History Of Bmw Motorcycles

Motorcycle history

BMW’s opposed engine and transmission unit in an R 32.


BMW began as an aircraft engine manufacturer before World War I. With the Armistice, the Treaty of Versailles banned the German air force so the company turned to making air brakes, industrial engines, agricultural machinery, toolboxes and office furniture and then to motorcycles and cars.

The origin of the BMW roundel

The circular blue and white BMW logo or roundel is often alleged to portray the movement of an aircraft propeller, an interpretation that BMW adopted for convenience in 1929, which was actually twelve years after the roundel was created. In fact, the emblem evolved from the circular Rapp Motorenwerke company logo, from which the BMW company grew. The Rapp logo was combined with the blue and white colors of the flag of Bavaria to produce the BMW roundel so familiar today.


1939 BMW R 35

BMW Sahara, Poland 1944

In 1921, BMW began its long association with a 1886 German invention known to Germans as the boxermoter (see Karl Benz and flat engines). However, the first BMW motorcycle engine seems to have been copied by Max Friz, BMW’s famous chief designer, in four weeks from a British Douglas design.[citation needed] This 19211922 M2B15 boxer was manufactured by BMW for use as a portable industrial engine, but was largely used by motorcycle manufacturers, notably Victoria of Nuremberg, and in the Helios motorcycle made by Bayerische Flugzeugwerke. Friz was also working on car engines.[citation needed] The boxer design in a motorcycle is firmly linked to BMW, but has been used (not always in volume) by a number of other companies worldwide, including Honda in their Gold Wing from 1975 to the present.

BMW merged with Bayerische Flugzeugwerke in 1922, inheriting from them the Helios motorcycle and a small two-stroke motorized bicycle called the Flink. In 1923, BMW’s first “across the frame” version of the boxer engine was designed by Friz. The R32 had a 486 cc engine with 8.5 hp (6.3 kW) and a top speed of 95100 km/h (60 mph). The engine and gearbox formed a bolt-up single unit. At a time when many motorcycle manufacturers used total-loss oiling systems, the new BMW engine featured a recirculating wet sump oiling system with a drip feed to roller bearings. This system was used by BMW until 1969, when they adopted the “high-pressure oil” system based on shell bearings and tight clearances, still in use today.

The R32 became the foundation for all future boxer-powered BMW motorcycles. BMW oriented the boxer engine with the cylinder heads projecting out on each side for cooling as did the earlier British ABC. Other motorcycle manufacturers aligned the cylinders with the frame, one cylinder facing towards the front wheel and the other towards the back wheel. For example, Harley-Davidson introduced the Model W, a flat twin oriented fore and aft design, in 1919 and built them until 1923.

The R32 also incorporated shaft drive. BMW continued to use shaft drive in all of its motorcycles until the introduction of the F650 in 1994 and the F800 series in 2006, which featured either chain drive or a belt drive system.

In 1937, Ernst Henne rode a supercharged 500 cc overhead camshaft BMW 173.88 mph (279.83 km/h), setting a world record that stood for 14 years.

During World War II the Wehrmacht needed as many vehicles as it could get of all types and many other German companies were asked to build motorcycles. The BMW R75, a copy of a Zndapp KS750, performed particularly well in the harsh operating environment of the North African campaign. Motorcycles of every style had performed acceptably well in Europe, but in the desert the protruding cylinders of the flat-twin engine performed better than configurations which overheated in the sun, and shaft drives performed better than chain-drives which were damaged by desert grit.

So successful were the BMWs as war-machines that the U.S. Army asked Harley-Davidson, Indian and Delco to produce a motorcycle similar to the side-valve BMW R71. Harley copied the BMW engine and transmission simply converting metric measurements to inches and produced the shaft-drive 750 cc 1942 Harley-Davidson XA.


