Home Health Diagnosis Coding: Pressure Ulcer Or Dehisced Wound

If one can not sure whether to go for pressure ulcer coding or dehisced surgical wound coding in a particular situation, read on to find more on this.

Question: One of our patients was admitted to service following a revision of a pedicle or flap graft (procedure code 86.75). The wound is being called a dehisced surgical wound as it was at start of care. The wound was originally a pressure ulcer prior to the first flap procedure. The depth is 2 cm while the wound bed is 50/50 granulation/hard black eschar. And while the wound length is 7 cm, the width is 2 cm. So does this remain a dehisced surgical wound or is it now a pressure ulcer since the flap procedure has met with failure?

Answer: OASIS C guidance points out that this wound is no longer a pressure ulcer once a flap procedure has been performed. It’s a surgical wound. If the present wound started with dehiscence of the flap, it’s still a dehisced wound. If the flap had healed and consequently broken down, it would be a pressure ulcer.

This scenario brings to the fore an answered dilemma…

As per the coding guidelines, you should code for a pressure ulcer with a muscle flap as an unstageable pressure ulcer with a code from the 707.0x Pressure ulcer) series, reporting the appropriate location in the fifth digit. You would need to follow this with 707.25x (pressure ulcer unstageable). However, in your situation, you also have a dehisced surgical wound. In case there are no official guidance on the matter, report the dehisced surgical wound with 998.32 (Disruption of external operation [surgical] wound) and then follow the code with a list of pressure ulcer codes.

But do well to remember that even if you could see down to the patient’s bone through this wound, you are not coding for an open wound. That’s not a correct assumption in ICD-9 coding.

Open wounds in actuality are trauma wounds. If the wound wasn’t created as a consequence of trauma such as a laceration puncture wound, cut, avulsion, or animal bite, it’s not apt to list a code from the 870.x-897.x (Open wounds) categories.

Alternatively: Complicated surgical wounds happen when a surgical wound is not healing as was expected. Something has lead to the surgical wound becoming complicated. Examples of complex surgical wounds are non-healing, infected, and postoperative fistulas.

For more information on pressure ulcer coding and wound care coding, there are various sources to help you out.

How Internet Car Quotes Work and Save You Money

Getting free car quotes off the internet can save you money! You have probably heard that before, but how exactly does it work? Here are a few question and answers about car quotes.

How does it work?

First, referral services usually work with a network of thousands of dealers. Because they get tons of referrals from these services, they can offer you a better price. Furthermore, your information is usually sent to the internet department of dealerships. These departments are often run by non-commissioned managers, which also allows them to make better deals.

Is my information safe and will they bug me?

Your information should be safe. If you are getting your quote with a quality service, they screen all their dealers to make sure they are reputable. Now, you should get an email with your price quote and a possible phone call asking if you want to test drive the car. You are not obligated to come in for a test drive and they should not bug you after that.

What price should I expect?

The average price is around the invoice price. In some cases it is higher, and in other cases it is lower. You should be getting multiple quotes,and you should not be using just one service. You never know who may have the best deal in your area.

Can I go lower than the quoted price?

You can sometimes haggle with this price. However, in addition to the car quotes, you should be doing your research. So make sure to get your car quotes off high quality sites like Edmunds. There, you can find out information such as dealer incentives, holdback, and rebates. This information can help you determine the dealer’s actual cost for the vehicle. You can also learn what others in your are are typically paying for the vehicle. These sites are fantastic for helping you get a deal.

What If I shop at another dealer?

Even if you decide to go to another dealer, you can still use the car quotes you received for leverage. Just make sure to take the quotes emailed to you as proof.

If used correctly car quotes can save you, in some cases, thousands of dollars. Good Luck, and I wish you the best in car shopping.

Beri Beri – It’s Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

What is Beri Beri?

Beriberi is a vitamin deficiency disease in which the body does not have enough thiamine (vitamin B1). Beriberi literally means “I can’t, I can’t” in Singhalese, which reflects the crippling effect it has on its victims. Thiamine serves as a coenzyme in the chemical pathway responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates. Persons may become deficient in thiamine either by not ingesting enough vitamin B-1 through the diet or by excess use, which may occur in hyperthyroidism, pregnancy, lactation, or fever. Prolonged diarrhea may impair the body’s ability to absorb vitamin B-1, and severe liver disease impairs its use. Swelling of bodily tissues ( edema ) is common.

Causes of beriberi are:

Not many vitamin-deficiency disorders occur in the U.S. any more. For all the faults in the American diet, most people escape such disorders as scurvy, rickets and beriberi. Beriberi is the disorder caused by a lack of thiamine or Vitamin B1, in the diet. This vitamin helps convert carbohydrates into energy and aids in heart, muscle and nervous function.

Beriberi has probably been around for millennia, but has only been given a name in the past few hundred years. The name is Sinhalese for “I cannot, I cannot,” probably referring to the fatigue and lassitude often experienced by those with the disorder. Two Dutch physicians, Bontius and Nicolaas Tulp, wrote the first clinical descriptions of the disease in 1642. However, it was 200 or more years later that the disorder was recognized as related to diet.

Symptoms of Beriberi:

Early features:
Fatigue and apathy
Drowsiness, depression poor concentration
Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain

Later features:

Paraesthesia, peripheral neuropathy, depressed tendon reflexes, loss of vibration sense
Tender leg muscles and muscle cramps
Congestive heart failure with dyspnoea, orthopnoea and oedema

Some other symptoms of beriberi are:

Appetite loss
Muscle aches
Limb pains
Swollen joints
Hand paralysis
Foot paralysis
Heart problems

Treatment of beri beri:

Medical Care: Monitor patients with cardiac failure in an intensive care unit. Because beriberi often presents with other B-complex deficiencies, administer all other vitamins of the B complex.


Cardiologic evaluation with 2-dimensional echocardiography is necessary.
Essential for diagnosis and management of beriberi

Documents congestive heart failure (CHF) and the poor ventricular function observed in beriberi

Neurologic and psychiatric consultations are often necessary.

Diet: Patients with lethargy, confusion, and severe heart failure need to fast to prevent aspiration.

Treatment is also with thiamine hydrochloride either in tablet form or injection. A rapid and dramatic recovery within hours can be made when this is administered to patients with beriberi, and their health can be transformed within an hour of administration of the treatment. Thiamine occurs naturally in unrefined cereals and fresh foods, particularly fresh meat, legumes green vegetables , fruit, and milk.

Civil War Food – What Union and Confederate Soldiers Ate

The modern U.S. army has a wide array of food products available to them in base camps and in the field. There are a large number of MREs (which are actually quite tasty) and other portable foods available to them when on missions and when stationed in hostile terrain. And when posted at an established base camp, the food that is prepared is also quite good. A large part of this is of course the ready availability of large quantities of any sort of food imaginable in today’s modern environment. In fact, today’s soldiers have the best food ever made available to a fighting force.

But it wasn’t always that way.

Take the Civil War. Civil War food kept the soldiers fed and not much else. Lets take a look at the diet that comprised the typical Civil War food ration. There were several issues that affected the food that was supplied to the Civil War soldiers. These include the organization of the Commissary Department – which was tasked with the acquisition and distribution of food to the soldiers in the field, the season which determined if fresh food was available or if it was preserved in some way and the ability of the food to stay good for long term storage and transportation.

Prior to the war, the concentration of Commissaries was in the North so when the Civil War began, the North had a great advantage as they already had an existing Commissary Department that was already trained in how to acquire and transport food to soldiers in the field. Their job was to work with the troop numbers and schedules and keep a constant supply of foods going to each area where troops were stationed so that the soldiers could keep on fighting without worrying about where their next meal would be coming from. It took the Confederacy several years to develop a working Commissary so being a soldier of the South was more difficult. It required real dedication to be fighting when you didn’t know where your next meal was coming from. Because of this lack of infrastructure, the South had to do a lot of foraging for food between battles until the supply lines were up and operational.

