sixty grams in four litre of hot water, boiling them slowly for six hours. This liquid should be strained through fine muslin and then allowed to cool for about eight hours. Again poured this fluid through another piece of muslin without stirring. Take one glass of this liquid for every two hours throughout the day for one day and, thereafter, it may be taken several times a week. This decoction would not work if it was more than twenty-four hours old.

Take a tablespoon of pomegranate seed and grind it into a fine paste and give it to the patient with a cup of horse gram soup. A cup of horse gram soup should be prepared by using two tablespoon of it.

Mix 1 tsp of the juice of Holy basil leaves and 1 tsp of honey. Take this every morning for 5-6 months.

Drink a mixture of 2 oz (60 ml) of lemon juice with 2 oz (60 ml) of olive oil and then a large glass of water. The stones should pass within 24 hours to give you relief. This remedy for kidney stones has worked for many.

If you are adapting a habit of eating less amount of meat and always give preference to eat fish then it will really prevent you from causing kidney stone. This is the best example of home remedies for kidney stone.  The proteins that we get from animal meal give speed to the shaping of uric acid and calcium in the urine.  This causes the formation of kidney stone in your urine. Uric acid takes shape when purines in protein foods are wrecked down. Therefore, if you are patient of uric-acid stones, it is better for you to cut back proteins.

Generic Misoprostol Cytotec Treats Heartburns, Acid Reflux And Gastric Ulcers

Since 1985, the year of its launch, Misoprostol is being widely used for the treatment of stomach and duodenal ulcers, and for inducing an abortion in place of a surgical procedure.  It is a synthetic preparation of prostaglandin E1 and effectively prevents the production of pepsin as well as gastric acid in the stomach, protecting the gastrointestinal lining from ulceration.  Misoprostol is also used to induce labor, treat missed miscarriage as well as postpartum hemmorhage.

A synthetically prepared prostaglandin [fatty acid] E1 analogue, Misoprostol causes the mucous membranes lining the gastrointestinal tract to secrete more mucous and blood, increases the thickness of the mucosal layer, stabilizes tissues, and disables the parietal cells from releasing pepsin.

Misoprostol Generic, also called Cytotec, is often given to prevent the formation of gastric ulcers.  To relieve people from the harmful side effects of NSAIDs, which can injure the gastrointestinal lining, Misoprostol tablets are administered alongside to prevent the formation of ulcers in the stomach, and the duodenum.

It is officially recognized as one of the few medical drugs used to induce abortion, giving women the option of taking an oral medicine instead of going in for surgery, with the advantages of being more economical, overcoming the risk of application of general anesthesia, reducing the chances of secondary infertility that may happen due to surgery, besides granting them privacy as the medicine can be taken at home.  

In a large number of cases it is given between 24-72 hours after Mifepristone is administered.  Mostly, a complete abortion takes place after this.  A follow-up is done after a fortnight to make sure the abortion has been complete, but in those cases, where the entire fetal and placental tissue has not been expelled, a suction procedure using local anesthesia is carried out to complete the process.

In the absence of a spontaneous abortion, it is widely used to treat missed or incomplete miscarriages.  

It is used to treat postpartum hemorrhage also.  The primary post-partum hemorrhage occurs as abnormal uterine bleeding following labor or delivery, or blood in the stools/rectum/vagina/gums.  Secondary postpartum hemorrhage may show up after 2 weeks of childbirth.

Misoprostol is commonly used for stimulating uterine contractions in late pregnancy, for ripening of the cervix; it has also proved to be more effective in inducing labor than other drugs.

The dosage varies according to the condition for which it is being taken.  For prevention of ulceration, 4 doses of the medicine are usually given in a day.  For missed/incomplete/induced abortion and for labor, the dose varies according to the gestation period and the route of administration.  The medicine must be taken as prescribed by the physician.  For a missed dose, you should consult the treating doctor.  

Prior to taking this medicine, you have to tell your doctor whether you have any disease pertaining to the heart, liver or kidney; whether you have an inflammatory bowel disease, adrenal insufficiency, or frequently experience dehydration.  Also inform your doctor about all the medicines [including over-the-counter and/or prescription]-nutritional supplements-herbal products you take, besides any allergy, especially to prostaglandins.

Women who take this to induce an abortion, should be aware that they can have a natural abortion after taking this medicine, but may have abnormal bleeding for several days.  It is recommended that women should avoid conceiving for at least a month after they stop taking this drug, or they should let 1 menstrual cycle lapse before attempting to conceive.  When this medicine is administered in the reproductive tract, it is possible that the immune function may be suppressed and bring about a bacterial infection.

