The Simple Guide to Having a Fungus-Free Garden This Summer

Most people tend to invest a large amount of their garden budget in the landscaping side of things, when looking to give their home a new look. Getting wrapped up in these details, can sometimes lead to neglected plants not being pruned when they should. The result is a garden that does not look quite as good as it should. However by following some simple steps you can improve the appearance of your garden this summer.

Pay careful attention to Pruning
As I mentioned earlier, pruning plays a critical role in the maintenance of your garden. In the event that you do make a mistake while pruning, try not to panic because in time it is sure to grow back again.

Water your plants earlier in the day
In the summer, when the humidity is quite high, it can cause a problem for some gardeners. It is always best to keep your plants dry before you retire at night. Refrain from watering them in the evening to avoid unnecessary damage to plants.

The Powdery Mildew Fungus
Powdery Mildew is a type of fungus that mostly affects ornamental plants. It deposits a white film on the leaves of the plants it infects. Recently, it has begun impacting garden plants such as the Dogwood. It takes very persistent gardening to prevent the spread of this fungus. It can be easily prevented by the use of fungicides found in most garden centers.

Pythium Blight prevention
Perennial Rye grass which is usually found in the North is vulnerable to the Pythium Blight fungus – especially when it gets wet. The reason being, this fungus grows best in high humid conditions which often happens to be at night in the summer.

Pythium Blight is easily recognizable especially first thing in the morning. It usually appears on the top of your lawn looking very similar to white cotton candy. It is commonly found on most walks and driveways where the soil is moist. The best method to control it is by watering as early as possible in the morning.

The deadly Fire Blight
The Fire Blights tend to grow during the summer more than any other time of year. It has been known to attack Apple trees, Crabapple trees, and Cotoneasters. It is very easy to spot this fungus because the branches it affects always turn red and usually die. By pruning the infected branch and taking it away from the rest of the plant is the best way to control the Fire Blight fungus.

Another precaution to take is to burn the infected branches once you have pruned them. The reason is the Fire Blight is very contagious. Also be sure you sanitize the garden shears in alcohol to prevent the fungus spreading.

The Shotgun Fungus
The preferred environment of this fungus is usually in moat mulch. It has been known to fly over 2 meters in the air and cover areas such as homes with smooth, brown glue-like specks. The specks are often mistaken as being created by insects. Although difficult to stop this fungus, it can be controlled by loosing the mulch so air is allowed to circulate and keep the fungus out. Although mulch can be beneficial, try keeping them from getting too packed.

Dispose of growing mulch at least once during the year and try raking it flat to give the appearance of having been recently mulched.

Try using some of the tips above and enjoy a garden free of fungus this summer.

Can you report if I've have a concussion?

More Injuries questions please visit :

Can you procure an abscess from shooting up oxy?
I was wondering if you can develop an abscess from shooting up oxycontin. My friend is in critical condition at the hospital. He abuse oxy’s and has recently begin to inject them. At first, the doctors were thinking he had gotten bit by a brown loner…

Can you procure internal bleeding from one punch to the stomach?
I got punched in the stomach on a hours of darkness out and I was wondering how likely it is to achieve any internal bleeding? My muscles hurt in the region where i get punched but I dont feel any different at the moment….

Can you properly sneak out of a Hospital?
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Can you put mucsle relaxer on you stomach?
my stomach muscles relly hurt alot can i put relaxer on it or will it relax all mu organs and make next shut down they i get a horrible sickning diseas… o_O you can relax your stomach by sports. Muscle relaxer? There is zilch…

Can you put to death someone by hitting them contained by the snout?
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Can you really break your wrist if you?.?
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Can you really exploit more intelligently by a pro tem injury to the brain?
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Can you really seize athritis from popping your knuckles?
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Can you report if I’ve have a concussion?
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Can you restore your health like a shot from a torn knees cartilage?
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Birth Injury Lawyers Can Help You Determine Of Your Child's Intellectual Disability Resulted From Obstetrical Malpractice

Examples of common birth injuries resulting from malpractice range from brain injury that may result in impaired or delayed motor development or intellectual disability through to Erbs palsy and other brachial plexus injury. For a more complete discussion of the full range of birth injuries, their causes, and the obstetrical malpractice lawyer’s strategies for discovering the physician’s or hospital staff’s culpability in causing the injuries, please consider our <a rel=”nofollow” onclick=”javascript:ga(‘send’, ‘pageview’, ‘/outgoing/article_exit_link/2095341’);” href=>Obstetrical Malpractice Lawyers and Birth Injury Attorneys</a> page. Here we will discuss brain injuries which may not become apparent to parents immediately at birth, indeed commonly not resulting in parental concern until the baby fails to meet his or her expected milestones and in cases of mild intellectual disability may not be diagnosed until the child enters school. Brain injuries sustained at birth may be due to a number of causes, including oxygen deprivation, hypoxia, anoxia, or traumatic brain injury. There are a number of failures of hospital staff and obstetricians which can lead to brain injury. The hospital staff may not properly or timely apply fetal monitoring or fail to properly assess fetal distress, or they may fail to act sufficiently quickly to alert the mother’s obstetrician or the appropriate specialists to deliver the baby by cesarean section before the baby sustains brain damage. The obstetrician may fail to recognize fetal distress or delay delivery including by cesarean section to assure that the baby’s brain is not deprived of oxygen.

There are a number of ways that an appropriately qualified birth injury attorney and hospital and obstetrical malpractice lawyer can help to discover whether the hospital staff or obstetrician complied with the applicable standards of care. Obtaining the fetal monitor strips – the recordings of the of the baby’s heart beat in utero – may provide obvious evidence that the hospital staff or obstetrician failed to recognize or appropriately act to deliver the baby before it had sustained brain damage. The obstetrician sometimes will cause a traumatic brain injury during the delivery by his or her negligence in pulling the baby’s head out of the birth canal manually or with forceps. The consequences of the brain damage thus inflicted are many, depending upon the aspects of the brain which are injured. Where the fetus suffers hypoxia, the baby may be born “blue,” and have other indicators of hypoxia leading to a low APGAR score, which can also serve as important evidence of the precipitating cause of the baby’s brain damage and the hospital staff’s or obstetrician’s negligence. If the baby’s head is grossly misshapen following delivery this may also be an indicator that brain damage resulting from a traumatic brain injury sustained at delivery. Often testing will be done, such as CT or MRI scans, which will also provide evidence of brain hemorrhage indicative of traumatic brain injury sustained at delivery. The parents may not be aware of magnitude or the significance of the duration of their baby’s fetal distress or their baby’s APGAR scores, and traumatic brain injury may not be obvious to them as their physicians explain the their baby’s initially misshapen head as normal. But the evidence will remain in the hospital charts, in the fetal monitor recordings, in the APGAR scores, the nurses notes, the physicians notes, the records of the results of MRI or CT scans and other tests. It is for this reason that it is important when the parents discover that their baby is brain damaged, or diagnosed with cerebral palsy or mild, moderate or profound mental retardation, that they obtain a consultation from a qualified birth injury attorney and hospital and obstetrical malpractice lawyer.

If upon review of the facts the California birth injury lawyer is suspicious that the baby’s brain damage may have resulted from hospital negligence or obstetrical malpractice, then with the parents agreement and written authorization, he will obtain the medical records and have them reviewed by an appropriately qualified medical specialist. In most cases this is the only way to confidently determine whether a baby’s brain injury may have resulted from the negligence of the involved health care professionals.

Brain injury occurring at birth may manifest in the baby in a number of ways which may be obvious soon after birth or may only become obvious to the parents and even their physicians much later, as baby fails to develop as the parents monitor the baby’s progress in achieving expected milestones. The baby may have seizures within the first 24 hours after birth, or may not, or may evidence poor sucking, poor muscle strength, or blue colored skin, which are immediate indicators of possible brain damage; or the baby may suffer deficiencies in motor development, often the result of Cerebral Palsy; or the baby may only later be diagnosed as intellectually disabled. Parents whose baby suffers these symptoms or diagnoses indicative of brain damage should want to find out the cause, and that is where the birth injury lawyer and obstetrical malpractice attorney can be of aid.

Ray Henke, Esq. <a rel=”nofollow” onclick=”javascript:ga(‘send’, ‘pageview’, ‘/outgoing/article_exit_link/2095341’);” href=>Obstetrical Malpractice Lawyer and Birth Injury Attorney</a>

How to Write Cute Quotes

Quotes are the best way to express your thoughts, feelings and mood with just a few words. In fact some people claim that writing quotes is a form of art like poetry.

It is very well known that most of the quotes were introduced to the world by mistake; Meaning the people who said or wrote those quotes do not even mean them to have a meaningful interpretation or inspiration. They just said that in the hit of the moment and forget it. But we, the audience did not forget it, maybe because it was funny, or had a deep meaning for us or maybe just because the famous person said that at the right moment. But the fact remains the same: we all remember and enjoy these quotes.

There are a few ways to create quotes, the easiest one is like mentions previously, do not think about it too much, just let your thoughts and feelings fly in the air and try to capture it essence in few words. The other way to do it is by thinking about meaning first and not about words. Think of a topic you like to discuss and find the meaning behind this topic. At last try to figure out how you connect the topic and the meaning with few words.