Civil War soldier food was typically very simple fare – often consisting of meat, coffee, sugar and hardtack – a type of dried biscuit. The meat was often salted or dried so it would last a bit longer and fruits and vegetables were rarities on the battlefield. Because the soldiers were often in the field, they needed to carry rations with them. They had a special bag – called a haversack – which was made of canvas with an inner cloth bag that could be washed to get food debris cleaned out once in a while. But even with this design, the bags were often quite contaminated and foul smelling. Cleanliness was typically not high on the Civil War soldiers priority list.

Union soldiers and Confederate soldiers typically had a different mix of rations. A Union soldier might have salt pork, fresh or salted beef, coffee, sugar, salt, vinegar, dried fruit and vegetables. And if it was in season, they might have fresh carrots, onions, turnips and potatoes. A Confederate soldier typically had bacon, corn meal, tea, sugar, molasses and the very occasional fresh vegetable.

The other difference in Civil War food between the Union and Confederate armies was the type of bread product they had available to them. Confederate soldiers had something called “Johnnie Cake” that they made in the field from cornmeal, milk and a few other ingredients. The Union soldiers had hardtack, also referred to as “tooth dullers” or “sheet iron crackers”. Hardtack was manufactured in large factories in the North and was a staple food for the Union soldiers. Hardtack got its name because it was often not used until months after it was made and during that time, it hardened rock solid which is how it got its nicknames.

As you can see, food has come a long way due to the advent of technologies that allow for better preservation of a wide variety of foods. Gone are the days of weevil infested hardtack. They have been replaced with modern vacuum seal technologies that allow foods to stay fresh and tasty years after they have been packages. And since they say an army is run by its stomach, it is no surprise that the modern soldier is the best the world has ever seen.

Toothache – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

A toothache, also known as odontalgia or, less frequently, as odontalgy, is an aching pain in or around a tooth. In most cases toothaches are caused by problems in the tooth or jaw, such as cavities, gum disease, the emergence of wisdom teeth, a cracked tooth, infected dental pulp, jaw disease, or exposed tooth root. Causes of a toothache may also be a symptom of diseases of the heart, such as angina or a myocardial infarction, due to referred pain. After having one or more teeth extracted a condition known as dry socket can develop, leading to extreme pain.

Toothache or tooth pain is caused when the nerve root of a tooth is irritated. Dental (tooth) infection, decay, injury, or loss of a tooth are the most common causes of dental pain. Pain may also occur after an extraction (tooth is pulled out). Pain sometimes originates from other areas and radiates to the jaw, thus appearing to be tooth pain. The most common areas include the jaw joint (temporomandibular joint or TMJ), ear pain, and even occasional heart problems.

Toothache Causes

Toothache or any other tooth-related problem is really painful and disturbing. It affects our life and our daily activities completely. The main causes of tooth decay are germs in tooth, cavity in tooth, excess consumption of junk foods and sweets and chocolates. Improper brushing, poor quality of toothpaste and toothbrush is also responsible for toothache. Some study shows that stress and mental tension and anxiety worsen the toothache and other problems.

Common dental causes of toothache include dental cavities, dental abscess, gum disease, irritation of the tooth root, cracked tooth syndrome, temporomandibular disease, impaction, and eruption.

Toothache Symptoms

Toothache and jaw pain are common complaints. There may be severe pain to pressure, or to hot or cold stimuli. The pain may persist for longer than 15 seconds after the stimulus is removed. As the area of inflammation increases, the pain becomes more severe. It may radiate to the cheek, the ear, or the jaw.

Toothache Treatment

Be it a child or an adult everybody has experienced toothache at some point of their life. It is a temporary, scathing pain occurring in and around the teeth and in the jaws. The pain can either be minimal, sharp, searing or burning. It can come and go at intervals or can be continuous. The throbbing increases in contact with cold, sweet or hot sensation. A fever can follow a toothache.

In most cases, dental or jaw pain can be cared for with pain medications and antibiotics. A referral to a dentist for follow-up will usually be arranged. In some cases, the doctor may try an injection around the tooth for pain control. If there is swelling in the gums or face, or you have fever, antibiotics may be prescribed.

Treatment will depend on the underlying cause of the toothache. If the pain is due to tooth decay, the dentist will remove the decayed area and restore the tooth with a filling of silver amalgam or composite resin. Loose or broken fillings are removed, new decay cleaned out, and a new filling is placed. If the pulp of the tooth is damaged, root canal therapy is needed. The dentist or a specialist called an endodontist removes the decayed pulp, fills the space left behind with a soothing paste, and covers the tooth with a crown to protect and seal it.


Loneliness is what?

To be alone or to be with our inner self.

For most of us being alone is taken up as when no one is with us, we are sitting alone, in a crowd. We name it as loneliness but if are alone then because we feel that in spite of being alone we are with someone, we say we are alone but in that loneliness we are not alone we are with our inner self. Just think of it. When we are alone we never sit idle, some thing fishy is always going on in our mind. Either we use to think or we use to talk. But if we say that we are alone then what we are talking. At that very moment we are not alone, because for others we are but for our soul we are at that moment with our inner soul.

This loneliness is life for some of us. At times we prefer to sit alone because at that moment we talk to ourselves, we try to find out why we feel so. We cry, we laugh then how can it be said as being alone. How can one laugh or cry or talk being alone.

To be alone is sometimes much better then to be with someone, because when we are alone we take it as what we want, what are our desire's and then we use to think how to get bad on but also in That case we find the reason to be happy for that very situation from our inner self. And at times we feel the presence of the person with what we want to talk or share to something and then we just speak out what is there in our heart, in our mind.

Being alone is not as we normally take it up as, its nothing else then something a soothing time. Although at times we feel like broken, we feel like why we are here if we have to be like this only. Either we use to criticize others or we criticize ourselves.

As because we think only those aspects which we want to see, we do not go for those aspects that should be considered or we may say at that very moment either we are in anger or we are in sad mood so we think only those point Which make us unhappy and we feel low and we think we are left alone and we forget the good things because at that point of time our mind lets us to do according to one side only, and at times we listened to our mind only and we Listen to our heart then we reach to the conclusion. Because at many places its better to listen to our heart then to our mind.

When one feel lonely just sit look for why you are feeling so, listen to what your heart say then the condition to which you say as loneliness will become your friend for times.

Arrhythmias Worth Worrying About

Concerning Types of Arrhythmias

The upper and lower chambers in your heart normally beat in a specific synchronized order. When the chambers don’t beat properly or when your heart rate is not normal, most of the time an arrhythmia is to blame. There are several arrhythmias that are concerning like atrial and ventricular fibrillation and tachycardia and bradycardia. Each of these arrhythmias present with similar symptoms and treatments vary depending on the type of arrhythmia that’s diagnosed.

Atrial Fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation is the most prevalent heart rhythm disorder in patients over 65, but can occur at any age. This arrhythmia occurs when the upper chambers of the heart don’t beat properly, like a mild shuddering rather than a strong beat, resulting in poor blood flow in to the ventricles below. The slow movement of blood creates an increased risk for blood clots and clot related illnesses.

Ventricular Fibrillation

This type of arrhythmia is very serious, often leading to cardiac arrest. When the heart’s lower chambers, or ventricles, don’t beat strongly, but instead quiver like in atrial fibrillation, the result can be deadly.

Tachycardia and Bradycardia

Tachycardia occurs when the heart beats more than 100 times in a minute. Tachycardia is more likely to occur if you are very stressed, very tired, drink too much coffee or alcohol, and smoke excessively. Bradycardia occurs when the heart beats less than 60 times in a minute. Fit people may have a resting heart rate below 60 beats per minute; often during deep sleep your heart rate can drop this low.

Symptoms of Arrhythmias

If you’ve ever felt like your heart skipped a beat or have a fluttering in your chest, you may have an arrhythmia. Some abnormal heart rhythms are merely a nuisance and don’t require treatment, where some are quite serious. When an arrhythmia persists, more prevalent symptoms develop including:

  • Tiredness
  • Feeling dizzy or lightheaded
  • Feeling faint or passing out
  • Pounding heart
  • Trouble breathing
  • Pain in the chest
  • In serious cases, cardiac arrest

Any of these symptoms that concern you or persist over a long period of time warrant a doctor visit.