Misoprostol interacts with many medicines, including ophthalmic lubricants, vitamin D, other prostaglandins, bronchodilators, SNRIs, pschyostimulants, antihypertensive medicines, opioids or other analgesics, medicines to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease, or laxatives.  It should not be taken by a woman who is pregnant, planning to conceive, or nursing her baby; while women of child-bearing age must have a negative serum pregnancy result 2 weeks before taking Misoprostol, adopt effective birth control measures, and begin this medicine on the 2nd or 3rd day of their next menstrual period only.

Alcohol should be avoided while taking this medicine, as the two together can make them very drowsy.  Women in particular should not take alcohol during pregnancy as it can harm the fetus. This medicine is not recommended for children, but should be taken by them only if their pediatrician prescribes it.

Side effects commonly associated with this medicine are diarrhea, gas, indigestion, headache, nausea, vomiting, or constipation.  An allergic reaction can present itself as a rash, hives, itching, tightness in the chest, or swelling of any part of the face [lips, tongue, or throat].  Unusual or serious side effects can show up in the form of severe diarrhea, black stools, persistent or dark vomit.

If you suspect you have overdosed on this medicine, or have any bothersome side effects, contact the local poison control centre or the emergency room at once.  The US national poison hotline number is 1-800-222-1222, while the Crisis Pregnancy Helpline number is 1-800-672-2296.

The medicine should be stored at a temperature not exceeding 25oC.  Keep it safe from heat, light, or moisture; while protecting your children and pets from having access to it.

Basic Construction of a Plasma Television Display

In a plasma screen, there are over sixteen million pixels making up the display. Each of those sixteen million are made up of three pixel colors of blue, red and green phosphors, which are evenly distributed across the screen. The entire screen which you view, or rather the picture you watch is made up of a combination of these three colors.

The plasma itself sits and operates between two thin glass panels. Millions of tiny images (made up of the greens, reds and blues) are made by the illumination of fluorescent lights put through them. And the plasma is made of a gas made up from electrically charged atoms and negatively charged particles. Then electricity is passed through it, which starts the ‘lighting’ process, or what we see on-screen.

Plasma TV’s are at the top end of the scale, when it comes to price compared to other types of flat screen. But is there an advantage we clearly see with a plasma TV, compared to LCD?

Because of the flat screen, there is no edge distortion which you sometimes get on normal or CRT TV’s.

View movies made in widescreen or 16:9 format as they should be – in widescreen, not with half a picture cut off! And you know how annoying and frustrating that can be, when you get half the picture cut off or you can’t see the subtitles at the bottom of the screen!

With a plasma, brightness of the display is uniform from one corner to the other. With conventional TV’s you get bright and dark mixed colors, but you don’t have this problem with a plasma display. All sixteen pixels are illuminated evenly.

A major problem with the old type televisions is the huge amount of space they take up in your living room, but this problem is non existent with a flat screen. Because of the slim design, plasma televisions give more options when it comes to mounting them. Be it eye level height, or up higher you can mount a plasma on the wall or it can sit on a normal TV stand.

Another thing which is great about plasmas is that magnetic fields do not interrupt the screen. Plasma displays work completely different from conventional televisions, which uses electron beams, which as you know can be affected greatly by magnetism.The advantages of a plasma can easily be seen here. So you know that sound system you wanted to plant right next to your TV set? With a plasma, you can have the speakers as close as you like without it affecting the picture.

A Simple and Easy Way to Cure External Hemorrhoids in 2 Days

The enlarged veins located in the lower part of rectum and anus is known by the name “Hemorrhoids/ Piles” that millions all over the world suffer. No other living creatures apart from humans suffer from this painful and really embarrassing condition. Although most people think it abnormal but everyone has it in them. Its only when the hemorrhoidal cushions enlarge that hemorrhoid can cause problems or a condition.

Hemorrhoids can be of two types based on its position in the rectal area. Internal Hemorrhoids occur inside the rectum whereas the External Hemorrhoids, the thing which I’m writing on, are usually found on the opening of the anus.