While you try to think of quotes you might notice that sometimes it is very hard to sum up a whole idea in just one or two sentences. The truth is that it is much harder to write short than to write long, so this leads us to the third way to write quotes – the story. Every quote has a story behind it, so if write a short story first about a specific topic it will be much easier for you to sum it up with a quote. In this way you are not creating only on line but even a whole new story.

Navicular Syndrome Explained

Navicular disease, as it is more commonly known, must be looked at and treated as a syndrome rather than a disease, and this is due to the fact that many different parts of the foot could have been affected when this syndrome is present.

This is one of the more common lameness factors in horses and is seen to happen in the front feet rather than the rear feet. It also looks to first effect horses from the age of four and up to nine years of age; Although it is mainly seen in the front feet, it can affect the rear feet, but is extremely rare to find rear feet that are affected.

Certain breeds are more affected than others and certain breeds react differently to Navicular problems as well. What might be crippling to a Quarter Horse is totally ignored by the Warmblood breeds.

Over the years various theories have come to light about what causes the navicular syndrome to begin. It was first thought to be an arthritis condition that was taken about from either an injury from excessive pounding or hard usage of the front feet of the horse. There are also additional theories that have added to the research and development of a broader understanding of this entire condition. What has been discovered is the fact that certain horses have experiences that allow us to pre-determine, with some sort of accuracy, the type of horse that may be more prone to suffer from this condition. Information now tells us that the breed or classifications of horses that has a history in its lineage that have suffered from naval syndrome are more likely to suffer from navicular problems. This is pre-determined through conformation faults that are inherited from their parents and / or grandparents or in some cases both.

It has also been proven that improper trimming and / or shoeing techniques can contribute to the progress of the navicular syndrome at a faster than normal rate. In reference to horses that are pre-disposed to the condition through conformational faults can have the condition accelerated as well by too strenuous a work schedule or even by being worked in improper ground conditions (to hard a surface for too long a period of time) . Further finds have found that an improper diet can also advance the condition at a faster rate of speed that the specific animal may experience.

The front foot that is affected by this condition will also change its appearance as time goes on and the condition progresses in severity. The foot will become "contracted" at the heels and the frog will start to shrink in size ~ with the shrinking of the frog the pressure to it will be reduced and in some cases total eliminated which leads to the added condition of "thrush" in Most cases. The foot will appear to become "boxy" in shape as the condition progresses and will become smaller than the less affected foot as well.

Horses that could suffer from marine disease are ones that have a history in their lineage of precedent horses having the same condition. This is found to be true through conformational exercises that are passed from generation to generation. In addition, horses that have too small a foot for the amount of body mass that they have to support are also a high risk factor for this condition. Do not forget horses that do not get adequate pre-conditioning for the work that is asked of them.

The best treatment for navicular disease is through complete and correct farrier techniques using a shoe that properly supports and protects the heel area of ​​the foot with a wide web, all of these factors allow for the maximum benefit of the program to be accomplished and the horse To be aided in their ability to reduce the amount of pain that they are suffering. Additional care must be taken to make sure that the toe of the shoe is shaped in a manner that will allow for the ease of operation and allow for the maximum roll over to be accomplished. The program that is established for the correct and proper maintenance of the horse suffering from this condition needs to be followed on a four to six-week cycle so that the proper angle and position of the foot can be realized at all times, thus allowing the Horse to suffer as little amount of pain as possible on a regular basis.

With proper care and treatment most horses can extend their usefulness by up to five years and in some cases even longer. This can be accomplished through a shoetter shoeing cycle, more exercise and a good and balanced diet that does not allow for over-feeding.

Proper Treatment for Navicular Problems

In order to properly have the correct procedures be followed there has to be quite a few points that need to be both considered and accomplished. These points are easy enough to explain and sometimes difficult to accomplish, since the correct decision and procedures have to be determined and accomplished that are correct for the particular situation that your horse is going through. Additionally, you are at the mercy of persons that may or may not know what is necessary or even required to set your horse onto the most comfortable path to recovery.

There has to be some very basic points that the farrier has to cover within them to make sure that they are capable and experienced enough to accomplish what is necessary to both start and finish the task at hand. If they do not have the required abilities, they then have to be professional enough to help the horse by referring or bringing to your attention another person that is experienced enough to accomplish what may be necessary. A point of contention here is that just because the average farrier is quite capable of taking care of the day-to-day requirements of the average or good-footed horse, it does not mean that they have the highly skilled ability or the knowledge that Is specifically required to help the horse correctly. There are people within the farrier industry that do specialize in what is referred to as "Corrective" or "Orthopedic" style of farrier work. This specialist is what is required at this point. It would also be a major point of progress for your particular farrier to assist the specialist so that knowledge and expansion of abilities can happen. The results of this can be two-fold, the farrier gains the knowledge and the experience of the more advanced education and allows the same farrier the ability to be available in the event that the specialist is able to get to the horse right away in the Event that shoes may be thrown or minor adjustment might be required to be accomplished when the specialist is not readily available. Most specialist farriers have no problem with this arrangement since they have a great amount of workload from being a limited number of themselves to be able to accomplish all of the work that is out there. Any point that allows them to have a bit of the load removed will be greatly appreciated.

The farrier that is chosen to accomplish the work that is required needs not only the experience but the proper amount of confidence has to be in place that will allow them to make the solid judgments that may be necessary as they appear and have to be deal with In a positive way. The person that you have chosen to accomplish the necessary work must have a positive relationship with the veterinarian that you have been working with on this particular problem, for if you do not look at that point there could be major conflicts in the procedure to follow as The program progresses. Once an initial program has been started it has to be followed and not wavered from; This takes cooperation on both sides of the equation to end up with the correct answer that is right for the horse. The ability to understand the principles of prohibiting the horse to be balanced from the ground up through the entire body must also be understood, for understanding the complete balance principles there will be a complete understanding of the interior of the foot and its proper and correct operation And position.

One of the most important abilities that a specialist type farrier can have is the ability of being able to look at the problem that is at hand and to visualize within their own mind the finished product before the work is even started. This one ability will allow them to have the finished product always looking them in the face as they progress through the various steps and procedures that will lead to the completion to the program. This is the same as filing a flight plan by a pilot to make sure that they follow the safest and most reasonable path and to get to their required destination in the required time.

As the owner of such an animal that has suffered from this particular foot situation there are also requirements on your side of the fence. You have to be able to change ~ you have to remember that this situation did not occur overnight ~ and can not be fixed over night. The changes that the owner has to make are that they have to be able to start to provide the necessary after care as both the veterinarian and the specialty farrier direct you. What they will be doing is instructing you as to the everyday procedures that are necessary since this situation can be slowed down, but it will never go away. The horse can be made more comfortable, but never completely recover from this particular problem. The shoeing process for a naval problem is best realized that the overall support of the leg, the foot and the tendon have to be changed and the correct foot balance has to be realized so that the shock and concussion that is introduced to the foot with each Step is minimized.

Until next time "Ride for the Brand".

Does Your Body Need Silver?

The colloidal silver deficiencies lead to the human body's incapacity to assimilate all the vitamins and the minerals that the nutritional elements provide us. If the body is incapable, for some reason, to assimilate these nutritional substitutes or if the tissues are too old to accomplish this role, then we are dealing with a silver deficiency. This deficiency has as a main result the body's incapacity to face the diseases and the infections. And this inability only leads to the appearance of cancer and other illnesses caused by a weakened immune system.

Some scientists and doctors together consider the fact that the lack of silver in the human body is the main cause of the presence and of the development of different forms of cancer. There have been noticed close relationships between the low levels of silver present into the body and the emergence of chronic medical conditions, such as cancer. The specialists discovered that all those people presented significant losses of silver in their bodies were diagnosed with colds, pneumonias or fever for long periods of time. Similarly, a colloidal silver deficiency has as a main result the weakness of the body, since the immune system itself is weak and works slowly. It has been discovered the fact that the silver fights against bacteria and viruses thus helping in the stimulation of the tissues that have been damaged after an illness or in the aging process. Furthermore, specialists sustain that using silver in its pure metal state has no negative consequences upon the human system or upon the healthy human cells.

Due to the fact that the colloidal silver has no side effects, it is highly recommended to pregnant women – if using colloidal silver, the delivery can be much easier. The colloidal silver not only helps in the development of the fetus, but it also contributes to the recovery of the mother after she has given birth.

The scientists discovered the beneficial effects of the colloidal silver that refer to the improvement of the digestive process, to the prevention of diseases such as pneumonia, since this condition is caused by viruses and microbes. The trust in this type of nutritional supplement lies in the fact that it is safe and effective in the battle against infectious diseases.

Dog Spondylosis Deformans Disease

Spondylosis deformans (sometimes called Bone Spurs) is a condition in which bridges are formed along the ventral (bottom) parts of the vertebrae of dogs. Human, domestic cat, bull and even whales have been diagnosed with this condition. The term “spondylitis” literally means “an inflammation of the spine”, especially the bone, and spondylosis is sometimes used as a synonym as well as for describing types of ankylosis. Spondylosis sometimes called Bone Spurs can form around interverterbral discs as a dog gets older. In rare occasions these bone spurs can grow (osteophytes) that press into the spinal canal causing symptoms similar to a ruptured disc. Spondylosis deformas, can restrict the movement of the spinal column causing pain and stiffness. Spondylosis is more common in larger dogs and older dogs.

