Distance Running And Sore Feet – Key Tips To Avoid Foot Problems

Runners often experience sore feet. Running a marathon or long distance running, involves a considerable degree of dedication and preparation.

It also involves putting our bodies and in particular our feet under a considerable degree of pressure as they spend several hours pounding the pavements.

The potential for sore feet and injury is high, so we need to know how to take care and attention avoid these foot injuries.

* Examples of foot problems when running

– Ill fitting Trainers and Socks

These are the largest contributors to foot problems in marathon running, indeed running in general. They can cause problems with the hips, knees and back..

To avoid this, do not wear new trainers on the actual race day.

Instead choose a pair that you have been running in for about ten weeks. These do need to be worn in but as you will be increasing your mileage in the last two months when training, you do need them to remain supportive.

– Blisters and Nail Damage.

Some of the biggest foot problems experienced by runners, are blisters and nail damage.. If the nails are too long, or socks overly thin, or trainers are too tight, then the nails can start to thicken up.

The nature of long distance running is that there is lots of pressure on the big toe. Hence if the nails are too long then problems can ensue from this constant pressure.

– Numbing

Numbing is another example of the effects of long distance running. Again this can be caused by pressure on for example the big toe, but it can also be caused by ill-fitting footwear.

It really is essential to take the time to seek expert advice on appropriate running footwear.

* Some advice on pre race foot treatment.

– Deal immediately with pre existing foot conditions

First of all deal with any existing foot conditions. Get an expert to check your feet out if necessary.

If you have a fungal condition, then get it treated as it will only flare up on race day. The same applies if you have a number of calluses, or ingrown toenail type problems.

– Make Foot Hygiene a priority

Keep your feet clean and dry. If you know that your feet do get overly sweaty, then use talcum powder to dry them. Consider using running socks when you run.

Keep to a consistent foot care routine, if its working in training, its also likely to work on the day.

Don`t change your routine just for race day its a bad time to find out that a change hasn`t worked!

* Some advice on Post Race Recovery

You`ve finished – well done.! However, your feet may be throbbing and need care and attention. Consider a saltwater bath to sooth and a massage to relax.

These are just a few of the many tips available on the treatment of sore feet . There is so much more to learn so do read on and learn how to really look after your feet properly.

Knowledge of Nail Fungus

Nail fungus is considered to be one of the most common conditions one can get. However, it is still relatively unheard of for many people. More surprisingly, it is this ignorance that can actually lead to the infection occurring in the first place. The yellowing, hardness and non-existent symptoms are all common signs of such an infection.

Nail fungus can actually be caused by both yeast and fungal based infections. Both of them are rather contagious and hygiene are not a guarantee to prevent or cure it. Keeping the area clean may make you feel better but it can’t get rid of the fungus at all. Clipping your nails so that they are straight and short is a good way in which you can prevent the need for nail fungus treatments.

Dry and clean feet can help to prevent nail fungus infections as this can make the area uninhabitable for passing fungal infections. Although it will not prevent nails from occurring, this can massively help to reduce symptoms and also the likelihood that the bacteria finds the area a nice place to thrive. You should also think about changing your socks a couple of times per day and never wear shoes that are in a bad state.

The fungus and yeast infection can be spread by walking barefoot in public areas such as swimming pools and changing rooms. Never share shoes or socks with others and always make sure that you wear flip flops or other suitable footwear in public places. Sharing things such as those and also tools like clippers can help the spread of bacteria and particularly the fungus and will make you more susceptible to catch the contagious condition.

Another facts about nail fungus infection is that it is more likely that a person will get it on their toenails than their fingernails. It is more common to have the fungus growing on the feet than it is on the hands due to the area being rather moist and damp. As a result, using nail fungus treatment is very important as soon as you notice any of the symptoms of this irritating infection.

Of course, prevention is best to avoid nail fungus but if the fungus does occur, you must take actions to solve the problem. Obviously if you have managed to get a cure at the onset of a fungal infection, the nail will not become so unattractive in practice. However, leaving the nail without right treatment can eventually lead to the nail bed lifting and debris collecting under it which will not only look awful but can be very painful at the same time.

The more the infection spreads on the nail, the more the nail itself will detach from the nail bed and without nail fungus treatments you may find that you will eventually be left with no nail. The best way to prevent this is to visit your doctor or other medical professional as soon as you notice that anything has changed with your nails and to get a treatment as soon as you can.

A nail fungus takes some time to heal and all of the nail fungus treatments in the world will not remove the symptoms over night. Anti-fungal medications can be called upon to reduce the symptoms. Generally speaking, the infection will take some time to heal and during this time it is very important that you refrain from walking around in barefoot to ensure others won’t catch the same infection.

Nail fungus infection won’t heal automatically unless right treatments are taken. Oral medications are effective but can have harmful side effects including headaches, upset stomach, liver damage and rashes. Some natural essential oils can treat the condition, initially. Aside from curing finger nail fungus, these natural oils have other benefits in the overall health.

NailFungusCure, this topical anti fungal agent delivers a broad spectrum of action against fungi causing nail fungus, meaning it kills the fungus and acts as a curative agent. The treatment has a proven ability to eliminate and cure nail fungus on the toes and fingers time after time. It is possibly the most powerful and effective topical nail fungus treatment on the market.

Due to this, NailFungusCure has proved to be unrivaled in the elimination of nail fungus. NailFungusCure contains very potent certified organic medicinal plant extracts and antifungal essential oils. These extracts exhibit a wide spectrum of antifungal activity, and in laboratory tests they have demonstrated their ability to kill the fungi causing nail fungus infections.

This is a painless yet strong topical treatment, delivering remarkable results in the elimination of nail fungus. NailFungusCure returns the nail to its original state prior to the onset of the infection. When treating the skin, please only apply an organic treatment. To learn more, please go to http://www.bcured.net.

Lyme Disease – Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment

Lyme disease is a bacterial infection caused by a bacterium known as spirochete, which is spread by tick bites. Lyme disease is described in 3 phases: the early localized disease with skin inflammation; Early disseminated disease with heart and nervous system involvement, including nerve palsies and meningitis; And late disease featuring motor and sensory nerve damage, brain inflammation and arthritis.

The Ayurvedic treatment of Lyme disease is aimed at treating the symptoms, preventing complications and boosting the immune status of the body. Medicines like Mahamanjishthadi-Qadha, Gandhak-Rasayan, Sukshma-Triphala, Chandraprabha-Vati and Panch-Tikta-Ghrut-Guggulu can be used to treat the early localized disease involving skin inflammation. These medicines can also eliminate the bacteria from the body. This disease causes inflammation of the heart muscle, resulting in arrhythmia or abnormal heart rhythm, and heart failure. Medicines like Bruhat-Vat-Chintamani, Maha-Vat-Vidhwans-Ras, Ekang-Veer-Ras and Tapyadi-Loh can be used to prevent and treat arrhythmia. Inflammation of the heart muscle can be used using medicines like Triphala-Guggulu, Punarnavadi-Guggulu, Arjunarishta, Dashmoolarishta, Saarivasav, Nimba (Azadirachta indica), Patol (Tricosanthe dioica), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis), Haritaki (Terminalia chebula), Draksha (Vitis vinifera), Musta (Cyperus rotundus) and Kutaj (Holarrhina antidysentrica).

Involvement of the nervous system can be treated using medicines like Kaishor-Guggulu, Tapyadi-Loh, Ekang-Veer-Ras, Bruhat-Vat-Chintamani, Maha-Vat-Vidhvans-Ras, Vishtinduk-Vati, Yashtimadhuk (Glycerrhiza glabra), Nirgundi (Vitex negundo), Shalparni (Desmodium gangeticum) and Prushnaparni (Uraria picta). Involvement of the joints can be treated using medicines like Yograj-Guggulu, Maha-Yograj-Guggulu, Maha-Yograj-Guggulu, Maha-Rasnadi-Guggulu, Rasna (Pluchea lanceolata), Nirgundi, Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), Deodar (Cedrus deodara) Vishwa (Zinziber officinalis) and Erandmool (Ricinus communis).

Symptoms resulting from this disease sometimes persist even after eradication of the Lyme bacterium. This is usually because of an ongoing auto-immune response in the body and is treated using medicines like Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), Bhrungraj (Eclipta alba), Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus), Mandukparni (Centella asiatica), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) Bala (Sida cordifolia), Abhrak-Bhasma, Suvarna-Bhasma and Suvarna-Malini-Vasant.

Since Lyme disease is transmitted by ticks attaching to the body, it is important to use protective clothing and adopt other techniques for the prevention and avoidance of tick bites while staying in, or visiting tick areas. Adequate hygiene should be maintained in order to prevent transmission of this disease.