Normally this ailment is more prone to happen to people covering the age of 50. Although they can be embarrassing to talk about, anyone can get hemorrhoids, even healthy young people in good shape. The people who have it have to deal with the itching, discomfort and bleeding, presence of a lump near the anus, itching or irritation in the anal region, leakage of feces, painless bleeding during bowel movements, pain or discomfort, swelling around the anus and few more humiliating signs and symptoms. External hemorrhoids are under the skin around the anus. Irritation is the default symptom of External Hemorrhoids, which can further cause itching or even bleeding. Sometimes while passing stool, blood may pool and can form a clot, resulting in a lot of pain, swelling and inflammation as well. They are also hygiene difficult and cases are there where clots can also develop because of the over straining while passing stool, which is the case after a period of constipation and diarrhea. If the vein ruptures and/or a blood clot develops, the external hemorrhoid is referred to as a thrombosed external hemorrhoid. Don’t panic by the big term, its just that, you have taken your hemorrhoids to the next level.

The causes of External Hemorrhoids are mainly due to constipation and straining during the bowel movements. Pregnancy can also be another cause. The most common cause is the prolonged sitting during a bowel movement. Sitting for long periods of time is also not at all good for External Hemorrhoids as it can worsen it. Other causes can be diarrhea, lifting heavy objects, poor posture, prolonged sitting, eating a diet low in fiber, anal intercourse, and being overweight.These conditions lead to increased pressure within the hemorrhoidal veins causing them to swell.

The best way to rid yourself of hemorrhoids is to change your lifestyle. But a lot of the time we don’t know this until we already have the hemorrhoids. If the suffering comes from sitting too long in office, then you should use a hemorrhoids pillow which are deigned to reduce pressure and can work well. Change your diet which is one of the very important things to do, have a good fiber rich diet, drink lots of water everyday. You can find fiber in large quantities in fruits and vegetables. Try to drink natural fiber laxatives everyday which will help you to make your stool softer so that not much pressure is required while passing stool.

Soaking in shallow bath with warm water will help reduce the swelling and relieve pain. Applying an ice pack on the affected area will also try to reduce the pain to a certain extent. Creams and lotions which contain hydrocortisone as the main ingredient can also be very well used which will provide instant relief from swelling and pain associated with External Hemorrhoids. Mild exercises can also be made a part of your daily routines. Use this, let the painful battle that you lead with Hemorrhoids every morning come to an end.

The Dangerous Side Effects of a Popular Cholesterol Medicine

Lipitor is indicated for the management of patients suffering from high cholesterol. Lipitor is dosed in tablets of 10, 20, 40 and 80 milligrams. It belongs within a group of medications called HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, which are referred to as “statins”.

Patients diagnosed with hyperlipidemia, or high cholesterol should not take Lipitor if the patient is pregnant or trying to become pregnant or if the patient is breast feeding. Atorvastatin is the main active ingredient in Lipitor and therefore if the person is allergic to the drug than they should not consume Lipitor. Lipitor can cause liver disease, and therefore if the patient has a history of liver disease than of course, the medication should be avoided.

The most common side effects of the medication are; constipation, gas, bloating and diarrhea, rashes, heartburn and vomiting. Statins have been known to have side effects, mainly on the digestive system.

Serious side effects have been reported, like liver disease – in patients who have been taking Lipitor for an extended period of time. In a substantial amount of patients severe liver disease occurred, which decreased the function of the liver putting the patient in harm. Liver function has been shown to increase after the medication has been stopped, although tests are inconclusive showing that the liver returns to normal function. In any patient taking Lipitor, regular monitoring is important through the means of liver function lab testing.

Signs of liver disease that patients should watch for include; fever, severe skin rashes including aching, blistering or peeling. Yellow skin, discolored urine or stools, or even difficulty breathing and abdominal pain can mean serious liver damage.

Signs of serious muscle disease should also be watched for while taking the drug – tenderness within the muscles, weakness or discolored or blood within the urine.

Many substances and medications can interact with the drug, including; grapefruit juice, niacin, antacids, birth control pills, fibrades and macrolide antibiotics and digoxin. Some supplements can also interact with the medication causing serious side effects, these include; caffeine and nicotine.

Lipitor can cause serious side effects in the muscles of the body, and grapefruit juice can interact seriously with these side effects by increasing the chances of developing serious muscle problems. The enzymes within the grapefruit, or grapefruit juice that break down the Lipitor, increasing the potency of the drugs, and the chances of developing side effects. One study had shown that the grapefruit/Lipitor interaction increased the potency of the drug up to eighty percent in patients who consumed grapefruit juice, compared to those who did not. These increased levels increased instances of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis which can lead to kidney failure in patients taking Lipitor.