Symptoms of Spondylosis may include back pain, back stiffness and the dog may whine or cry when touched in the back area. Bone spurs can develop on any bone and without signs or symptoms and may go undetected for years. Many affected dogs live satisfactory lives, though somewhat limited in flexibility and range of motion. Fortunately, by the time spondylosis deformans becomes noticeable in clinical signs, the dog may be considered “retired” from his duties of running around, jumping, and doing the other things expected of a youngster. In some individuals, it will get worse suddenly rather than continue in a gradual worsening. Possibly, trauma may bring fracture of the bridge created in the development of spondylosis, which crack may spread to the arch and body, thus pinching the cord. Some bone spurs form in places where they rub against other bones or push against nerves, causing swelling, pain, tearing and loss of motion in your joints. Common places for bone spurs include the spine, shoulders, hands, hips, knees, and feet.

The genetic transmission of the tendency to develop this disease is obvious to anyone who has watched it appear in offspring of certain dogs, generation after generation. But exactly how (the etiology) is not as sure. Perhaps there is an inherited weakness in how a dog’s vertebrae respond to or withstand repeated microtraumas; perhaps in some lines, the blood vessels that serve the outer layers of the disks regress and disappear faster than the normal or expected three or four years. It seems to be a fairly natural consequence of aging, as 75% of dogs in some breeds are affected to some degree by 9 years, and half by 6 years. On the other hand, some work has indicated that spondylosis deformans is more a disease of middle age.

Most of these dogs never show any clinical signs that can be attributed to the spondylosis, even though their spines look really awful on X-rays. So when a dog does come in with signs that appear to be neurologic and appear to be associated with the spinal cord region in which there is significant spondylosis, it isn’t acceptable to just assume that the signs are due to the spondylosis and treat with anti-inflammatories or corticosteroids. It is necessary to try to figure out if there is a disc herniation, lumbo-sacral instability or degenerative myelopathy. If any of these conditions is suspected, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is superior to any other diagnostic test for ruling out disc herniation and lumbosacral instability.  

Treatment of Spondylosis may include a treatment with analgesics (pain killers). If this does not work then surgery may be needed to remove the osteophytes to stop the pressure on the spinal cord. Physical therapy, acupuncture, stretching, deep tissue massage and weight loss programs attempting to reduce the stress on the joints involved can also help the dog in some cases.

What Makes a Guy Act Cold All of a Sudden? Here Is Why Some Men Just Lose Interest in You Suddenly

Retaining a man’s interest is one of the biggest tasks that women have to do. A little bit of carelessness and he loses interest. So, what is it that will tie him down to you firmly? Well, all we can do is wish it was simple. However, regaining lost interest is not so difficult and that should come as big relief. Do the following right and he will never lose his interest in you.

Puppy love
Men act similarly when they are in love and when they are infatuated by a woman. There is only a subtle difference between the two and you need to spot that expertly. A man that is infatuated will be in a hurry to date you while the one that has fallen in love will make his moves calculatingly. So, if you notice a guy go gaga over you, take a step back and go slow.

Predictable behavior
Once a man figures you out he knows exactly how you are going to react to certain circumstances and situations. The moment you become predictable he will begin to lose his interest in you. Retain a semblance of mystery and he will never lose interest.

Testing the water
Some men are just out there to test waters. Such men do give an impression that they are truly in love but the moment they find that the girl does not measure up to their expectation they make an hasty exit. There is nothing you can do about it other than moving on as swiftly as you can.

Burden of expectations
Men begin dating in right earnest and very soon they realize that they are under the scanner all the time. The girls expect them to be perfect lovers which they clearly are not. To escape this constant scrutiny they give up and move on. You have to give the guy some time before you begin to evaluate him.

Some men do not want to commit unless they are absolutely sure of their future. It could be anything from their careers to their financial status that is holding them back. In such a situation if the girl does not understand the guy’s limitations he is bound to lose his interest in her.

Clingy and demanding women
Some women stick to their men like appendages. Where ever the guy goes she is there with him or tails him there. Such nuisance is intolerable for young guys wanting to have fun. Don’t try and chain your guy too early in the relationship.

High maintenance divas
Some women spare little thought for the guy and expect him to do all the spending when dating. When guys realize that each date sets them back by a couple of hundred dollars they lose interest and retreat before they land in a debt trap. In this day of economic hardships going Dutch is the best way to retain his interest.

The Chakras – Understanding and Balancing the Major 16 Chakras

The chakra system is an ancient system, known to many cultures for thousands of years. Chakra (pronounced CHUK-ruh) means wheel or circle in sanskrit. In Tibetan Buddhism the centres are called channel wheels. Taoist yoga is a complex discipline based on the control and circulation of these vital energies seen as vortexes.

Chakras are also called lotuses, which gives us some idea of the nature of the chakras. The lotus with its exquisite flowers blooming on the surface of the water, under the light of the Sun (spirit), has its roots buried in the muddy darkness of the depths (the physical). Just like the lotus blossom, the chakras can be closed, in bud, opening or blossoming, active or dormant.

The ancient western alchemical tradition used the chakra system, with metals and planets being assigned to the chakras in an elaborate system of correspondences, which formed the basis of the alchemists’ quest for spiritual transformation. With the decline of alchemical arts, knowledge of the chakras faded also. Interest in the chakras re-emerged in the west with the appearance of the Theosophy movement in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

The chakra system is an energetic data storage system, very much like a computer, which many healers feel or see. It is the spiritual interface between the physical body, through the nervous system, our spirit body & the holographic web. The nervous system is our physical interface, communicating with all aspects of the physical, giving information to & receiving from the chakras. The chakras function as transmitters of energy from one level to another, distributing qi or prana to the physical body.

While there are many minor chakras in the body & at our joints, it is recognized that there are 7 major chakras between the groin and top of the head, with 2 others that are of major importance located approximately 18 inches above the top of the head, known as the Soul Star, the Earth Star, located approximately 18 inches below the feet. There are differences of opinion as to where some of the minor chakras are. I work with & balance 16 major chakras, from the Earth Star all the way to the Monad:Divine connection, some of which are not recognized by other healers or systems, making my healing work unique.

Personal experience is a vital part of western acceptance for everything, our, “I’ll believe it when I see it” syndrome, & limits humanity’s multi-sensory experiences. There are many reported incidences however, where people have had physical pain, in the heart for example, with no physiological reason found, even after extensive medical testing. When these people went on to have a crystal healing & chakra balance, the healer found that their pain to be connected to a past life injury & the pain resolved after the rebalance. Many healers believe that physical aliments have their root in mental & emotional imbalances & in order to heal the physical body one must also address the mental & emotional bodies as well.

Each one of the commonly recognized 7 chakras corresponds to a physical system and its related organs and glands. Sound, colors and crystals are assigned to each chakra, though the colors and functions of each chakra vary somewhat according to different traditions.

The First Chakra: Base Chakra located at the area of the coccyx at the base of the spine, relates to the adrenals, large intestines and rectum. It shares responsibility of the kidneys with the 2nd chakra. This chakra is known as the kundalini or serpent’s fire; life force for survival, life or “death” struggle, family identity, bonding and loyalty. The root chakra’s expression of energy is directly related to a person’s quality of health. The cosmic fire that awaits release lies dormant until the higher self can properly utilize the potency of its ethereal energy source on physical & spiritual levels of life. The lesson of the first chakra is that of Oneness rather than separation. Its color is red; Crystals: Garnet, Black Tourmaline, Dravite, Black Onyx, Smokey Quartz, Obsidian; & its Note is middle C.

The Second Chakra: Sacral Chakra is located midway between the public bone and naval (some traditions see it at the naval), relates to the testes, prostate and ovaries. The pelvis is the physical representation of the Void & The Goddess. This is where the Inner Feminine/Goddess Self anchors. It is the creative center and relates to sensuality as well as sexuality, power (personal power when it is in balance, & ego domination when it is unbalanced) and money or abundance, the ability to create & take risks, fight or flight, resilience, perseverance, & financial acumen. This then is our creative center, the seat of our passion & our sexuality – being comfortable in our body as a woman or man. Shadow aspects: Disempowering/controlling or using others for your own advantage. Color: orange; Note: D; Crystals: Amber, Tiger Eye, Carnelian.

The Third Chakra: Solar Plexus Chakra relates to the pancreas, liver, gallbladder, stomach, spleen and digestion. This is where our unresolved emotions are stored and is therefore the place where we ‘digest’ our emotions, or not! This chakra relates to will power, self-esteem, self-discipline, ambition, courage, generosity, ethics & instincts, self-respect & honoring of self. Shadow aspects: Giving away personal power of choice out of a need for approval; narcissistic behavior. Color: yellow; Note: E; Crystals: Citrine, Sunstone, Lemon Chrysophrase.

The Fourth Chakra: Heart Chakra is located in the center of the chest relates to the thymus gland and heart. This is the chakra of love of self and others, compassion and forgiveness. Shadow aspects: jealousy, joylessness, resentment, & the inability to forgive. Color: a combination of pink, for self-love, & green, for love of others. We must first love ourselves before we can love another; Note: F; Crystals: Rose Quartz, Green Aventurine, Amazonite, Chrysophrase.

