Inguinal Hernia – Ever Heard of It?

The inguinal hernia is the protrusion of an intestinal segment or a part of the abdominal peritoneum layer called on the inside of the inguinal canal. It happens in the groin area because of a weaker point for the abdominal wall. Inside the inguinal canal is the spermatic cord in men and around the ligament of the uterus in women localized.

Most at risk of developing a hernia is usually men, obese people and people who have recently been subjected to a surgical procedure on his stomach that may have weakened the outer wall. Inguinal hernia can theoretically appear in both children and adults, but the risk increases with age; inguinal hernias have also proven to be influenced by hereditary factors.

The person responsible weakness of the abdominal layer can be congenital in some cases, but can also be induced by the high and rapid weight gain or loss, high lift or pregnancies. A chronic lung condition causing intense cough may be responsible for the tide to develop hernia, an enlarged prostate can cause straining in the abdomen or straining in the gut movements caused by constipation, which may also lead to the apparition of an inguinal hernia in time.

Inguinal hernias appear as painless bulge in the groin, and may even extend to the scrotum for men if it is not treated in time. The bulge may sometimes cause discomfort and tenderness while continuing to heavy lifting. Hernias often disappear while the patient lies down and could be drawn back inside the belly of the incipient stages. When parts of the intestines, or a fragment of the peritoneum are trapped inside the inguinal canal, called the irreducible hernia and usually leads to more pain and problems for the patient. Part of the intestines can be trapped inside the inguinal canal forms strangled hernia, in this case, blood supply is cut off and intestinal fragment may die causing major complications without a real quick intervention.

The actual diagnosis of an inguinal hernia is established by the doctor for a physical examination, while he can ask the patient to cough up to see movements in the groin bulge. The most effective treatment for hernias is the surgical herniorraphy when hernial contents are drawn back into the abdomen and the weak point in the abdominal wall is repaired. A hernioplasty is also possible, and the surgeon can, in this case, reinforce the abdominal wall by placing a synthetic material on the abdomen layer. A more modern intervention is the laparoscopic procedure with the same technique as in the classic operation, but with the use of two small incisions for a small camera and surgical instruments.

We can protect us from non-congenital hernias by not lifting heavy objects, which prevents constipation, maintain a normal body weight and avoid cigarette smoking.

Harley Davidson VRSC Motorcycle

These Harley Davidson VRSC motorcycles come under the revolution models with VR engines. The VRSC designation is given to all the street motorcycles.
The VRSC is followed by the letters A, B, D, R, SE or X to denote the model of the bike.

Additional information:
The main features of this type of Harley Davidson VRSC motorcycles are as follows:

1.It has a characteristic ‘V-Rod’ with the engine.
2.It has the fuel injection method.
3.There is provision for the cooling of the liquid and
4.There are specialised over head cams.
5.There is presence of cleaner cover which supports the radiator.

The V-rod feature has gained a wide support over the world. There is an anti lock brake system. There is an added efficiencyfrom 1130cc to 1250 cc which provides more support to the bike.


1.It has a length of 94.4 inches
2.Seat height in the laden is 26 inches and unladen is 27.1 inches.
3.It has a ground clearance of 5 inches.
4.There is a wheel base of 67.2 inches
5.The fuel and oil capacity are 5 gal and 4.5 qt.

Power train:
1.It has a liquid cooled engine with 60 degrees v twin revolution.
2.The displacement accounts for around 76.3 inches.
3.The torque for the engine is 84 ft. lbs. for 7000 rpm.
4.There is a 11.5:1 ratio of compression.

Wheels and tyres:
1.The front and rear wheels are either brushed or machined type with laced or cast aluminium.

Special features:
1.It has silver and charcoal power train with chrome covers and it is two toned.
2.The seat height is very low which accounts only 26 inches.
3.It has frame made up of steel with aluminium coat.
4.The tire is 240mm wide.
5.The foot controls are mounted in the forward direction.

VRSCD Night Rod:
1.It has a length of 94.4 inches
2.Seat height in the laden is 26 inches and unladen is 27.1 inches.
3.It has a ground clearance of 5 inches.
4.There is a wheel base of 67.2 inches
5.The fuel and oil capacity are 5 gal and 4.5 qt.

Power train:
1.It has a liquid cooled engine with 60 degrees v twin revolution.
2.The displacement accounts for around 76.3 inches.
3.The torque for the engine is 85 ft. lbs. for 7000 rpm.
4.There is a 11.5:1 ratio of compression.

Wheels and tyres:
1.The front and rear wheels are 5 spoked with black and laced or cast aluminium.

Special features:
1.It has special pegs to run on high ways.
2.The seat height is very low which accounts only 26 inches.
3.The tire is 180mm in the rear end.
4.The foot controls are mounted in the mid level.
5.The headlamps are matched with the color.

VRSCDX Night Rod Special:
1.It has a length of 94.4 inches
2.Seat height in the laden is 25.2 inches and unladen is 26.3 inches.
3.It has a ground clearance of 4.2 inches.
4.There is a wheel base of 67.2 inches
5.The fuel and oil capacity are 5 gal and 4.5 qt.

Power train:
1.It has a liquid cooled engine with 60 degrees v twin revolution.
2.The displacement accounts for around 76.3 inches.
3.The torque for the engine is 85 ft. lbs. for 7000 rpm.
4.There is a 11.5:1 ratio of compression.

Wheels and tyres:
1.The front and rear wheels are black along with a slotted type of disc.

Special features:
1.The seat height is very low which accounts only 25.2 inches.
2.The tire is 240 mm in the rear end.
3.The foot controls are mounted in the forward level.
4.The handle bar has a short drag style.
5.There are black exhaust caps.

Thus the Harley Davidson VRSC motorcycles are specialized in their own way and gain support worldwide.

Know Your Mini Moto

The Mini Moto is a small scale replica of the World Super Bikes used by the likes of Valentino Rossi and ex champion Carl Fogarty. The Mini Moto comes equipped with either a two stroke air or water cooled engine which are, depending on the model, capable of speeds of up to 60Mph.

In this article I will underline the finer points of the components that make these speeds possible.

The two Stroke Engine

The two stroke engine produces more hp per pound than the four stroke engine. The two stroke engine consists of three moving parts, the piston, the rod and the crank. The piston acts as valve that opens and closes the intake and exhaust ports that are located on the walls of the cylinder. Unlike the four stroke engine that fires only every other time of the pistons movement, the two stoke engine fires every time the piston reaches the top of its travel. This means that the time spent generating power is doubled in the two stroke engine than that of the four stroke engine, as there is no engine coasting during passive cycles. This is the main reason that the two stroke engine can rev more highly and produce more power (for its size) that the four stroke.


The two stroke engine needs to be run on a mixture of petrol and two stroke oil. This is so that the engine is kept lubricated whilst in use.

99% of all starting problems are caused by fuel problems. These can stem from bad or old fuel and improperly mixed fuel (please see mixing chart).

Do not use fuels that contain alcohol, as the can cause you bike to run ‘lean’. Be advised some racing fuels contain alcohol and are best avoided..

We recommend that you use normal petrol for a garage and a quality two stroke oil.

A mixture that is too lean I.e not enough two stroke oil can damage your mini moto’s engine as the moving parts are not properly lubricated. This can cause the engine to seize. However a mixture that is too rich can choke the engine and effect the performance and cause starting problems. You can tell if your mini moto is running too richly by the plumes of white smoke coming out of the exhaust and the lack of performance. A rich mixture (25:1) is needed to lubricate the engine during the ‘run in’ period, you may experience a lack of performance during this period. The pocket bike may run more slowly and acceleration can be sluggish, however when you change to a mixture of 50:1 you will really notice a difference. The leaner mix ignites in the combustion chamber faster and with a more explosive force than the richer mix. This means higher revs which means more power and acceleration.

We recommend that a fuel mixture of 25:1 is used to ‘run in’ you mini moto, and a mixture of 50:1 is used thereafter.

‘Running in’

Your mini moto should be ‘run in’ for the first 3-4 tanks of fuel. During this period we recommend that you use a fuel mixture of 25:1. This means a mixture that is made up of 25 parts petrol to 1 part of two stroke oil. During the ‘running in’ period be careful to not rev the engine to its maximum as this can damage the engine. The ‘running in’ period will allow the moving parts to become well oiled and the clutch and brakes to ‘bed’ themselves in. After you have run the minimoto on this fuel mixture for 3-4 tanks, check the chain and tighten accordingly, check the tyre pressure, tighten the bolts on the brakes, forks and wheels. You may also need to readjust the throttle settings to allow for the higher revs that changing to a leaner fuel mix produces. The bike should now be ready for a fuel mixture of 50:1.


The mini moto uses a centrifugal clutch to power the drive the sprocket, which in turn drives the back wheel of your mini moto.

When you start your mini moto the clutch spins as the engine ticks over . The clutch is engaged when you pull back on the throttle. The increase in speed of revolution of the clutch makes the clutch expand and grip the inside of the clutch bell which turns the sprocket that drives the back wheel of your pocket bike.

The clutch can be set up in different ways depending on the type of performance that you want from your minimoto. Adjustable clutches are not standard on mini moto’s but an after market Polani or Blata style adjustable clutch can be used in your new mini moto. These allow the rider to adjust the mini moto’s set up in according to their preference. Setting the clutch to engage too late when the engine has built up too much power may cause the clutch to slip and never fully engage. This can result in excessive wearing. However setting the clutch to engage too early, before the power has built up in the engine can cause your pocket bike to ‘bog down’, resulting in slow acceleration. The perfect set up is to get the clutch to engage just as the engine has built enough power to rocket the mini moto away, but without making the clutch slip, this is achievable through trial and error.

Spark Plug

Making sure that your spark plug is fresh is important in a two stroke mini moto engine. You can tell a lot from the colour of the spark plug. The top part of your spark plug is covered in ceramic insulator which, when brand new is white. This part of the spark plug can change colour according to how your engine is running. The plug should appear as a nice tan colour when the engine is running perfectly, this indicates complete combustion. A greyish or white colour indicates that the engine is running too lean which can result in engine damage. In this case you should clean and check your fuel system for any obstruction, check your fuel mixture, check for loose intake manifold bolts and carburettor mounting leeks, faulty gaskets and leaking crank seals. Anywhere that your engine could potentially leek and suck in fresh air can be the source of a lean condition.