Diagnosing Arrhythmias

When your doctor is concerned that you may have an arrhythmia, there are several types of tests that show the heart’s rhythm and whether or not it’s abnormal. The most common test is an electrocardiogram (EEG). In many cases, patients wear a holter monitor, or a mobile, continuous EEG, for a set amount of time that records the heart’s beats for the doctor to examine and make an accurate diagnosis.

There are tests that help your doctor determine if you have an arrhythmia and what type it is. These tests may include:

  • Transtelephonic monitor that records only major events
  • Stress test
  • Tilt test
  • Transthoracic echocardiography
  • Echocardiogram

Each of these procedures will help your doctor make the right diagnosis.

Treating Arrhythmias

If you do have an abnormal heart beat that needs treatment, there are many options. Treating these disorders correctly helps prevent blood clots and clot related issues, keeps the heart rate at a normal state, and reduces risk for heart attacks and strokes. Some arrhythmias can be corrected by restoring the heart’s normal rhythm.

There are several medications that treat abnormal heart rhythms like anti-arrhythmics, calcium and beta-blockers to help regulate heart beat, and anticoagulants to prevent clots. Your doctor will decide which you need, but keep in mind, it may take some time to find the right medication for you.

Ablation is a procedure that helps treat atrial fibrillation, tachycardia, and fluttering. A doctor guides a small electrode through a catheter to the area of the heart that is causing the irregularity and emits radiofrequency energy to kill that particular area.

The shocking you typically see on TV is defibrillation. This course of treatment helps to bring the heart’s contractions back to a normal pace. This procedure is most commonly used during cardiac arrest, but is also used to treat dangerous arrhythmic situations.

When arrhythmias recur, your doctor may opt for continuous treatment via a pacemaker or an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). These devices deliver electrical pulses to the heart to regulate your heart beat or restore it back to normal when an arrhythmia occurs.

Again, most irregular heartbeats aren’t cause for concern, but in some cases can cause serious health issues. If you feel like you may have an arrhythmia, contact your doctor right away.

Impact of Globalization


The present era is said to be an age of globalization. Globalization is a broad term and encompasses varied perspectives. It refers to the global outlook of different nations of the world coming closer and joining hands in terms of economy, education, society and politics. Globalization empowers a view for the entire world as a whole irrespective of the national identity and thus globalization has narrowed the world by bringing people of all nations closer (What is globalization?).

Enabling people of one nation to communicate with those of the other nation(s) is the biggest achievement in terms of globalization and development. The culture, trade, business, ethics and conduct of one group in one part of the world can influence others may or may not be of same nation. It is irrespective of the time and space and language bindings as these communications are in terms of trade, social internet forums. The process of globalization is therefore, an amalgamation of interaction and integration among different groups of people, various organizations and governments of different nations. This communication is supported by information technology (What is globalization?). The interaction not only influences people and their welfare in terms of civilization, traditions, political structure, financial growth and affluences but also affects the environment as a whole (What is globalization?).

Gradually globalization has defined its terminologies in all aspects of human civilization by making the countries formulate to the policies for open economies both, domestically and internationally (What is globalization?). With the implementation of free market economic systems, path is paved for mounting their own industrious potentials and creating multitude openings for international trade and investment. This served as an opportunity for the foreign markets, factories, production and marketing measures with people belonging to different parts of the world (What is globalization?).

The view about globalization emerged as-

  1. Economic Integration through trade, investment and capital flows
  2. Political Interaction
  3. Information and Information Technology (IT)
  4. Culture

These are the various magnitudes of globalization affecting the natural, local, national and finally the global environment. It directly influences human development (Panayotou, 2000). An outline is drawn to study the globalization and the environment encompassing economic proportions of trade, investment and capital flows (Panayotou, 2000).

It is evident that regardless of its mounting strength, the side-effects of globalization and economic trends are inadequately understood as these effects are not straight but are indirect. The growing concern for the environment and its protection has given least emphasis on the prevalence of inexorable globalization (Ehrenfeld, 2003). Globalization is multiplying with such a rapid pace that its consequences are being experienced by the smallest and secluded communities and natural areas may it be a developed or an undeveloped nation. It is evident that despite its insightful impact on the environment, globalization is going to have its say (Ehrenfeld, 2003). The present article therefore signifies the impact of globalization on the environment as a whole may it be natural, social, local, national and lastly global.

Globalization has tremendously affected world in various different aspects

1. Industrial- it has provided the surface to the production market with an enhanced access to a wide variety of foreign products and therefore globalization has increased large number of customers for itself. This has helped in the movement of goods and materials between and within the national boundaries.

2. Financial- Globalization has opened the way to procure external financing opportunities to the borrowers.

3. Economic- the freedom of exchange of goods and capitals tells us that the markets are interrelated and any kind of economic collapse in one country could be manged by others.

4. Political- the United States has come up with the supreme power in the era of globalization as it has strong and wealthy economy. Also in the recent decade the People’s Republic of China has skilled with great economic growth.

5. Informational- flow of information from one part of the globe to another and even to the remote locations, through satellites, wireless communication or through internet.

6. Competition- globalization has given birth to tremendous competition and has made the market an open place to excel with skills and quality.

7. Ecological- the most neglected part after globalization; it is inadequately affected because of the climate changes that are occurring due to pollution made by the industrial set up. The areas around the industries are becoming slums and the waste released from the industries is affecting the flora and fauna of the domain. It is forcing the inhabitants to inhale polluted and obnoxious air which not only contains high of carbon-di-oxide but also contains methane, halogen gases and various other particulates responsible for altering the physiology of the inhabitants. Altered physiology becomes the leading cause of ill-health causing hypertension, diabetes and may lead to cancer can be as lethal to generate neonatal teratogenesis.

8. Cultural- Cross-cultural contacts are the result of globalization. It has generated better understanding towards cultural diversity and has promoted travels and tourism to understand each other to a greater extent. This has enhanced greater consumer products at the same time it has generated a pseudo-cultural patterns.

9. Social- due to globalization the social network of people is widening and people are able to understand each other in a better way howsoever distant geographically they may be.

10. Technical- Any kind of technological advances can be communicated to other parts of the world and thus feedback to further enhance it can be procured.

11. Legal or Ethical- the guidelines are laid down for any kind of legal issues; international criminal court and international justice movements (Nijam, A., Runnalls, D., Halle, M., 2007)

Effects of Globalization on our Environment

Reduced Genetic Diversity in Agriculture- a cutback is observed in genetic diversity in the field of agriculture. It was recognized that loss of non-hybrid germplasm has taken place for vegetables, grains and tree crops because of the arrival of new commercial varieties of seeds. This has affected the local farmers to plummet the affluence of existing varieties to promote new and commercial ‘high yielding” seeds (Ramprasad, 2002). In the similar manner globalization has affected wild varieties also. The wild varieties are known for its gene pool for disease resistance and various environmental adaptations and also for its food value. Due to globalization, development, logging and conversion of marginal lands for enhancing production the local agriculture environment is badly affected (Ehrenfeld, 2003).

This has also affected the livestock breeds pushing them towards the extinction (Hall and Ruane, 1993). It is also manifested that globalization has paved the way for the loss of particular domestic livestock. Aristide, (2000) has focused on the kill of local Haiti’s Creole pigs, requiring very low maintenance in order to replace them with pigs from Iowa (USA) to promote the success of the project; but the project failed.

There are many projects which are formulated in each and every field of human endeavor for the promotion of globalization but only a few attains success, incurring tremendous loss of natural resources, vegetation and harm to the natural environment.