The Fifth Chakra: Throat Chakra is located at the base of the throat, relates to the thyroid and parathyroid voice and the neck. It relates to our ability to speak our truth & trust ourselves, and is where we allow love into our lives. It is where we exert our will over others or give our power/will away to others. This is the center of faith, self-knowledge, personal authority & the ability to keep your word. Shadow aspects: An obsessive need to control relationships & events. Color: blue; Note: G; Crystals: Larimar, Blue Lace Agate, Lapis, Aquamarine, Azurite/Malachite, Gem Silica.

The Sixth: Brow Chakra is often called the third eye, is located between and slightly above the eye brows. It relates to the pineal gland and spiritual sight, and the ability to articulate vision and inspiration. Shadow aspects: defining the truth in self-serving ways. Color: purple; Note: A; Crystals: Amethyst, Sugilite, Kyanite, Azurite.

The Seventh Chakra: Crown Chakra is located at the top of the head & can be found by ‘drawing’ a line up from the top of the ears and straight up from the tip of the nose. It relates to the pituitary gland and is our direct connection to spirit and higher consciousness. This is the center of faith in the Divine as well as in inner guidance, insight into healing & devotion to the Divine. Shadow aspect: the need to know why things happen as they do, which causes you to live in the past. Color: white; Note: B; Crystal: Clear Quartz, Selenite, Indicolite (Blue) Quartz.

I received the following information from the Divine in a healing session many years ago. As I have worked with these chakras my understanding of them has grown. People are somewhat familiar with the eighth chakra, also known as the Soul Star or Interpersonal Chakra. Less is known about charkas nine through twelve. Information varies when it comes to the higher dimensions. That is because people are on different levels of awareness, or hold different vibrational levels. You can only see the truth based on where you are looking from in the moment.

The 5 Higher Chakras, 8 – 12

These five higher charkas were disconnected eons ago & are now being reconnected through our opening to Spirit. The process can be speeded up through an Ascension Initiation. The colors of the higher charkas varies from person to person & is dependent on your individual purpose or function as spirit. Crystals: Herkimer & Tibetan Diamonds, double terminated Clear Quartz, Selenite, Indicolite (Blue Tourmaline in Quartz), Moldavite, Cavansite, Apophyllite, Prehnite.

The Eighth Chakra: Soul Star also known as the Transpersonal chakra, is approximately 18 inches above the head. This is the center that holds all our contracts & agreements related to this lifetime, karmic connections and so on. A person’s Soul Star overlaps with that of the people they’ve had long-term relationships or sexual encounters with, & they don’t completely disconnect on their own, even though the couple may part physically. It’s very important, therefore, to be able to clear all those old relationship contracts, in order to make way for new potential relationships to come to you more easily, or to clear a pathway for the relationship of your current, supporting it to grow more fully. The eight chakra is also the center of detachment, staying in the present moment, unconditional trust, acceptance of intuitive guidance & the ability to discern illusion. It is the center of higher intellect. It marks the realm where the individual soul merges with the Universal Mind. It also marks the point where the soul manifests into matter, into the individual energy body. Note: C;

The Ninth Chakra: Intergalactic Gateway to the Divine and the BluePrint for this incarnation, & our Higher Emotional Center. This is where we hold all the information related to who we will be & are, in this current incarnation – our eye color, hair color, other features, personality characteristics & what we are going to be/do in this lifetime. This information becomes our DNA. We choose all this before we come in to this incarnation. In a healing, the BluePrint may appear fragmented, damaged or fractured, split, cracked, scattered or even dispersed. I worked with one woman who was extremely depressed, and I had a sense that she did not want to be here. She confirmed this when I asked her. Her blueprint actually appeared dispersed or scattered & I believe she would have tried to leave somehow if she hadn’t had the session with me. She burst into tears when I asked that a new blueprint be brought in & she felt completely different after the session. In particular she had a huge release when I cleared her ninth and eleventh chakras. Note: D

The Tenth Chakra: Interdimensional Gateway to the Divine is the gateway to all the other experiences (and dimensions) we’ve had throughout the universe. This chakra is where the soul fragments itself & scatters itself throughout the universe, requiring ‘retrieval’. Once all aspects are retrieved the person has full access to all the infinite possibilities of who they’ve been and are–their ‘universal archetypes’, for want of a better term. By bringing the essence of those aspects or soul fragments into one chakra it gives us the ability to work with all our talents and abilities. Most people only have access to between one and ten of their universal archetypes, and that’s quite limiting because we actually have an infinite number. Note: E

The Eleventh chakra: Universal Gateway to the Divine is where duality begins, so to speak. It is the ‘field of overlap’ between Light & Dark is where we have all contracts and agreements belonging to our soul, whereas the eighth chakra is this current incarnation’s contracts and agreements. Clearing the eleventh chakra is pivotal in bringing a person into balance and allowing them to have full access to their Divinity. I find that blocks in the 11th chakra are most likely to interfere with our Divine connection. This is where our contracts with the occult, black magic & the Abyss are held. We all have aspects of ourselves that have experienced the shadow, because that’s part of the Soul’s journey to explore Light and Dark, Order & Chaos. Part of the Divine plan for us is to experience Duality–Light and Dark and all the rays of the rainbow in between. Sometimes I find that this chakra is very imbalanced and may require a substantial infusion of Love, & perhaps a ‘new’ chakra make by needed. When I clear with this chakra people often experience an instant shift, and they comment that they suddenly feel different, more connected to the Divine. Note: F

The Twelfth charka: Monadic Soul Level Completing the five higher charkas is the 12th chakra or the Monad is considered the individualized Spirit-Spark of the Divine & is often called the I am Presence. The Monad is often considered the Ascended Master Level of the Soul. Each Monad or Spirit-Spark creates & is divided into 12 pairs of Souls. Each pair are knows as TwinFlames. The Monad is often considered the Ascended Master or Spirit level of Soul. When being cleared I see the person’s TwinFlame as well as their Divine Ray – their personal flavor of the Divine, in color frequency, which is their ‘function’ as Spirit.

Here is the BluePrint of the Soul, the Soul’s TwinFlame–twin-self or mirror opposite. Occasionally I see the souls of other significant relationships here. It’s a connection where there is no differentiation between the Monad and the Divine. Often I see that the two BluePrints–Soul’s & this incarnation–reflect one another. Sometimes the same fragmentation is going on in each one. If there is a split in the Blueprints, this particularly relates to a disconnection between the male and female aspects of our being. Unify the male/female energy within us is the most important step to experiencing Unity.

If there is a split between the male/female aspects, one half of the BluePrint may be missing. So the Monad is present but their TwinFlame is usually missing. By bringing the BluePrint back together and making it whole, their TwinFlame comes in and the client has access to working with their mirror-self. Note: F#

The following is based on the my own numbering system to include the other major chakras that I work with. The numbers are not important, where the chakras are & what they ‘do’ is:

The Thirteenth Chakra: Divine Heart Space/ Star Tetrahedron Heart Centre: is situated half way between the Throat & Heart Chakras, over the Thymus, this is the chakra of Co-Creative Divine Consciousness, the acceptance of the Divine within, Unconditional Love & compassion for self & others. When we awaken this centre, wellness is potentially an integral part of our path. Life takes on meaning & fulfillment & we experience the joy of Love, which pours forth from this chakra.

When fully activated this centre becomes one Unified Chakra. This is important because a unified chakra allows you then to align your physical, emotional, mental & spiritual bodies, & to harmonize their energy. Working with the unified chakra you unify the five higher & the ten lower chakras into one so that they all function in accordance with the frequency of unconditional love-based energy flowing through this Divine-Heart centre.

The Thymus gland controls the immune system & our rate of ageing. It is fully functional when the physical body (glands & organs) utilizes the thymus-governing imprint. The thymus naturally gets smaller as we age. By tapping the thymus daily you keep it activated. It is said that certain initiations also keep the thymus activated & that you will stop ageing after the initiation. Reiki is one such initiation, particularly after Level II.

When Divine flow is more direct & powerful, we may move consistently through life in tune with the Intention of Spirit. Then as male (thoughts) & female (emotions) are no longer antagonistic, proper hormone balance will begin to be established. Color: depends on the soul’s purpose; Note: F#

The Fourteenth Chakra: Quantum-Holographic Gateway to the Divine is located between the knees & is where the Universal Holographic Web connects to the physical. The Web is like a highway & connects us to everyone & everything in the Universe. We often have inappropriate connections to others through the Web & give our gifts & talents away to hide ourselves. Healing energy can be directed through the Web in such a way as to repair the Web & thereby heal the ‘physical’ body–which only appears solid but is in fact energy. If the physical body is damaged the Web is also damaged–torn or broken. Color: Green-White Note: B

The Fifteenth Chakra: Physical Gateway to the Divine is between the feet, at the level of the ankles, & grounds & connects spirit into the physical plane. When this center is activated we feel connected to Mother Earth & feel one with her energy, & that of all life forms–referred to by Native Americans as All My Relations. Environmental consciousness resides here & our desire to support our Earth Mother. Color: Navy Blue; Note A

The Sixteenth Chakra: Earth Star is approximately 18 inches below our feet & when activated grounds our Spirit-Self fully into the physical into the Infinite Moment of the Present, where we are the most powerful – Spirit having a human experience. We cannot be anything other than Spirit, although humans tend to ignore this Truth, & there is nothing to look for except within the self – to remember we are a piece of the Divine. Color: Forest Green; Note A#

These 16 chakras, along with other major & minor chakras, make up the most important interface between our spirit & physical bodies. The chakras directly interface with our nervous system, hence the importance of clearing both systems–physical & energy bodies. When we observe our patterns (attitudes, values & beliefs) we see clues as to what chakras are out of balance. There are many visualizing techniques to bring the charkras into balance & alignment & in my experience they need to be practiced every day.