A blackened or oily spark plug indicates improper combustion and is the result of running too rich. This can be caused by too much oil in the mixture or the spark plug could be faulty and misfiring. Check the fuel mixture and replace the spark plug.

Air Filter

Your new mini moto is equipped with an air filter. Some bikes such as the B1 Origami rep liquid cooled and the Mini Dirt bike have a ‘cone’ style K and N style air filter. The 2005 mk2 mini moto and the B1 Origami Replica air cooled bikes have a standard mini moto air filter. Both air filters purify the intake of air that is sucked into the carburettor. This means that the air filter should be cleaned regularly as the mini moto’s performance can begin to suffer as the engine can become starved of air if the air filter is choked with debris. To reach the air filter, remove the bikes bottom fairing, remove the protective cover by unscrewing the holding screws. Clean the air filter in petrol but make sure that the filter is dry before reattaching to you mini moto.


The tyres on your mini moto are filled with air (pneumatic). Please consult your mini moto handbook for the appropriate psi. It is important to check the tyre pressure regularly, an under inflated tyre will affect the performance of your mini moto, acceleration can become sluggish and cornering can become dangerous.


Before riding your mini moto you need to make sure that the front and back sprockets are aligned and that the chain is perfectly straight running between them. Once you have established this make sure that the chain is tensioned correctly (please see your mini moto handbook). To test the tension of the chain you can manually push the pocket bike, if you hear a ‘pinging’ or ‘popping’ sound the chain is too loose. If the chain is noisy and starts to bind the chain is too tight.

Make sure that the chain is well oiled. The chain needs to be oiled before every ride.


The gearing of you mini moto is dictated by the number of the teeth on the front sprocket and on the back sprocket. The sprockets can be changed as an easy way to manipulate top end speed and acceleration, quite like changing gear on a mountain bike. A front sprocket with more teeth will improve acceleration, however the top end speed will be reduced. A larger rear sprocket will produce a higher top speed but acceleration will suffer. The gearing on your bike can be adjusted in accordance for the track you are intending to ride I.e. a small track with a lot of bends will suit gearing for improved acceleration, however a track with long straights will require a mini moto that is geared for a higher top speed.


The throttle on your new mini moto is a ‘twist grip’ style throttle. When you twist the throttle the throttle cable is pulled back revving the engine. It is important to keep this cable free from obstacles and clean. If the throttle begins to feel ‘loose’ of ‘gives’, the tension of the cable can be adjusted via the adjusting screw.


The brake system comprises of brake levers, brake cables, brake callipers and brake discs.

The brakes on your mini moto are operated by levers found on the handle bars. The right hand brake controls the front brake, and the left controls the back brake. Pulling on the handle pulls the brake cable which in turn pulls the lever located on the bake calliper. This action pushes the brake discs towards each other. This creates friction on the brake disc which slows down or stops the bike.

The brakes can be adjusted in the following ways.

The brake cable can be tensioned using the adjustment screw found on the brake lever. Unscrew the locking nut, twist the screw to reach the desired tension. Re screw the locking nut.

This is a two person job. Adjust the screw on the hand brake so that is at the end of its travel. Undo the clamp that holds the brake cable on the lever located on the brake calliper. One person needs to push the lever forward as far as it will, the second person needs to pull back on the brake cable and re fasten the clamp. The crake cable will now be highly tensioned.

Pull Start

To start the mini moto pull slowly to turn the fly wheel. This pumps some fuel around the engine, which lubricates the moving parts. Pull the pull start firmly in order to start the engine. Important, do not pull the cord to the end of its run as it can break. If the mini moto does not start check the choke and the throttle cable.


The choke controls the amount of air that is allowed into the air/fuel mix. The choke is adjusted via a lever located on the side and back of the engine. The choke is off when the lever is down, and on when the lever is up.

When you start the mini moto the choke should be on, when the mini moto is warm and ready to ride the choke needs to be off.


It is recommend that any adjustments to the carburettor are made by a professional. The carburettor pumps and mixes the fuel and air. The small diaphragms, orifices and ports mix the air and fuel very precisely, this process demands clean fresh fuel.


The jet can be adjusted by the screw located in the access hole to the right of the choke lever. The jet is adjusted by the manufacture however the conditions of where you wish to ride may be different, which means that you will need to make adjustments. Turning the screw clockwise will make the bike run with a leaner mixture, and counter clockwise will richen the mixture. Only adjust the screw 1 tern a at time and then test the mini moto, this is trail and error. Please note that it is best to find the optimum setting for performance and then run a slightly richer mixture as a mix that is too lean can seize the engine.

Baclofen Drug (medication) Information

for what Baclofen is used

Oral: Therapy for trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux); tardive dyskinesia.
Intrathecal: Cerebral palsy spasticity in children.

How to Take Baclofen

Take Baclofen exactly as prescribed by health care provider. Baclofenis generally available in market in the form of Injection 3 mg/mL . Instruct patient before using Baclofen to take drug exactly as prescribed. If dose is missed it should be taken within 1 hr. Warn patient not to double up on doses. If there is not a substantive clinical response to increases in the daily dose, check for proper pump function and catheter patency. The daily maintenance of Baclofendose may be reduced 10% to 20% if patients experience side effects.

Dosage Instructions for BaclofenDrug

Oral: Treatment of reversible spasticity resulting from multiple sclerosis. May be of some value in patients with spinal cord injuries and other spinal cord diseases.
Intrathecal: Treatment of severe spasticity of spinal cord origin in patients who are unresponsive to or cannot tolerate oral baclofen therapy. Used intrathecally in single bolus test doses; chronic use requires implantable pump.

Contraindications for BaclofenDrug

Treatment of spasms from rheumatic disorders, stroke, cerebral palsy and Parkinson disease; use of intrathecal form via IV, IM, SC, or epidural routes.
Interactions of Baclofenw
ith other drugs

CNS depressants: May cause increased sedative effects.
Morphine (epidural): May cause hypotension and dyspnea.

What are the Side Effects of Baclofen –

Like other medicines, Baclofencan cause side effects. Some of the more common side effects of Baclofeninclude

* Hypotension; palpitations; chest pain.
* Drowsiness; weakness in lower extremities; dizziness;
* eizures; headache; numbness; euphoria; depression;
* onfusion; lethargy; insomnia; hallucinations; paresthesia;
* sthenia; anxiety; agitation.
* Pruritus; rash
* Tinnitus; blurred vision; taste disorder; nasal congestion.
* Nausea; vomiting; dry mouth; constipation; diarrhea; abdominal pain; anorexia
* Urinary frequency; enuresis; dysuria; impotence.
* Hypotonia; slurred speech; muscle pain; ankle edema; excessive perspiration; weight gain; back pain.
* Dyspnea; pneumonia; hypoventilation.

Warnings and precautions before taking Baclofen :

* Abrupt discontinuation has resulted in high fever, altered mental status, exaggerated rebound spasticity, and muscle rigidity that in rare cases advances to rhabdomyolysis, multiple organ system failure and death.
* The safety and efficay of Baclofen medicine have not been studied in children and adolescents.
* Give special attention to patients at apparent risk (eg, spinal cord injuries at T-6 or above, communication difficulties, history of withdrawal symptoms from oral or intrathecal baclofen.
* Advise women before using Baclofen to inform health care provider if pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or breastfeeding while taking Baclofen. Insulin is recommended to maintain blood glucose levels during pregnancy. Prolonged severe neonatal hypoglycemia can occur if sulfonylureas are administered at time of delivery.
* Warn patient before using Baclofen not to discontinue medication abruptly. Explain that hallucinations or seizures may occur.
* Instruct patient before using Baclofen to report the following symptoms to health care provider: dizziness, nausea, hypotension, urinary frequency, retention, painful urination, headache, seizures, weakness.

What if Overdose of Baclofen ?

If you think you or anyone else taken overdose of Baclofen, immediately telephone your doctor or contact your local or regional Poisons Information Centre Seek medical attention immediately. You may need urgent medical attention. Vomiting, muscular hypotonia, muscle twitching, drowsiness, accommodation disorders, coma, respiratory depression, seizures (oral); drowsiness, lightheadedness, dizziness, somnolence, respiratory depression, seizures (intrathecal) are may be the overdose symptoms of Baclofen.

What if Missed Dose of Baclofen?

If you miss a dose of Baclofenmedicine and you remember within an hour or so, take the dose immediately. If you do not remember until later, skip the dose you missed and go back to your regular schedule. Do not double doses.

Storage Conditions for Baclofen:

Store at room temperature in tightly closed container. Have resuscitation equipment available during trial drug period if intrathecal administration is considered. Patient must have positive response to trial of intrathecal medication before use of implantable pump.

By: ashu

Atypical Bipolar – Four Signs of Difficult to Diagnose Bipolar Disorder

Atypical bipolar disorder is barely spoken of, mainly because it does not have any defining features. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association, includes a category for NOS, that is, not as specified. Some forms of bipolar can be difficult to diagnose, as they don’t fit into any standard pattern of behaviors. Here are the four signs that the APA classifies as indicating atypical bipolar disorder.

1.) Rapid Mood Fluctuations

Normally, a manic or depressive mood has to last for days to classify as bipolar disorder, but in some cases manic symptoms don’t meet the minimal duration considered for a diagnosis. Of course, everyone doesn’t fit into a nice little box, so different people with bipolar disorder will experience different severity and duration of their symptoms.

2.) Recurrent Hypomanic Episodes

Like a pendulum, when someone with bipolar disorder has a mood swing one way, they will swing back in the other direction. Usually this means a hypomanic phase will result in mild to severe depression. In atypical bipolar disorder, a person can go from a hypomanic phase to normal, and back again, skipping the depressive phase.

3.) Clouded Data

Sometimes drugs or medications can mimic the effects of bipolar disorder. For example, methamphetamines can mimic the appearance of mania, though the effects are the temporary side effect of a drug. If a psychiatrist is not sure whether the bipolar is caused by drugs, they will classify it as atypical.

4.) Co-existing Illnesses

Mental disorders are linked, so it can sometimes be difficult to tell which one someone has. Sometimes a person will show symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder together, making it hard to determine whether the person is schizophrenic or manic depressive. In instances where disorders are stacked on top of one another, someone can be classified as having atypical bipolar disorder.