The elderly, taking the medication and those over seventy years of age should be especially careful when taking the medication, as side effects become more pronounced.

There are many things that can be done to prevent, or lower high cholesterol without the use of statins (which have been proven dangerous, and come with many side effects). Diet and exercise as well as the implementation of proper vitamins and nutrients into the diet can make a large impact on lowering the cholesterol.

Cervicitis and Fertility

Cervicitis is a common gynecological disease. It is classified into acute cervicitis and chronic cervicitis. The main symptoms of cervictis are: excessive or thick vaginal fluid, blood with vaginal fluid, and pelvic pain. Especially for patients with chronic cervicitis, their symptoms are not so severe that they often ignore it. Little do they know that if cervicitis left untreated, it can cause infertility. So, why does cervicitis cause infertility?

To understand infertility, we must first understand the conception. Generally speaking, sperm comes into the uterine cavity from the cervix first, passed oviduct to the ampulla, then fused with the egg, and became a fertilized egg. After that the fertilized egg moves to the intrauterine from the oviduct, and then, with the nidation and development, a complete process of conception finished. Problems in any part of this process can cause infertility. Cervix is the first hurdle, cervicitis hinders the sperm successfully reach to the fertilization place and fertilise the egg, which can result in infertility. Cervix contains cervical glands that can produce mucus, which is a major component of vaginal discharge. Once cervicitis occurs and the inflammation aggravates, cervical secretions increases, and its quality can be more sticky. The sticky secretions can reduce the sperm motility. So it is difficult for the sperm to swim through the uterine cervix, which then leads infertility. Moreover, there will be a large number of white blood cells in the cervical secretions, these white blood cells fights with the pathogens to eliminate cervical inflammation. However they can also swallow sperms. In the process of swimming to the egg, the sperms were fighters. After carefully selected, only one sperm with the strongest activity and vitality can fertilise the egg. The appearance of the cervicitis makes the race ahead. The white blood cells phagocytose the sperms, which makes sperm wreck almost a half. What’s more, the inflammation environment will reduce the vitality of the sperm, thick secretions also makes poor sperm motility. Sperm then can’t pass the cervix. The left sperms are killed by the bacterial and its virus. So, the probability of infertility of the patients with cervical is generally bigger than normal, and the pathogens that infect the cervix commonly moves upward and causes endometritis and salpingitis, which eventually leads to tubal blockage, and thoroughly cause infertility.

In summary, cervicitis ought to be treated in time to avoid infertility. In clinical cervicitis, moderate and severe cervicitis usually treated by topical antibiotics and operations. Whereas there have been a large number of flora in women’s vagina, long-term antibiotic treatment may lead to the imbalance of vaginal flora, as a result, pathogens become resistant to antibiotic, the treatment effect will be greatly reduced and the illness break out repeatedly. Surgical treatment of cervicitis prevailingly refers to remove lesions, but there are a lot of patients whose leucorrhea is still abnormal after the surgery, therefore patients who have been finding the drugs that can treat cervix effectively but without side effects is increasing. Fuyan Pill, the pure Chinese herbal medicine, is the preference for the patients with cervical. The functions of Fuyan Pill are: dispel wind and eliminate dampness, promote blood circulation and dissolve stasis, and clear away heat and toxic material. Herbs in Fuyan Pill’s prescription which can clear away heat and toxic materials can kill virous pathogens; herbs in Fuyan Pills’s prescription which can promote blood circulation and dissolve stasis can regulate the overall function of the female reproductive system, and make which normal. Taking Fuyan Pill for three months, you can cure your cervix completely, and avoid infertility caused by the cervicitis!

Acid Reflux, Heartburn, Gerd, Symptoms, Stomach Ulcer Protonix

Acid reflux is a condition where gastric juices containing acid travel back from the stomach into the esophagus (gullet or swallowing tube). Acid reflux is also the cause of heartburn and in severe cases, this can be very troublesome, it can last several months or longer if not treated. Acid reflux is mainly caused due to regurgitation or refluxing of partly digested food back to esophagus. Acid reflux is a chronic condition which if not treated properly in early stages it can lead to several other severe complications. Acid Reflux treatment includes medications along with certain dietary and lifestyle changes.

