Bodyweight Burn Review – Does It Work?

If you have been trying to lose weight and improve your fitness levels, then you may have come across advertisements for Bodyweight Burn, a weight loss and fitness program by health and fitness expert Adam Steer, and you may have wondered what it’s all about. If you have, here is a breakdown of what the program involves so that you can decide if the Bodyweight Burn plan could work for you.

The Bodyweight Burn plan provides you with a workout plan and a diet plan that are designed to help you lose weight by you working out for just 21 minutes per day and without any need to go to a gym or for the use of any special equipment.

The workouts, which are all based on 21 minute sessions, are broken down into three types, called cardioflow, afterburners, and metabolic muscle sessions, each of which are proven weight loss techniques.

Cardioflow

The equation for losing weight is very simple; you need to burn off more calories than you consume, so cardiovascular exercises that raise the heart rate should be a part of any good weight loss program. In this case, the focus is an interval training, which has been proven to be more effective than things like jogging. Cardiflow is a series of exercises that flow from one to the other and the routine is designed to give you all the benefits of cardio, without the long recovery time that would experience after something like a long run.

Afterburners

The afterburner sessions are designed to boost your metabolism and keep the metabolic rate high long after the session has finished. That will mean that you will be burning more calories after the session simply by going about your normal daily routine.

Metabolic-Muscle Sessions

The Metabolic-Muscle sessions are muscle-building exercise, but it doesn’t involve lifting weights and it is not designed to leave you looking like a body builder. What it is designed to do is tone up the muscles and increase muscle mass. This is useful in weight loss plans, because it takes a lot of calories to build and maintain muscle mass.

Nutrition plan

As well as the training manuals and training videos that come with the Bodyweight Burn plan, you also get a nutrition plan to follow, which includes information on the right and the wrong types of foods to eat when you are trying to lose weight.

Would Bodyweight Burn work for you?

Despite some of the wild claims of some weight loss plans, there is no easy way to lose weight. Weight loss happens when you exercise, you eat a healthy diet, and you burn off more calories than you consume. What is quite refreshing about this weight loss plan is that it doesn’t make any claims that it is a shortcut to weight loss. Instead, it is a series of workout routines, based on proven concepts, which are designed to be followed at home for just 21 minutes a day.

A combination of cardio, muscle-building and metabolism boosting exercises will help you lose weight if you also eat a healthy, low-calorie diet, but you will have to put in the effort of you want to see any real drop weight with Bodyweight Burn.

Ways To Bring Awareness Of Diabetes Risk

The Growing Importance of the Diabetes Risk Test

Studies show that one in four Americans with diabetes don’t even know their health is threatened. It is important to take the test to find out if you have pre-diabetes or type-2 diabetes. Knowing if you’re at risk will help you make healthier life choices.

Make Diabetes Alert Day More Popular

National American Diabetes Association Alert Dayis observed annually on the fourth Tuesday of March. It is a wake-up call to inform the public about the seriousness of diabetes and encourage everyone to take actions. This is the key to early diagnosis and prevention. Here are some of the best ways to create alertness:

Understand the Disease

Self-awareness can prevent complications to some extent. Diabetes results in too much sugar in the blood. The most common types are type 1, type 2, pre-diabetes and gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes affects only pregnant women and there is a good chance it will go away immediately after the delivery. Type 2 is chronic and develops over time and accounts for 95% of all cases of diabetes in the U.S. Thanks to a simple diabetic test, you can find out whether you’re at risk. If you know all the signs and symptoms you will be able to make lifestyle changes early, thus increasing your chances of stopping this process before it goes any further.

Social Media

You can be part of the movement to stop diabetes. Tweet your support for American Diabetes Association Alert Day and build awareness on the need to take the test. Create a blog or change your Facebook cover photo.

Recommend Healthy Lifestyle Changes

Type 2 diabetes is often linked to being overweight. That’s why it is so important to stay fit and healthy. The Body Mass Index is a popular measure used to determine your level of body fat. Check the appropriate weight for your height.The beneficial effects of maintaining healthy food habits and taking regular physical exercise are also becoming more apparent.

Run/Walk to Stop Diabetes

Team up with your colleagues, neighbors, and friends and sign up for a marathon to stop diabetes. Distribute printed pamphlets about diabetes and why you need to take a risk test is. So lace up your running shoes, and step out for a great cause!

Awareness Campaigns

Diabetes Alert Day falls on March 28 this year, so take this great opportunity to raise awareness! Join hands with your community and participate in this one-day campaign. Design your own wristbands online, get them printed with your own inspirational messages, then exchange them for a small donation or use them as a giveaway gift. Custom silicone wristbands – one of the finest choices in view of their easily customizable nature. People can wear them every day as they cause no irritation to your skin.

Through our combined efforts and resources we can really make a difference!

Acid Reflux Infants – 4 Things You Should Know

When most of us think about heartburn we rarely consider acid reflux infants, but this condition (heartburn, acid reflux, gerd) is quite common in babies. In fact, more than half of all infants experience acid reflux within the first three months of their lives. The good news is that only a small number of infants experience the more serious symptoms.

Here are four things you should know about acid reflux infants:

1. What To Look For

Obviously, infants can’t explain where it hurts or how they’re feeling. This can make it difficult to know when your baby may be experiencing acid reflux. There are clues that should point you in the right direction, however. Here are some of things you should look for:

– Is your infant experiencing sleeping problems?
– Is your infant coughing even though there’s no evidence of a cold?
– Has your infant experienced weight loss?
– Has your infant exhibited a lack of appetite?
– Does he or she spit up frequently?
– Does he or she exhibit unusual irritability?
– Is there chest pain?
– Is there a sore throat?
– Does your baby have bad breath that’s reminiscent of vomit?
– Is your baby crying for no apparent reason?

2. What’s Going On

Acid reflux infants can be in incredible pain, as you’ll probably understand if you’ve ever experienced heartburn for yourself.  The pain is the result of stomach acid rising into the esophagus. For an infant, this commonly occurs during or after a feeding.  The pain is the stomach acid irritating the esophagus lining and sometimes the back of the throat.

3. Acid Reflux Infants – Causes

There are several causes of acid reflux in babies. These are generally exacerbated by the fact that infants mostly consume liquids, while spending most of their time throughout the day lying on their backs. It’s easier for liquids to rise back up into the esophagus than solids. And the process of lying down adds pressure to the esophageal sphincter which normally keeps the stomach contents confined to the stomach.

Other potential causes to be aware of include poor eating habits, being overweight, and food allergies.

4. Consult With Your Pediatrician

If you have a suspicion that your infant may be experiencing acid reflux, even a minor case, you should consult with your pediatrician. Be prepared to explain the symptoms you’ve noticed, the eating habits of your baby, and any other clues that you believe to be relevant.

Acid reflux infants are not unusual and there’s no cause for concern as long as you’re aware of the situation and you’ve taken the time to consult with your pediatrician. Often the condition can be rectified simply by changing some basic eating and sleeping habits.

The Truth About Vitamin A For The Skin

You have unduly heard about the benefits that creams containing various forms of vitamin A have on the skin, but do these formulas work as well as they are said to? Tretinoin, Retinoic acid, Retinol, Retinyl Actate, and Retinyl Palmitate have all been tested and proven to reduce fine lines and wrinkles to a degree, but most of the anti aging products containing these substances are not really worth trying.