Tank roundel with Serif typeface

BMW R35, built in East Germany after World War II

The first postwar West German BMW, an original condition 1948 250 cc BMW R24

1954 500 cc BMW R51/3

1967 BMW R60/2 with 26 l (5.7 imp gal; 6.9 US gal) tank and large dual saddle

1969 R69US with telescopic forks

1964 250cc BMW R27, the last BMW shaft-driven single

1973 BMW R75/5 LWB

The end of World War II found BMW in ruins. Its plant outside of Munich was destroyed by Allied bombing. The Eisenach facility was not. It was dismantled by the Soviets as reparations and sent back to the Soviet Union where it was reassembled in Irbit to make IMZ-Ural motorcycles as is commonly alleged. The IMZ plant was supplied to the Soviets by BMW under license prior to the commencement of the Great Patriotic War. After the war the terms of Germany’s surrender forbade BMW from manufacturing motorcycles. Most of BMW’s brightest engineers were taken to the US and the Soviet Union to continue their work on jet engines which BMW produced during the war.

When the ban on the production of motorcycles was lifted in Allied controlled Western Germany, BMW had to start from scratch. There were no plans, blueprints, or schematic drawings because they were all in Eisenach. Company engineers had to use surviving pre-war motorcycles to copy the bikes. The first post-war BMW motorcycle in Western Germany, a 250 cc R24, was produced in 1948. The R24 was based on the pre-war R23, and was the only postwar West German BMW with no rear suspension. In 1949, BMW produced 9,200 units and by 1950 production surpassed 17,000 units.

BMW boxer twins manufactured from 1950 to 1956 included the 500 cc models R51/2 and 24 hp (18 kW) R51/3, the 600 cc models 26 hp (19 kW) R67, 28 hp (21 kW) R67/2, and R67/3, and the sporting 35 hp (26 kW) 600 cc model R68. All these models came with plunger rear suspensions, telescopic front forks, and chromed, exposed drive shafts. Except for the R68, all these twins came with “bell-bottom” front fenders and front stands.

The situation was very different in Soviet-controlled Eastern Germany where BMW’s sole motorcycle plant in Eisenach was producing R35 and a handful of R75 motorcycles for reparations. This resulted in one BMW motorcycle plant existing in Eisenach between 1945 and 1948 and two motorcycle companies existing between 1948 and 1952. One was a BMW in Munich in Western Germany (later the German Federal Republic) and the other in Soviet controlled Eisenach, Eastern Germany (later the German Democratic Republic), both using the BMW name. Eventually in 1952. after the Soviets ceded control of the plant to the East German Government, and following a trademark lawsuit, this plant was renamed EMW (Eisenacher Motoren Werke). Instead of BMW’s blue-and-white roundel, EMW used a very similar red-and-white roundel as its logo. No motorcycles made in East Germany after World War II were manufactured under the authority of BMW in Munich as there was no need for an occupying power to gain such authority. After the collapse of the Iron Curtain many EMW models have made their way to the USA. Sometimes it is found that owners of these EMW motorcycles have replaced EMW roundels with BMW roundels in an effort to pass them off as BMW models.[citation needed] It is possible to find find restored R35 motorcycles today parts of which are EMW and parts of which are BMW as many parts are interchangeable, making authentic identification quite difficult because all BMW R35 motorcycles were produced in Eisenach until 1952, when they became EMW.


As the 1950s progressed, motorcycle sales plummeted. In 1957, three of BMW’s major German competitors went out of business. In 1954, BMW produced 30,000 motorcycles. By 1957, that number was less than 5,500. However, by the late 1950s, BMW exported 85% of its boxer twin powered motorcycles to the United States.[citation needed] At that time, Butler & Smith, Inc. was the exclusive U.S. importer of BMW.

In 1955, BMW began introducing a new range of motorcycles with Earles forks and enclosed drive shafts. These were the 26 hp (19 kW) 500 cc R50, the 30 hp (22 kW) 600 cc R60, and the 35 hp (26 kW) sporting 600 cc R69.