Principles of Taxation in Ancient India

Principle of Taxation in Ancient India

                        Dr. B. Prasad

              (Retired Dy. Gen. Manager, SBI)*

As defined in Wykepedia Dictionary taxes are ‘compulsory charges levied by a government for the purpose of financing services performed for the common benefit’. In the words of Mill, taxation is “the condition of the existence of governments”(Principles of Political Economy). There is no denying the fact that no government can function without incurring a considerable expense on governance and welfare of its people. And for this people’s contributions in the form of taxes are the foremost components of financial resources to the government. This position is not confined to modern days’ governments alone but existed through out the ages, ancient and medieval; rather its existence may be traced back to the evolution of mankind into political organization. The ancient India was no exception to this. There is no dearth of evidence in the form of references and inferences in the documents of this period. The Vedic texts, epics, smritis, puranas, Arthashatra, literary texts and epigraphs of the time, all equivocally dwell at great length about the paramount importance of taxes to governments. Starting with the Vedic period, there existed a regular system of taxation. The technical fiscal terms like ‘bali’, ‘shulka’,’bhaga’,‘udaja’, and ‘niraja’ are frequently mentioned in the literature of this period1 which reasonably and legitimately lend support to the view that taxation had evolved from voluntary to compulsory and regular in nature. The Rigvedic king was the ‘sole taker’ of taxes and even did not hesitate in using force to realize the state’s dues fallen in arrears2. The Atharvaveda refers to the state’s share ‘in village, in horses and in kine (cows)3′. However, it is not known what share the state had in the wealth of its people. It appears that in course of time during the Vedic period itself, taxation started affecting life of the people so much so that a tendency to escape from taxes started gaining ground among influential people of the society. The Brahmanas were the first to claim immunity from taxes possibly on the basis of being engaged in unproductive vocations4. However, the simple nature of Vedic taxation did not last long as it was no longer adequate to meet the growing needs of government arising out from sweeping economic, social and political developments that had taken place during the post Vedic period of Indian history. This gave birth to a number of general rules or canons of taxation.

Modern scholars on ancient Indian polity hold the principles of Hindu Taxation in high esteem. “That the constitutional law of taxation was a living law, regulating life”. Whatever the form of government there was, taxation was not an object of ruler’s caprice5. Some of the scholars go to the extent of asserting that the modern maxim of ‘ability to pay taxes’ and ‘the least sacrifice theory’ were the guiding principles in ancient India6. The historical accounts, however, do not subscribe to the eloquent estimates of these scholars as it would be evident from the critical examination of data available in the various texts of the period under review.

The first principle of modern taxation is that it is compulsory in nature. In ancient Indian texts, there are abundant evidences to show that taxes as compulsory payments were well

* 55, Unesco Apts., C-203, Patparganj, Delhi -110092

cherished and cultivated. Manu Smriti prescribes taxes to all and sundry. ‘Even a poor man who maintained himself by following some occupation, was required to contribute every year something by way of Kara (tax), while workers like cooks, artisans like blacksmiths, shudras who subsist by manual labour were required to work for the state one day in a month7. Kautilya goes a step a further and did not spare even a hermit who were required to pay taxes from the corus they had collected8. This system seems to have prevailed even during the Gupta period of Indian history as is revealed from Kalidasa’s Sakuntalam and Raghuvamsa. ‘The hermits too provided the king with a sixth part of the grains they gleaned thinking that it was a tax payable to him who protected them’9. However, the system of taxing all ushered into a little change later on which is evident from the writings of Lakshmidhara, a minister under Gahadavalas. He says that “everyone must contribute (taxes) to the extent of potential capacity”. He adds further that “he, who has no resources, should not be asked to pay taxes”10.

The king in ancient India is repeatedly exhorted in the literature of this period to respect the sacred laws as prescribed in the Holy Scriptures while levying taxes. The great epic, Mahabharata opines that “taxing according to reason is a means to preservation”. The king should fill his treasury “with a sixth part upon a fair calculation of the yield of the soil as his tribute with other fines and forfeitures levied upon offenders11. An identical view is held by very many other law-givers of the time. Vasistha, for instance, recommends the payment of taxes only when the king rules in accordance with the sacred laws12. Manu holds that the king should cause the annual revenue being collected by trustworthy officials and in matters of taxation he should obey the sacred laws and behave like a father to his subjects13. Apastamba, another law-giver asks the king to collect only lawful taxes14. The frequent reference to ‘lawful taxes’ has led many scholars to conclude that this was akin to modern principle of taxing according to law. They hold that taxes were fixed by the sacred laws and king had no authority to impose any new levy nor could he enhance the old one. K.P. Jayaswal, in his ‘Hindu Polity‘ holds that “the constitutional law of taxation was a living law regulating life… they have been fixed by law and the scales had been embodied in the sacred common law. The consequence was that whatever the form of government, the matter of taxation was not an object of ruler’s caprice”15. Jayaswal was followed by B.A. Saletore, who holds that “taxation was not a matter of either chance or caprice on the part of the monarch….the action of the king was circumscribed by the regulations laid down in the Dharmasastras”16. Another scholar, Balkrishna also strongly believes that ‘the abuse of arbitrary taxation was reduced to minimal by not allowing the king to levy any tax that was not sanctioned by the Vedic and Smriti laws or custom’17. It appears that these scholars have been swayed more by emotions than by the motives behind mention of sacred laws by ancient Hindu thinkers in regard to taxation. The frequent reference to sacred laws in their writings imply that only such taxes, which were specified by the state, were to be collected by the authorities. Nowhere in the above statements is it mentioned that taxes were fixed by the sacred texts. It is only Vasistha who has advocated that if the king did not rule in accordance with the sacred laws taxes should not be paid to him but even he does not say that taxes were fixed and articles to be taxed were decided for ever. Reference to ‘lawful taxes’ as prescribed by sacred scriptures was only a reminder or notice to the state / king against being oppressive in levying and collecting taxes. Therefore, too much is not to be read of the word, ‘lawful taxes’ as assumed by the above mentioned scholars. Further, it is a well known fact that right to tax and to impart righteous or unrighteous government always rested with the sovereign of the state. It was because in the sovereign alone vested the power to wield the sceptre of danda. Besides, it is also not proper to assume that  the literature of this period refer to all taxes current during their time. The data supplied by them is meagre and scanty and moreover, it is seldom that they give a uniformity of thought and system. During the period under review a number of sacred texts came into existence but it is not clear which of the text worked as a guide to the king. In fact, there was no universal fiscal law applicable to all condition and all times. The state could freely and conveniently alter the existing rules so as to suit the purpose and adequately meet the need of the occasion. In view of these facts, the contention of these scholars that ‘taxes were fixed by sacred texts’, does not come out unscathed and is in fact reduced to mere fallacy.

The next canon of taxation as envisaged by ancient thinkers is that taxes should be moderate and not burdensome on its subjects. Manu opines that the king should “always fix in his realm the duties and taxes in such a manner that he, himself and the man who does the work receive their due reward”18. He continues that “as the leach, the calf and the bee take their food little by little, even so must the king draw from his realm moderate annual taxes”19. Kulluka, in his commentary on Manu states that taxes should be realised from “what is in excess of the capital (mooladhanamanuchchhindata)”20. Based on the above texts, Saletore believes that income and not the capital should be taxed. The leach, the suckling calf and the bee do not destroy the very source while taking their food21. Manu’s view is elucidated in the Arthasastra of Kautilya. “Just as fruits are gathered from garden as often as they become ripe, so revenue should be collected as often as they become ripe”22. Manu and Kautilya thus recommend for continuous levy but at the same time they also caution that if this maxim is indiscriminately applied it would result in financial suicide. Perhaps because of this fear Manu seems to have offered a supplementary to his previous text. He warns the king that he should not cut his own root by not levying any tax or the root of other (men) by excessive greed, because by cutting his own root or theirs he makes himself and them wretched23. He has offered his sober advice to the king that he should not take what ought not to be taken nor even though he is affluent, should he forego his just dues be they were so small24. Like Manu, Kautilya too has advised that ‘collection of revenue or of fruits when unripe was bound to sap the very source of production and to bring about an immense peril to the state25.