It said that these substances were effective in firming and smoothing the skin, because they have the proven ability to stimulate the production of collagen. Of course, this made them an almost instant hit among those serious about reducing their wrinkles, and sales began to take off. In the beginning there were some unforeseen (by consumers) drawbacks to using such products as anti aging aids.

Tretinoin was the earliest form of vitamin A to be available for use on aging skin, and its primary function was the treatment of acne and other skin disorders. Tretinoin based skin care products were available only by prescription, because of the high risk of often severe skin irritation that resulted from its use. The negatives often outweighed the positives for some seeking youngger looking skin.

Over the years, advanced delivery systems have been introduced which significantly reduced your risk of experiencing severely irritated skin. What these advanced delivery systems did was allow higher levels of Retinol to remain fresh, and allowed the primary compounds to be delivered more slowly into the skin. It also mean these potential irritants only became active even contact with the skin.

You may still suffer mild irritation from the prescription forms of vitamin A, but at least they will still give you some results so far as eliminating some of your fine lines. Over the counter Retinol formulas are generally mild enough that they will not irritate your skin. Unfortunately, this is due to the fact that the primary active collagen creating ingredient is available in only minute doses.

You will often find whatever form of Retinol an anti aging formula contains far down on the list of ingredients. This is an indicator that there is hardly any of this key substitution in your chosen product, and so you should not expect much in the way of results at all. I am going to tell you about something that works far more effectively at firming and smoothing the skin than these Retinol products do.

Instead of vitamin A based formulas, you should be using products that combine Nano-Lipobelle H-EQ10, Xtend TK, Phytessence Wakame kelp extract, and grape seed oil. Nano-Lipobelle and Xtend TK are both powerful collagen and elastin stimulators. Phytessence Wakame and grape seed oil have been proven to deter the harmful enzyme activity which causes collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid loss through decomposition.

Anti aging products containing vitamin A may be more well known to the public, but they do not hold a candle to this new formula in producing and preserving firming skin tissues and polymer. Give this product a try, and you will see that it is the most effective anti aging formula out there.

Top 5 Tips to Keeping Your Skin Hydrated

If you take care of your skin, you can be sure to see some serious benefits. For example, hydrated skin is not only smoother but it is also less likely to develop such unsightly marks as blemishes and age spots. Similarly, hydrated skin is more even in color and gives off a great glow. The following include the top five tips for how you can keep your skin hydrated, healthy, and youthful.

1. Make sure to wash your face two times a day with a great cleanser. This will remove harmful bacteria and dirt from your face. If you use a high end cleanser, you can also be sure to hydrate and nourish your skin because such items come equipped with skin smelling ingredients.

2. Exfoliation is an integral step to keeping your skin hydrated. Such a product is great because it goes deep into pores to unclog them. If you use a face scrub with vitamins and moisturizers inside, you can then be sure to unclog and also soothe your skin's pores.

3. Do not forget toner when it comes to taking care of your skin. Toner is a step that a lot of people forget when it comes to skin care. This item tightens the skin's pores and provides them with helpful nutrients to make skin look as refreshed as it feels.

4. If you do end up with some spots on your face, take the time to invest in some pimple, acne or blemish spot removers. This is a solid way to get to the very root of the problem and to make sure that you rid your face of blemishes before they start to spread and take over your face. Blemish or spot removers are best worn at night because you will not touch your face or rub them off. If you have a particularly bad pimple, you can definitely add remover to your morning skin care routine.

5. And of course, the best way to keep your skin hydrated is to invest in some stellar moisturizers. This may be one of the most important steps of hydrating your skin. The right moisturizer keeps your skin hydrated because it is full of helpful ingredients that even out skin tone, reduce swelling and redness and have vitamins galore in them. Additionally, many moisturizers today also include collagen-focused ingredients to help the skin regenerate its cells at a fast rate. This keeps wrinkles at bay and helps prevent blemishes.

Eczema Treatment – Good Creams Are Available In The Market

Eczema is a dermatological condition that affects millions of people around the world. And one sad problem is that it affects infants more than adults. And it makes eczema treatment more difficult in infants since baby skin is soft, tender and sensitive. The common symptoms of this skin condition medically categorized under dermatitis, are inflammation, redness, itching and dryness of the skin. The medical conditions sub-categorized under eczema are atopic eczema, atopic dermatitis and infantile eczema. Infantile eczema, as the name suggests, affects infants. Excessive itching gives the skin a scaly appearance with a leathery texture due to thickening of the skin layers.

Although eczema is not contagious, its most irritating aspect, apart from the unseemly appearance it gives to the skin, is the persistent itching that occurs. It can be bad enough to disturb sleep. The causes of eczema are usually attributed to allergens to which the skin reacts adversely. Although it is not definite, eczema is an inherited condition in some people. Eczema flare-ups is a recurring symptom, characterized by inflammations. The flare-ups in infants occur in specific areas such as the face, esp. The forehead and urges and often, it clears by puberty.

There are many creams and lotions available in the market that help in cleansing and moisturizing the skin. They also act as anti-inflammatory agents, as well as anti-irritants. These days, herbal products are fast becoming the preferred means of eczema treatment.

Chamomile, coconut oil and other essential oils treatments have been found effective in soothing and healing the skin. Since the skin becomes more sensitive to adverse reactions against different substances that you use normally, such as soaps, detergents and different cosmetics which may contain varying degrees of chemical content, eczema treatment is ideal with substances that have only natural ingredients in balanced proportions.

Vitiligo Disease and Herbal Medicines

There exist a lot of chronic diseases but life threatening diseases are given special consideration by science. But, unfortunately, Vitiligo disease was not given any special consideration and the cure is still under development. This infection occurs on skin and is very chronic in nature. The very reason for which it was not given importance is that it is not dangerous for human life. The infection occurs on skin and the condition of skin remains same as soft and smooth, the only thing that changes is skin color. Such type of skin infection is called hypo-pigmentation. The skin tone remains same as it was before the de-pigmentation.

Numerous people are undergoing Vitiligo disease, so scientists begin to give it the special consideration to develop its permanent cure. With spots on face, the personality and physical outlook is totally changed. There exist numerous types of medications that are being utilized all over the world to vanish the Vitiligo effects. The main problem that comes with such type of medication is that they don’t get disappeared the Vitilgo disease permanently. After getting cured, the hypo-pigmentation begins to occur again. But, now the situation is changed, usage of herbal medication is strongly being urged due to its positive outcome.

Herbal medicines consist of natural ingredients that reduce the hypo-pigmentation effects. After using this type of treatment, many people have observed the better results. It also prevents the re-appearing of Vitiligo marks on face. Hypo-pigmentation is on skin is caused due the deficiency of special type of cells called melanocytes. There exist numerous providers that offer the herbal products from on different rates. To get the best at cheapest price to cure your Vitiligo disease, you can search online. After giving your hectic efforts you would discover the reliable source for Vitiligo treatment. You can get better idea about the herbal medicines of a company by reading the testimonials and products utilized by other people. Other medicines are also effective but it has been observed that after little period of treatment, pigmentation marks begin to reappear on skin. To ensure the complete medication, do rely over herbal medicines.

Facts and Uses of Copper Sulfate

Copper Sulfate is a significant chemical compound that every Chemistry student must be familiar with. This substance finds its application in diverse fields. You will be taught about the various facts, features and uses of this compound in a Chemistry class. However, if you have questions regarding it but are unable to get your doubts cleared in a classroom setting then consider hiring a private Chemistry tutor. In this article, we will discuss about the various aspects and uses of this chemical compound.