The Study of the Gothic Element of Madness in Poe’s Selected Works

One of the main features and themes of Poe’s Gothic stories is the theme of madness. In defining madness in Gothic texts, traditional psychoanalytic approaches provide familiar and problematic answers. If according to Botting (1996) Gothic signifies a writing of excess (p.1), then madness is thoroughly a Gothic concern since it exceeds reason. Gothic does not merely transcribe disturbed and vicious or horrifying worlds: its narrative structures and voices are interwoven with and intensify madness they represent. Poe’s “heroes” have obvious flaws or rational strengths that never allow the victory of insane perception over reality. But he loves the exploration of imagination and the power of bringing the effects into artistic existence. Madness in Poe’s Gothic tales is being studied in two ways: mental alienation and madness doesn’t versus reason.

Mental alienation

Though madness and mental illness are brought together in the field of insane and excluded languages, madness and mental illness have no relationship in literature. But in three separate circumstances Poe’s narrator of the “the Fall of House of Usher” refers to Roderick as a ‘hypochondriac’. At first glance it seems odd that he should do so, because he never states his slightest doubt that Roderick is really sick: definitely upon greeting Usher, the narrator is shocked by his friend’s ‘altered appearance’. This contradiction is explained while we come to understand that, the narrator who claims he has some knowledge of ‘the history of mental disorder’ is using a medical term. In fact he correctly diagnosed Roderick’s combination of physical and mental complaints as symptoms of hypochondria, a melancholic disorder which has been discovered for centuries and was widely known and discussed among physicians in Poe’s own time. In Poe’s time the doctors viewed a broad relationship between mental alienation and the imaginative insight. But they in no way distinguished between hallucination and the possibility that the Romantic imagination could break through the bounds of ordinary perception to a higher order. The moment of Romantic triumph, in which the individual imagination succeeded in idealizing the real, was in medical terms, the moment at which a nervous disorder turned to complete delusion.

It could be said that there is a connection between the imaginative power which characterizes people like Usher and the actual madness. There is this possibility that Poe saw a connection between creativity and madness. The puzzle which Poe’s Gothic fiction seems repeatedly to pose is that described by the character of “Elenora”:

In “Elenora” as in “Ligeia” and “Morella” the rebirth or the reincarnation of the beloved suggests that the Romantic idealist may, mad though he be, finally achieve some success in his quest for a higher meaning. If the rebirth is actual and not hallucinatory, then the protagonist imagination succeeds in idealizing his early mistress: if his beloved indeed passes through the tomb, then his sensual affection is transmuted into a bond with the supernatural.

In fact it is in the framework of this connection between madness and idealizing faculty in stories like “Elenora” and “Ligeia” that we can most profitably examine the role which Roderick’s hypochondria plays in “The Fall of House of Usher”. Like the narrators of these tales, Roderick is a madman whose imaginative powers may actually increase as his mind sickens; and as in the other fictions the idealizing capacities of those powers are seemingly confirmed by supernatural events reaching their climax at the end of the tale and involving, although in Usher’s realm, the family mansion plays a part as well, the apparent rebirth of a woman to whom the madman has been closely allied. Usher’s superstitious impressions concerning his ancestral home and the sister he entombs within are thoroughly in keeping with the symptoms of hypochondria. Early in the story he refers to those symptoms when he tells the narrator that he dreads the future, “when he must abandon life and reason together, in some grim phantasm, FEAR”(p.202). When Madeline struggles up from the bowels of their conscious dwelling and Roderick rises to meet her dying and deadly embrace, then the two are at once fulfilling the dark fate of the family line and experiencing the ultimate crisis of the family illness. With the death of the twins their sympathetic mansion sinks into tarn: in keeping with its disorder the house of Usher has finally surrounded to its own worst and most fascinating- fear.

Thus what the narrator tries to do is to comfort and rescue Roderick from an illness in which the exterior self has been lost to the interior world of the imagination. The isolation of Roderick’s life from outer reality can be seen in the atmosphere surrounding the mansion which seems to arise from the decayed trees and dank tarn. In this case Brennan (1997) points out: “Poe evokes Usher’s lack of sane boundaries not only through his creativity, but also through his belief that all vegetable things including fungus encasing House of Usher-are conscious of perception and feeling” (p141).

Roderick’s fantasy world is like that of an artist: his music; his literature which deals with extremes of the human imagination; and his art that portrays a vault which is illuminated from no visible source but is “…bathed…in a ghastly…splendor.” Roderick, unlike an artist, has lost control of his fantasy world so that it has become all of reality.

As a result it can be stated that , what happens in “The Fall of the House of Usher” is that Poe explores the inner workings of the human imagination but, at the same time, cautions the reader about the destructive dangers within. When fantasy suppresses reality and the physical self, as in Roderick’s case, what results is madness and mental death. Madeline’s return and actual death reunites the twin natures of their single being, claiming Roderick as a “victim to the terrors that he had anticipated.”

Madness Does NOT Vs Reason

Brewster (2000) in his essay “Gothic and Madness of Interpretation” discusses Foucault and Derrida’s theory of madness. Foucault in his famous history of madness calls madness as a ‘crisis of reason”(p.282). He claims that there is no relationship between madness and mental illness though they have occupied the same place in language. Therefore madness resists the confines of reason. Derrida, however, argues that madness can be thought within reason, but only by questioning or thinking against reason. The difference between Derrida and Foucault is pointed out by Brewster which is worth quoting:

Derrida observes that Foucault’s archeology of this Silence (madness as silenced other of reason) lends over, system or language to that silence, thus repeating the Capture and objectification of madness by classical reason. Whereas Foucault sees madness expelled from the domain of reason, Derrida traces its inclusion in the cogito. (p.282)

Therefore, writing at the edge of delirium is the condition of thinking. Setting out Foucault and Derrida’s terms, it can be said that Gothic fiction produces the crises of reason in association with the crises of madness. As the result, in this theory, reading Gothic means willingly being involved in the delusional systems of texts and to adopt their hallucination in order to overcome and be overcome by their power of conviction.

In “The Fall of House of Usher” the narrator, who is vulnerable to the delirium built by the Usher territory, constantly swings between the perceptible rationality and ‘the rapid increase of his superstition’. In fact his doubts and confusion mirrors Madeline’s physician who seems ‘perplexed with low cunning’. The narrator, a victim to Roderick’s wild influences, is our only sane witness; however his narrative authority turns out of control. He champions the vision of a fictional; tale to alleviate what he believes to be Roderick’s delusional madness, while his own narrative detachment (itself a construction of events) is progressively crossed by his own enthralling meeting with the Ushers. What makes sense here is that Roderick may have deliberately buried Madeline alive, the narrator may be complicit in her hasty burial, but we cannot validate the madness of the Usher household with certainty. The narrator’s mind staggers between objective knowledge and delirium as he escapes the collapsing house leaving the reader in a state of confusion and doubt.

In “The Tell-Tale Heart” the narrator’s distinction between madness and acute hearing ability seems so important to him that the reader becomes susceptible whether he is really mad or not. At the very beginning of the story he says: “…but why will you say that I am mad. The disease had sharpened my senses-not destroyed-not dulled them. Above all is the sense of hearing more.”(p.354). Whether the sound is the hallucination of his own heart beat or the old man’s heart, first heard in reality and then imagined to be heard or that of deathwatch beetling, the fact is that whatever he actually hears, it shows that he is gradually dissociated from reality. In the third paragraph of the story he says:

Now this is the point. You fancy me mad. Madmen know nothing. But you should have seen me. You should have seen so wisely I proceeded-with what caution- with what foresight-with what dissimulation I went to work! (p.354)

This quotation closely examines what was already discussed about Foucault and Derrida’s theory on madness pointed out earlier. Reading the story closely, two sides of the narrator’s personality is apparently seen; very dreadfully nervous and impulsive, nevertheless he seems to be careful, understanding and scheming. He tries to self-justify all the way through by: claiming that he is not mad, feeling power and triumph on the eight night, getting the support of Death and having agony of being laughed at derives him to confess. It can be concluded that it is still his sense/ delusion of the overpowering ‘social’ that brings him to the first kill, to confess to police himself and then tell the story to “you” as readers. The old man is not the only representative of social authorities; rather the neighbor, policemen, god and Death are also counted as representative of overpowering socials.

In the story “The Black Cat,” Poe dramatizes his experience with madness, and challenges the readers’ suspension of disbelief by using imagery in describing the plot and characters. Poe uses foreshadowing to describe the scenes of sanity versus insanity. He writes “for the most wild yet homely narrative which I am about to pen, I neither expect nor illicit belief. Yet mad I am not- and surely do I not dream,” alerts the reader about a forthcoming story that will test the boundaries of reality and fiction. The fate of the narrator of “the Black Cat” is very analogous to the one in “The Tell-Tale Heart”. It seems that Poe tries to employ irony and exaggeration to rather cruelly mock his characters’ decent into sanity. Both characters clearly have thought a great about this issue and, by mentioning it in the way that they do, have revealed to the reader one of the important dimensions of their insanity: an inability to recognize it. They wrongfully equate sanity with the ability to appear calm and the ability to make and execute plans. Both characters pretend to be sane and rational at the beginning of the story; however; they are broken men, babbling their confessions to the policemen. In “Tell-Tale Heart” nothing of the objective nature seems to cause such transformation, it seems only from his extreme hypersensitivity, while in “The Black cat” the narrator’s situation aggravates in the course of the story by his declining nature and the escalating affection of the cat. Poe expresses his early attachment to the cat and dramatizes the character changes he experiences when he writes “our friendship lasted, in this manner, for several years, during which my general temperament and character-through instrumentality of the Fiend Intemperance-had (I blush to confess it) experienced a radical alteration for the worse “He warns the reader of new events in a cynical tone and implies the beginning of the madness he denies. Poe first illustrates this madness when he uses imagery to describe the brutal scene with the cat when he writes “I took from my waistcoat-pocket a pen knife, opened it, grasped the poor beast by the throat, and deliberately cut one of its eyes from the socket!” following the course of events Now the reader has crossed over the line of reality versus fiction. The author continues to illustrate the inconceivable story when he describes the scene after the fire that destroyed every part of the house except the one wall that was still standing. He writes “I approached and saw, as if graven in bas- relief upon the white surface the figure of a gigantic cat and there was a rope around the animals neck”, leading the readers to join the madness and believe that this was the same cat that he had savagely destroyed earlier that same day. By using descriptive details, he allows the reader to feel the horrifying experience of a man who believed he was free from the evil of madness. The story ends after utilizing every inch of suspension of disbelief the reader can afford. He sums up the plot of the story when he writes “the hideous beast whose craft had seduced me into murder, and whose informing voice had consigned me to the hangman,” implying that the cat had induced the same torture on him that he had brought on the first cat.