Loss of wild species: it’s a common observation that most of the wild varieties are facing danger of extinction due to global trade, global extension and with approaching new technologies and to meet the arising demands. The natural areas are rapidly turning to concrete plantation, to enhance production, building road, dams, mining, power plants, causing loss of species which were known to be the natives of that geographical domain. This is further contributed by the drastically growing human population (Ehrenfeld, 2002). These are the direct implication on the livestock but other indirect impacts encompass, pollution from production agriculture, vehicles coming to the area, additional requirement of electricity, waste from nuclear plants causing changes in the local climate due to liberation of various chemicals from industrial set up also liberation of toxic wastes, gases like carbon-di-oxide, methane, fluorocarbons drastically affect the local natural environment. Development of ecotourism-based industries and also the escalating demands and cut-throat competition to capture the market has lead to the loss of wild life (Ehrenfeld, 2003). It is evident that with the onset of globalization, the wild- life human contact is becoming the source of various new diseases; one of the biggest e.g. is of HIV and out breaks of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Alexander, 2002).

Environmental Costs of Globalization

This encompasses the deterioration of the quality of natural resources including- water, air and soil. It is also causing depletion of natural resources both renewable and non-renewable resources. Pollution of the environment is attributed to the increase in industries, burning of fossil fuels to run the industries, machines and for transport of both raw and finished products to different places. The protective and custom laws re also regulating the environment, contributing to the impact of globalization. According to Yu et al (2002) “A country importing dirty products essentially leaks its pollution to exporting countries that have less strict standards.’ Also, ” the conflict between trade and environment arises because countries with weak property rights appear to be more productive even when they are not, and export their natural resources unsustainably.’ The economists running World Trade Organization (WTO) show problems in running General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which is made to safeguard exhaustible natural resources and protect human, animal or plant life or health (Yu et al, 2002).

It was further emphasized that scientist must come forward to pressure the considerations of the WTO by affording definite scientific evidence of environmental harm.

One of the other consequences of globalization is the transport of heavy, minimally processed food products are made available in excess to the area where they were already available. This not only puts pressure on the local manufacturers but also pressurize their psychology to produce more products to cope with the competition (Yu, 2002).

Social Disruption

Globalization is extending the gap between the rich and poor communities and also between the nations causing regional insecurity and a fear of exhaustion and extinction of resources and shift of manpower from less developed to more developed geographical area. Growing demands have also made people to grow rich by adopting unfair means leading to dissolution of families and communities, health and also in education. This has given rise to regional wars and international terrorism, crippling and self-criticism (Ehrenfeld, 2003).

Spiritual Disruption

The world is becoming materialistic and hence humane of human spirits is lost causing loss of environmental wisdoms (Ehrenfeld, 2003).

Globalization has also revolutionized Plastic Industry: its repercussions on Environment

The advent of plastic has revolutionized the packaging industries. It is becoming the major toxic pollutants of the present era. It has the potential to pollute nature and all the natural resources including air, water and soil. It is a non-biodegradable product causing grave damage to our natural environment (Plastic Problems). Globalization encourages the distribution of goods from one part of the globe to another and this requires appropriate packaging to keep the products protected and in perfect consistency, discovery of plastic and its products has turned out to be a boon for pushing the globalization to its present form. The economic traders have given a least ear to this noxious substance which is now becoming a choking hazard of drainages and pipelines of the streets. This is a serious environmental concern as it leads to the situation of over flooded roads with water may it be rain water or else it is coming through the choked water pipeline. It causes serious traffic jams over the roads when the roads are flooded with water moreover; choked drains provide tremendous breeding grounds for disease-causing mosquitoes (Plastic Problems).

Altered Genetic Makeup and Mutation

Due to globalization, and industrialization, various effluents are released in the atmosphere altering the proportion of natural gases. It is evident that these gases are harmful to the inhabitants of the area. Some of these gases are capable of altering the genetic makeup of the plants, animals and humans living in that area. Apart from these gases there are certain effluents which are thrown out in the soil or in the nearest water body with a thought that they will be diluted, but these chemicals are so very harmful that even their parts per million (ppm) concentrations could result in serious diseases which are beyond any treatment and cure. Consumption of polluted water is highly unsafe. The disease called minimata is the result of mercury poisoning in the similar manner various pesticides, chemicals and particulates are thrown in the water body may lead to blindness, cancer, paralysis and if consumed by a pregnant women then it results in malformation of child or leads to diseases like spina bifida or teratogenesis (Blackburn, 2007). These chemicals are known to affect the DNA of the living beings may it be plants, animals or humans.

Nuclear Advances

The advances in nuclear technology and establishing nuclear reactors to meet the growing demands of electricity are causing a serious damage to the soil of the area. Nuclear substances are very harmful and directly affect the physiology of the organisms. Altered physiology leads to the changes in the genetic makeup and hence expression of gene is affected causing genetic damage, incorrect synthesis of protein and hence incorrect enzymes. Together it culminates to make any inhabitant a serious victim of any kind of disease (Lewin, IX edn.)

War, Threats and Accidents

In the haste to empower the nations with arms and ammunitions, the government bodies are purchasing and developing nuclear weapons. When these weapons are tested for their efficiency then it results in the total damage of the area both in terms of vegetation and animals. It is a great concern for environment as we have not forgotten the happening of Hiroshima and Nagasaki bomb blast of 1945. Inhabitants are still facing the repercussions as the environment is still having the nuclear active particulates causing serious health problems. It must be taken into concern that these elements have huge half life interval and can survive in their active form for long.


Globalization has brought a tremendous impact upon human civilization. The strategies to cope with the globalization are not sufficient to revolutionize anti-globalization approach. The technological advances not only incur deterioration of physical environment by enhancing the percentage of carbon-di-oxide, changes in temperature of the local area but it has given a deep impact to the environment of nations also. Global warming is the combined effect of contribution made by different nations towards globalization. The consequences of global warming are devastating causing not only changes in temperature but also melting of permafrost and oxidation boreal peat deposits, changes in the allocation and profusion of rainfall and storm measures, rise in sea level, depletion of ozone layer. Ozone layer is the protective shield of our environment. It protects the Earth from harmful UV radiations. These radiations are hazardous and results in gene mutation altering the genetic makeup of the organism. Holes in the ozone layer are an open invitation to all kinds of genetic alteration which can prove disastrous. Globalization has also affected the survival pattern of various flora and fauna. A particular geographical area is recognized by the distribution of its flora and fauna patterns but disruption of vegetation for industrialization is not only extending loss of plant species, herbal or any useful varieties but also causing loss of various animal species. Pollution of any kind may it be air, water or soil has impact on the genetic makeup of the individuals. Altered genes not only lead to altered physiology of the organism but also produce altered enzymes causing devastating effects on the individuals. These altered enzymes are responsible for various kinds of diseases such as Alzheimer’s, brain dysfunction. When the polluted water is consumed by a pregnant female may be animal or human then it directly affects the fetus and affects the development of the neonate. Polluted water and air may lead to inhalation and consumption of some carcinogenic particulates which are responsible for the cancer, paralysis, cerebral palsy. Children consuming polluted water show mental retardation, stunted growth, physical weakness, poor mental development. Moreover, soil of the industrial area becomes less productive or unfertile making the land barren. The particulates thrown or dumped in the soil reacts with the natural mineral composition of the soil and deteriorates that quality of the soil. The crops grown in polluted soil are becoming the source of high mineral intake, along with vegetable and fruits various kinds of pesticides are also consumed leading to bioaccumulation of these dangerous chemicals. Consumption of animals for food and meat also leads to bioaccumulation of these pesticides. The sea food is still more dangerous. With the globalization the food items are sent in the processed form to various geographical areas which may vary in temperature conditions. This not only allows the growth of harmful microbes but also deteriorates the quality. To overcome this situation preservatives are being added but still it is another chemical!

Genetic breeding of animals and plants are being performed to produce a high yielding varieties this tendency has lost the wild species. The genetically altered animals or the transgenic animals and plants are more prone to diseases than their wild counterparts. In order to have high milk production and to meet the growing demands of milk and milk products transgenic cattle are preferred over wild animals. Globalization is at one time imposing the nations also to import high yielding cattle to meet the growing demands. This is replacing the original fauna of the domain with the imported ones. It is sometimes dangerous as the animals are being reared under particular conditions and to provide them with the same conditions at other geographical area costs a big amount. It leads to installation of machineries and temperature controlling devices to procure the desired yield. On the other hand these wild varieties are left out of home and then they become nuisance for the other social setups.