CuSO4 is the chemical formula for copper sulfate. It is formed by the reactions between different copper compounds and sulfuric acid. This chemical is fundamentally a salt. It is interesting to note that the different forms of CuSO4 exist on the base of the degree of hydration. This specific compound is classified and categorized into groups that contain anecdotal degrees of water, and the others with no water. The anhydrous copper sulfate usually exists in the natural form of chalcocyanite, which is a rarely found mineral. The copper sulfate pentahydrate is the most widespread type of this chemical.

There are several ways through which this compound is prepared and electrolysis is one of the most common methods. With the help of copper electrodes, the electrolyzing process of sulfuric acid takes place. Epsom salt electrolysis is yet another process through which this compound is prepared.

Copper sulfate has many uses and it finds place in an assortment of applications. Some of its popular uses are provided below:

It is used in the processes that involve organic synthesis. The anhydrous copper sulfate is utilized as a catalyst, in the transacetylation method of organic synthesis. When the hydrated form of the compound reacts with potassium permanganate, it generates an oxidant, which is used for the conversion of alcohols.

This chemical compound is also used in the field of pyrotechnics. This chemical is used to manufacture blue fireworks. They are also used in the field of agriculture for preparing various compounds that includes fungicides, pesticides, herbicides, and much more. The fungal infection found in grapes is also treated with the help of copper sulfate fungicides.

Copper sulfate is also known to treat water, by removing all kinds of algae and other organisms from it. Due to this feature of the chemical, it is commonly used in the aquariums to purify water and kill the parasites. If you wish to find out more about this chemical compound or learn about its characteristics and uses, then a private Chemistry tutor can help you.

Gastric Bypass Can Go Horribly Awry

Approximately 300,000 people in the United States die each year due to complications from obesity. Obesity is a cause of premature death second only to premature death from cigarette smoking. Obesity has been recognized as a chronic disease since 1985 and approximately one-third of all Americans are obese.

Each year, thousands of morbidly obese people are electing to have gastric bypass surgery. The surgery, often simply referred to as gastric bypass or stomach stapling, is the surgical creation of a small pouch in the stomach to restrict food intake to far less than could be eaten before the surgery. Typically, a bypass patient will only be able to hold a cup of food or less at a single meal. Weight is lost rapidly because far fewer calories are consumed and because a large section of the small intestine is bypassed, which caused a decreased ability to absorb nutrients in food.

It is estimated that 140,000 people had gastric bypass surgery in 2004 and the number is growing each year. For many patients, this surgery is a lifesaver; others are not so fortunate. When gastric bypass is successful, there are benefits such as having a more normal life due to drastic weight loss (bypass patients have been known to lose 100-200 pounds). Patients look and feel better and are able to have a normal, active lifestyle. Gastric bypass patients also drastically lower their risk of major illnesses and diseases associated with morbid obesity. However, when gastric bypass surgery is not successful, the consequences can be painful and sometimes deadly.

The death rate from gastric bypass surgery is alarmingly high: 1 out of 350 people. Those who do not die after the surgery may experience a plethora of serious complications that will be discussed below.

The many risks of gastric bypass are:

· Infections
· Bleeding
· Gallstones
· Gastritis
· Vomiting
· Iron or vitamin B12 deficiency
· Calcium deficiency
· Diarrhea
· Nausea

Critics of gastric bypass are warning potential patients that the risks of this procedure far outweigh the benefits. Studies have shown that in the thirty days following gastric bypass, as many as 1 in every 50 patients died. Approximately 3% of patients who had gastric bypass surgery were younger than 40 and died within 13 years. After 15 years, almost 12% of bypass surgery patients died. About 10-20% of all patients having gastric bypass require follow-up operations to correct complications, the most common one being abdominal hernias. More than one-third of the patients having the surgery develop gallstones. Other post-surgery complications are leaks, infection, ulcers and deep thrombo-phlebitis.

Because of the large number of people suffering complications and dying after having gastric bypass surgery, medical malpractice claims involving gastric bypass are increasing each year.

The most common causes of gastric bypass malpractice are:

· Inexperience surgeons performing the procedure
· Failure to diagnose and properly treat leakage of gastric fluid
· Failure to diagnose and treat pulmonary embolism
· Failure to diagnose and properly treat gastric bleed
· Failure to properly screen potential bypass patients

Clearly, there are both benefits and risks to having gastric bypass surgery. If you are morbidly obese and would like to learn more about this procedure, your physician can help you or direct you to a specialist in bariatric medicine.

Cervical Fluid Is a Key Fertility Sign

Are you or a friend having difficulty conceiving? Starting to wonder if something may be wrong? Do not want to go to the doctor ‘just yet’, or have already taken some of those first medical steps? If you answered ‘yes’ to any of these questions, the information in this article will prove to be a useful quick glance into understanding one of the female body’s key signs of fertility.

‘Fertile’ pre-ovulation cervical fluid. This essential body fluid is something that a woman trying to conceive must understand. ‘Slippery, clear, raw egg-white, stretchy’. These are the common descriptions given to the vaginal secretions that must be present just before the release of the egg from the ovary (ovulation).

Put simply, this ‘fertile’ pre-ovulation cervical secretion (which is 90%+ water) not only looks and feels almost exactly like semen, but it is also your sperm’s best friend on its long journey toward its ultimate goal, the penetration of the egg! Let’s go through a few reasons why this is so;

1. Lubrication.

Glycerol (glycerine) amounts increase during sexual excitement and around ovulation. This is thought to be responsible for the lubricating qualities that define these important reproductive events.

2. Vaginal PH.

Reducing the acidity of the vagina helps sperm survive. High acidity kills sperm and other invaders, which is very beneficial, except when ovulating and trying to conceive.

3. Swimming.

It is easier to swim in water than lotion. ‘Fertile’ pre-ovulation cervical fluid has more water than cervical fluid does at other times during the menstrual cycle.

4. Food.

Sperm needs to eat. Components in the cervical fluid such as calcium, sodium, potassium, glucose, amino acids, zinc, copper, iron, manganese, & selenium, give the sperm what it needs to thrive.

The above points display the importance of healthy ‘fertile’ pre-ovulation cervical secretion. The interaction of sperm and cervical fluid is often disrupted in couples struggling with fertility. In many cases, women are not producing adequate amounts, or any detectable presence of ‘fertile’ pre-ovulation cervical fluid. This scenario, coupled with the male infertility epidemic that we are faced with today, manifests in many months of ‘trying’ and all the difficulties that eventually come with it. This is why understanding cervical fluid is paramount, and, if there are issues, doing what you can to help remedy this fluid imbalance.

Checking cervical fluid is easy, no need for any tools (thermometer, urine sticks, etc), and when you know what to look for, it tells you precisely when to get romantic. Generally it is present for 2-5 days before ovulation. Start checking once bleeding has stopped. The changes in pre-ovulatory cervical fluid, when comparing to its presentation during other phases of the menstrual cycle, are actually quite obvious once you have observed your body for just a couple cycles. As stated earlier, ‘fertile’ pre-ovulation cervical fluid has an uncanny resemblance to semen. There are 3 main characteristics to look for when identifying ‘fertile’ pre-ovulatory cervical fluid;

1. It is slippery so as to provide lubrication for sex. Some women report a ‘wet’ sensation.

2. It becomes more transparent (like raw egg-white) due to higher water content so as to aid in sperm motility (swimming).