Works Cited:

Botting, F. (1996). Gothic. London: Rutledge

Brennan, M.S. (1997), The Gothic Psyche: Disintegration and Growth in Nineteenth-Century English Literature .Columbia: Camden House, Inc.

Brewster, S. (2000). Seeing Things: Gothic and the Madness of Interpretation. In D. Punter (ED.), A Companion to Gothic Oxford: Blackwell. (pp.281-293).

Hair Loss: Five Best Balding Myths

Yes, you are a product of your parent’s genes, and male pattern balding, or androgenic alopecia, is inherited.

Biology does not mean destiny these days and options are available for hair restoration products such as medical supplements – Minoxidil or Propecia; wigs and hair pieces and procedures such as hair transplants.

Unless you can change your parents, there is not much you can do about your genetic makeup. To set the record straight, here are 5 of the best balding myths, explaining causes for baldness.

If I massage my scalp, it may prevent hair loss.

The benefits of scalp massage have roots (pun intended) going back 5,000 years to Indian ayurvedic medicine.

Benefits include relieving head and neck tension and may increase the production of endorphins and serotonin, resulting in a feeling of well-being.

While scalp massage certainly feels good and is relaxing, there is no evidence it can prevent hair loss. However, there is no downside to massaging your scalp, so feel free to massage away.

Using hair care products can cause your hair to fall out or, conversely can stop hair loss.

Of course, over-processing with chemical straighteners, bleach or relaxers or overuse of flat irons can cause permanent damage and hair loss.

The good news is that both Minoxidil and Propecia have a good track record with preventing further hair loss and in some cases re-growing hair. Minoxidil, a topical ointment approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) can be purchased over the counter.

Propecia is available in pill form to men by prescription and should not be used or handled by women, as it has been known to cause birth defects.

If a man’s father has a full head of hair, then he will have the same.

Only if you are lucky, since scientists now believe hair destiny is a combination of genetic makeup from both parents.

Over-thinking or psychological problems can cause baldness.

Although the popular image in the media of bald men as more intellectual, (think: egghead) has no basis in fact, the stereotype persists.

Unless you suffer from Trichotillomania (compulsive hair plucking) – a rare, obsessive compulsive condition where a person plucks out their own hair, most psychological problems do not cause baldness. Trichotillomania affects 4% of the population, mostly women.

Your mother carries the balding gene from her father.

This may be part of the story. Researchers still don’t completely understand what causes male pattern balding. The sex chromosomes, X and or Y, control whether we develop as a male or female. Men have an X and a Y, women have two Xs.

The balding gene is carried on your X chromosome. A man gets one X chromosome from his mother, and a Y from his father.

Conversely, a woman gets one X from her mother and one X from her father; so look at your mother’s dad and see if he’s bald. If so, you have a 50% chance of getting the same bald gene.

However, scientists now believe that there may be several genes causing male pattern baldness but until now, no one has identified those other genes.

A new study, published this year in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, by George Cotsarelis, MD, Chair of the Department of Dermatology at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, has found that stem cells play a role in explaining what happens in a bald scalp.

He found that balding may arise from a problem with stem-cell activation rather than the numbers of stem cells in follicles.

Good news – these results may assist in developing future cell-based treatments for male pattern balding.

Does asthma cough produce phlegm?

More Asthma questions please visit :

Does anyone own opinion for asthma?
Does anyone have any recommendations for minor to moderate asthma attacks? I caught a cold and have a runny nose and cough dont bother me as much as having trouble breathing. I am not going to buy an inhaler so dont recommend that. I entail some home remedies. Thanks to those who answer!…

Does anyone suffer from asthma near eye stomach-ache?
My hubby has been to the eye doctor and get tempory relief but nothing long stable. He gets this matter contained by one of his eyes that he has to try and get out, close to sticky strings. Does anyone else get this? YES! tell him to catch some decongestant, like…

Does anyone use a humidifier or nouns purifier?
The heating is kept on alot during the day in a minute it is winter and i’m wondering if a humidifier or air purifier would help terminate asthma, allergies ir respiratory conditions in my six week old as it mentions surrounded by the mothercare catalogue. Does anyone use these and find…

Does anyone use powdered inhalers for asthma. If so, are you have any discouraging side effects.?
yes! used salbutamol inhaler since 20 years it have rapid action but on long tern use, it may constrict ur resperatory tract so swallowen reservation may be occurs. The powdered inhaler are via mouth. If you don’t rinse your mouth it will…

Does anyone win a disorientation from pollen/allergies/asthma?
My doctor told me I have allergies/asthma from the pollen. I told him I think I have the flu because I had a fever of 102 for 5 days and a cold/cough which go into a resiptory infection. He insists it’s allergies. Did anyone ever hear of allergies causing a fever? massively…

Does asthma affect the speed you run?
So i now know i have athsma and im going to zone and i want to know if it slows me down. I KNOW that it will be sturdy to breathe but will it slow my legs down? I don’t think so And i am sorry about you yes if you are…

Does asthma affect your immune system?
I have been sick (mostly a sore throat) for over a month. When I touch like I am getting better, I usually budge outside to train hard for my sport, but the next sunshine, my throat feels feels grisly. Ever since I got sick, just 5 minutes of running make me wheeze and…

Does Asthma affects on skins conditions?
Like little red pimples around the nose? I have have asthma my hole life and i never had that problem u should jump to the dermatologist for the red pimples. good luck Possibly. But asthma is breathing problems. Learn more about side effects of asthma and conditions you could get if you own…

Does asthma and other allergic allergic reaction increase or condense blood pressure , and something like pulse?
“> Respiratory difficulty will raise pulse and bp. Anxiety(common with severe asthma attacks) will also incline HR and BP. Rescue inhalers will cause the same problems. Big put somebody through the mill is how fast and how high? Heart rates over…

Does asthma budge away?
i was called out of class and it said i have asthma my parents told me i had it before when i be a kid my weirdass grandma told me she made me drink some weirnd medicine drink from cambodia? when i was little and it go away i was reading stuff on yahoo that…

Does asthma cause blood pressure to elevate?
you bet If your have an attack, it does because you panic. Also, some Asthma treatments have stimuli surrounded by them, which causes you B/P to rise. Numerous medicines used for asthma can elevate blood pressure, especially the broncodialators like theophyline. Advair sent my BP through the roof. An asthma attack might…

Does asthma clear up eventually?
Like by age 24? In some cases yeah, but contained by those cases, some of them get it again later surrounded by life. That’s how my father was. I didn’t hold it when I was born, but then I have it when I was in my untimely teens, now it only bothers me when…

Does asthma come support after a few years?
My girlfriend had asthma when she was a kid,and she is worried that it might come subsidise when she get’s old.So,does it come back after a few years or it it a short time ago vanishes forever. I agree with what Q8girl has written, besides developing strong immune system help. Learning…

Does asthma cough produce phlegm?
I have had a chronic cough for over 6 weeks presently and keep going to the doctor. She is adamant I enjoy asthma. I have NEVER had asthma within my life and the two types of inhaler I have be on for 6 weeks or more are not making me better. I am going…

Does asthma coughing lead to put money on and chest throbbing
i had asthma before and it doesn’t hurt resembling that it only gives you breathing difficulties Coughing of any disease if severe can cause chest pain. Its true near asthma also. This is due to muscle pull or rarely rib fracture contained by osteoporosis patients. But you have…

Does asthma create other diseases?
asthma is a disease but what other diseases are produced from asthma. Yes, since asthma makes you cough alot, it may interfere with other parts of your body and therefore it may cause some nature of desiese. I am not very sure, but take a shot at it. bronchitis ( acute) , enzyme, and…

Does Asthma disappear?
I was born 3 months early, and the individual thing I developed from it was sickness induced Asthma. When I was a toddler, whenever I would get a cold, I would enjoy symptoms of Asthma and had to use an inhaler. I treated it regularly, and after my 4th birthday, it disappeared, and I haven’t any…

Does asthma drug be paid you gain substance?
I have moderate asthma and am obese,but I excercise and eat vigorous and everything.My mom says I’m obese because my asthma medicine messes next to my thyroid,which makes me gain weight.Is this true or is my mom purely trying to make me feel better? (By the channel,I am only about 20…

Does asthma enjoy a cure? save what are the mode of prevention?
i really dont know if i have asthma but i know that i get chocked up if i clutch too much of oily foods, or when i inheal dust or at times when am in the petrol station. also i notice i have this constant cool i…

Does asthma ever budge away?
when i was younger, i had asthma.. but over the years it a short time ago went away but now the symptoms are staring me surrounded by the face, have i get asthma again? Is this possible to get asthma at a young age, later it go away and come back subsequently in life?…

Does asthma ever progress away?
I am 14 I had asthma since I was 9 and presently my asthma came back when I get a cold, and i am now using my inhaler again. Will my asthma ever go away permenately? Also when i lug my inhaler it sometimes makes me feel restrained headed but helps me breath vastly…

Does asthma inhalers hurt you? why do they become addictive?
I have asthma and the doctor told me not to use inhalers and use relievers instead. What’s wrong with using the inhalers? yes Tests conducted at Yoga Therapy Centers worldwide enjoy given outstanding results in treating asthma. Kapalbhati, Anuloma-Viloma, Ujjayi, Surbyabhedana and Bhramari are some yoga exercises which help…

Does Asthma medication containing oral steroids, such as Seretide, hold effects on muscle growth?
Are these steroids somehow different? Or are they the same products that athletes use, just contained by an inhaled form? not in impossible to tell apart way as anabolic steroids. The steriods in asthma medication react differently after metabolic steroids but, both forms are not…

Does Asthma medication effect womens fertility?
Does Asthma medication effect womens fertility? im on Ventorline (Inhaler +nebulisation) I m not able to concieve despite of any health or fertility problem. is mediaction is the defence ? i wouldn’t believe answers from this site on such a serious question like so. nope i dont think so…and im on ventolin as…

Does Asthma own a glum effect on a person’s sense of smell?
I bought a handbag on eBay that has a strong odor of cigarette smoke and the seller claims that noone surrounded by her home smokes and that she has asthma. Could her asthma keep her from smelling the smoke on the pod? I would surmise that smoke…

Does asthma qualify to receive social wellbeing disability?
Yes if it causes you to be unable to work. It have to be documented by a doctor for more than a year before it is considered. It is VERY rare for this disability in our day.I have it myself and in my 42 years, I hold NEVER met anyone…

Will a Dalmatian Be the Best Pet Dog for You? The Pros and Cons

Learn Why a Dalmatian Will or Won’t Be the Best Pet Dog for You

No matter what you have heard, Dalmatians make excellent pets. They are strong, energetic, smart and noble dogs. They do mature slowly and are somewhat strong-willed so the correct training is a must. Training them does take a lot of patience but both you and your pet Dalmatian will be better for it. Like all breeds, they have certain needs and limitations. With the right start they can become a pet that will be much loved and will make any family proud.