The fear of injuring the source and the sober advice to state to collect moderate taxes and that too in easy instalments  have been advocated in very many other texts as well. Here also the precepts are loaded with picturesque similes and metaphors. The Udyogaparva of Mahabharata opines that ‘just as a bee draws honey but at the same time leaves the flower uninjured, similarly the king should tax his subjects without harming them. He should act like a bee and garland maker and not like charcoal maker26. The analogy of bee drawing honey little by little occurs in the Santiparva and elsewhere as well. The king is advised not to bruise the udders as the calf does not. He should suck his kingdom in the fashion of a leach taking blood mildly, a tigress carrying her cubs touching them with her teeth, in the fashion of a mouse which though having sharp teeth produces a gentle rocking of the feet when biting a sleeping person27.  The text elaborates it further. It states that an intelligent king should milk his kingdom on the analogy of the calf. If the calf is permitted to suck, it grows strong and carries heavy loads. If, on the other hand, the cow is milked too much the calf becomes weak and incapable of being useful to its owner. Similarly, if the kingdom is taxed recklessly, the whole economy of the state will be paralysed’28. ‘Just as a person wishing for milk does not obtain by cutting the udders of the cow, so a king, who resorts to unreasonable taxes, saps the very incentive for production. The subjects, when properly looked, yield grain and cash to the state as gratified mother yields milk to her child’29.

The simile of taxing the kingdom and milking the cow repeatedly occurs in the classics and other authoritative works as well30. The tradition is maintained even in the late works on polity. The Pancatantra enjoins that the gardener plucks fruits and flowers but does not harm the trees; the bee sucks honey but does not damage the flower, in the same way the king should collect his taxes without causing any hardship to his subjects31. The text further states that one, who kills the goat, can at best get one meal but one who feeds it well, can get milk for several years31.

It would be observed that the foregoing canons of taxation conceived and advocated by the Hindu lawgivers lays an emphasis on the principle of continuous levy to be realised little by little (Alpalpa). But these small doses of taxes were sure to suck the people dry in the manner in which leaches, calves and bees help themselves upon their food. ‘Taxes, more taxes, still more taxes’ appears to be the slogan of Hindu fiscal thoughts32. However, Hindu thinkers had visualised the inherent danger of its abuse and therefore, they came up with a sober advice to the king. ‘Under no circumstances, the capital, which formed the sole basis of ones’ productive power, was to be taxed’. It was only the net income to be taxed as often as it was derived. The principle of taxing only income and not capital is undoubtedly laudable and salutary but the reality check reveals that it was the state which enjoyed the major portion of people’s income. The historical data of the period show that at least with the start of the imperial history of ancient India, the people paid three types of taxes, viz. the central, the provincial and local, each one of these with many other minor cesses. People very often used to suffer which is evident from frequent references to oppressive and arbitrary taxes resulting in people leaving their profession and migrating to other places33.

The Buddhist literatures also echo identical sentiments about levying taxes. The Divyavadana mentions as how the two good ministers of a king admonished him by cautioning that the kingdoms ‘are like the flowers and plants and fruit trees which if nourished properly , yield flowers and fruits at the proper time so the kingdom being protected yields taxes and revenue”34  .On the other hand the two evil ministers who immediately succeeded to the office of good ones, advised the king that just as sesame “does not oil unless it is made to try, turn to pieces, oppressed and pressed , so also is the kingdom’35. These two varied statements show that the nature of taxes entirely depended on the sweet will of the sovereign of the state.

Canons of taxation in analogical form occur in Tamil literature as well. In the Purram it is observed that even if the land is less than a ma, one could make a ball of dried paddy and continue to feed it to an elephant every day for a long time however, on the other hand even if the land is big and the elephant is allowed to eat at its will, the amount of damage caused in trampling will be enormous and much more than what it would normally consume. Similarly, if an intelligent king levies moderate and equitable taxes, his treasury would grow a thousand fold and he himself shall get recognition and fame. If he lacks in wisdom and is surrounded by evil officers and taxes his subjects recklessly like the elephant that enters the paddy store, he earns ire of all and ultimately brings the state to ruin and is despised36. The Kural, compares a king who asks his subjects to pay taxes more than what is due, to a high way robber with sword in his hand asking a lonely traveller to surrender all his possessions37. These analogies evidently refer to moderate taxes and of untoward consequences of oppressive taxes. They also refer to fixed usual revenue. The validity of these statements are, however, suspect as it is south India where we find taxes most unusual and heavy38. Kural’s statement refers to the collection of taxes and advises the king not to let his greed play with the people’s hard earned fruits of their labour.

The next principle of taxation as prescribed in ancient Indian scriptures is that if at all an increase in taxation is inevitable; it has to be gradual and not sudden and steep. The Mahabharata opines that little by little money should be extracted from prosperous subjects. The king should increase the burden of his subjects by and by like a person gradually increasing the load of a young bullock38. Kautilya also favours a gradual increase in taxes39. The sentiment is also echoed by Kamandaka. His advice to the king is that the subjects are like a delicate seed-shot , if properly nourished and cared for , it yields ample harvest in due time ,  so is the subjects of a state. Just as a cow is at one time tended and nourished and at other time milked, so are the subjects. A florist both tends and sprinkles water on his plants and culls flowers from them40.

In regard to trade and industry, by and large ancient texts favours taxing only the net income after taking into account purchase price and other expenses. The Mahabharata advises the king to “fix rules of taxation on traders after having considered their sale and purchase  and expenses on the way”41. Manu also holds an identical view when he says that the king should take taxes from the merchants on their articles after proper enquiry about  the sale and purchase price, the distance over which they have been brought, the expenses on the way of carriage and for safe guarding them from thieves and robbers and calculation of profit on total expenses42. Based on the above versions of ancient texts, U.N. Ghoshal rightly concludes that “this rule undoubtedly shows an appreciation of the difficulties attending the assessment of the merchants’ profit and indicates an attempt to throw the burden of taxation upon the net profit instead of charging the same upon the capital”43. This, Ghoshal compares with Sismondi’s first principle of taxation, viz: ‘that every tax should fall upon the revenue and not upon the capital44. Lakshmidhara, a minister with Gahadwalas also prescribes that taxes were to be based on certain primary considerations, e.g. the cost of establishment, maintenance charges and the cost of safe guarding the merchandise before the rates of taxes were fixed45. Further in this regard, Kautilya and Shukra advocate that taxes on commodities were to be realised only once46.

In the case of artisans, the Mahabharara advises the king that before taxing them , he should take into consideration the labour and skill involved and necessities of day today life required by them47.

The foregoing inferences to canons of taxation in Ancient India reveal certain maxims. The first and foremost is that  taxation was compulsory and each individual was required to contribute to the state revenue or render service in lieu of taxes in proportion to his ability. This compares to some extent with the first canon of Adam Smith, i.e. “the subjects of every state ought to contribute towards the support of the government as nearly as possible, in the proportion to their respective abilities; that is in proportion to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the state”48.However, there is a little difference between the principle of taxation of Adam Smith and that advocated by the Hindu law-givers. According to Adam smith, if a person does not earn anything, he is not required to pay any tax but in the fiscal system of ancient India even a smallest income was to be taxed and even if a person did not earn anything, he was required to contribute to the state in the form of labour49. Nevertheless, instances of social order and individual status of a person playing role in the system of taxation in ancient India are also not wanting.  During the Vedic time and even later, people belonging to Bramhmana class have been found asserting that since they were engaged in unproductive vocation like imparting education and performing  religious rituals, they should not be asked to pay taxes like others. Kautilya in his Arthashastra further elaborates the element of certainty in Hindu tax – system. According to him the taxes had to be certain and made known to the tax payers, the amount of tax, articles to be taxed and the time to pay otherwise the tax collectors could realise more than what is prescribed and appropriate a part of collection for their own benefit.50.  Kautilya has gone to the extent of prescribing punishment to such erring officials51. This maxim of certainty in the Hindu fiscal thoughts appears close to the second canon of Adam Smith, i.e. “the tax which each individual is bound to pay ought to be certain and not arbitrary. The time of payment, the manner of payment, the quality to be paid, ought all to be clear and plain to the contributor and to every other person”52.

The next emphasis, the Hindu canons lay on, is that taxes should be collected at a time and place most suited for the tax payers. Most of the analogies relating to taxes and which have been discussed above do focus on the element of convenience. This maxim is very akin to Adam Smith’s third canon, i.e. “every tax ought to be levied at the time and manner which is most likely to be convenient for the contributor to pay it”53.

The next maxim of Hindu taxation emphasises that a reasonable margin should always be left with the state exchequer after meeting the cost of tax collection. It appears that Kautilya was well seized of the reality and accordingly shaped his fiscal policy during the Mauryan period of Indian history. He advises the king in his Arthashastra to appoint trustworthy tax officials for collection purposes. He has gone to the extent of prescribing punishment to those tax collectors who were found indulged in siphoning state revenue54. This element of certainty in Hindu tax system compares to great extent with Adam Smith’s fourth and the last canon of taxation: “every tax ought to be so contrived as both to take out and to keep out of the pockets of the people as little as possible over and above what it brings into the public treasury of the state”55. The other aspect of the principle of economy, i.e. ‘production and consumption should not be hampered’, seems to be the guiding factor to Hindu thinkers on fiscal thoughts56.