3. It stretches when examined between the fingers. Does not appear ‘tacky’ like lotion.

It should be re-stated that for some women this is very easy, as enough ‘fertile’ pre-ovulation cervical secretion is produced that they observe the secretions on their underwear. For others, it may be necessary to insert a finger into the vagina to check if smaller amounts are present around the cervix.

If it has been determined, or even suspected that an inadequate amount of ‘fertile’ pre-ovulation cervical fluid is present, there are 3 things that can be done to help remedy this;

1. Use Pre~seed ‘Sperm friendly’ lubricant. It is the only lubricant on the market proven to mimic the composition and functions of a woman’s natural ‘fertile’ pre-ovulation cervical fluid

2. Use supplements that may help increase cervical fluid production

3. Use Traditional Chinese Medicine & Acupuncture to help restore balance to body fluid levels

If you want to learn more about the ways your body displays its reproductive health, go to your library and take out the book “Taking Charge of Your Fertility: the definitive guide to natural birth control, pregnancy achievement, and reproductive health”, by Toni Weschler. Good luck creating your family.

Heart Disease: America's leading Cause of Death – An "Equal Opportunity" Illness by Lawrence Broxmeyer MD

Inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis, especially in acute coronary syndromes such as happen with a heart attack. And it was the very inability of ‘established’ risk factors such as high blood cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia), high blood pressure (hypertension) and smoking to fully explain the incidence of cardiovascular disease that has resulted in historically repeated calls to search out an infectious cause and the specific microbe behind it. Today, half of US heart victims have acceptable cholesterol levels, including HDL and LDL fractions, and 25% or more have none of the “risk factors” associated with heart disease, including smoking, high blood pressure or obesity, most of which are not inconsistent with being caused by infection to begin with. [1,2] Cholesterol itself was on the rise in Japanese blood during the very decade (1980-1989) when its incidence in coronary heart disease was on its way down. [22] So Nieto stressed the need to continue to look for an infectious disease behind heart disease. [3}

Which Disease?

Ever since a 1988 report of raised antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae in patients with heart disease, it was hoped that this microbe might be behind heart disease and atherosclerosis [28] Hurting this was the low incidence of atherosclerosis in the tropics despite Chlamydia’s high frequency there. [29]. Also Loehe, Bittman and other groups concluded that although Chlamydia, on occasion, might be present, it was not a causative factor in heart disease [30], because there was no correlation between the severity or extent of atherosclerosis and the involvement of chlamydial infection. Recently the Chlamydial hypothesis has been subject to a flurry of antibiotic trials, with mixed results, leaving some investigators to conclude that possibly Chlamydia doesn’t even play a role in atherosclerosis. [42] Certainly this was born out in two sizeable trials, one of which [47] had 1,187 participant. In neither trial [48] could any of the commonly thought of bacterial causes of heart problems – Chlamydia pneumonia and Helobacter pylori be correlated with cardiovascular disease. Nor could a virus. Also, in those trials which did show benefit antibiotics used (Azithromycin, Clarithromycin) are first line agents against certain forms of tuberculosis (fowl tuberculosis or Mycobacterium avium). Contrary to common belief, TB infections occur as a mixed infection with “atypical” TB in up to 11% of cases, even in HIV free individuals. [41] Today the antibiotic Rapamycin is used to coat coronary stents. [45] Rapamycin enhances the killing of mycobacteria like tuberculosis by human white blood cells called macrophages. [46]

Historical Associations

The association between active pulmonary tuberculosis and Acute Myocardial Infarction or heart attack has been reported and stubbornly ignored for around four and a half decades. Certainly, TB shares a more striking connection to heart disease than its nearest competitor, Chlamydia pneumonia. CDC maps for cardiovascular disease case rates bear a striking resemblance to comparable state and regional tuberculosis maps. [4,5]

Long before there was such a thing as a ‘heart specialist’ The National Tuberculosis Association created an offshoot called the American Heart Association (AHA). In one of its first bulletins, the American Heart Association came up with a long list of similarities between tuberculosis and heart disease. [17] And Ellis’s 1977 New England Journal of Medicine article [6], confirmed that the mortality rate for TB and heart disease were curiously about the same: 200 to 300 persons per 100,000.

By 1965, Rutgers investigators Livingston and Alexander-Jackson, working with sterile, post-catastrophic coronary artery and muscle specimens, established low-grade tubercular infection, staining ‘acid-fast’ (stains which did not decolorize when acid-alcohol was added) occuring in all ischemic heart specimens. [11] In that same year Russian investigators began generating their own proof that tuberculosis was causative in both atherosclerotic heart disease [18,19,20,21] and acute myocardial infarction (a heart attack) itself. [13,14,15].

Measuring Heart Trouble With Cardiac Enzymes In The Blood

Cases were soon on record of individuals with no cardiac risk factors, presenting with acute onset chest pain, ST elevation on their electrocardiogram (EKG), and elevated cardiac enzymes – all indicative of a heart attack with no other involvement than pulmonary tuberculosis [37]. As with its predecessor creatine kinase (CK-MB), today’s new enzymatic gold standard for detecting a heart attack, the troponins, are elevated in disseminated tuberculosis, an example of which can be found in TB’s role in acute pericarditis. [43]. Acute pericarditis, often not detected either until death was historically linked most commonly to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 1951, Christian [44] suggested that viral infection was more responsible for “idiopathic” (of unknown cause) or “benign” pericarditis. Such a viral cause, however, was never substantiated in many cases. Also, when it was found that the fatty substance (phospolipid) phosphatidylinositol  was not only housed itself inside TB’s cell wall, but was a potent coagulant and thrombin former as well – it further raised the question as to whether M. tuberculosis, by its very nature, lays down the conditions for the vessel clogging atherosclerosis behind heart disease and myocardial infarctions or heart attacks. [31]

Livingston and Alexander-Jackson [11] were far from the first ones to document lab evidence that TB can cause heart disease. Hektoen [7], Osler [8], and Schwartz [11], all documented lab and animal evidence to this effect. MacCallum [9] claimed that of all the infectious causes of heart disease, one one, tuberculosis, caused arteriosclerosis. At autopsy MacCallum cited 101 cases of advance tuberculous arteriosclerosis. In separate studies, Kossowsky [13], Tarakanova [14] and Ferrari-Sacco [15] all directly linked heart attacks with pulmonary tuberculosis.