The plastic although is becoming the part and parcel of our lives is the biggest pollutant of the present century. It is causing choking hazard as it is non-degradable material. The packaging industry is thriving on this benefit but a concern to the environment is least.

With the advances in technology, computerization of equipments and automation, more unemployment is taking a toll causing communal disempowerment and also cultural and moral impoverishment leading to corruption, adapting fallacies, aggression, stress, hypertension and various health related consequences. Globalization has shown its impact in narrowing the world by bringing nations on a single platform but this platform in true sense has not only widen the gap between the nations but also has brought sufferings to the poor. The hygiene around the industries is a matter of much concern as the water body of this area contains all the effluents emitted from the industries as a waste product. This waste product is either thrown out in the air or is flown in the water and rarely buried in the soil, making the inhabitants to suffer from all kinds of danger.

The developing nations must also check a control over the population. If people are less than the demands will also be less and hence more vegetation, forests and animals will be protected from damage. Plantation must be promoted to protect deforestation. Deforestation is a grave situation and is serving as a beginning of calamity. It is deforestation and destruction of forests and its inhabitants that forecast the changes in climate of that area. If this is prevented then many coming calamities can also be prevented.

The question arises where are we heading with this pace? We are really progressing ahead in life or digging grave for our own destruction? Are we heading towards sustainable development or we are just waiting for the ecosystem to collapse? It is therefore essential that this alarming situation must be given a serious concern and nations should join hands once again not only for economic trade and globalization but for the sake of protecting our planet and whatever natural environment we have must be protected for our survival.

It is therefore a serious predicament that one must take a deep concern about the environment in all aspects of lives. Our natural environment is the sole of our survival and we must protect the same in order to live. We cannot ignore our environment and leave everything for tomorrow. Serious steps to minimize the use of harmful entities must begin from now to protect our local, national and global environment.

We do need a futuristic approach to deal with the issues raised in the present article to procure some natural environment for healthy living.

The Eight Principles of Fitness Training

These principles form a set of guidelines to help you maximize your potential when it comes to fitness training. Stick to these 8 principles, and you’ll find you reach your fitness goals quickly.

1. Specific Training

Your training should have a specific goal or targeted for a particular sport. This principle applies to movement patterns, joint mobility and muscle group strength. For example, a boxer would do sprints on a heavy bag and plyometric pushups in order to improve his punching speed and arm strength.

2. Overload

By upping the level of your usual training to past your normal fitness level will stress the muscles, which will increase performance after the rest and recovery phase. You will see gains in overall performance with a continuous but gradual increase in training level. It must be slow to avoid overtraining.

3. Recovery

You must rest between workouts to allow your muscles to recover. After stressing the muscle tissue during training, new growth and repair only begins during rest.

4. Reversibility

Once you’re fit, you can’t stop training. Any gains that you get from regular fitness training can be reversed if you stop, whether from an injury or simply not having enough time to keep working out. A week or so won’t likely have any effect, but after 3 months you will start to see significant fitness losses begin.

5. Variation

You should vary your routine in order to work all your muscle groups. The body is an efficient machine, and can get too adapted to the same routine. New gains are more likely when you change up your workouts and vary the intensity levels.

6. Transfer

Some exercises that have similar movements can be transfered across. In one example, squats can help improve vertical jump because they both require a similar move.

7. Individuality

Everyone is different, and your training should be structured to fit your own individuality. Your fitness routine should be tailored to suit your needs and goals, as well as your physical body. You need to consider your gender, sport, overall health, any previous injuries or damage, motivation to train and experience levels.

8. Balance

All aspects of your lifestyle need to be in balance for you to see the most gains from your training. Besides actual workouts, be focused on diet, nutrition, sleep and your recovery periods. Moderation is really the important point here. If all you ever do is train, you will put too much pressure on your muscle groups and do yourself damage. Too much focus on diet can end up in eating disorders or obesity.

These 8 principles can help you reach your fitness goals faster and more successfully. Keep them in mind as you train.

Lung Cancer – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

fluid-in-lung-causes-cancer picture-sympLung cancer is the most common cause of death because of cancer in both men and women around the world. The American Cancer Society estimated that 222,520 new installments causes & symptoms of lung cancer in the U.S. is going to be diagnosed and 157,300 deaths because of lung cancer would occur in 2010. Based on the U.S. National Cancer Institute, approximately one inch every 14 men and women within the U.S. will be identified as having cancer of the lung at some point in their lifetime.

Cancer of the lung is predominantly a disease from the elderly; almost 70% of people identified as having lung cancer are over 65 years old, while less than 3% of lung cancers exist in people under 45 years old.

Lung cancer was not common before the 1930s but increased dramatically next decades as tobacco smoking increased. In lots of developing countries, the incidence of cancer of the lung is beginning to fall following public education concerning the dangers of cigarette smoking and the introduction of effective smoking-cessation programs. Nevertheless, cancer of the lung remains among the most common types of cancers both in men and women worldwide. In the U.S., cancer of the lung has surpassed breast cancer because the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in females.

Causes of Lung Cancer


Cigarettes contains more than four-thousand chemical compounds. A number of these compounds have been demonstrated to cause cancer and therefore are referred to as, ‘Carcinogenic.’ There are two main Carcinogens in cigarettes; they are chemicals known as, ‘Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons,’ and, ‘Nitrosamines.’ An individual’s risk of developing Lung Cancer decreases each year after they have quit smoking as healthy cells start to grow and replace cells which have been damaged in their lungs. After approximately 15 years of not smoking, the chance of developing Lung Cancer in former smokers approaches what non-smoker.

Lung Cancer is very strongly associated with cigarette smoking. Ninety-percent of Lung Cancers begin due to using tobacco, and the risk of Cancer of the lung increases with the number of cigarettes an individual smokes over time. Doctors rate an individual’s risk for Lung Cancer when it comes to, ‘Pack-Years.’ For example; if a person has smoke two packs of any nicotine products each day for ten years, they’re considered to have a twenty, ‘Pack-Year,’ smoking history. The chance of Lung Cancer is increased having a ten, ‘Pack-Year,’ history, and persons having a thirty, ‘Pack-Year,’ history are thought to be at greatest risk for developing Cancer of the lung. Out of persons who smoke several packs of cigarettes each day, approximately one inch seven of them will die from Cancer of the lung.

Cigar and Pipe smokers may develop Cancer of the lung as well, although the risk isn’t as great as it is for persons who light up. Persons who smoke cigarettes possess a risk of developing Lung Cancer that’s twenty-five times greater than a non-smoker. People who smoke cigars or perhaps a pipe have a risk of Cancer of the lung that is five-times greater than a non-smoker.

Passive Smoking

Passive Smoking requires the inhalation of tobacco smoke from smokers, and it is an established risk factor to add mass to Lung Cancer. Non-smokers who live with an individual who smokes have a twenty-four percent rise in their risk of developing the condition compared to non-smokers who do not live with a smoker. Approximately 3,000 people die every year in America from Lung Cancer that’s attributed to passive smoking.

Asbestos Fibers

Asbestos Fibers are silicate fibers, and when in a person’s lungs they are able to stay there for the person’s lifetime. Workplaces are a common source of contact with these fibers, where these were used in the past as both acoustic and thermal insulation. Asbestos is either limited or banned entirely in lots of nations today, to include America. Mesothelioma, along with other forms of Lung Cancer, has been related to asbestos exposure. Persons who have been subjected to asbestos fibers and who smoke possess a dramatically increased risk of Cancer of the lung. Persons who worked with asbestos, but don’t smoke, have five-times the risk of developing Cancer of the lung. Persons who worked with asbestos and smoke possess a fifty to ninety percent increased chance of developing Lung Cancer than a non-smoker.