Dalmatians are very intelligent. They, historically, were trained as hunters, herders, carriage dogs, firehouse mascots and even circus dogs.

Their short coats make them fairly easy to care for as a daily brushing and bathing them 3 or 4 times a year will suffice to keep them looking and smelling good without a lot of shedding.

Dalmatians are energetic and love to play. Make sure they have plenty of toys to play with so they don’t get bored when you aren’t around.

They love a challenge and do well in competitions, like obedience contests and obstacle courses. Their memories are long and accurate.

This breed loves their families and wants to be with them as much as possible.

Crate training your pet Dalmatian is a good idea as it gives them a safe place to go. It will ease your mind, when you have to leave them behind, to know your pet isn’t getting into trouble.

Usually, Dalmatians get along with other family pets. They especially love horses as evidenced by many pictures of them riding on horse drawn wagons of all types.

Most of the time your pet Dalmatian will be polite and well-mannered, but can have occasional lapses.

If you like to run, jog, or walk, your pet Dalmatian will be happy to go along with you.

Dalmatians are handsome dogs. Their black or liver spotted white coats will make them stand out from the rest of the canines.


This breed sheds all year long even though their coat is short and sleek. They should be brushed often.

If you leave your pet Dalmatian alone to entertain itself, it can get into mischief, like digging holes, for instance. Try not to leave your pet alone if you can help it. It might be a good idea to crate it when you have to leave it home.

It takes Dalmatians longer than some other breeds to reach their full maturity. Often they are not truly adults until four or five years old..

If it is cold outside, your pet Dalmatian is not going to be happy. They have short coats, so the cold weather can be really uncomfortable for them.

They need lots of activities. Toys, balls, and chew toys are some good choices to help keep your pet busy.

Dalmatians have been wrongly accused of not being smart. This is not true as they are really an intelligent breed. Because of this, they need patience, consistency, strength of resolve, and unwavering leadership. They want to do the right thing to please their families, so members of the family must take the lead.

Your pet Dalmatian will need to have regular veterinary visits as they can develop diseases and disorders such as Skin Allergies, Hip Problems, Bladder Stones and Arthritis.

Deafness is a real problem with Dalmatians. It’s estimated that up 12% of all them are born deaf. Many of them are deaf in one ear which they can learn to compensate for but the totally deaf ones should not be selected to be your pet.

Because the Dalmatian is such a beautiful dog and because they have been popularized in movies like 101 Dalmatians, some families have decided to purchase Dalmatians without understanding the unique needs of this breed. It’s not a good idea to get puppy from a pet store as they likely came from a “puppy breeding mill” and won’t have the proper background to be easily trained. At times you can find a full grown dog that has already been trained. This will save you a lot of time and possible heartaches.

Many times a family will give up on training their pet and either abandon them or send them to the pound. Some of these may turn out to be trainable if you have lots of patience. If you don’t have the time and patience to devote to a Dalmatian it’s probably a good idea to choose a different breed of dog.

If you select a Dalmatian from a reputable kennel and properly train it you will find they are smart, obedient and loving. It is important to remember that not only does the pet need to have the proper training, so do the pet’s owners. When the owners are fully aware of how to train their pets, the families and their pet Dalmatians will be perfect matches.

Dalmatians Dalmatian Club of America

Purification Therapy in Ayurveda

Purification Therapy In Ayurveda Panchakarma involves 5 types of detoxification methods. They are 1. vamana 2. Virechana 3. Anuvasana basthi 4. Niruha basthi 5. Nasya karma Vamana Vamana means expelling doshas through oral route . It is emesis therapy. Before inducing vamana the toxins and vitiated doshas are brought to amashaya or stomach with various preparatory methods like snehana and swedana. The emesis should never be induced in empty stomach. Vamana therapy is conducted in early hours of day, when kapha dosha is dominant. Vitiated doshas and accumulated toxins are expelled through methodically induced emesis. Patient is required to be relaxed calm and devoid of any mental stress through out the therapy. After emesis therapy, patient is gradually rehabilitated to regular diet and lifestyle. Detoxification through vamana is suggested in diseases which mainly involve kapha dosha. The disorders like cough, asthama, indigestion, poisoning, repeated attacks of tonsillitis, nasal discharge, tuberculosis, etc are treated with vamana therapy. Children and elderly are not to be subjected to this therapy. The same holds good for obese and weak persons. After vamana the loud speech, overeating, continued sitting, too much walking, anger, anxiety, coitus, retention of natural urges have to be avoided. Virechana: Virechana is expelling the vitiated doshas and toxins through purgation. This therapy can be conducted as an individual detoxification therapy or as a follow up therapy next to vamana to ensure complete detoxification. Virechana is a non painful and easiest procedure. Complications are usually very rare in this therapy. This detoxification method helps to expel toxins and vitiated doshas from blood, liver and intestines. Usual panchakarma preparatory methods like snehana and swedana are completed before inducing purgation . Virechana is induced by administering herbal purgatives in morning between 8 am to 9 am, when pitta dosha is dominant. Patient is made to drink warm water repeatedly as he passes stools. Patient is later rehabilitated to his regular diet and lifestyle. This therapy is suggested for disorders in which pitta is prominent dosha. Skin diseases, jaundice, constipation, headache, fistula, hemorrhoids, intestinal parasites, herpes, anemia, edema are few of many diseases in which Virechana is the chosen as detoxifying therapy. Contraindications for virechana therapy are ulcerated rectum, pregnancy, obesity, diarrhea, cardiac ailments, tuberculosis, children and elderly Basthi Karma : Basthi karma is expelling body toxins and vitiated doshas by introduce medicated liquids or oils through anus, urethra or vaginal canal. Basthi means urinary bladder. In ancient times the enema apparatus used to be made up of urinary bladder of animals. Hence this detoxification process is called Basthi karma. Basthi karma is mainly used in vata dominant diseases. Basthi karma is usually performed after the first two detoxification process namely vamana and virechana or only after virechana. After completing preparatory procedures (snehana, swedana), patient is allowed to lie on his left side and medicated oil or herbal decoction is administered under hygienic conditions. Patient has to lie on his back for 10-15 minutes after basthi is given. There are two types of Basthi Anuvasana basthi and Niruha basthi. Anuvasana basthi : In anuvasana basthi medicated oil is introduced through anus, immediately after the consumption of food. There will be no harm even if medicated oil remains inside colon for a long time. This type of basthi nourishes and strengthens the body. Niruha basthi: In this type of basthi (also known as asthapana basthi) an enema of herbal decoction is given. Niruha basthi is administered in empty stomach. The administered decoction has to come out from body within 45 minutes. The expelled herbal decoction brings out toxins and vitiated doshas along with it. Anuvasana basthi and Niruhabasthi are given alternatively . Patient is advised to take bath after herbal decoction is expelled. Unlike vamana and virechana , strict diet and lifestyle rehabilitation is not required after basthi karma, as basthi do not cause irritation in digestive system. But it is necessary to take light and nourishing food . Introducing medicated liquids and oils through urethra in men or through vagina in women, is called uttara basthi. Basthi karma is usually recommended in 1. Diseases involving joints like arthritis, gout etc, 2. Neuro muscular problems 3. Osteoporosis 4. paralysis 5. Low back pain 6. Obesity 7. Disorders of intestines 8. Menstrual problems of women Benefits of basthi: Basthi improves vision, decreases weight in obese people, increases weight and nourishes emaciated persons, slows down ageing process and boosts health. Nasya karma: Nasya karma means administering drops of herbal liquid preparations or medicated oils through nose. This detoxification method is also known as Shirovirechana. Vitiated doshas and toxins which are accumulated in head and neck are expelled through nose and mouth along with nasal and oral secretions. As a preparatory procedure the head and face of patient is massaged with medicated oil (Administering medicated oil before nasya karma is not advised) and steam bath is given only to head and neck region. Patient is made to sleep on his back with foot end elevated and head reclined. The medicated liquid or oil is administered in drops to both nostrils consecutively. Patient is advised to inhale the medicine slowly. After nasya karma the patient must avoid talking loudly, getting angry and laughing. According to the type of medicine used, the nasya karma is divided into four types . They are Navana Nasya : In this type drops of medicated oil is used. Avapidana Nasya: Here squeezed juice of herbs is used. Dhmapana or pradhamana nasya : Fine powder of herbs are made to inhale through an apparatus called “nadi yantra” ( a tube like apparatus) Dhuma nasya : Fumes of medicinal herbs are inhaled in this type of nasya. Nasya Karma is indicated in tonsillitis, stiff neck, stiff jaw, headache, sinusitis, stammering, hoarseness of voice etc. Nasya Karma should not be performed when patient has indigestion, consumed alcohol, taken head bath, and tiered, pregnancy.

Cell Phone Cover-Up – Is Your Brain At Risk?

The latest stone thrown at the 200-billion-dollar-a-year cell phone industry came from a study by neurosurgeon Vini G. Khurana entitled Mobile Phone-Brain Tumour: Public Health Advisory. His meta-analysis of existing cell phone studies may not contain a lot of new information; but his rather alarming message was carried by media around the world: “there is a growing body of statistically significant evidence for a relationship between the overall length of use of a mobile phone and the delayed occurrence of a brain tumor on the same side of the head as the ‘preferred side’ for mobile phone usage.” He claimed a 2-4 fold increased risk following 10 years of regular use.

The cell phone industry mobilized its behemoth defense machine calling the study a select view of existing literature. This meant that his conclusions were not in line with all the studies the industry has been funding around the world called INTERPHONE. Indeed, a casual look through Pub Med and you will see study after study refuting a link between cell phone use and brain tumors. The cell phone industry has excelled at using “scientists for hire” to quell public concern. They have taken a page from Big Pharma’s playbook and have learned well from the troubles of previous health catastrophes like international PCB exposure at the hands of Monsanto, Bayer, GE, and Westinghouse.