Further evidence

There can no longer be any doubt that tubercular protein HSP-65 is involved in atherosclerosis. Xu [12] used it to cause experimental atherosclerosis in laboratory animals with normal cholesterol. George and Shoenfeld found it not only in atherosclerosis but fatty streak formation in cardiovascular blood vessels. [32] Mukherjee and De Benedictis showed also that the higher the antibodies against such tubercular protein in the body, the higher the possibility of “restenosis” or future closure of heart vessels. Also Afek proved that the higher the amount of tuberculoprotein (HSP-65) administered, the larger the area of vessel clogging atherosclerosis, even despite a low-fat diet. [34] Xu saw similar changes in New Zealand White Rabbits. [35] Xu’s rabbits had normal serum cholesterol, but when injected with tubercular protein, their arteries soon developed the classic features of arteriosclerosis in humans – both with regards to inflammatory cell accumulation and smooth cell proliferation. [IBID]. The only finding missing from Xu’s animals were “foam cells” – fat laden tissue white blood cells called macrophages in which tuberculosis lives and thrives. Xu remedied this by subjecting his animals to a cholesterol rich diet in addition to tubercular protein. this combination produced classic human heart disease, with foam cells. Xu continued to find sustained antibodies to HSP-65 in human subjects with the severe atherosclerosis predictive of mortality. [49] By 2004 Mandal and Xu even confirmed a positive association between high levels of antibodies to HSP-65, which are cytotoxic, and the vexing atrial fibrillation that often accompanies cardiac surgery. [50]

Present day heart disease “markers” have been suggest as indicators of possible heart disease, even in the 25 million US patients who have none of its “risk factors”. These include blood test for C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-6 and homocysteine [39] – all of which are similarly elevated in tuberculosis. [32,33,34,40,36].

Although blood cholesterol seems an imperfect criterion by itself for determining coronary heart disease, its intimate interaction with TB is unique. Tuberculosis is the only microorganism to depend on cholesterol for its destructive pathogenesis, and it relies upon cholesterol to enter the body’s white blood cell macrophages. [23] The tuberculous bacilli alone is able to produce [24], esterify [25], take up, modify, accumulate [26], and promote the deposition of, and release [27] of cholesterol. The statins, among the most popular drugs in America (Lipitor), inhibit Coenzyme-A compounds, and as such lower serum cholesterol levels. But they do more. Specifically, when macrophages were depleted of cholesterol by these agents, it hinders tuberculosis’s entrance into the body’s macrophages that TB likes to house in, thrive in, and depends upon. [23]

Nieto concludes that the introduction of antibiotic therapies in the 1940’s and 1950’s could have contributed to the decline of heart disease and heart attacks, and so, by 2000, the CDC found that 14% of the cardiologists in Alaska and West Virginia treated heart patients with antibiotics for angina, heat attacks, angioplasty or after by-pass surgery.

Conclusion

In Tuberculosis in Disguise, Rab and Rahman report cases of congestive heart failure and ischemic heart disease (IHD) with chest pain, raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leukocytosis (elevated white cell count) and inverted T-waves across the chest leads in an Electrocardiogram – otherwise indistinguishable from a heart attack, which turned out to be miliary (systemic) tuberculosis. [38]

Though more than 120 years have passed since its discovery Mycobacterium tuberculosis is still the leading cause of infectious death globally due to a single infectious agent. At least a staggering 1.7 million around the globe die of tuberculosis each year, while another 1.9 million are infected and at risk for active tubercular disease. [16] The World Health Organization [WHO] estimates that 1/3 of the planet has contracted TB. It would take such a disease of such magnitude to adequately explain the scope of cardiovascular disease, which affects, according to the CDC (Centers for Disease Control) about 61 million people, or almost one-fourth of the population of the US alone. Almost 6 million US hospitalizations each year are due to cardiovascular disease, which has become an equal opportunity disease that is now both the leading cause of death among women as well as the general US population.

There is at least as much, and probably much more evidence that Mycobacteria, particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes cardiovascular disease than there is regarding Chlamydia Pneumoniae. Yet oddly, to this point Chlamydia has been pursued in therapeutic antibiotic trial after trial…………with not one such trial directed towards tuberculosis.

References

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2. Thom DH, Grayston JT. Association of prior infection with Chlamydia    pneumoniae and angiographically demonstrated coronary artery disease. JAMA 1992;268:68–72.

3. Nieto FJ. Infections and atherosclerosis: new clues from an old hypothesis. Am J Epidemiol 1998;148(10):937–48.

4. CDC Map: TB case rates, United States, 2001. Atlanta Georgia: US Department of Health, Education and Welfare CDC; 2001.

5. CDC Map total cardiovascular disease – 1995 death rate. Atlanta Georgia: US Department of Health, Education Welfare CDC; 1995.

6. Ellis JG. Plague tuberculosis and plague atherosclerosis. The New England J Med 1977;296(12):695.

7. Hektoen L. The vascular changes of tuberculous meningitis. J Exper Med 1986:112.

8. Osler W. Diseases of the arteries. In: Osler W, MacCrae T, editors. Modern medicine Its theory and practice in original contributions by Americans and foreign authors, vol. 4. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Fabiger; 1908. p. 426–47.

9. MacCallum WG. Acute and chronic infections as etiological factors in arteriosclerosis. In: Cowdry EV, editor. Arteriosclerosis A survey of the problem. New York: MacMillan Co; 1933. p. 355–62.

10. Schwartz P. Amyloid degeneration and tuberculosis in the aged. Gerontologia 1972;18(5-6):321–62.

11. Livingston V. Cancer: a new breakthough. Los Angeles: Nash Publishing; 1972.

12.  Xu Q. Dietrich Induction of arteriosclerosis in normocholesterolemic mice and rabbits by immunization with heat shock protein 65. Arterioscler Thromb 1992;12:789–99.

13. Kossowsky WA, Rafii S. Letter: acute myocardial infarction in miliary tuberculosis. Ann Intern Med 1975;82(6):813–4.

14. Tarakanova KN, Terent’eva GM. Myocardial infarct in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Probl Tuberk 1972;50(4):90–1.

15. Ferrari-Sacco A, Ferraro U. Myocardial Infarct and Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Discussion of 2 cases of myocardiocoronary disease appearing during hospitalization in a sanatorium. Minerva Cardioangiol 1966;14(8):465–75.

16. Dye C, Scheele S. Global burden of tuberculosis: estimated incidence, prevalence, and mortality by country. JAMA 1999;282:677–86.

17. AHA Similarity of tuberculosis and heart disease. Bull Am Heart Assoc 1927;2(5):22.

18. Bruade VI. Cardiovascular diseases in conjunction with pulmonary tuberculosis (pathological-anatomical findings). Sov Med 1966;29(12):104–7.

19. Kamyshnikova VS, Kolb VG. Biochemical factors involved in atherogenesis in pulmonary tuberculosis. Probl Tuberk 1984;11:48–52.

20. Kazykhanov NS. Lung tuberculosis in patients with atherosclerosis. Sov Med 1965;28(8):37–44.

21. Kazykhanov NS. Arteriosclerosis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Kardiologiia 1967;7(10):137.

22. Okayama A. Ueshima changes in total serum cholesterol and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Japan, 1980–1989. Int J Epidemiol 1993;22:1038–47.

23. Gatfield J, Pieters J. Essential role for cholesterol in entry of mycobacteria in macrophages. Science 2000;288:1647–750.

24. Lamb DC, Kelly DE. A sterol biosynthetic pathway in mycobacterium. FEBS Lett 1998;437(1-2):142–4.

25. Kondo E, Kanai K. Accumulation of cholesterol esters in macrophages incubated with mycobacteria in vitro. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1976;29(3):123–37.

26. Av-Gay Y, Sobouti R. Cholesterol is accumulated by mycobacteria but its degradation is limited to non-pathogenic Heart disease: the greatest ‘risk’ factor of them all 777 fast growing mycobacteria. Can J Microbiol 2000;46(9):826–31.

27. Kamyshnikov VS, Kolb VG. Lipid metabolism and atherogenesis in tuberculosis in experimental animals. Probl Tuberk 1993;4:53–5.