Physical pain associated with chakra imbalances is very real. Having worked with people as a shaman and healer for over 20 years, I have seen many instances where physical pain has been relieved or released during a healing session. I have found that we carry our past predominately in our backs, which represents our past–literally behind us! People often experience a physical sensation related to a ‘broken’ heart. They may experience pain around their mid spinal region between the shoulder blades, and upon visualizing their emotional heart, ‘see’ either an image of something protecting their heart (e.g., a box or cage) or ‘see’ it as broken. When a person has money issues and feels unsupported in some area of their life, they may experience low back pain.

Over the years my work has evolved into my own modality, Micro-Fusion Holographic Healing, which incorporates Shamanic healing practices as well as the many modalities I have trained in. I have found that the body responds to this gentle work by releasing & opening up to the Spirit-Self in a very gentle, yet profound way.

In this final part of The Chakras, I wanted to address some questions & issues that have come up frequently with clients over the years, including some of the ways I’ve found most effective to keep the chakras working in harmony.

Clients have asked me to ‘close my chakras’ at the end of their session & this is a very important issue to address. As a question this also comes up frequently: “Should I keep my chakras open or closed?” Clients have been told by other healers that they need to close their chakras to be ‘protected’. And since my clients know I open all the charkas & bring them into alignment & then give my clients a visualization for keeping their chakras open, it’s natural that this creates confusion.

The chakras are in essence mini computers, gathering & storing information that then gets transferred to their interfaces, the physical & spirit bodies, through the nervous system & subtle bodies. Having your chakras closed is like trying to operate your computer with it switched off. Therefore it’s not a protection, but rather the opposite keeping you unprotected & open to negative or unwanted energies.

When your chakras are open & operating in harmony with one another, you are communicating freely with your Spirit-Self. Most importantly when your charkas are open, your heart chakra is open, & you are exuding Love, in & around you, & this is your greatest protection.

The next question I get asked the most is, “How do I keep my chakras open?” One thing I find is that when the Earth Star is closed, or deactivated, all the other chakras are affected. Some chakras will be partially open but moving sluggishly, some chakras will be closed. Conversely I have found that when the Earth Star is then opened, all chakras are affected in a positive way also.

In order to go through how to open & maintain your chakras, we first need to establish how they spin – in which direction. There are 2 main beliefs about how the chakra system spins – both are valid & work, if that’s your belief. Typically, how you were first taught is the one that works for you. My Crystal Master taught me this way: Each chakra spins the opposite direction to the one next to it, creating a DNA-like spiral that locks them together, starting with the Earth Star spinning counter clockwise. Another easy way to remember it is that all the odd numbers spin clockwise, while the even numbers spin counter clockwise.

How you check this is with a pendulum, which is also how you clear & open the chakras. You can hold a pendulum over any chakra & ask to be shown how it’s spinning. If a chakra is closed, the pendulum will do nothing. If it’s only partially open the pendulum will spin very slowly. When a chakra is fully open the pendulum will spin smoothly & reasonably fast, in large circle. Once you’ve established if your Earth Star is open or closed, & you’ve checked your solar plexus & heart chakras, you can start realigning all your chakras.

It’s best to be sitting in a chair for this exercise, so you have easy access to all your chakras. Starting at the Earth Star, which is approx. 18 cm below your feet point your pendulum at the chakra. Lean forward & rest you elbow on the knee. This will give you the right position, at the level of your ankles & forward of them. Now, make the pendulum spin counter clockwise. Do this for about 30 seconds, until the pendulum spins easily on its own.

Continue up to your ankle chakra–clockwise, then knees – counter clockwise, first chakra at the base of the spine- counter clockwise, & so on, holding the pendulum over the area of each chakra until you get to the crown chakra on top of your head, which spins clockwise.

I know you’re wondering at this point, how you’re going to clear the higher charkas. Since intention is everything, you’re going to imagine bring each one of them down in front of you–out from your body at approximately the level of your heart chakra. Continuing on with the 8th chakra–counterclockwise, & so on to the 12th chakra. Make each on spin until it can spin naturally on its own without your assistance. Sit quietly for a few minutes at the end, with your eyes closed & notice how you feel. Notice if you feel different to how you did before you started this exercise. Do you feel calmer, more at peace?

Another exercise that you can use to open each chakra is to visualize each one spinning in its appropriate direction & visualizing the appropriate color for each. Another way is to hold a double terminated clear quartz crystal or selenite wand over each chakra while you’re using your pendulum. Alternatively you can hold a Herkimer or Tibetan Diamond at the points, between your thumb & index fingers. This will help to clear each chakra of any unwanted energies more thoroughly. Ideally, Chakra balancing should be practiced daily.

Cancers From B to T – Most common Types of Cancer – – Bowel (Colorectal ) Cancer

Bowel cancer
Bowel cancer also known as colorectal cancer, is defined as a condition of the abnormal proliferation of cells in the colon, rectum, or vermiform appendix. Bowl is divided in 2 parts, the first part of the bowel, the small bowl, is involved with the digestion and absorption of food. The 2nd part, the large bowel which consist the the colon and rectum, is involved in absorption of water from the small bowel contents and broken down of certain materials in the feces into substances of which some of them to be re absorbed and reused by the body. Bowel cancer is relatively very common and slowly growing and progress cancer and in predictable way.
Bowel cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in developed countries, including US and Canada.

Types of bowel cancer
1. Adenocarcinomas

Most bowel cancers are adenocarcinomas, originated in epithelium tissues, including the surface layer of skin, glands and their tissues that line the cavities and organs of the body.

2. Squamous cell cancers
Squamous cells are the skin like cells that make up the bowel lining together with the gland cells. Squamous cell cancers are rare with the risk of 25 per 100000.

Other bowel tumours
3. Carcinoid
Carcinoid is an unusual type of slow growth neuroendocrine tumor. It looks benign but might spread to other parts of the body as they grow in hormone producing tissue in the digestive system.

4. Leiomyosarcomas
Leiomyosarcomas are the rare and resistant types of bowel cancer and generally not very responsive to chemotherapy or radiation. They are malignant abnormal mass of tissue of smooth muscles of colon, comprising between 5–10% of soft tissue sarcomas.

5. Lymphomas
Bowel lymphomas are rare and more likely to start in the rectum rather in the colon. Many patients with lymphomas are diagnosed in the late stage and already spread to other organs.

6. Melanomas
Melanomas are rare malignant tumor of cells that produce the dark pigment. This type of bowel cancer usually originates from somewhere else and then spread to the bowel.

7. Etc.

1. Changes in bowel habits
2. Narrow stools
3. Constipation
4. Diarrhea
5. Irritable bowel syndrome
6. Intermittent
7. Ulcerative colitis
8. Crohn’s disease,
9. Diverticulosis
10. Peptic ulcer disease
11. Abdominal pain
12. Unintentional weight loss
13. Loss of appetite
14. Unexplained fatigue
15. Nausea or vomiting
16. Anemia
17. Jaundice
18. Etc.

Causes and Risk factors
1. Age
The disease is more common in people over the age of 50 and increase with age. Regular colonoscopy after age of 50 is valuable to detect the disease in the early stage and decrease the risk of development of bowel cancer.

2. Bowl inflammatory diseases
Prolonged period of inflammatory diseases of the colon, such as Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease, can increase your risk of colon cancer due to long term inflammation of the lining of the colon.

3. Family History of Bowel Cancer
If a patient’s parents, siblings, children who has had colorectal cancer are more likely to develop bowel cancer.

4. Inherited Syndromes
Genetic syndromes passed through generations can increase the risk of developing colon cancer.
a. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP):
Familial adenomatous polyposisis an inherited condition in which numbers of benign polyp form mainly in the lining of the large intestine, but they can become malignant due to the mutations in the APC gene that a patient inherits from the parents.
b. Hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC)
HNPCC is also known as Lynch syndrome. It can increase the risk of developing bowel cancer than the general population due to mutation of genes in repairing DNA damage.
c. Turcot syndrome
Turcot syndrome is also a rare inherited condition in which cells become abnormal and form multiple adenomatous colon polyps anf eventually turn malignant.
d. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic disease with condition of the development of benign hamartomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and hyperpigmented macules on the lips and oral mucosa due to mutations in the gene STK1.
e. MUTYH-associated polyposis
MUTYH is a human gene encoding a DNA glycosylase. Mutations in the gene MUTYH increases the risk of develop colon polyps which eventually become cancerous if the colon is not removed.