David vs. Goliath

It is always interesting to watch a handful of people take on an empire. The empire has enough money to buy votes in the governments of countries around the world, fund studies that reach conclusions it likes, suppress the publishing of information it doesn’t like (professional blackmail), parade a legion of “experts” before any court when a legal challenge is mounted, and create enough mystery about any potential problem in the minds of consumers that the net result is that nothing much is ever done.

Such strategies also hijack the public health system and use it as a shield. In essence, governments are on the take from industry and the economics of the questionable industry are woven into multiple other economic benefits. In the U.S. other examples of this involve placing fluoride in water, using nerve gas chemicals as pesticides, and poisoning the water supple with perchlorate (playing the national security card to prevent clean up). I bring up these examples because all three are proven to be neurotoxic, all significantly adversely affect the health of Americans today, and all are condoned and allowed by our government. There are always a few Davids throwing stones at these Goliaths, without much luck.

Dr. Khurana is not alone in his view. Last summer a relatively small group of concerned scientists calling themselves the Bioinitiative Working Group published a 600 page document after reviewing over 2000 existing studies and came to similar conclusions about the potential risks of cell phones. Even Swedish scientists, in a country with widespread deployment of advanced cell phone technology, have a handful of scientists that have been warning about brain tumors since 2000, with their most recent study published in 2006.

The small voices raising concern are offset by a massively funded machine. Dr. Khurana’s public relations work has the cell phone industry on the defensive, proving once again that the court of public opinion trumps all aces.

Why Warnings Are Falling on Deaf Ears

Brain tumors don’t develop overnight, excess exposure to radio frequency radiation may take 10 – 20 years before the full scope of the problem is known. The cell phone industry is just now entering the front end of that time period. If there is a problem, by the time governments take effective action to ensure cell phones are safer the damage to an entire generation will already be done.

The potential problem to our children and current young adults is staggering, since they have grown up attached to cell phones. Any damage cell phones cause will be worse in children, as their brains are still developing.

Nobody questions the fact that cell phone radiation is entering the brain of the user. The debate is on how problematic the radiation is.

There are two factors that are actually quite alarming about this whole issue.

1) If cell phones can cause brain tumors they would have to, on a lesser scale of damage, cause numerous other disruptions in brain function ranging from cognitive dysfunction to behavioral issues like ADHD, to potentially violent behavior.

2) Our government is doing nothing to proactively evaluate and ensure the safety of our citizens, not evening proving or forcing the industry to prove at what level of cell phone exposure are there no changes in brain cells that correlate to risk.

The cell phone industry will have to have people lining up for brain cancer treatment before they even admit there is a potential problem. By that time they hope to have stalled long enough to have safer phones. And then they will use lawyers to create doubt that any such tumors were caused by cell phones in the first place – blaming multiple other stressors in modern society as the likely problem. This strategy will minimize liability, spread it out over many years, and most likely make it disappear. The only thing that prevents the cell phone industry from escaping unscathed is if enough consumers demand safer phones now.

Smoking Guns Exist

As a health professional, I look at fundamental science as the main predictor of whether a problem will exist or not as the result of the use of anything. I predicted estrogen replacement therapy (horse urine extract) was not safe for 15 years before the medical community finally counted all the deaths. Just as I currently predict that the use of statin drugs to lower cholesterol and bisphosphonate drugs for bones are major health scams not only wasting billions but seriously compromising the health of those taking these pills as currently prescribed.

It is not hard to make such predictions correctly when fundamental science allows for no other possible outcome. Vested interests never want to hear about the obvious. They simply want to continue to make money, regardless of the damage, until they are stopped. And when they own the decision makers within governments, it takes a long time to stop them.

I will now go on record with the prediction that the dangers of cell phones are real and should not be ignored. After an extensive review of the cell phone literature I came upon the smoking gun; an article published January 22, 2007 in Neuroscience Letters entitled “Exposure to cell phone radiation up-regulates apoptosis genes in primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes.”

While brain tumors are not always produced in animal models of cell phone radiation exposure, there is little question that free radical damage in the brain is occurring along with alterations in DNA. The researchers sought to identify precise gene-related pathways that would explain why such damage occurs – and their findings are a dagger in the argument that cell phone radiation is harmless.

In their experiments they exposed cultures of neurons (nerve transmitting brain cells) and glial cells (astrocytes that are the main brain structure cells and regulators of overall brain function) to cell phone radiation. Using advanced gene arrays they measured the results.

They documented distinct disruption in how mitochondria (energy producing systems) with brain cells function. Essentially, genes that turn on cell suicide were upregulated – meaning that brain cells will now try to kill themselves. Cells only want to commit suicide when they think the stress they are being exposed to is too great to handle, usually as a result of DNA damage that is not repairable. If suicide fails, then mutations in the defunct cell can lead to cancer.

Additionally, there was an upregulation of NF-kappaB pathways – the key inflammatory gene switch that not only causes massive free radical damage, but when chronically upregulated locks into the “on position” and readily fuels cancer growth. If you would like to understand more about how Nf-kappaB causes problems then read my article on How to Prevent Vaccine Injury.

This study offers clear gene pathways by which brain cells are inflamed, killed, and/or turned to cancer.

The authors, who were obviously “placed in handcuffs” just to get their study published, concluded “Cell phone emissions thus have the potential to cause dysfunction or death through activation of specific intracellular cell death signaling pathways.” Dysfunction at least means chronic inflammation with free radical damage. And it also means that such dysfunction follows commonly understood gene activation problems associated with cancer.

Cell phone companies can say anything they want, but they cannot refute that cell phone radiation enters the brain of the user at levels consistent with the above study, and that the above study shows precise gene-alterations that cause brain cell death as well as activation of known genetic pathways involved in cancer.

Cell phones carry risk for micro brain injury with each use, a problem that is magnified by heavy use over a number of years. Damage to children will be higher than damage to adults, though damage at any age is a problem. This means cell phones are a risk for cognitive dysfunction, learning issues, and behavior problems in anyone. After exposure of 10 years or more there is enough fundamental science already known to be very concerned about an increased risk for brain tumors. Immediate steps should be taken by all cell phone users, especially children, to reduce cell phone exposure and to protect their brains from damage.

Dating Divorced Women – 7 Sure-Fire Ways to Attract a Woman Who Has Been Divorced!

In our parents’ day, there was a whiff of scandal attached to the divorcee – a woman who had left her marriage had to be some sort of a floozy, after all, and was considered “tainted goods.” Today, however, divorce is much more commonplace, and not necessarily the result of some sort of scandalous turmoil. After all, many couples choose to end their marriage simply because they do not love each other any more, or because they’ve found themselves bickering so much that they just cannot get along.

If you’re in your 30’s or older, you’re likely to find yourself meeting many attractive women who are divorced. And you’ll find that, in many ways, they are different from single women. They have already been married at least once, which means there isn’t a lot of mystery left where men are concerned.

They have lived with the dirty socks left on the floor, the milk drunk straight from the carton, and the unfortunate smells that all men let loose when they’re not worried about making a good impression.

And they have also, for whatever reason, seen their marriage go down the tubes. If you are interested in attracting a divorced woman, here are a few simple guidelines:

1. Be fun to be around.

A divorced woman has already been in a serious relationship, and there are few things more serious than divorce. She wants to laugh and have a good time. Chances are, her ex-husband wasn’t very pleasant to be around towards the end of their relationship – now she wants someone who’ll make her feel good about life. So be that guy!

2. Don’t dwell on the past.

That goes for you as well as her. Talk about your past relationships, of course, but focus on starting a whole new, better chapter of your life. If you’re divorced yourself, don’t talk endlessly about your ex-wife. Answer her questions respectfully, then move on. The two of you should be looking forward to the future, not dwelling on past mistakes.

3. Take the relationship slowly.

You may be the first man she’s grown close to since her divorce, and no matter how eager she may be for intimacy she may not be emotionally prepared yet. Have dinner, go dancing, take in a movie or concert, kiss her goodnight and then go home. There’s always time for more if you keep seeing each other – but you don’t want to sabotage what could be a great relationship but jumping too quickly into the next phase. You’ll be all the more attractive to her if you don’t push.

4. Wait to meet her children.

If she has kids, then being the new man in their mother’s life is a big responsibility. Wait until you’re sure that you definitely want to be involved with her for more than a few casual dates before you introduce yourself to her family. This will help both of you, and she’ll appreciate your maturity and consideration.

5. Do not compare yourself to her ex.

You may very well be better looking, be a nicer guy, and make more money than he did, but it’s not a competition. In fact, if she harbors any warm feelings for her ex-husband, she may resent you for implying that he is a loser. After all, if he’s such a loser, what was she doing with him? Comparing yourself to her previous spouse is just asking for trouble.

6. Make her feel safe.

A woman who has been divorced has had her heart broken once already, and she’s probably worried that her next relationship will end just as badly. Be reliable, honest and kind. Make her realize that you aren’t going to date her and then discard her. She deserves your respect and love, so treat her that way!

7. Be prepared to be a “rebound” lover.

No matter what you do right, she may not be emotionally ready to jump into a new relationship. You may get nothing but green lights from your divorced woman, only to get the “I think we should just be friends” speech when you least expect it. If you’re patient, she may still come around – but then again, she may not. Remind yourself that she’s be burned once before, and her fear is natural. Don’t take it personally – just dust yourself off and keep on living your life to the fullest.

There are unique challenges to attracting a divorced woman, but with a large amount of patience and respect you may find that she’s wiser, more grounded and better equipped for a relationship than a single woman. Just remember that all women need to feel appreciated, whether they’ve been married before or not.

Ultracet- an Effective Painkiller

Ultracet, an amalgamation of acetaminophen and tramadol is a narcotic-like pain reliever. This combination medication is used to treat short-term pain. It works by blocking or reducing the feeling of pain. It can be used to lessen the fever. It belongs to a class of drugs known as opioid analgesics. It works on a part of the brain to block or reduce the feeling of pain. Ultracet may also change the solidity of some usual substances in your body, an effect that may help to reduce the pain. Patients are supposed to take this medication by mouth with or without food, usually every 4 to 6 hours as needed or as directed by your doctor.