28. Gurfinkel E, Bozovich G. Chlamydia pneumoniae: inflammation and instability of the atherosclerotic plaque. Atherosclerosis 1998;140(Suppl 1):31–5.

29. Stille W, Dittmann R. Arteriosclerosis as a sequela of chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. Herz 1998;23(3):185–92.

30. Loehe F, Bittmann I. Chlamydia pneumoniae in atherosclerotic lesions of patients undergoing vascular surgery. Ann Vasc Surg 2002;16(4):467–73.

31. Rota S  Rota S  Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Atherosclerosis  Acta. Med. Okayama 59:6 pp.247-251 2005

32. George J, Shoenfeld Y. Enhanced fatty streak formation in C57BL/6J Mice by immunization with heat shock protein-65 arteriosclerosis. Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:505–10.

33. Mukherjee M. De Benedictis association of antibodies to heat-shock protein-65 with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and subsequent restenosis. Thromb Haemost 1996;75(2):258–60.

34. Afek A, George J. Immunization of low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDL-RD) mice with heat shock protein 65 (HSP-65) promotes early atherosclerosis. J Autoimmun 2000;14(2):115–21.

35. Xu Q, Kleindienst R. Increased expression of heat shock protein 65 coincides with a population of infiltrating T lymphocytes in atherosclerotic lesions of rabbits specifically responding to heat shock protein 65. J Clin Invest 1993;91:2693–702.

36. Markkansen T, Levanto A. Folic acid and vitamin B12 in tuberculosis. Scand J Haemat 1967;4:283–91.

37. Bakalli A  Osmani B  Acute myocardial infarction and pulmonary tuberculosis in a young female patient: a case report Cases Journal 1: 246 2008

38.  Rab SM, Rahman M. Tuberculosis in disguise. Brit J Dis Chest 1967;61:90–4.

39. Wilson PW. Homocysteine and coronary heart disease: how great is the hazard? JAMA 2002;288(16):2042–3.

40. Bajaj G, Rattan A. Prognostic value of ‘C’ reactive protein in tuberculosis. Indian Pediatr 1989;26(10):1010–3.

41. Tsukamura M, Mizuno S. Occurrence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and strains of the Mycobacterium avium- M. intracellulare complex together in the sputum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Tubercle 1981;62:43-46.

42. Pislru S Van de Werf F  Editorial: Antibiotic Therapy for Coronary Artery Disease. Can Wizard Change It All? JAMA. 2003;290: 1515-1516

43.  Imazio M Demichelis B  Cardiac Troponin I in Acute Pericarditis  Journal of the American College of Cardiology Vol.42, No. 12 pp. 2144-2148  2003

44. Christian HA Nearly ten decades of interest in idiopathic pericarditis  Am. Heart J. 42:654 1961

45. Li YL  Wan Z  Comparison of Sirolimus- and Paclitaxel-Eluting Stents in Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials. Clin Cardiol. 2010 Sep;33(9):583-90.

46. Floto AF  Sarkar S Perlstein EO Addendum: Small Molecule Enhancers of Rapamycin-Induced TOR Inhibition Promote Autophagy, Reduce Toxicity in Huntington’s Disease Models and Enhance Killing of Mycobacteria by Macrophages. Autophagy  Landes Bioscience 3:6, 620-622; November/December 2007.

47. Haider AW Wilson PW  The association of seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumonia, and cytomegalovirus with risk of cardiovascular disease: a prospective study. J. Am Coll Cardiol. 2002 Oct 16;40(8):1408-13.

48.  Ridker PM Kundsin RB Prospective study of Chlamydia pneumonia IgG seropositivity and risks of future myocardial infarction. Circulation 1999 Mar 9;99(9):1161-4.

49. Xu Q Kiechl S Association of Serum Antibodies to Heat-Shock Protein 65 With Carotid Atherosclerosis – Clinical Significance Determined in a Follow-Up Study Circulation 1999;100:1169-1174.

50. Mandal K Jahangiri M  Association of Anti-Heat Shock Protein 65 Antibodies With Development of Postoperative Atrial  Fibrillation.  Circulation 2004;110:2588-2590.

 

© 2010

Dog And Cat Diarrhea – Cause And Treatment Of This Indelicate Subject

When your dog or cat has diarrhea, you want to know why and have the information for what to do and how to treat it. Most cases of acute diarrhea can be handled at home if the symptoms respond well to minimal treatment. Testing to determine the origin is unnecessary. Keep children away from sick dogs, clean messes carefully, and wash thoroughly after handling sick dogs.

Dogs commonly have bouts of acute diarrhea.

Acute diarrhea is when the dog has an abnormal stool that is softer than normal, watery, soft-formed, or soft with abnormal color or very smelly; or when the dog strains to defecate and only passes gas.

There are effective natural remedies.

There are effective natural remedies to support healthy firm stools and maintain “stable stomachs” — promoting healthy digestion and bowel functioning as well as healthy levels of digestive gas in dogs and cats. Natural treatments for cat and dog diarrhea include probiotics, glutamine, and herbs like slippery elm and plantains.

Diarrhea can result from sudden changes in the dog or cat diet, or when the pet eats something it cannot absorb. It can result from motion sickness or travel stress. Other causes include pancreatitis, parasites such as the Giardia Protozoa and Coccidia (very common invaders of puppies and kittens), Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever), feline distemper virus, bacteria, toxins, and antibiotics. When dogs are unsupervised they are prone to ingest things including sticks, stones and various scavenged items that do not agree with them. The result can be a dog with a case of diarrhea. Don’t be alarmed if your dog is acting reasonably well; in most cases the dog’s diarrhea is a healthy reaction to help it heal, and not a disease.

It would also not be unusual for a dog (or anyone) with diarrhea to feel “under the weather”, so your dog may appear a bit “off” until the diarrhea is resolved. Acute small intestinal diarrhea can be managed by not feeding for 24-48 hours but water must be given, and it is beneficial to add a probiotic powder to the dog’s water.

If diarrhea stops, feed small amounts of bland low-fat food 3 to 6 times daily for a few days – foods such as home-cooked boiled hamburger, cottage cheese, tofu with boiled rice, and 100% pure canned pumpkin (NOT pumpkin pie filling with sugars and spices). Most dogs love the flavor of pumpkin. Pumpkin is a unique fiber that regulates the bowel. Be aware, it will color the stool. Foods designed as intestinal diets usually contain rice which is more digestible than other grains. Gradually increase the amount fed in transitioning to the pet’s normal diet.

If your canine develops a case of diarrhea and otherwise seems active, content and strong, you can assist the recovery to normal by making some dietary adjustments.

Dogs that have healthy digestive systems are able to eat a variety of foods and that includes raw foods, without resulting diarrhea. Dogs that need to eat a special diet to keep from having diarrhea are not healthy. Do not feed hypoallergenic or bland diets to avoid diarrhea. Find out what the problem is and fix it.

Diagnosis of persistent diarrhea is critical.

Chronic diarrhea is less common and more serious requiring more effort to correct. Diarrhea can be caused by diseases of the small intestine, large intestine or diseases of organs other than the intestinal tract.

If your puppy or kitten has not had its vaccination series and gets diarrhea, call your veterinarian right away. A young puppy with diarrhea usually needs medical attention immediately. Diarrhea can be fatal to puppies under 4 weeks. Green-tinged diarrhea in puppies may indicate Coccidiosis, a parasitic disease that consistently produces diarrhea. Symptoms may include refusal to eat, dehydration, weakness and straining to defecate. See your vet.