5. Race and ethic background
a, African Americans have the highest risk of bowel cancer with unknown reasons (E. Mitchell, et al., 2009)
b. Ashkenazi Jews have a highest risk of development of bowel cancer due to several genes mutation (I. Shapira et al., 2002; DS. Weinberg et al., 2006)

6. Personal history of other cancer
Research shows that the risk of developing bowel cancer is increased for women with history of other cancer such as ovarian, uterine, endometrial or breast cancer.

7. Diet
Diet with high in animal and trans fat and less in fiber, vegetables and fruits is associated with high risk if bowel cancer. Cooking meats at very high temperatures such as frying, broiling or grilling create chemicals that increases the risk of bowel and other cancer.

8. Physical Inactivity
Researchers in Utah and northern California at the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program between 1997 and 2002 found that vigorous or moderated physical activity reduced the risk of bowel cancer in both men and women.

9. Diabetes
Abnormal glucose metabolism increases the risk of bowel cancer. Research from Cancer Research UK and the Medical Research Council studied 9600 participants. at the American Association for Cancer Research’s Sixth Annual International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research found that women with diabetes are 1.5 times more likely to develop bowel cancer than women who don’t have the metabolic disorder.

10. Obesity
The George Institute for International Health in Sydney, Australia report showed that obese individuals (Body Mass Index* (BMI) >30 kg/m2) have a 20% greater risk of developing colorectal cancer compared with those of normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2) and people who are obese have an increased risk of bowel cancer and an increased risk of dying of bowel cancer when compared with people considered normal weight.

11. Smoking
Long-term cigarette smoking increases a person’s risk of developing bowel cancer due to the effect of carcinogens and development of polyps which can become malignant.

12. Alcohol
A study by Dr. Morten Gronbaek of the National Institute of Public Health in Copenhagen, has found that heavy drinkers (especially non-wine drinkers) significantly increase their risk of contracting rectal cancer.The findings are based on a population study of over 29,000 Danish men and women aged between 23 and 95.

13. Acromegaly
Acromegaly is an endocrine disorder characterized by sustained hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) with concomitant elevation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) may increase your risk of colon polyps and bowel cancer.

14. Nigh shift work
Study that exposures to light at night suppresses the production of melatonin, a hormone that has antiproliferative effects on intestinal cancers. The result also suggested that working a rotating night shift at least three nights per month for 15 or more years may increase the risk of bowel cancer in women.

15. Previous Radiation Therapy for Certain Cancers
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, colon cancer has been caused by doses of about 1,000 millisieverts (mSv).

16. Gender
According to Heinz-Josef Lenz, M.D., professor of medicine at USC’s Keck School of Medicine There has been increasing evidence that gender plays a significant role in the development and progression of bowel cancer are higher among men due to protective effect of female hormones.

17. Etc.

Diagnosis and tests
Since bowel cancer is considered as one of most slow growth cancer and most of the discoveries are in the late stage and older than 50 years of age, implement bowel cancer screening methods can detect the cancer in its early stage resulting in a 29 percent drop in cancer deaths in 20 years.
1. Digital rectal exam
It is an internal examination of the rectum. The exam taken about a few minutes by first examining the external area (anus and perinium) for any abnormalities such as hemorrhoids, lumps, etc. Then, as the patient strains down, the physician gently puts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum through the anus and palpates the insides to check for large lumps for approximately sixty seconds.

2. Fecal occult blood test (FOBT)
It is the test to check for invisible blood in the stool. you are asked to eat red meats for a week to look for globin, DNA, or other blood factors including transferrin with the purpose is to detect subtle blood loss in the gastrointestinal tract.

3. Endoscopy
An endoscope is an instrument used by your doctor to pass through a natural opening of the body or by a small incision. Depending to the circumstance, you doctor may refer either the rectum Sigmoidoscopy or whole colon Colonoscopy.
a. Sigmoidoscopy
Sigmoidoscopy is a test to exam the large intestine from the rectum through the last part of the colon by either using a flexible endoscope (flexible sigmoidoscopy) or a rigid device (rigid sigmoidoscopy) to look for benign and malignant polyps, early signs of cancer in the descending colon and rectum, as well as any intestinal bleeding, inflammation, abnormal growths, etc.
b. Colonoscopy
Colonoscopy is a whole bowel examination to detect inflamed tissue, ulcers, and abnormal growths, benign and malignant polyps, early signs of cancer.

4. Double contrast barium enema (DCBE)
DCBE is a x-rays of the colon and rectum after injecting a liquid containing barium into the rectum to screen for bowel cancer and abnormalities. If there is any suspicious, your doctor may order a screening test such as a colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy that we mentioned above.

5. Barium Enema
The exam, most of the time performs in the out patient in hospital and in the doctor office, you will be asked to move into different positions to get different views. Barium enema is the use of barium to highlight your large intestine and delivers air into the colon to expand it for better image as x-ray is taken.

6. CT Colonography scan and/or liver scan
a. CT colonography scan
With the same purpose, CT colonography scan is to screen for polyps or cancers in the large intestine by taking the cross-sectional images of bowel then be examined on a computer monitor, printed or transferred to a CD.
b. Liver scan
Liver scan is the test to gather information about liver and spleen function or used to help confirm that the tumor has spread with injecting a radioactive material called a radioisotope into one of your veins. After the liver has soaked up the material, under the scanner images are displaying on a computer.

7. Caricinoeembroyic antigen (CEA)
Caricinoeembroyic antigen (CEA) is a type of protein molecule found in many different cells of the body. CEA measurement is mainly used as a tumor marker to detect any recurrences after surgical resection, or localize cancer spread though dosage of biological fluids.

8. Etc.

Treatments are depended totally in the stage and grade of the cancer of each patient. If the cancer is only limited to the mucosa such as a single layer of epithelial cells, a layer of connective tissue, and a thin muscle layer, than it can be cured in most cases. If the cancer have spread through the muscular layer of the bowel or the lymph note, the curable rate is lower. If the cancer has spread to other organs, the curable rate are even lower. Grade of the cancer is calculated dependently to how aggressive the cancer is.
1. Surgery and colostomy
a. Surgery
Types of surgery is depending to the stage, grade and position of the tumor needed to remove, and surgery with complete removal of the cancer offers the best chance to cure the disease.
b. colostomies
A colostomy is surgery to prevent the leakage of bowel content by diverting them away from the weaken part of bowel to prevent damage and infection after surgery to allow them to heal properly because of damage of bowel due to tumor removals to provide an alternative channel for feces to leave the body. After the weaken parts of bowel is recovered, further surgery is required to reconnect the bowel and close the colostomy.
Unfortunately, if the tumor is very close to the anus, bowel can not reconnected safely or in the late stage of the cancer, a permanent colostomy is required and small bowel is diverted to the surface.
2. Radiotherapy
2.1. Radiotherapy is the medical use of ionizing radiation to treat cancer by destroying the cancer cells but doing as little harm as possible to normal cells, if cancer happens to the place where surgery is impossible. In fact, radiotherapy has a minimum effect in treating bowel cancer.
2.2. Side effects
a. Diarrhea
b. Tiredness,
c. Frequent urinary
d. Sore skin in the treatment area
5. Etc.

3. Chemotherapy
3.1. Chemotherapy, in bowel cancer used to stop the spreading of the cancer cells and is most helpful treatment for bowel cancer with moderate advance such as bowel cancer has only spread to bowel wall or to the lymph note with combination of some medications, such as 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) with bevacizumab or 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) with bevacizumab, etc.
3.2 Side effects
a. Nausea
b. Hair loss
c. Sore mouth
d. Diarrhoea
e. Sore eyes
f. Etc.

4. Biological therapy
4.1. Biological therapies are new type of treatments in active research by using substances that occur naturally in the body, such as Cetuximab and bevacizumab are used to treat colon or rectal cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.
4.2. Side effects
a. Tiredness
b. Diarrhea
c. Skin changes
d. A sore mouth, weakness
e. Loss of appetite
f. Low blood counts
g. Swelling of parts of the body due to a build up of fluid

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Reasons Why Plank Exercises Are Great

Some of the best exercises are the least complicated, and plank exercises I think fall into that category. These have recently become an important part of my exercise routine because they are great for core conditioning. In fact, they may look too easy to be beneficial, but especially if you have irritation in the lower back this exercise might be your answer. But it also gives the hamstrings, glutes and shoulders a good workout, and will support proper posture and improved balance.

It should be noted, however that there are some common mistakes made when people do planks, and sometimes even more so than most exercises doing improperly could lead to injury. These exercises will tax the upper and lower regions of the spell. If these areas are weak it will normally cause the spine to sway. This can put compression pressure in the vertebrae and can cause back injuries. It is important especially when starting out, to know just where your limits are and not to exceed them. If you feel any pain in the back area, do not push it, but work your time up little by little.

Besides trying to hold the position for too long, other common faults are placing the hands too close together, allowing the hips and head to drop, and holding your breath. And what should your goal be? You are considered to be fairly fit in the core area if you can hold the abdominal plank position for at least two minutes. But again, you should build up to that point slowly.

That said, here are some reasons why you should be looking to plank exercises as part of your fitness program

1. Posture and balance improvement. By merly staying in the plank position for the period of time requires you to work on your balance. This can be enhanced further by doing planks on a BOSU ball, or by doing side planks. If we do lose our balance and posture position as we age, it is normally because of the weakening in the core area. Planks are great for this.