Undoubtedly, the system of taxation as advocated by the Hindu thinkers is full of eloquent metaphors and similes. Let us pause for a while and examine, if the canons of taxation were in effect, in reality, as eloquent as they have been made in the scriptures? Can there be any comparison drawn with the modern theory of taxation?  The fact is that there cannot be a rigid and accurate comparison of the Hindu canons. Only inferences to the extent of gist can be observed in almost all the sacred sayings of the Hindu law-givers. Thus, Mahabharata prescribes heavy taxation on the rich who enjoys maximum protection of the state57.  This, however, meets to some extent Adam Smith’s first canon, i.e. ‘ability to pay tax’ but not the theory of progression. Some scholars find in Manu (ancient law-giver) that taxes were levied on income and not on capital and this they compare with the doctrine of progressive taxation58. But taxing income does not necessarily amount to increasing rate of taxes with the increase in income. However, the nearest similarity with the progressive taxation is seen in Medhatithi on Manu VII-128 who, in his commentary, states that there is no rule for fixing the taxes in the case of merchants’ profits and that where the profits are large, a higher rate may be applied59.

Sometimes, despite the canons of taxation sounding very high, quite opposites also happened and people suffered due to arbitrary and oppressive taxes. Jatakas and other sources of information like inscriptions and literary texts of the time shed light on how the subjects fled from their home to escape from tax collectors. However, this aspect of taxation, i.e. oppressive taxation, is out of the ambit of the present research paper and is proposed to be dealt in other article.  For the present, it is suffice to conclude that the guiding principle before the fiscal thinkers in ancient India was that “it is not the heavily taxed realm which executes great deeds but the moderately taxed one”60. Though the Hindu canons are embedded with beautiful metaphors and similes and carried with them high ambitions and pious plans but in effect they were more in the nature of holy precepts than actually followed by the sovereign in his realm. In view of the real position and pious thoughts found moving not always together it is difficult to agree with those scholars who hold that “Hindu theory avoided the vulgar fallacy which looks upon taxation”61. Nevertheless the possibility of curbing such a tendency is not at all ruled out.

To sum up, the principles of taxation mentioned in the ancient Hindu texts do not necessarily deal with the tax policy of the governments of the time nor did the state treat them as must considerations in evolving its fiscal policy. The canons of taxation, variously expressed and advocated in the sacred texts are indeed one and the same. They are simply a modification of one and other and move round the only theme i.e. the king should not resort to arbitrary and oppressive taxes. Most of the canons are applicable only in the work of collection and not in the decision of making a policy.




  1. Rigveda (Rv).III.43.5; V54; Atharvaveda (Av) IV.22.3. 8; VIII 7.16.
  2. RV.                 
  3. Av.IV.22.27.   
  4. Shatapatha Brahmana (Sat. Br,) V3.3.12.; XIII.4.4.29; V. 4.2.3
  5. Hindu Polity – pp 319 ff.
  6. PAAI. (Public Administration in Ancient India). P.180
  7. Manu Smriti (Manu). VII.137-138; Gautam Smriti (Gaut.) X.31,34; Vishnu Smriti (Vishnu) III.32; Shukra Smriti (Shukra). IV.2,121.
  8. Arthashastra (Arth.), Bk.II. ch.7.
  9. Shakuntalam p.76; Raghuvamsha V.  8
  10. Lakshmidhara, p55; pp91-92
  11. Mahabharata (Mbh.). XII. 71. 10
  12. Vashishta (Vas) I. 42
  13. Manu. VII. 80; X. 119
  14. Apastamba. II. 10. 26. 9.
  15. Hindu Polity. pp. 319 ff.
  16. AIPTI (Ancient Indian Political Thoughts and Institutions). Pp. 171 ff
  17. PAAI.. P 180
  18. Manu.  VII. 128; Mbh. XII. 87. 170-180.
  19. Manu. VII. 129.
  20. Kulluk on Manu. VII. 129-130.
  21. AIPTI. Pp. 171 ff..
  22. Arth. Bk. V. Ch.II.
  23. Manu. VII. 139.
  24. Manu. VII. 170-171.
  25. Arth. Bk. II. Ch. I.; Mbh. XII.  87. 18.
  26. Mbh.  (Udyogaparva). 34. 17-18.
  27. Mbh.XII. 88. 4-6
  28. Mbh. XII. 87. 20-22.
  29. Mbh. XII. 71. 16-19.
  30. Shubhashitaratnagar. Ch. III. 4. 406; Kalidasa’s Raghuvamsha. I. 26.
  31. Panchatantra (Panch.). I. 243.
  32. Kamandaka. V. 87.
  33. The Jatakas (Buddhist texts)., Rajatarangini and some other historical rcords are full of such references which mention the oppressive taxes and plight of the people.
  34. ,35.History of Dharmashastras by P.V. Kane. III. P. 184; Dhammapada.49; Divyavadana. Pp562-563.

36    Purram.. 184, 197.

37    Kural. 552.

38    South Indian Polity (T.V. Mahalingam) ; History of Tamil Literature. (V.R.P. Dikshitar).

39    Arth. Bk. V. 11;  IV. 9.; cf. Shantiparva.88. 26; 130.26-27.

40    Kamandaka. VI. 14; V. 84.

41    Mbh. XII. 87. 13-14.; cf. Shukra. IV. 2, 214-215.

42    Manu. VII. 127; cf. Agnipurana. Ch. 223.14.

43    Hindu Revenue System (HRS). p. 19.

44    HRS. p19.

45    Lakshmidhara. (Intro.).  pp. 55 cf.

46    Arth. Bk. II. Ch. 12; cf. Shukra. II. 345-346; 351-352.

47    Mbh. XII. 87.15.

48    Wealth of Nations quoted in Enclopaedia Britannica.

49    Manu. VII. 137-138; Gaut. X. 31-34; Vishnu. III. 32. 1.; Shukra. IV. 2. 121.

50    Arth. Bk.  II.  Ch. 8.

51    Art. Bk. II. Ch. 9.

52    Wealth of Nations.

53    Wealth of nations.

54    Arth. Bk. II. Ch.8, Ch. 9

55    Wealth of Nations

56    Arth. Bk. II. Ch.8; Kamandaka. V. 8; 77-78; IV. 7. 48; Shukra. II. 345-346;351-352.

57    Mbh. XII. 129

58    Introduction to Public Finanace. P4.

59    Quoted in HRS. p. 23.

60    Mbh. XII. 41.22.

61    Hindu Revenue System.


Biliary dyskinesia – natural treatment and diet

Biliary dyskinesia is defined as a gallbladder evacuation disorder characterized by biliary colic in the absence of stones, with an abnormal ejection fraction of gallbladder, caused by the dysfunction of gallbladder or Oddi’s sphincter. This condition occurs in women aged around 40 years and the causes are unhealthy eating habits or disorders arising from adjacent organs (colitis, gastritis) and even gynecological diseases. Proper treatment is practical for each individual person suffering from this disease. Alimentation has a critical role. If it is suitable, can prevent or relieve symptoms.

Phytotherapy – treatment for biliary dyskinesia

Biliary type dyspeptic disorders are treated by stimulating bile in the liver cell – choleretic action – and by stimulating gallbladder contraction in the duodenum of bile for elimination – cholagogue action.

Plants with choleretic and / or cholagogue action widely used are:

• Chicory can be used in food as salad made from young leaves or as an infusion made from 15 grams of dried leaves per liter of water. Drink 1-2 cups a day.

• Artichoke is used before meals, as an infusion obtained from two teaspoons of leaves per cup of water, which is drink two cups a day.

• Celandine, which has antispastic action (relieves pain from gallbladder contraction), is administered as an infusion, prepared from 3 grams of dried leaves per cup of water; this amount to be drunk gradually, within a day.

• Dandelion is used as an infusion of two teaspoons of herb (whole) to a cup of water, 2-3 cups per day.

• Milk thistle seeds are used as a decoction prepared from 20 g seeds per cup of water, given by 1/2 h before meals.

• Lemon balm is consumed as an infusion of 10 grams of leaves and blossoms in a cup of water, 2-3 cups per day.

• Celery with cholagogue action is consumed after every meal, one cup of infusion with a teaspoon of leaves.

Hygienic-dietary regime

In this disease, diet is very important and sometimes hygienic-dietary regime alone can restore digestive balance of the patient with biliary dyskinesia.