Mucus in diarrhea indicates an irritated bowel. Parasites, raw pork hearts and medical conditions can cause mucus in the stool. If the stool is voluminous and continues when you believe the dog should be “empty”, call your vet for help in deciding whether you should wait the diarrhea out or make an appointment to have the problem assessed. It may be a bacterial infection.

Diarrhea occurs when an accumulation of dissolved substances in the intestine causes excess water to move into the intestine. This accumulation may be a result of decreased absorption of food, increased secretion of electrolytes by the intestine, or both.

Diarrhea is the dog’s body purging itself of harmful or unwanted toxins.

This can be accompanied by vomiting, usually caused by inflammation of the stomach (gastritis), which often happens when dogs eat grass or spoiled food. In some cases of poisoning, vomiting should be induced to get the toxin out of the system as quickly as possible.

If diarrhea is bloody or explosive call your vet. If your dog has a fever or obvious abdominal pain or bloating, this can indicate a serious condition. Contact your vet immediately.

Be sure your pet’s fluid intake is maintained, so dehydration does not occur. Dogs with diarrhea can dehydrate quickly. Provide ample fresh water and ensure that your dog is drinking. Dump, wash and refresh the bowl several times daily. Add a probiotic powder to the dog’s water, or food. Giving the dog yogurt is soothing but does not provide any significant beneficial bacteria.

If your pet is dehydrated you can usually encourage drinking with a syringe. If your dog is dehydrated and will not drink or is vomiting, call your vet immediately!

Type 2 Diabetics Can Still Eat International Food – You Just Need to Know Which Ones!

When it comes to diabetic dining information, there seems to be a shortage of guidance on the various international foods available in so many restaurants. You have probably read all about reducing your intake of French fries, steak, and chips…but what about falafel, sushi, and egg drop soup?

Like good ol’ American food, food from abroad is a double-edged sword. Some dishes are carb and saturated fat bombs, while others are perfect for people with diabetes, type 1 or type 2.

Here is how to navigate an international menu if you’re diabetic:

Mexican: Traditionally, Mexican food was composed of two chief foods… corn and beans. Sadly, most US versions of Mexican food pile on additions like refined flour, oil, and sour cream.

Beans are an especially healthy food for diabetics as they’re chock full of fiber and minerals. Also, whole grain wheat and corn tortillas are also a healthy option in moderation.

One of the best dishes to ask for in Mexican restaurants is for fajitas loaded with grilled vegetables and beans… but be sure to hold off on the tortillas.

Chinese Food: Traditional Chinese takeout is not the place for most diabetics to find a healthy meal. Because they tend to load their food with MSG and unhealthy fats, you should seek out more traditional Chinese restaurants that tend to serve more vegetables.

When there, look for chicken dishes that are low in sodium or ask for the cook to pour less salt into the meal.

Italian: Because they tend to be loaded with carbs, many diabetics steer clear of all Italian dishes. This isn’t a bad plan, as pasta and lasagna are carb-based.

However, if you look for higher-end Italian restaurants you’ll see dishes on the menu like grilled veggies with mozzarella cheese and rocket salad that are healthy, delicious, and even though they lack pasta… are Italian.

Japanese: When you think Japanese food, rice may come to mind but that’s not an altogether accurate representation of Japanese cuisine.

Sushi, the prototypical Japanese import, is a healthy food for most people with diabetes… when eaten in moderation. The omega-3s in the fish and the fiber in the vegetables make sushi a great choice. However, some sushi places load on white rice in a cost-cutting effort. Ask for sushi with little to no rice and you’ll be upping the healthfulness of the meal considerably.

If you’re feeling adventurous, try Shabu Shabu. Shabu Shabu (literally translating to “splash, splash”) is an eating experience where you’re given a bowl of boiling water and a set of raw ingredients. You cook them together yourself and enjoy the results.

Because you’re controlling what you put in it, most of which is chicken, fish, and veggies, Shabu Shabu is as healthy as you want it to be.

Thai: Thai food is exploding in popularity and you may have one down the street from your house. Thai food tends to be healthier than other Asian cuisine, as the focus is on vegetables and lean cuts of meat.

To get even more health benefits from your Thai meal, ask for extra vegetables and brown rice… most Thai restaurants are happy to oblige.

People with type 2 diabetes need not stop eating in restaurants serving international foods… you just need to know which foods to avoid so you can control both your weight and blood sugar levels.

Lung Cancer – Symptoms, Causes, Effects, Prevention and Treatment

Lung cancer is caused by uncontrolled rapid growth of cells in tissues. This type of cancer is most common and results in more than a million deaths  
everyear. This form of cancer is indicated by weight loss or coughing up blood or regularly going out of breath .

Lung cancer can be noticed on chest radiograph also called CT Scan. The treatment that one gets depends on the stage that one is in .Treatment of cancer  
include surgery ,chemotherapy and radiotherapy .

CLASSIFICATION

Lung cancers are classified after studying under them microscope .Classification is necessary as different type of cancer is treated differently.
Large portion of lung cancer are carcinomas – malignancies that grow from epithical cells .Lung-carcinomas are categorized into two types : non-small and  
small-cell lung carcinoma. Non-small cell lung carcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma account for 80.4% and 16.8% frequency of lung cancer, respectively .

NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CARCINOMA

The non-small cell lung carcinomas are grouped together as their prognosis and management are same upto  some extent .They are further classified into three  
types :  squamous cell lung carcinoma ,adenocarcinoma and large cell lung carcinoma .

Squamous cell lung cancer originates near a central bronchus .They account for 25% of lung cancers .

Adenocarcinoma starts in perpheral lung tissue . The cases of adenocarcinoma are a result of smoking .They accounts to 40% of non-small cell lung cancers.

SMALL CELL LUNG CARCINOMA

This type of lung cancer is rare . It is sometimes referred to as “oat cell” carcinoma. Most of the times they originate from larger airways (primary and  
secondary bronchi ) and from there they grow at a rapid pace . This type of lung cancer if mostly associated with smoking.

SECONDARY CANCERS

These cancers are classified on the basis of site of origin like breast cancer but has spread to the lung . Majority of the lung cancers in children are  
secondary

STAGING OF LUNG CANCER

Lung cancer staging is used to asses the degree of spread of the cancer from its place of origin . It is an important factor that determines the potential  
treatment of lung cancer. The degree starts from 1A to 4 ,1A being best prognosis and 4 being worst .

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

1. Voice becoming hoarse .

2. Sudden loss of weight .

3. Feeling pain in chest region or abdomen .

4. Difficulty in swallowing .

5. Loss of appetite .

6. Running out of breath .

Many of the symptoms of lung cancer mentioned above are non-specific .By the time they notice symptoms or signs , cancer has already spread from place of  
origin . Very few people with lung cancer have signs at time of diagnosis ,these cancers are noticed on routine chest radiograph .

CAUSES

The three main causes of cancer are : carcinogens (which is found in tobacco ) ,viral infection and ionizing radiation .If exposed , it causes changes to  
DNA in tissue lining the bronchi of the lungs . With more and more tissues getting damaged , cancer develops .

SMOKING

Smoking is the main cause of cancer . In one cigarette , there are 60 different known types of carcinogens like radiostopes  and nitrosamine . Smoking is  
believed to cause 80% of lung cancer cases . The risk is generally less in non-smokers.