Radon Gas

Radon Gas is really a chemically inert, natural gas which is a natural decay product of uranium; it emits a kind of ionizing radiation. Radon gas is known to cause Cancer of the lung. Twelve-percent of the deaths from Cancer of the lung are attributed to Radon gas, around 15,000 to 22,000 people die from Cancer of the lung caused by Radon gas each year in the usa. Radon gas is the second leading reason for Lung Cancer in America. Radon gas is able to travel through soil and into people’s homes through gaps in pipes, drains, the building blocks of the home or additional openings. Environmentally friendly Protection Agency has estimated that certain in fifteen homes in the usa have dangerous levels of Radon gas, that is odorless and invisible. Radon gas could be detected with easy-to-use test kits.

Family Predisposition

Genetics may play a role in Lung Cancer; a number of research indicates that Lung Cancer is more prone to develop in both smoking and non-smoking relatives of persons who’ve experienced Lung Cancer than in person one of the general population. There is a region around the long arm of chromosome six that studies have found to be likely to carry a gene related to increased susceptibility for growth and development of Lung Cancer in persons who smoke.

Lung Diseases

Certain lung diseases for example Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), are of an increased risk for developing Cancer of the lung. Persons with COPD have a chance of developing Lung Cancer that is 4 to 6 times greater than a non-smoker.

A Prior Good reputation for Lung Cancer

Persons who have survived Cancer of the lung have a greater risk of developing another Cancer of the lung. Persons who have survived a, ‘Non-Small Cell Cancer of the lung,’ (NSCLC) have a risk of one or two percent each year of developing another Cancer of the lung. Persons who have survived a, ‘Small-Cell Cancer of the lung,’ (SCLC) have a risk approaching six-percent every year of developing another Cancer of the lung.

Air Pollution

Air pollution caused by industry, power plants and vehicles of numerous types raises the likelihood of developing Cancer of the lung in persons who are exposed polluted air. Approximately one-percent from the deaths from Lung Cancer are related to breathing polluted air. Prolonged contact with air pollution may carry risks for developing Cancer of the lung which are similar to Passive Smoking; experts say.

Signs and Symptoms of Lung Cancer

The symptoms you experience related to Lung Cancer vary based on where the tumor is, and just how widespread it is as well. Persons with Cancer of the lung may experience a number of different symptoms, or none whatsoever.

No Symptoms: Twenty-five percent of persons with Cancer of the lung discover it through a routine chest X-ray or CT scan, presented like a solitary, small mass that is sometimes referred to as a, ‘Coin Lesion.’ They might report experiencing no symptoms whatsoever when their cancer was discovered.

Cancer-Related Symptoms: Cancer growth, in addition to invasion of the person’s lung tissues and surrounding tissues, can hinder their breathing. This can present symptoms including coughing, wheezing, heart problems, shortness of breath, and coughing up blood or, ‘Hemoptysis.’ There’s a syndrome known as, ‘Pancoast’s Syndrome,’ that involves cancer that has invaded nerves, causing shoulder pain which travels on the outside of the person’s arm. The individual may experience paralysis of their vocal cords leading to hoarseness. They may experience, ‘Dysphagia,’ or difficulty swallowing because of an invasion of their Esophagus. When the person experiences a large airway obstruction, some of the lung may collapse as well as an infection could occur in the obstructed area.

Metastasis Symptoms: Cancer of the lung which has spread to a person’s bones may cause excruciating pain in the areas affected. If Cancer of the lung has metastasized to the person’s brain they might experience various Neurological symptoms including headaches, seizures, blurred eyesight, or even symptoms of a stroke including lack of sensation in parts of themselves, or weakness.

Paraneoplastic Symptoms: Persons with Cancer of the lung commonly experience symptoms because of production of hormone-like substances from tumor cells known as, ‘Paraneoplastic Symptoms.’ The syndromes are generally associated with SCLC, although they may be found with any kind of tumor. One of the more common Paraneoplastic Symptoms related to SCLC is the production of a hormone called, ‘Adrenocroticotrophic Hormone,’ or, ‘ACTH.’ ACTH results in oversecretion of a hormone called, ‘Cortisol,’ through the person’s Adrenal Glands; a condition known as, ‘Cushing’s Syndrome.’

Non-Specific Symptoms: There are several, ‘Non-Specific,’ symptoms a person may experience of association with Lung Cancer. These symptoms include weakness, fatigue, weight reduction, mood changes, and depression.

Good reasons to Contact Your Doctor: A person should contact their Doctor or any other health care provider if they have a persistent cough, or perhaps a chronic cough that has grown worse. The also needs to do so if they have blood within their sputum, persistent bronchitis, a repetitious respiratory infection, heart problems, unexplained weight loss or fatigue, breathing difficulty, difficulty breathing, or wheezing.

Lung cancer treatment


There are lots of kinds of surgery to remove cancer of the lung tumours:

Pneumonectomy: doctors remove one entire lung (people can breathe while using remaining lung).

Lobectomy: doctors remove a piece of the lung (a lobe).

Segmentectomy or wedge resection: doctors remove part of a lobe.

Laser surgery: a high-energy laser beam destroys the cancer cells in a tumour.


Chemotherapy is medicine that fights cancer. Some types of chemotherapy come in pills. Other forms are delivered into your bloodstream by intravenous drip (IV), in which a machine slowly drips medicine into tubes which go into your veins. Some chemotherapy is offered by injection (a shot).


Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells. Rays can be delivered by a machine that directs the high-energy rays for the cancer, or by a small radioactive pellet that will get implanted in or close to the tumour.

Targeted therapies

Targeted therapies really are a newer treatment for certain kinds of non-small cell cancer of the lung (NSCLC). They come as a pill you are taking once a day.

In Canada, two targeted therapies of lung cancer to be approved for non-small cell cancer of the lung treatment, gefitinib (Iressa©) and erlotinib (Tarceva©).Gefitinib (Iressa) and erlotinib (Tarceva) fit in with a group of medicines called “growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors”. They avoid the activation of a protein called epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) that spans the outer wall of cells. Normally, activation of EGFR protein sends signals towards the inside of cells to make them divide. Gefitinib and erlotinib hinder this protein. This helps steer clear of the cancer cells from growing and spreading.

Gifitinib and erlotinib works best in people whose cancer cells have specific genetic mutation, called “activating mutations from the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase” (“EGFR-TK” for brief). However, these targeted medicines are utilized in cancer patients who’ve the mutation and those whose mutational status is unknown (who’ve not been tested for that mutation).

Photodynamic therapy

With photodynamic therapy, you’re injected having a special medicine that gets absorbed by cancer cells. Then doctors shine a high-energy laser light you, which activates the medicine helping it destroys the cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy may be used to treat some cases of early-stage cancer of the lung. It can also be used to help relieve the signs of a blocked airway (airways would be the breathing tubes in your lungs).

Secrets to Clubhead Speed

In golf the faster the clubhead moves through impact, the more power you generate and the longer you hit the ball. The longer your shot, the better your chances of slicing strokes off your golf handicap. Longer drives mean shorter-and usually easier-approach shots. Of course, you still must make solid contact and be on the right swing plane. But all things being equal, the faster you move the clubhead through impact, the more power-and distance-you generate.

But where does clubhead speed come from? It’s not from your arms and hands. They can swing a club through impact fairly quickly. But they’re not sufficient to generate PGA-rated clubhead speed or drive the ball PGA-like distances. To generate real clubhead speed, you must involve your hips. Used correctly, they help produce unimpeded delivery of centrifugal force, sort of like a slingshot does. Accessing this force, as golf tips point out, is the fastest and best way to increase clubhead speed significantly.