Don’t take more than 8 tablets in a 24 hour period. Quantity is based on your medical condition and retort to therapy. This medication is approved by the FDA for the short-term management of acute pain. This medication is a centrally acting painkiller that controls pain through different device of action that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs), the most frequently used medication. Ultracet is not connected with the side effects that can results from NSAIDs use, such as gastrointestinal ulcers or bleeding.

Side effects can take place by using Ultracet. Side effects reported with this medication include constipation, sleepiness and increase sweating. If you take alcohol, you should not use this medication. Ultracet is not recommended for subjects disposed to drug or alcohol abuse. If you have a history of drug or alcohol dependence, epilepsy or other seizure disorder, head injury, metabolic disorder, an infection of your brain or spinal cord, such as meningitis or encephalitis, in those cases your risk of seizure may be higher. This medication is harmful to unborn baby.

It may also cause serious side effects in a newborn. If you are pregnant or want to become pregnant during the treatment and you are going to take this medication, tell your doctor. Fewer side effects may be occurred by using this such as dizziness, drowsiness, weakness, vomiting, and constipation, loss of appetite, blurred vision, flushing, and sleep problems. Buy Ultracet online is very easy and good. There are many online drug sellers who sell FDA permitted drugs. You are to select one and buy Ultracet to save yourself from keen pain.

Grief & Loss – Children Losing Parents

According to Weenolsen (1988) loss can be characterized as anything that destroys some aspect of life or self. According to Worden (2002) grief can be characterized as the experience of someone who has lost an important relationship or even an attachment to another person. These concepts can be directly related to the loss of a parent. Losing a parent can be extraordinarily difficult due to the loss of support and characteristics which identify the position and role of a parent as being very special (Despelder & Strickland, 2005). The grieving processes can mean different changes for those within different roles. Older adults who lose their parents do not process or grieve as a child who has lost their parent. I feel that both of these specific roles and experiences are of greatest importance. Issues of culture also maintain consistent changes across societies in how one works through or expresses the loss of their loved ones. Support for children and adults is a very important part of the grieving process and should be connected to characteristics of who children and adults are within their roles and how they respond to such loss.

Due to modern technology only about 4 % of children experience the loss of a parent before the age of 18 yrs (Archer, 1999). In comparison, in the late 1700’s to early 1800’s many children were without parents, making life much more difficult for children (Fox & Quitt, 1980). One cannot discuss the loss of a parent to a child without discussing segments of attachment and other developmental theory. Attachment according to Davies (2004) is a special emotional relationship between two people. According to Archer (1999), Bowlby indicated that children are able to grieve and mourn when attachment processes become solidified around the age of six months to one year of age (Archer, 1999; Worden, 2002).

According to Weenolsen (1988) reactions related to grief and mourning begin within the early stages of infancy and learning when the child begins to understand their control over the environment, slowly gaining differentiation and losing their dependency. The mourning of this loss in dependency through the child’s ability to gain control over their environment does manifest crying and seeking out behaviors that train the child to respond in this manner to gain access to their care giver (Weenolson, 1988). This instinctive response will be further utilized during future separations and loss (Weenolsen, 1988). Rando (1988) also claims that infants mourn when their nurturance is withdrawn and the mother (primarily) must assist in re-establishing the nurturing connection, thus reducing separation. These theoretical positions seem to be consistent with Attachment Theory in that it is the separation that initiates reactions. Furthermore, one could not understand or comprehend separation if one did not realize their own ability in controlling environmental circumstances in order to meet ones needs. It seems apparent that regarding reaction or understanding the meaning of death by children one would require sufficient cognitive ability.

The loss of a parent and the response is also due to what Bowlby characterizes as the loss of the child’s “safe haven” or “secure base” to explore the world (Davies, 2004). One could hypothesize that this disruption of security would effect a child’s exploration during toddler development, and at times hinder needed environmental interactions. According to Archer (1999) reactions by children during the mourning process due to the loss of a parent include; pining, preoccupation, yearning, seeking or calling. According to Littlewood (1992), Bowlby clarified that this reaction to loss as instinctive; and the seeking of the lost object (the parent) although fruitless, it is performed anyway. Although many reactions due to many types of circumstances are chosen by children as a response to emotional distress; these responses are considered specific to the loss of a parent (Archer, 1999). Furthermore, many of the emotional disturbances can bring with them depressive and anxious symptomatology; as well as sleep disturbances (Archer, 1999).

Children age 2 to 5 yrs. of age seem to ask many questions regarding the parental loss (Rando, 1988) They may display regressive behaviors, obsession over questions and circumstances, and may display anxiety and anger toward the deceased (Rando, 1988). There may also lay feelings of guilt and responsibility for the loss of the parental figure (Despelder & Strickland, 2005). Some of these reactions were clearly represented in my four year old son Jonathan who lost his grandmother this past year; he seemed to obsess over the funeral and what he had witnessed.

Ages 8 to 12 yrs. may feel helpless and experience reawakened feelings of childlessness (Rando, 1988). Children at this age may seek to repress such feelings, putting them at risk for complicated grief reactions (Rando, 1988). This would be consistent with Eric Erickson’s stages of psycho-social development in regards to the stage of “industry vs. inferiority.” According to Longress (2000) and Anderson, Carter & Lowe (1999) there is a push for the child to become “industrious” and confident during this stage of development. It seems clear that admitting ones childish and helpless feelings would be difficult during this period.

According to Worden (2002) when a death of a parent occurs in childhood or adolescents the child may not mourn effectively and this may create problems with depression and inabilities to maintain close relationships with others (p.159). According to Rando (1988) depression, denial and anger are feelings that seek to counter act the helplessness, dependency and powerlessness that adolescents are feeling. This response seems consistent when examining Erickson’s psycho-social stages (Berger, 2001; Longress, 2000; Anderson et. al., 1999). During adolescents there is a pursuit to find ones “identity”, and the parent is a role modeling figure who can assist with guiding and encouraging this process (Berger, 2001; Longress, 2000; Anderson et. al., 1999). It is understandable how an adolescent may feel powerless, helpless, dependent, and even angry due to the death of their parental figure.

In regards to meaning, Fiorini & Mullen ( Article ) clarify that it is very important to characterize the meanings of grief and loss through a developmental lens. According to Worden (2002), Murry Bowen clarified that one must understand the role and position of the dying parent within the family system, and the level of adaptive abilities of family members during and after the loss of a parent. I feel, as a social worker it is important with this information to better understand what this systemic loss means to the developing child within the family system. To many children the loss of a parent means a loss of stability, security, nurturing, and affection (Despelder & Strickland, 2005). According to Worden (2002) there are needed cognitive processes and concepts that must be developed before grief can be fully understood by children. The factors are as follows;

1. Understanding time; and what forever means

2. Transformation process

3. Irreversibility concept

4. Causation

5. Concrete Operations

According to Worden (2002)

Figure 1.1

According to Archer (2002) children before the age of 5yrs. believe that death is reversible. Many young children up to this point maintain a figurative representation within their minds of the lost parent and do not completely understand the permanency of the circumstance until cognitive maturation takes place (Despelder & Strickland, 2005; Rando, 1988). This would validate findings by Piaget in regards to object permanence and development of the cognitive processes of children (Berger, 2001). According to Archer (2002), Speece and Brent indicated that children from the age of 5 to 7yrs. of age begin to understand the irreversibility of death. Furthermore, according to Archer (2002) children less than 7 to 8 yrs. of age however, represented a lack of understanding regarding the word “death.” This is consistent with Piaget according to Archer (2002) and Berger (2001), that in order to understand such a concept as death and irreversibility, ones conceptual thought must be sufficiently developed.

Up to the age of 9 yrs. of age however, most children attribute the death of their parent to outside forces, such as God and other (Carey, 1985). According to Rando (1988) although children 8 to 12 yrs. of age may have a more clear perception of what death is and understand the irreversibility of the process, they may also refuse to accept it.

Adolescent understanding and meaning regarding the death of a parent can be characterized as one of frightening shock and in-depth spiritual examinations. The adolescent is capable of these processes due to what Piaget termed the Formal Operating Stage of development (Longress, 2000; Berger, 2001). A questioning of spirituality and ones mortality can also be associated with Erickson’s stages of development in regards to adolescents finding and understanding their social and human identities within this stage (Longress, 2000; Berger, 2001; Anderson et. al., 1999).

According to Littlewood (1992) it was indicated by studies from Anderson (1949), Bunch (1971) and Birtchnell (1975) that adults who lose parents react with tendencies to

have increases regarding:

1. Suicide ideation

2. Rates of suicide

3. Rates of clinical depression

According to Littlewood (1992)

Figure 1.2

Reactions and feelings related to the loss of a parent as an adult differ according to ones age (Rando, 1988). Adults in their twenties and thirties continue to view their parents as significant support structures, and losing them my feel as if one has been robbed. Feelings of childishness and regression is common and should not be repressed or ignored (Rando, 1988). One may find themselves utilizing their attachments to others such as children, friends, etc. in order to work through the grieving process (Rando, 1988). According to Rando (1988) it should be understood that the emotional nature of the relationship between the adult and parent will effect how the adult works through the grieving process. With this information one could hypothesize that the more an adult is undifferentiated in their identity in regards to the emotional parental relationship; the more difficulty they will have with separation (McGoldrick, 1998). This also would be consistent with Attachment Theory and the reactions associated with separation in regards to utilizing other constructed attachments in the absence of the parental primary (Davies, 2004). According to Littlewood (1992) a study by Sanders (1980) regarding grieving scales indicated that parents who lose their parents reacted high in two areas:

1. Increased death anxiety

2. Loss of control

According to Littlewood (1992)

Figure 1.3

According to Littlewood (1992) the increased anxiety is the result of the adult child feeling as if the are next in the generational line to experience death. The loss of control represents the loss of an important and unique relationship between the adult child and parent that sustained significant support features for the child (Littlewood, 1992; Despelder, 2005). From a gender prospective, it is believed according to Porter & Stone (1995) woman seem to indicate greater problems within the realm of relationships after a significant loss; men report greater work related problems through out the grieving process.

The meaning of losing our parents can different for many adults depending on the importance of the adult child / parent relationship (Rando, 1988). The parent has been the most significant and most influential force within the lives of their children; to lose this special relationship, is to lose a great deal in regards to support, the past and childhood connections, and an interpretation of circumstances within the world (Rando, 1988). These changes according to Rando (1988) & Despelder (2005) may place an adult in the position and process of no longer viewing themselves as a child; thus called the “developmental push.” According to Despelder (2005), Rando (1988) & Littlewood (1992), the loss of the mother is usually more severe for adults than the loss of a father. This information is based on two primary factors:

1. The mother is usually the most nurturing

2. The mother is usually the last parent to experience death

Despelder (2005), Rando (1988) & Littlewood (1992) Figure 1.4

Losing a parent within adulthood also means “not having a home” to go back to which can leave a person feeling alone and frightened (Rando, 1988).