2. Alleviates back pain. Whatever you do to strengthen your core area is probably going to make your lower back stronger. The reason is because plank exercises require minimum movement while contracting all the layers of the abdominals.

3. Tones the stomach region. These exercises will be in our core muscles of the belly area. This is the foundation of the outer abdominals, or six-pack abs. This will be helped further by pulling in the area of ​​your belly button, which will contract those deep inner transverse abdominal muscles.

4. Builds flexibility. The first time get into the plank position you will probably feel how the body becomes stretched. Not only in your posterior muscles but also in the shoulder area, the hamstrings and even the arches of your feet down to your toes. Plank exercises are a natural for stretching the body.

5. Mood enhancement. All of the above reasons for doing planks will help to improve a person's mood. Stretching and releasing the tension from muscles through the body are going to invigorate anyone who does these wonderful exercise routines.

Diabetes Type 2 : Myth about

Diabetes Type 2 : Myth about

There has been a lot of research done over recent years about the causes of type 2 diabetes. For example, doctors now realize more than ever before that type 2 diabetes is prevalent in the bloodline of families. It is very common for a person that has type 2 diabetes to find out that one or more of his relatives also had the disease. Therefore, type 2 diabetes has been labeled as an illness that is genetic.

Insulin Resistance The Major Factor In Type 2 Diabetes

While people with type 1 diabetes do not have enough insulin running through their bodies, those with type 2 diabetes actually have plenty of insulin. The problem is that they just do not respond to insulin in the normal ways a healthy person would. In other words, people with type 2 diabetes are what is called "insulin resistant".

There are definitely signs of being insulin resistant before a person is actually diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. However, these signs are often ignored for years before the disease has set in. For example, a person can get a simple test that will show if the amount of insulin in their blood is higher than normal. Right now you can be a totally healthy person, eat right, exercise, and avoid drugs and alcohol, but you may have lower insulin resistance. By getting tested in knowing this information early, you can take steps to preventing type 2 diabetes.

Myths About Type 2 Diabetes

Do not get too paranoid after reading through the common signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes. Although it is very important that you go see your doctor to get checked, it is also just as important to make sure that you are not the victim of false beliefs about type 2 diabetes. Below are some common falsehoods that people have about the causes of type 2 diabetes:

Stress is the cause of Type 2 diabetes : This is not true. While stress is a leading factor in many illnesses, high levels of stress have not been proven to cause diabetes. However, stress can definitely worsen the disease by triggering off other medical conditions.

Too much sugar is the cause of Type 2 diabetes? Eating high quantities of sugar does not necessarily cause diabetes. However, just like eating too much of anything, it will make you fat and lead to obesity – which is a leading cause of diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is gender specific. Diabetes is reported to strike men and women in equal proportions. Gender has no role when it comes to who gets stricken down with this disease.

Too many changes in your emotionsis the cause?. This is another falsehood that is mistakenly believed to be a cause of type 2 diabetes. There is no proof that changes in a person’s emotions plays a role in the development of this disease.

Nutrition, Physical Education And Obesity In Our Schools: Is There A Connection?


1) Problem Statement

Statistics show that majority of American youth live sedentary lifestyles yet this can cause both health and learning problems in schools. Schools are at a unique position to solve the obesity problem because this is where students spend most of their time; their level of physical activity through physical education is determined through these schools and so are nutritional lifestyles. There is a need to determine what the link between these three aspects is i.e. physical education, nutrition and obesity in schools in order to understand what the root cause of obesity is.


The purpose of this study is to determine the link between physical activity, nutritional intake and obesity in schools. In other words, the study will attempt to determine whether nutritional intakes in schools could be causing childhood obesity and also whether physical activity is a contributory factor towards obesity in schools. In other words, there will be two phases in this research; the first is establishing a link between physical activity and obesity in schools and the second will be establishing a link between nutritional intakes and obesity in schools. The variable parameters will be nutritional intake and physical inactivity and obesity will be the non variable factor. All the latter issues will be examined within a school context. (Jefferies, 2007)

Obesity levels in the study will be determined by measuring Body mass Index of the children chosen for study. It should be noted that when the latter measurements exceed ninety five percent, then those children fall within the category of obesity or they can also be called overweight. Physical activity can be determined by looking at fitness levels. Here standard fitness tests will be administered in which one’s aerobic capacity will be ascertained and so will their recovery tests. Nutritional information will be analyzed by looking at a number of issues that range from the content of the food to the amount of time allocated to it and the number of students who actually eat that school food.

At the end of the study, the research should be able to determine what the contributory levels of nutritional and physical activity in schools are towards causing obesity. In other words, the research will be able to verify whether school programs play a contributory role to causing obesity amongst children. (Alderman, 2004)

2) Description of the Community

The community chosen for study is the high school environment. This will encompass a series of individuals from various social and economic backgrounds since the schools chosen for analysis will be public schools. These schools will be located in the State of California. The reason why this particular area was chosen for study was that California is rich in a number of public schools and it is highly multiracial thus representing a larger portion of the entire country demographic.

Most public schools contain a mixture of individuals from different social economic backgrounds but there are some that are located in rich neighborhoods and thus considered wealthy while others are located in poorer locations. Since five schools will be utilized for this study, then care will be taken to represent all sides of the divide. Two schools will represent low income backgrounds, two schools will come from middle income households while one school will represent wealthy households.

3) Description of work settings

The three schools chosen for study will all be campuses. They will have students in the expected high school ages. Additionally, the faculties that will be chosen will also represent diversity in composition. Since the study revolves around nutritional and physical activity dimensions, then the opinions of members of staff will be sought. Some of the participants that will take part here include;

  • Physical education teachers
  • Students
  • Cafeteria staff
  • Nutrition teachers
  • Faculty directors
  • Food service coordinators

The basis for selecting these schools will be through the Economic Reference Groups which is normally utilized by the Board of Education. (NH Healthy Schools Coalition, 2007)

4) Writer’s role

The primary role of the writer will be to collect information from the chosen schools about the research question. In this regard, information about how much time students dedicate to their nutrition will be collected. Also, information about the school lunch program will be sought, cafeteria menus will be examined and there will also be keen emphasis on the role that vending machines and other low nutritional foods play in student’s lives. Physical education and physical activity information will be sought from the parties chosen for interview.

Additionally, the measurements to be conducted will be done by some assistants who have specialized in the area.

The writer is well equipped for such a task owing to the fact that he is in the process of obtaining a university degree. Also, the writer has taken part in a number of committee meetings within the school arena including his faculty committee. In this position, he was responsible for compiling reports and making major decisions within the group. Consequently, the writer is in a good position to carry out his respective duties and obligations in the study.

Study of the problem

1) Problem description

There is a need to understand what is going currently within the school environment. This is largely because obesity is still a prevalent problem among adolescents today yet most people have still not been able to understand how the school setting can contribute towards solving this issue.

2) Problem documentation

Statistics revealed through the Surgeon General Research group showed that schools are key settings in which prevention or reduction of obesity can be done. However, implementation of these recommendations is yet to be done in most schools. Most of them are yet to understand the influence that the have on children’s eating habits. This is especially the case because the influences go beyond the classroom. A research conducted by the EHHI found that most unhealthy food items such as cupcakes, sweets, cakes and sweet bread are introduced to children through schools. Examples here include vending machines, food based rewards, fund raisers and birthday parties. This means that there must be a correlation between these unhealthy eating habits and occurrence of obesity. (NH Healthy Schools Coalition, 2007)

Besides the latter matter, oncologists at Greenwhich hospital have shown that there is indeed a serious risk between childhood obesity and a number of health complications. In 1994, the latter researchers showed that there is a ten fold risk of getting diabetes 2 for children with obesity or those who are overweight.

3) Literature review

In studies to find out eating habits in schools within the country, it had been found that a substantial number of schools i.e. eighty percent of them offered students other opportunities for eating outside their normal cafeteria time. On top of that, it was also found that a similar percentage offered vending machines to students. (Taras, 2008)

Public Health officials such as the Connecticut Public Health Commissioner have asserted that children should not be offered any extra foods such as candy or schools within school hours. Besides this, the nutritional levels offered to students should be monitored by education coordinators. Given such strong assertions, then it implies that schools may loose out on a lot if they continue engaging in such complacent behavior when it comes to food.

A number of researches have been done with regard to the condition of physical education in most schools. While the national policy on the matter is rather straight forward, implementation of these recommendations is another issue altogether. First of all, most schools have failed to realize that sound health cannot be realized without physical education. For instance, time allocated to physical activities is quite short throughout the year. National standards require that there should be a minimum of twenty minutes allocated o each class for physical education made up of aerobic activity. Also, children are supposed to be given daily recess in which they engage in physical activity. However, this has not yet occurred.

Other researches have shown that for all the four years that students spend in high school, only a total of two semesters are dedicated to physical education. There is also a serious lack of consistency in most of these institutions because time and time again, one might find that a certain period has been characterized by intense physical activity yet another period has had nothing of the sort.

Brownwell, K. (2002) in his book “Food fight” by Yale University Press, the latter author claims that the well being and health of American students is in great danger because of the food environment in most of these institutions and also because of the lack of activity. He challenged most schools to think about how they can reverse that trend.