This refers to the liver and biliary protective diet, meaning foods allowed and especially the way they prepare. Must be excluded canned food, sausages, smoked meat, animal fats, cabbage, dried beans, french fries, spicy foods (pepper, paprika, mustard). Foods high colecistokinetic (which stimulates gallbladder contraction) such as cream, eggs, butter, can be consumed in small quantities depending on individual tolerance. Very important is how to prepare food: cooked food is indicated by boiling or baking.

Do not allow the use of food fried in oil or lard, foods prepared with fatty sauces, fried onions. It is indicated the consumption of raw salad. Milk is the food that is not well tolerated by gallbladder.

Black radish juice has good drainage effects (have a choleretic, cholagogue and bile fluidization action). It is recommended two courses a year, three weeks each. Also are recommend regular meal, at regular hours, and for effective biliary drainage is indicated that after lunch the patient to stand for 30 minutes lying on the right.

Calivita natural products helpful in biliary dyskinesia

– Natural supplements based on lecithin extracted from soy, as Super Soya Lecithin – 100 caps, are effective in proper functioning of the nervous system and maintain a normal cholesterol level. Lecithin’s active substances, choline and inositol, help in breaking down and burning fats, thus preventing his deposit in the liver and bile.

– Digestive enzymes from papaya, as Meal Time supplement, are helpful in digestion and digestive disorders. Digestive enzymes that stimulate the digestive process can be beneficial for correcting and adjusting gallbladder, liver, pancreas and intestine activity, with an important role in eliminating injuries caused by improper digestion.

Rainforest Plants – Curare

Family: Menispermaceae

Genus: Chondrodendron

Species: tomentosum

Common Names: Curare, grieswurzel, pareira brava, pareira, vigne sauvage, uva-da-serra, uva-do-mato, ampihuasca blanca, antinupa, antinoopa, comida de venados, curari, ourari, woorari, worali, velvet leaf

General Description: Curare is a large vine found in the canopy of the South American rainforest. It is only four inches in diameter, but it grows high in the top of the canopy-100 feet. Also known as velvet leaf, its large heart-shaped leaves have a soft silky underside made up of tiny white hairs.

Uses: Curare, injected in high doses into straight muscle tissue, is a highly poisonous extract; It has been prepared through tribal tribal history in South America, for the purpose of poisoning the points of arrows. Curare, in large doses, paralyses the motor nerve-endings in striped muscle, and death occurs from respiratory failure. Curare is very bitter, and is actually a common name for various dart poisons originating from South America. Curare is not to be confused with Curara.

Curare has varying effects depending on dosage, whether it is injected into muscle tissue, or ingested. Curare is used internally in tribal medicine for edema, fever, kidney stones and testicular inflammation. It is also known to relax muscles into a state ofactivity.

Under appropriate medical care and attention, curare is also used to treat spastic paralysis, to treat some mental disorders, and to induce muscle relaxation for setting fractures. Curare is now used extensively in modern medicine. It is only toxic if it enters the bloodstream. Curare is not for sale to the general public.

As with many Amazonian tribal plant history and legend, curare is prepared by old women. In some traditions, the witch doctor has a monopoly of the business, but generally, wise old men get together to brew a batch. Extra curare was usually carried by tribal members in a gourd or calabash, and stored with weapons.

Disclaimer: The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.

Any reference to medicinal use is not intended to treat, cure, mitigate or prevent any disease.

Hormones after the Women's Mental Health

Women really hormones influence mood?

In the last fifteen years in the field of endocrinology great deal of evidence that the loss of estrogen is generally occurring during the menstrual cycle is bringing about changes for women at increased risk for mood, anxiety and greed that has produced disease. Given the prevalence of these diseases in women, we are fortunate to have a better understanding of them.

Women are more than twice as oftenbecome depressed. Research shows that they also suffer more from fear. To develop more phobias. It ‘the same relationship of agoraphobia: almost 8% of women are agoraphobic, compared to only 3% of men. Most succumb to traumatic stress syndrome. Seventy percent of people with social phobia are women. What could be happening here?

The cyclical nature of the secretion of estrogen may represent for the women of “particular vulnerability to mood disorders and anxiety, Dr.Mary Seeman reported in the Journal of the American Psychiatric Association’s influence in an analysis of dozens of studies on female hormones psychopathology in men and women.

The theory of “deprivation of estrogen applicants” suggests that a low estrogen state is the beginning or the worsening of mood symptoms in women who are predisposed to drive – because of the already low levels of serotonin – the mood disorders and d ‘ anxiety. In 1996, researchers at the University of Edinburghpublished a report, the discussion of the molecular level that are experiencing these changes. Affected by estrogen is “a profound impact on mood, mental state and memory” in the hormone psychoprotectant as “natural.” There must be sufficient estrogen in the brain, that is, when receiving the mental stability. Estrogen, the importance of cognitive processes and memory is not an easy thing. It ‘was in fact discovered that neurons in the brain buffer againstDegeneration.

Until the late nineties, the test assembly had begun to show a unique and persistent hormone after almost all mental disorders in women. For example, the binging behavior in bulimics and diarrhea during premenstruum, when estrogen levels get worse . Sun has panic attacks in women with panic disorder. Impulse interference seemed even worse this week or ten days before the deadline – kleptomaniacs escapades continued to steal moretrichotillomaniacs more hair, leather cutters to cut the skin stretched .. All these diseases are linked to serotonin dysfunction, and, as we have seen, serotonin and estrogen are inextricably linked.

In the nineties, a Canadian psychologist, Barbara Sherwin, it was very interesting to carry out studies on the loss of estrogen affects the knowledge and memory. I went to Toronto to spend a day with Dr. Sherwin in his office at McGill University. I needed a mini-course of estrogen and she was willing toGive it to me.

Since the beginning of fetal life hormone receptors in the hypothalamus of the brain first. It is here that the organization of brain circuits, the requirements for puberty, regulating subsequent adult sexual behavior and control the frequency and intensity of emotional disturbances. Research in neuroendocrinology has to tell us a lot about the hardship of pre-menopausal women, who used to think that the result of women’s pain over the loss of fertility. NowE ‘known that the mood and cognitive changes are experts in physical origin.

Estrogen affects mood. What I had not known until the conversation with Dr. Sherwin is that to produce serotonin in the brain needs estrogen. I have not even announced that the estrogen in the brain. “There are estrogen receptors in various organs throughout the body, including the brain,” he said. “Consequently, the loss of estrogen makes many different physical symptoms – loss of elasticity of the skin, bonesConstriction, mood and cognitive decline. “

When estrogen levels increase, on the other hand, as in the first week after menstruation, increasing their overall impact on the amount of serotonin in the spaces between nerve cells in the brain cells. The mood improved. Within the brain, estrogen may act in fact as a natural antidepressant and mood stabilizer.

Dr. Sherwin has led me to the work of researchers, the important research base, including Bruce McEwen of RockefellerInstitute in New York, and Joseph LeDoux at New York University, the discovery of the molecular changes that support the view that estrogen had a profound impact on the mind and its capabilities.

It was not long after my visit to Dr. Sherwin, I learned an important contribution to the value of ten years from studies book, estrogens, serotonin and affective disorders: Where is the therapeutic bridge? Two researchers from the Perinatal and Reproductive Psychiatry Program at the Harvard Medical Schoolwas essentially the same question I had: What is the link hormone to the mental health of women? was motivated Joffe and Cohen one hundred twenty five studies examined the relationship between women’s reproductive hormonal changes, and their mental state. in study after study, they found that women with histories of depression seem more prone to recurrent episodes during periods of “significant reproductive endocrinologyChange.

Correlation does not prove causality. The fact that someone is morbidly depressed for the day of ovulation begins and remains so until the day that does not begin to try the bleeding drops of estrogen that premenstrual mood swings, but damn well raise suspicions. According to information provided by new imaging methods has been added to the mix was the case for a spiritual connection to the hormone’s weakness for women ‘as close as possible to an open and shut caseIt is likely that you get. Neuro-imaging has greatly improved our understanding shows the flashing light, when the activity in different parts of the brain, what was called the dark “that time of the month.”

And ‘the dance between the two types of hormones, ovarian hormones and hormones of the brain that ultimately determined, as is symptomatic of a particular woman has during her menstrual cycle, and in other parts of the reproductive risk. For example, if a woman is geneticallyencoded at a low or borderline levels of serotonin in the brain of estrogen drops occurs menstruation everything you need to send a spiral of serotonin below the optimal level of functioning, from a mental condition disturbing that for all their symptoms disappear mysteriously as soon as he began his estrogen levels and to trace

Why is it so? Since the serotonin it needs for its metabolism of estrogen in the brain. The two hormones are a dynamic duo, the operationArm. Falls, as the levels of estrogen, this serotonin. When estrogen increases (as, for example, begins as soon as menstruation), the levels of serotonin immediately return with him, and calm was restored. The ebb and flow of menstruation is orchestrated moods of woman ‘, not by the moon, but by secretions in his brain and ovaries. What we know is that sometimes the negative results of these changes in the secretion is not inevitable. Just as science has learned to changes in insulin and changes in the thyroid, the changemay change now, changes in the ovaries. If you do not want your mood on your ovaries blame the blame on the brain. Blame it on what you like, do not resign themselves to suffer the view that women are born.