Bend From The Waist

Fast clubhead speed-the kind we strive for in golf lessons-comes from fast hips. Fast hips come from moving them correctly and in the right direction. With correct hip movement, you do little with your arms and hands. You do more with your hips. Moved correctly and in the right direction, your hips create the space with which to gather power and produce awesome clubhead speed. This results in longer, straighter shots. Let’s look at how the hips work at critical swing points:

At address, your hips must be set correctly. Golf instruction sessions don’t emphasize this enough. The correct set requires a solid hip flex/sit, the right spine bend, and a light athletic knee bend. Sadly, golfers don’t always achieve this solid foundation. That’s because they bend from the hips, not the waist. Thus, they must make adjustments during their swing. Bending from the waist instead of the hips increases your chances of hitting it long.

Maintain Hip Flex Distance

At setup, the hips sit at a prescribed distance from the ball. This distance must be maintained for you to achieve maximum clubhead seed. As you start your backswing, the back hip must accept the early transfer of weight. The key here is that the back knee maintains its bend. The back hip moves back just a little yet maintains its original flex. The front leg also plays an important role in the swing. Thus, right and left hip flex is never lost, despite hip rotation.

At the top of the backswing, the entire body is coiled. But the original hip flex is still maintained. The key is holding the lower body centered and in place, creating leverage. This requires turning the upper body against a stable lower body. In a proper backswing, the hips and glutes move toward the back without the back leg and thigh ever changing their position. So watch the front leg. Moving it forward or toward the ball ruins the right hip position.

Reversing Backswing Movement

The downswing simply reverses backswing movement. The mistake I see golfers make in golf lessons is moving the front hip toward the ball. This move destroys the original hip flex. In a powerful downswing, weights shifts forward with the back hip holding its original address flex. The key in the downswing is to clear the hips, allowing the club to whip through at maximum speed while still maintaining the proper hip flex. This dynamic plays a huge role in power and path delivery.

At impact, the hips shift toward the target. In other words, they get out of the way. But the hips must clear without losing their original flex. More importantly, they must clear without flexing toward the golf ball. The loss of hip flex through the hitting zone is a major power leak. In fact, it’s nearly impossible to generate great power on the forward swing, if the hips reverse flex. That blocks the arms from moving on the correct return path.

Holding the flex close to the position set at address keys the delivery of power. That’s because it helps establish an effective power delivery system, like a slingshot. Failing to hold hip flex means the golfer must make adjustments to compensate, short-circuiting power. That short-circuits power. If you want the kind of power that helps chop strokes from your golf handicap, get hip to your hips.

Nettle- Medicinal Uses, Interactions, Side Effects, Dosage


Urtica dioica, commonly called nettle, nettles, or stinging nettle, is often regarded as a noxious weed. Urtica comes from the latin urere, meaning “to burn,” and is the source of the medical term urticaria. Direct contact with the mature plant can break off tiny trichomes or hairs on the leaves and stems, injecting chemicals into the skin that cause long-lasting irritation and stinging. The flowering plant and its roots are used medicinally, and the toxic trichomes are destroyed in processing.

Uses and Benefits:

Nettle is predominately employed in Western cultures for the treatment of arthritis pain, allergies, and benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). In European herbal traditions, it is also considered to have diuretic properties. Historical and folk uses of nettle include treatment for diarrhea, constipation, asthma, pleurisy, and eczema; it has also been used as an astringent or hemostatic for nose bleeds, uterine hemorrhage, and the like. The leaves are used for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and diuretic properties, while the root is used for its anti proliferative effect on prostatie cells.


The major constituents of the leaves include organic acids (e.g., carbonic, formic, citric), amines, and flavonoid compounds. The stinging source of nettle is in the leaf and stemandular hairs, which contain acetylcholine, serotonin, formic acid, and histamine. The roots containsitosterol and other sterols, lectins, polysaccharides, hydroxycoumarins and lignans. In addition, the plant is rich in amino acids, vitamins, and other nutrients.

Nettle extracts can partially inhibit prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis in vitro,and have been found to inhibit specific inflam�matory mediators such as IL-2, IFN-gamma, and NF-kappa B,l,8

A decreased release of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated TNF-alph, and IL-1 was demonstrated in blood from human volunteers takinu a nettle leaf extract, but other in vitro effects were not validated:

Hormonally responsive prostate tissue is altered in subject Husing nettle root extracts, and this has been attributed to severnl compounds present in the roop, A steroidal-like hydrophobio compound inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase, which can suppress prostatic cell growth, Lignans inhibit the binding of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) to androgens and nettle decreases SHBG serum levels in controlled studies. Specific compounds may also inhibit 5-alpha-reductase or aromatase activity in the prostate, blocking the formation of dihydrotestosterone or estradiol, respec�tively. Further, polysaccharide fractions of methanolic extracts have anti-proliferative effects on prostate epithelia.

A diuretic effect was observed in rats after intravenous or in�traperitoneal injections of a nettle extract, but no effect was observed after oral administration. Parenteral administration of nettle extracts can also cause depression of the central nervous system (CNS), hypotension, and bradycardia in animals.

Clinical Trials:

Many of these studies have been performed in Germany.

Arthritis-The anti-inflammatory/analgesic property of nettle leaf has been used for arthritis symptoms. Topical application appeared to be beneficial in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) for base-of-thumb osteoarthritis; however, the double-blinding (which is difficult to provide for a stinging preparation) was incom�pleteY Oral preparations were reported to be beneficial in four German studies, primarily in terms of NSAID dose reduction. However, the quality of these studies is questionable because only two were controlled, one randomized, and none blinded.

Allergies-For the treatment of allergic rhinitis, a double-blind RCT in the U.S. evaluated the effect of an orally administered freeze-dried preparation for 1 week. Global assessments of subjective effectiveness were favorable after therapy was completed, but personal diary data revealed only a slightly better outcome than placebo. The large drop-out rate (mainly in the nettle group), unclear dosing, and lack of statistical analysis weaken the results of this study.

. Adverse Effects:

Nettle is well tolerated; side effects are generally similar to placebo in the controlled studies. Mild gastrointestinal irritation has been reported, but is uncommon.

Side Effects and Interactions:

Because nettle extract has CNS-depressant effects in rodent toxicity studies, some authorities warn against conmmitant use with CNS depressants. However, it is doubtful that these results apply to humans; there are no reported adverse CNS effects or drug interactions with nettle in the herbal or medical literature.


Uteroactivity has been reported in pregnant and non-pregnant mice, so caution is warranted in pregnant and breast-feeding women. Herbalists have generally found no adverse effects in these populations, however.

Preparations & Doses:

Multiple preparations and formulations of nettle are available, and controlled studies have examined different oral dosing regimens. For the anti-inflammatory effect in acute arthritis, 1340 mg/day of a powdered extract or 50 g/day of stewed nettle leaf was used. For allergic rhinitis, two 300-mg capsules of freeze-dried stinging nettle were dosed 1-7 times per day (mean t.i.d.). For BPH, typical doses are 300-600 mg b.i.lt of a methanol extract of the root. In the herbalist literature, 2-5 g t.i.d. of dried herb is usually taken as an infusion or extract. Topical application of the fresh leaf can be an effective analgesic, as long as the nettle produces a stinging sensation with wheals (it may act as a simple counterirritant), and treatment is repeated daily for several days.

Summary Evaluation

Several clinical trials have found nettle to be beneficial for arthritis pain and BPH symptoms, but poorly designed or unknown study methodology limits the potential benefits reported in these investi�gations. Minimal clinical evidence is available for the use of nettlo in allergic rhinitis and as a diuretic. As the use of nettle appears to be safe and well tolerated, it is acceptable for patients to try this herb for mild arthritic, allergic, or BPH symptoms. However, the efficacy for any indication remains unproven.

Bronchitis Mucous

Bronchitis is inflammation (swelling) of the airways along with an increase in mucous production.This is mucus that come up due to different types of bronchitis.
Bronchitis may be classified as either acute (sudden onset) or chronic (long term).

Acute Bronchitis
Acute bronchitis is usually caused by a viral infection of the upper respiratory system.  Symptoms of acute bronchitis may be experienced during or after a common cold.  The onset of symptoms can appear suddenly and generally last 7-10 days. However, coughing can last up to 3 weeks or longer.