It seems clear that the death of a parent and its meaning can be commonly stated as a process that will force the adult child to redefine themselves, their roles, and expectations for their lives and the lives of their family of procreation.

According to Irish, Lundquist and Nelsen (1993) how cultures react and define meaning of death and loss of a parent varies. When examining the behaviors and perceptional meanings of death in various societies of the world, differences are evident between collectivistic / naturalistic cultures and individualistic / modernized cultures (Kalish, 1977). One primary difference that can be identified is the blame and reasons for ones death across cultures. Within modern societies death can be attributed to internal body failures due to poor nutrition and health maintenance (Kalish, 1977). Within our modernized society we may blame the person or parent for creating internal processes that led to their own deaths; like smoking, poor eating habits, etc. (Kalish, 1977). Within other cultures, especially isolated societies external agents would be to blame for the death of a parent, such as evil spirits or magic (Kalish, 1977).

Other grief differences across cultures include examples of muted grief, excessive grief, somatization, and excessive grief (Irish et. al., 1993). According to Irish et. al., (1993) in Bali if one does not remain emotionally calm and mute their grief process after the death of a parent or any loved one, sorcery and magic may place a person vulnerable to harm. Irish et. al., (1993) indicates Wikan’s (1988) investigation of Egyptian culture expressed excessive grief through constant suffering and bereavement over an extended period of time. According to Oltjenbruns (1998) a study comparing scores upon the Grief Experience Inventory between Mexican students and Anglo students expressed that Mexican student’s results expressed much higher somatization scores, thus indicating that Mexican culture seems to express greater amounts of somatization due to loss. Violent grief and rage seem to be expressed across most cultures; the initiation of this rage or violence seems to be connected to external circumstances; such as other cultures or other people who caused the death of a loved one (Irish et. al., 1993; Kalish, 1977; Archer, 1999).

According to Rando (1977) if children do not resolve their grief; complications can develop, such as; psychosomatic illness, psychological disturbances, adjustment disorders and behavior issues (p. 1999). One strategy according to Rando (1977) is for a therapist to facilitate the withdrawal of attachment from the deceased and make attempts to redirect the emotional energies in another primary figure in the child’s life. This process of course would include identifying primary support structures that assist in sustaining the child’s emotional, psychological, and social well being (Littlewood, 1992). Support structures could be identified as either formal or informal processes (Littlewood, 1992). It seems to be important to utilize professional support to assist a child as well as family before, during and after the death of a significant loved one, such as a parent (Littlewood, 1992). During these processes it would also be useful according to Littlewood (1992) to utilize informal supports; such as family members and others to assist with reducing psychological and emotional distress within the child or adults. It would seem that a therapist would be obligated to assess the roles, expectations and culture of the family and children before initiating any informal or formal interventions.

According to Rando (1977) children may at times act as if they are playing death games or acting out the funeral activities; however this is their way of coping and taking a break from their grief. Because children also have difficulty expressing their feelings, thoughts, and memories of the lost parent, it is important that a therapist assist with facilitating emotional expression (Rando, 1977; Despelder, 2005). Ways of gaining a child’s attention and assisting them with expressing this emotion is to utilize book readings by authors who have written stories that relate to childhood grief (Despelder, 2005). Other strategies a therapist could utilize is art therapy and support group interventions to express emotional and psychological processes (Despelder, 2005).

Processes and supports for adults who have lost their parents and others are important processes that will assist adults through the grieving process. When assisting adults in coping with the loss of their parent it is important to understand that there are gender differences in coping with loss (Archer, 1999). According to Archer (1999) women tend to utilize greater emotional expression and emotional components to cope with the loss of a parent. Men it is believed, utilize problem solving strategies throughout their grieving process (Archer, 1999). According to Gallagher, Lovett, Hanley-Dunn, & Thompson (1989) woman seem to utilize cognitive process in order to work through the grieving process, where as men were indicated as utilizing “keeping busy” types of activities. One could hypothesize that a therapist would have to develop therapeutic interventions that would utilize these innate way’s of coping according to one’s layered identity, such as with gender. With this knowledge, Worden (2002) clarifies that a counselor should primarily seek goals that facilitate acknowledging the reality of the loss, to help the person with expressed and latent affect, to assist with problems related to readjustment and to assist the person with remembering the deceased while feeling good about moving on within their own lives (p. 52).

In concluding, one must understand that with the loss of a parent, the roles and expectations of those left behind will have dramatic effect upon them and the ways in which a social workers must intervene. It becomes apparent that through out the grieving process for children or adults primary considerations must be applied. Gaining better understandings of child and adult reactions and meanings of parental loss, examining the information through a cultural and gender perspective and utilizing coping and support processes to assist the bereaved is of great importance.



Anderson, R. E. Carter, I., & Lowe, G.R., (1999). Human Behavior in the Social

Environment; A Social Systems Approach. 5th ed. New York: Aldine De Gruyter Inc.

Archer, J. (1999). The Nature of Grief; The Evolution and Psychology of Reactions to

Loss. New York: Routledge.

Berger (2001). The Developing Person Through the Life Span. New York,: Worth


Carey, S. (1985). Conceptual Change in Childhood. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Davies, D. (2004). Child Development; A Practitioners Guide. 2nd Edition. New York:

Guilford Press.

Despelder, L. A. & Strickland, A. L. (2005) The Last Dance; Encountering Death and Dying. 7th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Fox, V. C., & Quitt, M. H. (1980). Loving, Parenting, and Dying: the Family Circle in

England and America, Past and Present. New York: Psychohistory Press.

Gallagher, D., Lovett, S., Hanley-Dunn, P. and Thompson, L.W. (1989). Use of

Select coping strategies during late-life spousal bereavement. In D.A. Lund (ed.),

Older Bereaved Spouses: Research with Practical Implications (pp. 111- 121).

New York: Hemisphere.

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Death, and Grief; Diversity in Universality. Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis.

Kalish, R. A. (1977). Death and Dying; Views from Many Cultures. New York: Bay

wood Publishing Company.

Littlewood, J. (1992). Aspects of Grief; Bereavement in Adult Life. New York:


Longress, J. E. (2000). Human Behavior in the Social Environment. 3rd Edition. New

York: Peacock Inc.

McGoldrick, M. (1998). Re-Visioning Family Therapy; Race, Culture, and Gender in Clinical Practice, New York. NY: Guilford Press.

Oltjenbruns, K.A., (1998). Ethnicity and the Grief Response: Mexican American vs.

Anglo American College Students. Journal of Death Studies, 22 (2), 141-155.

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reconsideration of previous data and results from a daily study. Journal of Social

and Clinical Psychology, 14, 184-202.

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Springer Publishing Company.

Autism – Handling an Autistic Child

Autism appears to be the leading mentally challenged disorder presently. But, exactly what is autism?

Autism, usually rearing its head in children, is described as a developmental disorder that bears impaired communication, emotional detachment and excessive rigidity. There are two types of autism – regressive and non-regressive. Autism, developing in children from about 18-months-of-age, is known as autism when children begin losing language and other developments. Non-regressive autism occurs from birth.

How do I know my child autistic?

When children are born with Down’s syndrome, it is harder to trace autism in them then it is to trace in a non-Down’s syndrome child. Social and emotional developments are delayed in an autistic child. If tracing autism in a Down syndrome child is close to impossible for you, look out for the following.

Autistic loneliness – Generally, children with Down’s syndrome are loveable and enjoy being hugged or love to hug. However a child with autism usually prefers to be by himself. Autistic children consider people as objects rather than people.

Changeless routines – Even a slight change can cause a child with autism to go berserk. Sameness breeds familiarity for them.

Lack of eye contact – Autistic children do not make eye contact, but instead they often look ‘right through’ people.

Repetitive movement – It has been observed that autistic children can sit for long hours while waving an object and staring at it.

How do I, as a parent, handle a child with autism

Autistic children usually display intense emotions. Mrs Pillay is a mother whose 5-year-old son, Somesh, has been diagnosed with mild autism. “Even though it’s just mild autism, he is extremely sensitive and cries over nothing at times. He is in normal day care but when these episodes take place, he has to be separated until he calms down. Sometimes he stares into oblivion for hours,” explains Mrs Pillay about Somesh.

Somesh’s condition for mild autism is nothing out of the usual. Working with an occupational therapist is probably the best for both Mrs Pillay and her son. Autistic children suffer from seizures, ranging from mild to severe, at times. When a child is seizing, never move him unless he is danger of falling down the stairs, etc. Try to gently turn the child on his side and loosen the clothing around his neck.

If a holiday celebration is coming up, plan it wisely. Gifts and toys do not make a difference to a child with autism. Mrs Webber remembers her daughter, Christina now 16, back in the old days when everyone would be busily tearing open their presents on Christmas morning. Christina, then 5, would sit and stare, focused on an ornament hanging from the tree. “She never touched a present and even when we unwrapped her gifts for her, she would merely ignore us, the gifts and just about everything else in the room,” remembers Mrs Webber with a tear. Rather than toys, shower the child with love and attention, which according to most therapists are what many autistic children are lacking in today.

What happens if autism is left untreated?

If left untreated, autistic children’s social skills and speech skills will not develop effectively. The number of children who recover from autism without any help is extremely low.

What treatments are there available for autistic children?

There is no cure for autism but there are many treatments available for autism. However the treatment that suits the child may vary from individual to the next. Listed below are those that are not only popular but have seen good effects as well.

Behaviour Modification – Highly structured and skill-oriented activities that are based on the patient’s needs and interests are carried out with a therapist and extensive caregiver.

Communication Therapy – Autistic patients who are unable to communicate verbally , communication therapy is used to initiate language development.

Dietary Modifications – At times, altering the diet, digestion may be improved and food tolerances or allergies may be eliminated and therefore behavioural problems (caused by these tolerances or allergies) may reduce.

An autistic child can be as different or similar as a normal child, depending on how you look at him and treat him. At the end of the day, he is your child and will always be. No amount of denial or leaving him for long hours in special needs schools will change that. It’s time for every parent to make a difference and embrace the child for who he is rather than for what he is.