For me it is fascinating that the pieces of this puzzle were not important to us twenty years ago. And the effect of dynamite that has the pieces together, occurred only in the last ten years. Based on previous knowledge and assemblyImage step by step, an endocrinologist at places such as the Neuropsychiatric Institute in California, and sexual organs Mood Disorder Program at the University of Texas Medical Center have understood that women not only at risk during premenstruum are vulnerable to all reproductive risk points. Furthermore, a woman who suffers from one of these points is subject to danger is always a symptom of another. If it is a genetic low serotonin in the brain,Estrogen drops going to affect them, simple.

Things have taken place since then in turn, enlightened, thank God, but we are only now beginning to understand what is really happening, women, mental well-being during times of stress hormones. Especially the scientists, including psychiatrists and reproductive endocrinologists like Barbara Sherwin, a unique and important contribution to the wave of research, which currently designing a whole newParadigm for understanding the role of hormonal changes in the female creates well-being and mental state.


Going Fishing? Give Ultra Light A Try – You Will not Be Disappointed

What do I mean by ultra light? Ultra light fishing simply means fishing with lighter gear, lighter gear than you may be accredited to. That's it, there's nothing crazy about it. Basically, ultra light fishing means matching your fishing gear to the type of fish that you're fishing for. I've seen all to many anglers that use one rod and reel setup for all of there fishing expeditions, rather than having different set ups for different types of fish.

This is madness, except of course you only do one type of fishing, in which case having only one rod and reel setup is all good.

For example, I use a four-foot rod and ultra light reel spooled with four-pound test for most of my trout fishing. I fish medium to small rivers and lakes and the largest fish that I would catch in such waters is six to seven pounds, and that would be an outright monster. Many people see me fishing with my setup and think it's too small, but it's absolutely not. Think about it, four-pound test line is strong enough to hold four pounds of weight without breaking, how often do you catch fish this big when trout fishing? Beside, I've personally landed a seven-pound fish on four-pound test. I do not say that to be braggadocios, I simply want you to realize that most anglers use line that is entirely too heavy for the fish they're trying to catch. Using line that's too heavy will result if fewer bites as well. So as you can begin to see, ultra light fishing makes sense all the way around.

It also makes sense to use ultra light equipment by adding more "sport" to your fishing. Honestly, how much fun is it to winch a fourteen-inch trout out of the water with medium action gear, spooled with eight-pound test line? To me, that's no fun, but on ultra light gear that's tailor to the type of fish I'm trying to catch; A fourteen-inch fish is a lot of fun.

So give ultra light fishing a try and I promise you will not be disappointed. If you ever have any questions about ultra light fishing, you can contact us at JRWfishing.com.

5 Sexual Nutrition Tips For a Strong Erection

Most men pride themselves with having a big appetite and not paying too much attention to what they put in their body. As men get older it is very important that they watch what they eat to be able to maintain a rock hard erection for intercourse. Below are several do’s and don’ts that will guide you in keeping Mr. Happy, happy and life good, by eating the right stuff.

oEat fruits and vegetables

oDrink Green Tea

oEat less

oPerformance food

oSpice up your life

Eat Fruits And Vegetables

The penis gets erect due to blood flowing into its vessels. Anything that slows down or impedes this blood flow will impair erection. This function of the body is controlled by the cardiovascular system, and anything that boosts the blood flow will help you get erect and stay erect. Fruits and vegetables help lower cholesterol levels, an improvement that helps combat cardiovascular disease and hence increase blood flow. Fruits and vegetables can do this because they contain a high level of anti oxidants, and the more you eat in a day the more of this free radical crushing agents contained in fruits and other that you have in your system.

Drink Green Tea

Drink tea and other types of tea such as black tea, which are rich in anti oxidants. As was discussed above anti oxidants contain a lot of free radical crushing agents and help sustain the cardiovascular system and increase blood flow. Replace your usual beverage with green tea or black tea and improve the quality of your health. These anti oxidant qualities are good for your bones and also help fight cancer.

Eat Less

If maintaining a solid erection is not a good reason to shed some weight, I do not know what other motivation a guy would need to lose some weight. Nobody knows you better than you know yourself, so if you need to lose some extra pounds around the stomach, you have very strong reasons to do so. Testosterone is one of the hormones responsible for sexuality in men, and the amount of fat you have reduces the amount of this hormone available to you. Reduce your portion size to about 300 to 500 calories a day, or better still; cut your meals down into 6 small meals with a lot for fruits and vegetables.

You can use a small plate than you would normally use to reduce the amount of food you eat. If you are not yet full after that meal, fill up with vegetables and water. The types of food you should avoid are those with high saturated fat content such as fatty red meat, egg yolk, cream and butter.

Performance Food

Before an encounter with your partner, it is very important that you eat the right amount of calories and not over load your gut, thereby impeding blood flow to where it is urgently needed. If it’s a night out in town for dinner to be followed by a romantic event, during dinner avoid fried food and cream. Go for salad with vinegar or oil. And if you must eat meat go for white meat such as chicken without the skin, and most of all no cocktails before dinner.

Spice Up Your Life

It’s a good idea to excite your palate now and then. Start experimenting with spices in your food and only eat what you can tolerate. Spices like ginger, Cajun spices, peppers – black pepper, cayenne paper etc are good for your sexual well being. Spicy food will help enhance sexual performance by increasing blood flow.

Old School Minnesota Walleye Fishing Secrets

As families begin to plan summer vacations, many find that a good family excursion is a fishing vacation. While there are unlimited places to take the family fishing, Minnesota walleye fishing can be one of the most fulfilling experiences you can have with your family. Fishing for walleye up north is a way of life, especially in the summer months when tourists come from all over the country with their families to take part in the harvest of the fishing crop.

In fact, Minnesota walleye fishing usually includes the whole vacation package – a stay in a cabin or other small house at a fishing resort on one of the prized lakes that are full of walleye in the high season. You'll find that families to get friendly with are not in short supply during the summer at Mille Lacs Lake, Rainy Lake, or Lake of the Woods. While it's great fun to spend some time relaxing and casting a few lines with the family, it's also a healthy place for you and your children to make new friends. Have a fish fry with the neighbors, and your kids can take home a new pen pal (or, in this day and age, a new Instant Message buddy!).

Interestingly enough, while many people look for warm, dry weather for this sort of vacation, Minnesota walleye fishing can be best during rough weather, such as cold fronts, rain, and wind blowing through in the middle of summer. These elements cause walleyes to head for structural elements where scattered bait schools will gather and shelter from the weather. Take your family out to the long fingers and spines protruding from the main lake, especially up at Mille Lacs, and you are sure to find a good, solid catch that will excite the children and make them want to return to the waters again for more Fishing fun.

Minnesota walleye fishing can also be fruitful on a bright day as well, whether warm or cold. The brightness actually does warm up the waters considerably, even on a cool day, which brings the fish to life and sets you and your family up for some great fishing action. One of the really great things about Minnesota walleye fishing as a family adventure is that you can teach your children to fish with ease. This is because, while many species like to find breaks, holes, and edges to shelter themselves or for breeding purposes, walleye are easily found in the flats – the areas of the lake that have a flat, even bottom. This means that, as beginners, your kids do not have to look for special structures or cast for holes to get a good bite. You can concentrate more on the basics of rigging, baiting, and casting without the hassle of location. In this way, kids can catch a good number of walleye, leaving a positive experience in their minds so that they can enjoy fishing in the future.

Trauma And Traumatic Stress

A young mother bought a seven year old boy to my office. The young man, an intelligent boy, had suddenly started to throw up on being taken to the school. He pleaded and begged his mother not to send him to school. On investigation I learned that he had developed a fear of school that came from his fear of a particular male teacher. This teacher's fault was that he spoke loudly, which frightened the boy. If this fear would not have been addressed, the young man could have developed fear of authority figures, school, academies in general and even cars, which he was being driven to school. Later he may have developed generalized anxiety and even agoraphobia, which would have preceded him to go out of the house.