Acid reflux occurs when liquids and food from the stomach regurgitate or reflux into the esophagus and sometimes out the mouth. Acid reflux also referred by Gastric reflux disease, GORD (Gastro-esophageal reflux disease) or GERD (Gastro esophageal reflux disease) is a very painful disease as it may last from few to several years.

Acid reflux may also cause too much injury by developing ulcers near the stomach and oesophagus, also pronounced as esophagus, narrowing of oesophagus or oesophageal reflux, a rare type of cancer. Acid reflux is very difficult to be detected in children or infants. Acid reflux is a disorder where the acidic juices of the stomach flow back (reflux) into the esophagus. Acid reflux can be diagnosed and treated so that the symptoms are relived. Acid reflux is a particularly unpleasant problem, but it doesn’t have to be a debilitating one.

Acid Reflux Treatment there are many different treatment options available for acid reflux and heartburn. Heartburn, the burning sensation in the middle of the chest that is usually triggered after eating, is actually the most common symptom of a more complex disorder called GERD (Gastroesophageal reflux disease) or acid reflux a condition where the stomach refluxes or backs up its liquid content to the esophagus.

Heartburn symptoms caused by GERD are usually relieved by drugs called proton pump inhibitors (Prilosec, Prevacid, Aciphex, Protonix, and Nexium). Treatment for GERD depends on how severe symptoms are, where the treatment may just include lifestyle changes, such as changing what one eats or drinks. Gastroesophageal reflux disease, commonly referred to as GERD or acid reflux, is a condition in which the liquid content of the stomach regurgitates (backs up or refluxes) into the esophagus. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a more serious form of gastroesophageal reflux (GER), which is common. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic disease that causes recurrent acid reflux.

PROTONIX® (pantoprazole sodium) Delayed-Release Tablets are indicated for the short-term treatment of duodenal ulcer, erosive esophagitis, gastric ulcer, gastroesophageal reflux disease, helicobacter pylori infection, peptic ulcer, zollinger ellison syndrome, stress ulcer prophylaxis. Protonix is commonly called in Canada as Pantoloc and it is generically in the medical world as Pantoprazole. Protonix is the used for the reduction of the amount of acid produced in the stomach. Protonix is a medicine indicated for the treatment of esophageal damage caused by GERD or Gastroesophageal reflux disease. Protonix inhibits or blocks (H+,K+)-ATPase by forming a bond to two sites of the enzyme system, and as a result, suppresses the final step in gastric acid production. Protonix Delayed- Release Tablets should be swallowed whole, with or without food in the stomach. Protonix is used to treat damage to the esophagus associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and other conditions involving excessive stomach acid production (e. Protonix may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this medication guide. Protonix can be taken with or without food. Protonix can also be used for other purposes aside from the ones stated in this medical guide.

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Fast Way to Lower Blood Pressure Quickly – 5 Tips to Knock Off 15 Points

If you want a fast way to lower blood pressure quickly, your BP reading should not be greater than 139/99. In other words you should be pre-hypertensive not hypertensive to give these ideas a try. If you are hypertensive, these tips will probably help but talk to your doctor first.

The Fastest Way: Exercise. Mild aerobic exercise like walking, swimming and cycling can drop up to 4 points immediately if you do at least 30 minutes a day. The drop will last about 22 hours so this is something you have to make a regular part of your day.

Eat Potassium: Your doctor has probably told you to restrict the salt in your diet. However salt is only half the equation. Your body needs a specific relationship between salt (sodium) and the mineral potassium. Most of the potassium we get comes in a processed form and it’s value is diminished because of the tons of salt that comes with processing. The solution? Eat fresh sources of potassium. The banana is a rich source and has dietary fiber as well. Eat a banana a day and your BP can drop up to 3 points in 2 weeks.

Hydrate: Dehydration is becoming a big problem in this country. Drinking sufficient water is good for a number of ailments but with BP it tends to soften the arteries allowing them to dilate, expels salt, and improves kidney function. Drink 50% of your body weight in ounces each day. If you weigh 150 pounds, drink 75 ounces of water.

Cold Water Fish: Substitute two red meat meals a week with mackerel, salmon, sardines or tuna. These fish are rich in Omega-3 and good cholesterol, and by substituting them for red meat you are automatically reducing saturated fat and bad cholesterol.

Get Some Sleep: Sleep is the natural way to work off stress which impacts on your high blood pressure. At a minimum get 6 hours but shoot for eight.

If you can follow these tips you can shave 12 to 18 points off your BP in less than 3 two weeks.