The time that a person smokes proportionately increases the chances of lung cancer . There has been cases that if a person stops smoking , the damaged cells  
gradually gets repaired .

In non-smokers , passive smoking is the main causes of lung-cancer. Passive smoking is one inhaled from another person’s smoking .

RADON GAS

The gas produced from breakdown of radium .This gas is colourless and odorless .Exposure to radiation ionize the gentic material , causing mutations that  
sometimes turn cancerous .
Exposure to radon gas is the second major cause of lung-cancer after smoking .  

ASBESTOS

Asbestos is responsible for causing a number of cancer ,one among them is lung cancer . In UK , asbestos accounts for 2 to 3% of the total cases of lung  
cancer.

VIRUS

Viruses are responsible for causing lung-cancer in animals .And research has shown of similar potential in humans.

PARTICULATE MATTER
Particulate matter has a direct link to lung cancer cases .The size and quantity of particles in air determines the risk of getting lung-cancer .If  
concentration of particles increases beyond 1% ,then the chances of getting lung cancer increases by 14%.

PATHOGENESIS

Just like may other cancer forms , lung cancer is started by activation of ocnogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressing genes .Ocnogenes are those genes  
that make people more vulnerable to cancer .Ocnogenes are produced from proto-ocnogens ,when the latter is exposed to particular carcinogens.In k-ras proto-
oncogene , mutations takes place which are responsible for 10 to 30% of lung adenocarcinomas . Tumor invasion ,angiogenesis ,apoptosis ,cell profileration  
are regulated by the Epidermal growth factor receptor .Mutations and amplification of EGFR are common in non-small cell lung cancer .The  basis for treatment  
with EGFR-inhibitors are also provided by Mutation and amplification of EGFR .Chromosomal damage can lead to loss of heterozygosity which can result in  
inactivation of tumor suppressor genes . Damage to four of these chromosomes :3p ,5q ,13 q and 17 p are common in small cell lung-carcinoma .The p53 ,which  
is a tumor suppressor gene ,located on chromosome 17p is affected in most of the cases .c-MET ,NKX2-1 ,LKB1,PIK3A and BRAF are also mutated or amplified .

Various genetic polymorphisms are supplementary to lung cancer .Some of them include polymorphisms in genes coding for interleukin-1 ,cytochrome p450  
,apoptosis promoters such as caspase-8 ,and XRCC1 ,which is DNA repair molecule . People having these polymorphisms are more likely to develop lung cancer on  
being exposed to carcinogens.

The research has revealed that MDM2 309G allele is a low-penetrant risk factor for developing lung cancer is Asians.

DIAGNOSIS

If a person has reported symptoms that might suggest lung cancer ,then chest radiograph is performed in the first step .The test reveals the widening of  
mediastinium ,atelectasis and pleural effusion .Even if there are no radiographic findings but the hint of lung cancer if high because of things like the  
person being heavy smoker with blood-stained sputum then CT-Scan may provide the necessary data .

If findings are unnatural in cells in sputum ,then they multiplies the risk of lung cancer. Early detection can be done by Sputum cytologic examination  
together with other screening examinations.

The differential diagnosis  for those patients who show irregularities on chest cardiograph consider lung cancer along with nonmalignant diseases. These  
consider infectious reasons like tuberculosis or pneumonia .The above mentioned diseases can lead to lung nodules .

PREVENTION

Prevention ,just like always , is better than cure .Steps in this direction have been taken by may countries by identifying carcinogens and banning them but  
tobacco ,which is the major cause of lung cancer , is still common. Eliminating cigarette smoking is first hand target in the prevention of lung cancer .

Steps to lessen Passive smoking have also being taken by banning smoking in public places and workplaces .

New Zealand has restricted smoking in open places .A similar step is also taken by chandigarh ,india .

Bhutan has criminalized smoking since 2005 .

SCREENING

Screening is used to detect disease by doing medical tests when the patient is not showing any symptoms . Chest radiograph or computed tomography are the  
tests used for screening of lung cancer .But ,results have shown , that screening tests for lung cancer rarely has shown any benefit .

SURGERY

If doctors have detected lung cancer , then CT scan and positron emission tomography are usually applied to check if the disease is placed and surgery can be  
done or it has moved to the point where performing surgery is not possible .

Surgery can only be performed if spirometry reveals good respiratory reserve , but if it is poor , then surgery is not possible . Even surgery has a death  
operative rate of 4.4% but that is because of patient’s lung function and other factors .

CHEMoTHERAPY

Chemotherapy ,along with radiation ,is used to treat small cell lung carcinoma.Primary chemotherapy is also used in metastatic non-small cell lung carcinoma  
.

RADIOTHERAPY

Radiotherapy , with chemotherapy ,is given when patient is not fit to under go surgery . This type of high intensity radiotherapy is called radical  
radiotherapy .CHART (continuos hyperfractioned accelerated radiotherapy ) is refined version of this technique in which a high dose of radiotherapy is given  
for a short period of time .

When cancer affects a short section of bronchus , then brachytherapy is given.

EPIDEMOLOGY

Lung cancer is the most widely reported cancer  .There are 1.35 million cases every year and 1.18 million deaths . Lung cancer develop among those who have a  
history of smoking over a long period of years i.e 50 years and above .

In addition to smoking , passive smoking is also a factor that causes lung cancer .Even the emissions from factories , automobiles ,  power plants pose a  
threat to human health .

Lung cancer is found to have a reciprocal effect with sunlight and UVB exposure .This id due to effect of Vitamin D , produced in skin during exposure to  
sunlight .

Should You Invest In Cellular Phone Repair Or A New Phone?

Just like any piece of technology, cell phones can occasionally break or malfunction. This leaves many consumers wondering what their options are for cellular phone repair. These depend primarily on whether the device is under warranty and what the defect is. Here are some steps to help you determine how to repair it, or if it is worth repairing.

Troubleshoot The Issue

If the problem seems to be with the software of the device, such as the phone freezing or not displaying menus correctly, the issue can sometimes be fixed without having to repair it. Try restarting the phone or resetting it to factory default settings. You can call the manufacturer’s support line for troubleshooting tips.

Determine If The phone is under warranty. Unless you benefit from an extended warranty, the industry standard warranty for cellular phones is 1 year from purchase. Take note, that most warranties do not cover things such as physical or liquid damage. If your phone is under warranty, contact your service provider or the phone’s manufacturer to see how it can be serviced.

For Out Of Warranty Phones

If it is not covered by the warranty, don’t despair, there are still some options available for cell phone repair. The only difference is that you will have to pay for the cost of repairs. You should first try calling the manufacturer to see if they have any options for repair or replacement of out-of-warranty devices. Some companies, such as Apple and BlackBerry, can sell you a refurbished phone of the same model if you send in the one which is defective. The cost is far lower than purchasing a new phone.

You can also check the internet or local business directories for some independent cell phone stores that provide cellular phone repair services. Or, if you have experience working with electronics, you can often make the repairs yourself by ordering replacement parts online. For example, if your screen is broken, you can buy a new screen for your phone and install it yourself.

While there are many options available for cellular phone repair, there is one important thing to consider if your phone is not covered by the manufacturer’s warranty. Try to determine whether it will be economically worth it to get your phone fixed. In certain cases, the cost of parts and labor would exceed the value of your phone. Obviously, you would be better off buying a new unit in that case.