Trauma and stress, though different words, are linked together. Trauma-physical, psychological or emotional- produces stress. We can define trauma as an event that is usually sudden and unexpected (but can also be expected as in abuse) that disturbs the body and the mind for a short or long period of time. As such, the disturbance that body and the mind experience is termed 'Stress' or 'Bad Stress'. Such stress can be experienced for a short period or can be prolonged, when it can become chronic. At such times, the body gets used to the tensions and the person carrying this tension believes that they are relaxed. Traumatic stress or 'Bad Stress' is a term that is unrerecognized in medical diagnostic terminology.

However, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (also known as PTSD) is a recognized medical condition. As the name suggests, it develops due to stress that follows a traumatic event. Any thinking experience that a person goes through or witnesses can trigger symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. This syndrome consists of cluster symptoms that include nightmares, flashbacks of the traumatic event, increased irritability, sensitivity to slight noise, sleep disturbances, avoidance of any image or memory that reminds the sufferer of the trauma. If these symptoms do not occur at the same time, the person is not medically suffering with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. These symptoms are commonly seen in people following a road traffic accident, natural catastrophes like earthquakes and hurricanes, fires, torture, physical and sexual abuse and in wars.

From the perspective of human body and mind, any experience that is interpreted as threatening by the unconscious mind is considered traumatic and so becomes stressful. Say if a parent, for example, screams at a child the child's mind can register it as stressful, depending on the child's temperament. This experience can be perceived as traumatic although it is not a life-threatening event. Even if the experience of screaming is short-lived, it could remain alive in the child's mind for a long time. This could continue to affect the thinking and behavior of the child till the issue is addressed. Bullying, neglect, rejection, corporal punishment and humiliation are examples of events that the mind perceives as threatening-not life threatening but compromising the sense of freedom. Although single events have a powerful impact, repetitive perceived threats could have become traumatic for the person. Any experiences that create fear or anger that are suppressed are equated with traumatic events by the mind.

A middle-aged lady once came to see me for issues that had arisen because of five deaths in her immediate family within a short space of time. Her childhood had been uneventful and happy which was reflected in how she related with her husband and her children. Although she did not have any life threatening issues, these losses had become distracting for her. The body had to follow the mind and so she became sad, unable to focus on day-to-day life.

When a child is brought up in an environment of extreme strictness, there is a loss of freedom that is experienced by the mind of the child. It occurs unconsciously. If there is no positive approval in the child's life, the strictness becomes a trauma. If there is lack of opportunities for emotional expression, traumatic stress is experienced.

Hormones and chemicals called neurotransmitters govern our body's physiological activities. Bad Stress is experienced when a hormone called cortisol is secreted in excess in the body. The role of this hormone is to stir up the body to enable it to escape or fight any threat that the sensations (sight, smell, touch, hearing and taste) come across. It is a different matter if the threat is real or imaginary. The mind treats the image of the threatening object as real. If someone was bullied many years ago, the images keep the incumbents alive in the memory of the person. So if the person comes across any situation or person that unconsciously reminds them of the bullying accidents, then the person tends to feel the same way they felt during first experience. The net effect of many similar unpleasant experiences affects the current perception, thinking and behavior of the individual.

The mind-body connection of traumatic stress is not known to us in our awareness or consciously. A person can present with complaints of physical or psychological nature totally unaware that the unconscious part of our mind is responsible for them. In my practice, I have seen adult cases of bed-wetting, social phobia, high blood pressure, low testosterone levels, diabetes, blood disorders, depression, anxiety, eating-disorders and addictions among other conditions that triggered from traumatic stress. Forgetting an unpleasant experience because it happened many years ago is not an excuse for the unconscious mind to be not affected by it.

Research shows that relaxation helps in all conditions of stress. Regular relaxation practices are helpful because they have the same basis of effect as the effect of unpleasant experiences. It has an cumulative impact on the body and the mind. Like a bank balance, 'relaxation balance' creates a cushion against future stresses. Addressing individual traumatic events with imagery work or counseling neutralises the emotional impact of the experiences.A state of relaxation is then created in the body. When many such unpleasurable experiences are neutralized, there is a change in the individual's perception, thinking and behavior.

During natural catastrophes like earthquakes, about 40% to 50% of the people tend to develop symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. The rest of the population that have gone through the same experience will not have the symptoms but may continue to harbor the emotional distress for an indefinite period of time. Psychiatrists say that 30% of people suffering with depressive conditions have no previous stress events in their lives. It is the population that does not have symptoms immediately following a trauma that participates this 30%. According to psychological research, stressful life events are seen in 70% of sufferers of depression.

PTSD affects about 0.4% to 1% of the population at any given moment in time. According to some experts, it is a common undiagnosed condition in mental health. A research done in Australia by Henderson, Andrews and Hall was published in 2000 in the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. It concluded that as compared to the general population, sufferers of PTSD were 26 times more likely to suffer with mood disorders like depression, 37 times more likely to develop generalized anxiety disorder, 28.6 times more likely to develop panic disorder and 6.5 times more likely to Develop alcohol abuse. PTSD if untreated also makes a person more vulnerable to develop symptoms when exposed to minor minor traumatic events. Research also shows that a relaxed person will experience less emotional distress than others when experiencing trauma.

What you experience as 'job stress' or 'family stress' or 'road rage' are situational stresses that have roots elsewhere. If you would be exceptionally relaxed, these experiences have little stress value. So when you are practicing some form of relaxation on a regular basis, you are unconsciously accumulating the effects of relaxation. At demanding times, this accumulated relaxation acts as an emotional buffer. So you are less likely to experience traumatic stress or job stress or road rage. Many PTSD cases go to courts for compensation claims. Till recently in Ireland, such cases were being awarded disproportionately large sums of money. The not well-known fact is that the background and the personality of the implied person are of primary importance in how the incident affects them. A person brought up in a disturbed, dysfunctional background will be in a state of chronic stress. As such a trauma can trigger symptoms of PTSD more intensely than in someone who comes from a secure, safe and loving upbringing.

Dr. Herbert Benson is a well-known researcher in relaxation. His researches suggest that 20 minutes of meditation done everyday will keep a person mentally healthy. In order to steer away from the politics of religion, he uses the term Relaxation Response for any meditation like activity. Dealing with traumatic stress is a skill that requires practice.

Tips to Keep Your Liver Stronger

Every part of the body requires the different nutrients to stay healthier and perform its functions perfectly. Same is the case with the liver. For your liver to perform well, you need to include certain food items in your diet regularly. Also you need to pay attention towards what you must not eat in order to keep your liver functioning well. The health of the liver is very important for good functioning of the overall body processes. If you liver is not well then you may suffer with the jaundice, hepatitis, cirrhosis, haemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease, etc. Your overall health status is being degraded due to liver disease. So, here are tips that will help to make your liver stronger and protect it from the harmful liver diseases.

1. Eating the foods rich in the Vitamins is very helpful in making the liver stronger. Liver performs it functions smoothly in the presence of the Vitamins. If your body contains adequate amount of the vitamins in the body then you will never face any of the liver problems. The Vitamins are required in very small amounts by the body but performs the important functions.

2. For the preparation of the foods use the oil that contains less amount of the fats and carbohydrates. This help in proper digestion of the oil. If you eat the oil that is heavy to digest then the extra pressure is put on the liver as a result it starts malfunctioning. It is better if you use olive oil for the food preparation because it contains very less amount of fats and carbohydrates and thus is easily digested. The use of Sunflower, safflower, flax seed, and fish oil is recommended as it doesn’t cause any harm to liver.

3. Use of the butter must be limited if you want to keep your liver stronger. Butter is one of the heaviest items to digest. So, while the body digests it the pressure is extreme on the liver that disturbs the normal functioning of the liver. It may even result in the liver diseases. So, it would be better if you limit the intake of the butter to keep the health of your liver at the optimum level.

4. Increase the intake of the foods that are rich in the sulfur. As per the scientific studies it is known that liver produces the enzymes that are required by the body for various chemical reactions. So, the intake of the sulfur rich foods like Brussels sprouts, broccoli cabbage, seeds and nuts must be increased as it helps the liver in the production of these enzymes.

5. Increase the intake of the fruits that are rich in the Vitamin C. The help the liver to perform all its functions pretty easily and helps in removing any of the impurities that are deposited in the liver. It washes out all the unnecessary things and helps n the proper functioning of the liver. Even the intake of other fruits is also recommended as they help in keeping your overall health of the body at the best, which ultimately helps in maintaining liver at optimum health.

6. The intake of the sugar must be controlled. This must be done strictly because it disturbs the functioning of the liver adversely. I know that sugar are necessary energy resource for the body, but for this you need the sugar, but in a limited amount. The use of honey instead of direct sugar is recommended as it doesn’t harm the functioning of the liver.

These are the simple tips that will help you to keep the liver stronger and avoid the occurrence of the liver disorders.