A number of child nutritionists have asserted that the best way for children to stay healthy is by doing the latter two things;

  • Eating right
  • Doing more

In their argument, these nutritionists claim that the deteriorating cases of obesity among American youth have been brought on by poor nutritional levels and also by failing to engage in an active life that would burn the fat and reduce occurrence of such conditions. It may be a fact that children respond differently to food depending on their genetic make up, however, the rate upon which children loose or gain weight may depend on the latter factors.

Additionally, it has been asserted by a number of experts that the idea of physical education in most schools needs to be re-conceptualized. This implies that a nationwide agenda on tackling obesity needs to adopted and the best way to achieve this is through schools. In order to reverse bad student health, there may be a need to change the way in which people view physical education and nutrition. While this may not be something that can occur overnight, there is a need to change the way this matter is viewed through the institution of certain procedures that can go a long way in eliminating some of these wrongs.

4) Causative analysis

Obesity within the country can be caused by a number of reasons. Some of them include complacency on the part of legislators who fail to enact laws that will guarantee implementation of sound school regulation on nutrition and physical education. Other reasons why obesity could be on the rise could be the lack awareness by education stakeholders on just how serious this issue is or how important the school setting is when it comes to encouraging poor habits. In other scenarios, schools themselves may not know exactly which areas they have to deal with in order to curb childhood obesity. Certain schools may offer minima opportunity for living healthy lifestyles. Lastly, obesity in schools may be growing because of the fact that poor eating habits are learned from birth and trying to change them after students have already grown may be difficult. (Taras, 2008)

This particular study will focus on some of the areas that need to be addressed by schools. In other words, the study will attempt to reveal what school habits are responsible for the growing problem of obesity in schools. This is why the research will dwell on physical education and poor nutrition.

Outcomes and evaluation

1) Goals and expectations

The goal of this study is to show that there is a relationship between physical education activities in schools and prevalence of obesity and also to show that there is a link between nutritional intakes in schools and prevalence of obesity.

2) Expected outcomes

At the end of this research, it is expected that most schools will recognize the role that they can play towards minimizing obesity among children. After showing such a relationship, it is likely that the schools may be motivated to action by implementing some of the issues put out in the report. (Alderman, 2004)

3) Measurement of outcomes

The outcomes shall be measured though both qualitative and quantitative methods. Questionnaires will be issued to cafeteria attendants, school heads, students, sports instructors and other stakeholders. Personal interviews will be done among school administrators to see whether they understand some of the issues under consideration.

4) Analysis of results

Results will be analyzed statistically through the use of pie charts and bar charts. Questionnaire solutions will be clustered and then summarized through pie charts. On the other hand, interviews will be analyzed through bar charts so as to ascertain that all ideas have been taken into consideration. The overall goal will be to prove a connection between the three components i.e. physical education, obesity and nutrition. Schools will be the targets of these results and they will be given the responses.

Solution strategy

1) Restatement of the problem

Obesity in schools is major challenge, it is essential to find out whether there is a link between physical education and nutritional intake in schools so as to address the problem.

2) Discussion

Additionally, statistics show that that there are a number of schools that still pay very little attention to physical exercise and physical education. It has been shown that in most high schools, students receive close to a third or less of their physical exercise. There is a need to find out whether this is related to the prevalence of obesity in schools and if so, the extent of this relationship needs also to be examined.

The latter issue is particularly alarming owing to the fact that most high schools receive about a third of the time nationally recommended of physical education while children in lower schools receive less time than is necessary. Most schools schedule regular physical exercises at any one time. However, it is often common to find that very few schools actually reinforce those rules. This indicates that there is serious problem facing children in terms of obesity. (Taras, 2008)

3) Calendar plan

The first week will be dedicated to identification of specific schools and sending application letters to carry out the research. The second week will be dedicated to questionnaire preparation and interview preparation with particular emphasis given to logistical issues like transport and printing.

The third week will be dedicated to confirmation with specific research schools and ensuring that they have adhered to the agreed upon issues.

Week four will largely dwell on conducting the research. Students will be interviewed, observations will be done. Cafeteria attendants will be consulted, sports teachers will be interviewed and so will school administrators. Week five will entail compiling answers from the interviews to come up with similar responses. Week six and seven will involve a thorough data analysis in which the responses will be placed into clusters and the last three weeks will be dedicated towards compiling the report.


Brownwell, K. (2002): Food fight; Yale University Press

Alderman, N. (2004): The State of Nutrition Physical Activity in our Schools; Environment and Human Health Inc. Report

Jefferies, S. (2007): Solving the Obesity Crisis; University of Illinois PACE conference, 12, 35

TASN (2006): Position of the Texas Association for School Nutrition: Obesity Epidemic, retrieved from of the Texas Association for School Nutrition- Obesity Epidemic.pdf. Accessed on 1st February

NH Healthy Schools Coalition (2007): Childhood Obesity: Now is the time to address this epidemic retrieved from Accessed on 1st February

Taras, H. (2008): Schools can promote physical activity, implement nutrition programs to combat obesity epidemic; AAP Task force on Obesity Report, 3, 56

Managing Attention Deficit Disorder

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a fast rising disorder becoming known to the rest of the world. While it can not be determined by any physical symptom or indicator like a brain scan or a blood test, ADD, otherwise referred to as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is becoming recognized as an ailment or disorder which requires treatment and much dedication for all the Parties involved, not just the sufferer.

ADD or ADHD may be classified into two subcategories, one of which is inattention where a child is often found to be distracted, having difficulty to focus and finish tasks or is unable to take orders or instructions. The second sub-type is hyperactivity or impulsive behavior where a child is often found moving, fidgeting, being impatient or unable to wait for their turn. Once a child is diagnosed with this disorder, immediate treatment is required in order to help the child.

There are many ways to help a child diagnosed with ADD or ADHD. One of which is through medication which tones down the hyperactivity. However, natural methods to treat attention deficiency disorder are most advisable especially especially when dealing with children. Here is a list to help you be familiar with these methods:

Natural Treatments for Attention Deficit Disorder:

O Behavior Training
O In this method, a child is given an incentive for every job well done or for every instruction correctly obeyed. The child is rewarded accordingly in order to enforce proper behavior.

O Family / Group therapy
O The participation of the family in therapies which may help re-shape a child's behavior is most important. Support and understanding from the parties closely involved is essential in order to help a child cope.

O Self-control Classes
O This involves classes which instill discipline, respect and self-control.

Other ways include Socialization Therapy and Educational Intervention. Whiche course the parents or guardians take, to choose from natural ways to manage attention deficit disorder is most advisable.

The Top 5 Advanced Nursing Certifications

Nursing certifications are an extension of the multi-layered path of nursing education. Basic nurse’s certifications have to do with the level of college you have completed and the state certification you are assigned. LVN or LPN (Licensed Vocational Nurse or Licensed Practical Nurse) are typically a 2-year degree program. RN’s can have either an Associates or a Bachelor’s (BSN-RN) degree. From there a MSN (Masters of Science in Nursing) also opens doors. However, once your school is finished, there are a number of advanced certifications nurses can achieve that will help them go farther in their profession. Here are the top five.

CCRN – Critical Care Registered Nurse

This certification can be earned through classes and tests given by most major hospitals. The class takes about a semester and covers everything from recognizing drug reactions to advanced cardio care techniques. A CCRN is certified to work in telemetry, intensive care and critical care units where patients need constant monitoring and have life-threatening concerns. Salaries are often higher on those floors, and nurses see fewer patients per shift because they require almost constant care.

Certified Diabetes Educator (CDE)

This certification is one of the most in-demand in hospitals and private doctor’s offices. With the increase of Americans with Diabetes currently occurring and the soaring obesity rate, which means more people will have diabetes in the future, CDE’s will never be out of opportunities for employment. The task of the CDE is to explain to people with Diabetes the best diet for their health, teach children and adults how to inject insulin and test their blood sugar, and provide consistent health education.

ACRN – HIV/AIDS Certified Nurse

Another specialty that is sadly seeing a dramatic increase is the need for nurses with a special education in HIV/AIDS. These nurses take courses in immunology and the symptoms of the disease as well as some cultural sensitivity classes that deal with both the homosexual community and IV drug users. ACRN’s can work in hospitals or specialty community clinics, which specialize in HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care.

CRNA – Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist

This is one of the harder certifications to get and is one of the most lucrative. A CRNA provides anesthesia for surgery and procedures, under the guidance of an anesthetist. Besides a BS, and RN certification a CRNA must take 2 years of classes and apprentice an anesthetist for up to 2 years before being certified. However, once certified the CRNA median salary for a CRNA is $175,000 per year in a hospital/per provider care system. The downside to this lucrative job is lawsuits. Anytime anything happens in an operating room, the CRNA is liable.

OCN – Oncology Certificate in Nursing

Oncology nurses are especially trained to provide chemotherapy, radiation aftercare and work with cancer patients. This deeply rewarding certification also comes with the ability to work in a hospital, cancer treatment center or local clinic. OCN’s usually have set hours and a number of prescribed duties requiring less physical strain, but practice with more compassionate care.

Each of these nursing certifications is available through the health care system of any major school or city and can add money, opportunity or challenge to the life of an RN.