Chronic Bronchitis
Chronic bronchitis is defined as having a mucous producing cough for 3 months of a year for 2 years in a row.  It is normally associated with constant irritation of the airways.  While smoking is a major cause of chronic bronchitis, other factors such as dust and air pollution also contribute to the problem.

Mucous, also called phlegm, is a sticky, gel-like substance produced in the airways of the lungs by cells called goblet cells. Mucous serves a very important role in helping to catch and remove dust and other irritating particles in the air we breathe. Goblet cells respond to irritants and pollution by producing more mucous.

Furthermore, research has shown that the lungs of smokers tend to have more goblet cells than the lungs of non-smokers.  This could be a response to the constant irritation that smoker’s airways are exposed to. Treatment for bronchitis usually focuses on reducing the irritation to the airways.  Bronchodilators are helpful in some people that have symptoms of airway tightness.

If You’re Having Issues With Putting Consider the Open Stance

There is probably a greater variety of putting styles than with any other golf stroke. Most golf instructors will probably tell you that the putting stroke that consistently gets the ball in the hole is the right one for that golfer. So when I hear that the feet MUST be parallel with the putting line, I think that kind of coaching is quite narrow-minded indeed. Jack Nicklaus used the open putting stance and I’d say it worked okay for him.

Recently I’ve gone with the open stance for short putts (within about ten feet), and so far I’ve had great results. With the open stance I can keep my head behind the ball, therefore allowing me to see the line much better without moving my head. For these short putts I can see the line all the way to the hole, and it is only a matter of stroking the ball on that line. For longer putts I don’t get those same advantages.

For this putting stroke to work, however, certain things have to happen.

1. You must use the pendulum stroke. This is a stroke where the putter face stays square to the ball throughout the entire stroke. I don’t think it’s possible to putt consistently if the putter face leaves the square position at any time. Sooner or later on some putt, perhaps an important one, you won’t get the face in proper position and either push or pull that three-footer. And nothing kills your confidence quicker than when you do that.

2. Tuck the back elbow. With the open stance you can stabilize the right elbow against the body. This stability takes away one more possible thing that can go wrong; that is, the more of your body that you can keep planted and solid the less that can go wrong during the putting stroke.

3. Lead with the front hand. One of the problems I’ve had with the open stance that I had to correct is “popping” the ball. Because the ball is naturally going to be forward, the putter will have a tendency to get under the ball and lift it off the surface, definitely something that will throw the putt off line. By leading with the left or lead hand I am better able to keep the putter from rising through the ball.

This style certainly goes against what many consider unbending golf fundamentals. But if you can consistently make what I think are the necessary adjustments to make this style work, you may find the advantages that I have found will help you sink those short putts, the ones you should be sinking.

Hip replacement

What is a hip replacement?

Hip replacement, is an operation to replace a hip joint with an artificial (‘ prosthetic’) hip joint. It is a common procedure and effectively relieves pain and restores mobility.

Why might a hip joint need to be replaced?

The hip is the joint that connects the thigh bone (the femur) to the pelvis. The hip joint is what is known as a ‘ball and socket’ type of joint. The upper end (head) of the femur is rounded and smooth so that it fits into a hollow cup in the pelvis. This arrangement gives the upper leg the very wide range of movement needed to walk, run, climb and jump.

The hip is a ‘synovial’ joint, meaning that it is enclosed by a ‘capsule’. The space within the capsule is filled with fluid, which allows the two bone surfaces to move smoothly over each other. The bone surfaces are also covered by a smooth substance called ‘cartilage’ to aid this movement.

There are many reasons why a hip joint may need to be replaced. However, by far the most common reason for hip replacement is joint damage due to arthritis. There are two major forms of arthritis, which are fully described in another factsheet. Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammation of the joints that tends to affect women in early to middle age. Osteoarthritis is ‘wear and tear’ of the joint and most commonly affects the joints of elderly people. Both of these conditions can lead to destruction of the hip joint which results in pain and loss of mobility of the joint.

The hip joint may also need to be replaced after injury. In older people particularly, the head of the femur can be fractured in an accident and it may not be possible to repair surgically.

A less common reason is death of the head of the femur. This may be from a number of causes, including sickle cell disease, trauma, excessive use of steroids and rare genetic conditions.

What happens during a hip joint replacement?

The replacement joint is an artificial version of the natural ball and socket joint. It has two separate components. The lower part is usually made of metal and is a shaft with the ball part of the joint at the top. The other part of the artificial joint is the socket which fits into the pelvis and this can be made of either metal or a special type of plastic.

There are many different types of prosthetic hip joint, made of different materials and in different shapes. Improvements are being made all the time to strengthen and to perfect these artificial joints. The surgeon performing the operation will choose the type of replacement joint he or she feels is most appropriate for your condition and build.

During a hip replacement operation, the surgeon first cuts through the skin and parts the muscle to get to the hip joint. The femur is then separated from its cup in the pelvis.

The rounded head of the femur is then removed and replaced with the artificial substitute. The natural socket in the pelvis is opened out and the artificial socket inserted. Both parts of the artificial hip joint are strongly bonded to the normal bone using a special glue rather like cement.

The ball and socket are then re- united and the muscles and ligaments repaired. Any final repairs to tissues are then made and the incisions closed.

What are the preparations for a hip replacement?

The hip replacement operation is carried out under general anaesthetic. This means you may be asked to visit the hospital one to two weeks before the date of your surgery, to have a preoperative interview with a nurse and / or the anaesthetist. They will ask you questions about your current and past health, and will need to know about any allergies you may have, medications you are taking (including over the counter products or vitamin supplements), previous surgery, whether you smoke or take street drugs, and how much alcohol you use. You may also be given a physical examination, during which your heart and lungs will be checked to make sure it is safe for you to have an anaesthetic. You may be given routine laboratory tests, such as urinalysis (tests of your urine), chest x- rays, or complete blood cell counts, as well as a hip x- ray. These should reveal potential problems that might complicate the surgery if not detected and treated early. No testing may be necessary if you are in good health and younger than age 65, but each clinic may have different requirements.

Please answer all questions completely and honestly as they are asked only for your own wellbeing, so that your surgery can be planned as carefully as possible. If you are unsure of the names of any medications, bring them with you. You will be told whether or not to stop any medications at this preoperative clinic visit. For example, if you are taking aspirin-containing medicines or anticoagulants, they may need to be temporarily withdrawn or reduced in dose for two weeks before the procedure. If you can, try to stop smoking at least six to eight weeks prior to surgery.

What are the possible complications?

Hip replacement is usually very successful and can lead to an enormous improvement in quality of life. The operation can relieve constant severe pain and make it possible for people who had become virtually immobile to get about comparatively easily.

One potentially serious complication is for the new joint to become infected. For this reason you will be given antibiotics when you have the operation and for a short time afterwards. If an artificial joint does become infected, it may have to be replaced.

Surgery on the leg combined with immobility after the operation increases your chances of getting a blood clot in one of the veins in the leg (venous thrombosis). For this reason you will be given injections of heparin, a substance that helps prevent clots.

Eventually, the artificial joint may need to be replaced, usually after about 10 years. The weakest point is the glue used to bond the artificial parts to the bone. Sometimes the bond can gradually loosen with time. If the joint becomes loose, surgery to repair it is necessary. However, constant research and development is leading to rapid advances in the design of artificial joints and methods of uniting them to the pelvis and femur.

How long will I stay in hospital?

The joint remains unstable for 1 or 2 weeks after the operation. The length of time you will stay in hospital will therefore depend very much on your progress and mobilisation in hospital, as well as your age and general health and how you are set up to manage at home. Mobilisation as early as is safely possible after the operation is generally recommended. Your progress should be discussed with your doctors, nurses and physiotherapists.

What happens after a hip replacement?

The joint and the muscles need time to settle down after the operation as at first the joint can easily become dislocated. You will be advised on how to go about mobilising yourself by your physiotherapist and on how best to sleep so as not to put undue strain on the newly replaced joint. The main point is to take things gently and enjoy your new- found freedom of movement.