The Purpose of Yoga – Releasing Anxiety

Yoga is a great relief from feelings of anxiety, but anxiety is part of life; and some of us have more anxiety than others. No matter how many years you practice Yoga, you are still human. You are bound to feel feelings of frustration, angst, irritation, and anxiety.

Most people think that Yoga practice will make these negative feelings disappear, but that is not entirely true. Some people think that Yoga will aid you to throw negative feelings into separate compartments, but that is not really true either.

So, how do long-term Yoga practitioners release their anxiety? They seem so calm and collected all the time. What is the big secret? Firstly, let’s cover some options you should never practice, and then look at Yogic solutions for releasing anxiety.

Myth 1: Yogis can make anxiety disappear.

Never believe that anxiety will magically disappear. Yoga, and medical prescriptions, cannot make anxiety go away permanently. For anxiety to disappear, something has to change within you. List the causes of your anxiety, and how you respond to them.

Then find solutions for purging them in a healthy way. Yoga does help, but Yoga has its limitations, too.

Accept and identify anxiety for what it is. In life, you also have to have to “come to grips” with hate, jealousy, greed, and anger. We should not embrace negative thoughts or feelings, but we should quickly be able to identify them and their private agendas.

Life is a lot easier when we are honest with ourselves. After we find the true nature of a problem, we can then find realistic solutions to deal with our negative feelings. If you wake up feeling a little down, do not waste your time on denial, but do find a solution to rid negativity from within.

Myth 2: Yogis can “bottle up” their emotions.

Holding emotions inside will still cause damage to the individual. You cannot stop an earthquake with a land fill. This is not a permit to go around making rude gestures, “telling everyone off,” or an endorsement of “road rage,” but there are healthy ways to “let steam off.”

The secret of controlling emotion is: Deflection of anger, but it will take much time, and conditioning, before you are able to do this. Yoga is, in fact, an archive of solutions for anxiety, but you must have the will to maintain a regular practice for complete mental, emotional, physical, and spiritual health.

© Copyright 2007 – Paul Jerard / Aura Publications

Chlamydia -causes, Symptoms,treatment

Causes of Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, which can damage a woman’s reproductive organs. Even though symptoms of chlamydia are usually mild or absent, serious complications that cause irreversible damage, including infertility, can occur “silently” before a woman ever recognizes a problem. Chlamydia also can cause discharge from the penis of an infected man.

Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by bacteria. You get it by having sex or sexual contact with someone who is infected. Both men and women can get it. Chlamydia usually doesn’t cause symptoms. If it does, you might notice a burning feeling when you urinate or abnormal discharge from your vagina or penis.

Causes of Chlamydia
The bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes chlamydia. The condition most commonly spreads through sexual intercourse and other intimate contact between genitals and the rectal area. It’s also possible for a mother to spread chlamydia to her child during delivery, causing pneumonia or a serious eye infection.From mother to child with passage of the child through the birth canal. Chlamydia can cause pneumonia or serious eye infections in a newborn, especially among children born to infected mothers in developing countries.

Symptoms of Chlamydia
If symptoms occur, they usually appear within 1 to 3 weeks after exposure. Studies report that 10 to 20 percent of sexually active female teens harbor chlamydial infections. In up to 75 percent of cases, the infection is clinically inapparent. As a result, the disease is often not diagnosed until complications develop.

Untreated chlamydia also can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can affect the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. In some cases PID has no symptoms, but often causes abdominal or lower back pain, painful urination, pain during intercourse, bleeding between menstrual periods, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, or fever.

Treatment of Chlamydia
Your sexual partner or partners also need treatment even though they may not have signs or symptoms. Otherwise, the infection can be passed back and forth. It’s possible to be reinfected with chlamydia.

The doctor may prescribe a single-dose antibiotic, such as azithromycin (Zithromax), taken as a pill. On the other hand, the doctor may choose an antibiotic, such as doxycycline (Atridox, Bio-Tab), to be taken as a pill twice a day for a week. Up to 95% of people will be cured after one course of antibiotics.reatment of chlamydia involves antibiotics. A convenient single-dose therapy for chlamydia is 1 gm of azithromycin (Zithromax) by mouth. Alternative treatments are often used, however, because of the high cost of this medication. The most common alternative treatment is a 100 mg oral dose of doxycycline twice per day for 7 days.

Chlamydia is easy to treat with antibiotics. Your doctor may give you a single dose, or you may have to take antibiotics for several days. Your doctor may provide you with treatment for your partner as well, and may ask you to come back for a follow up.

Successful Detoxification of Arsenic Poisoning

Are either you or a friend suffering from poison symptoms related to heavy metal toxicity or arsenic poisoning? Whether chronic or acute, there is still hope of recovery. There have been reported treatment cases of alternative health practitioners relieving symptoms of high levels of arsenic in the blood stream.

What is Arsenic poisoning?

Arsenic poisoning is a medical condition caused by increased levels of the element arsenic in the body. Arsenic interferes with cellular longevity by allosteric inhibition of an essential metabolic enzyme. Symptoms of arsenic poisoning include headache, confusion, convulsion, diarrhea, vomiting, and in severe cases coma and death.

Routes of exposure include contaminated water, air, and food. Occupational exposure to arsenic may occur with copper or lead smelting and wood treatment and among workers involved in the production or application of pesticides.


Symptoms of arsenic poisoning begin with:

  • Headaches,
  • Confusion,
  • Severe diarrhea
  • Drowsiness

As the poisoning becomes severe, symptoms may include:

  • Leukonychia (changes in finger nail pigmentation)
  • Vomiting
  • Blood in the urine
  • Cramping muscles
  • Hair loss
  • Dermatitis
  • Stomach pain
  • Convulsions

The organs of the body that are usually affected by arsenic poisoning are the lungs, skin, kidneys, and liver. The final result of arsenic poisoning ranges from coma to death.


Arsenic poisoning can be caused by a wide variety of factors such as:

  • Contaminated air in industrial working conditions
  • Contaminated drinking water
  • Tainted food such as poultry or produce
  • Consumer products treated with arsenic compounds, like wooden decks

Research has shown that the inorganic arsenates (trivalent forms) in drinking water have a much higher acute toxicity than organic arsenates (pentavalent forms). The acute minimal lethal dose of arsenic in adults is estimated to be 70 to 200 mg or 1 mg/kg/day. Most reported arsenic poisonings are caused by one of arsenic’s compounds, also found in drinking water, arsenic trioxide which is 500 times more toxic than pure arsenic.

Cases of arsenic poisoning have also been reported to occur in highly agricultural areas. In agriculture, arsenic compounds such as lead arsenate, sodium arsenate, calcium arsenate and organic arsenic compounds are used as pesticides. Substantial amounts of methyl arsenic acid and di-methyl arsenic acid are used as selective herbicides which have ultimately contaminated the ground water being used by local farmers. As a result, there have been cases where individuals have been exposed to high levels of arsenic from the local drinking water, in addition to the local agricultural produce and outside air.

Successful Treatment

However, despite the detrimental effects of arsenic exposure, there have been cases in which victims have been able to recover from high levels of arsenic poisoning through alternative treatment methods.

In Missouri, a highly agricultural state, a patient had been diagnosed with a high arsenic level in her blood of 74. After receiving her blood test results and noticing symptoms distinctly related to weakened liver function (such as muscle fatigue, diarrhea, and frequent urination), she sought alternative treatment from Ms Sheila LaPlante. A Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioner and Acupuncturist, Ms LaPlante emphasizes the use of herbal remedies and other alternative modalities to treat patients.

Ms LaPlante’s treatment for this particular patient consisted of a 3 months regiment of herbal remedies from Wei Laboratories: Brown Juice and LC Balancer. Brown Juice, a liver detoxification remedy, works to improve the patients liver function. LC Balancer, a microcirculation booster, works to improve microcirculation and nutrient uptake.

Through her treatment methods, Ms LaPlante goal was to improve the detoxification capabilities of the patient’s liver at an accelerated rate in order to immediately reduce the high levels of arsenic.

During treatment, the patient noticed significantly darker stools as the toxins from the high arsenic levels in her body were being flushed out. By the end of treatment, the patient’s blood tests revealed an improved reading of 11. The patient’s symptoms have been critically reduced as a result of Ms LaPlante’s treatment methods.

About Ms LaPlante

Sheila LaPlante is a licensed Acupuncturist in Missouri, with additional training in TCM. Her passion for health ran concurrently for twenty years with interior design when at the age of 54 she began the four year masters program in Traditional Chinese Medicine. She continues now at the age of 68 with more energy. Her studies continue and she believes that her patients benefit in better health from her passion for this practice.

For more information or to schedule an appointment with Ms LaPlante, contact her though famousdoctor.org/laplante_bio.html.