On June 8, 1959, John Penton rode a BMW R69 from New York to Los Angeles in 53 hours and 11 minutes, slashing over 24 hours from the previous record of 77 hours and 53 minutes set by Earl Robinson on a 45 cubic inch (740 cc) Harley-Davidson.

Although U.S. sales of BMW motorcycles were strong, BMW was in financial trouble. Through the combination of selling off its aircraft engine division and obtaining financing with the help of Herbert Quandt, BMW was able to survive. The turnaround was thanks in part to the increasing success of BMW’s automotive division. Since the beginnings of its motorcycle manufacturing, BMW periodically introduced single-cylinder models. In 1967, BMW offered the last of these, the R27. Most of BMW’s offerings were still designed to be used with sidecars. By this time sidecars were no longer a consideration of most riders; people were interested in sportier motorcycles.

The 26 hp (19 kW) R50/2, 30 hp (22 kW) R60/2, and 42 hp (31 kW) R69S marked the end of sidecar-capable BMWs. Of this era, the R69S remains the most desirable example of the dubbed “/2” (“slash-two”) series because of significantly greater engine power than other models, among other features unique to this design.

For the 1968 and 1969 model years only, BMW exported into the United States three “US” models. These were the R50US, the R60US, and the R69US. On these motorcycles, there were no sidecar lugs attached to the frame and the front forks were telescopic forks, which were later used worldwide on the slash-5 series of 1970 through 1973. Earles-fork models were sold simultaneously in the United States as buyers had their choice of front suspensions.


In 1970, BMW introduced an entirely revamped product line of 500 cc, 600 cc and 750 cc displacement models, the R50/5, R60/5 and R75/5 respectively and came with the “US” telescopic forks noted above. The engines were a complete redesign from the older models, producing more power and including electric starting (although the kick-starting feature was still included). Part way through the 1973 model year, a long wheel base (LWB) was added to correct some earlier handling problems. These models are popularly called 1973 models. Most models were came with large 6-gallon tanks, but some came with 4-gallon tanks. These are called “toaster” models because of the tank’s resemblance to a kitchen toaster.

The “/5” models were short-lived, however, being replaced by another new product line in 1974. In that year the 500 cc model was deleted from the lineup and an even bigger 900 cc model was introduced, along with improvements to the electrical system and frame geometry. These models were the R60/6, R75/6 and the R90/6. In 1975, the kick starter was finally eliminated and a supersport model, the BMW R90S, was introduced. In addition to “/” or “slash” models, other Airhead models such as the G/S (later, GS) and ST also have dedicated followings within BMW circles, while others favor certain earlier models like /5 “toasters.” Each has its merits which owners will freely debate with enthusiasm. Later BMW model types such as K-bikes (1983 on) and oilheads (1993 on) included technical innovations that made them more complicated though many owners still elect to service them personally.

1994 BMW R100RT

In 1977, the product line moved on to the “/7” models. The R80/7 was added to the line. The R90 (898 cc) models, “/6” and R90S models had their displacement increased to 1,000 cc; replaced by the R100/7 and the R100S, respectively. These were the first liter size (1,000 cc) machines produced by BMW. 1977 was a banner year with the introduction of the first BMW production motorcycle featuring a full fairing, the R100RS. This sleek model, designed through wind-tunnel testing, produced 70 hp (51 kW) and had a top speed of 200 km/h (124 mph). In 1978, the R100RT was introduced into the lineup for the 1979 model year, as the first “full-dress” tourer, designed to compete in this market with the forthcoming Honda Gold Wing.

In 1979, the R60 was replaced with the 650 cc R65, an entry-level motorcycle with 48 hp (36 kW) that had its very own frame design. Due to its smaller size and better geometrics, front and rear 18-inch (460 mm) wheels and a very light flywheel, was an incredibly well-handling bike that could easily keep up and even run away from its larger brothers when in proper hands on sinuous roads. BMW added a variant in 1982: the R65LS, a “sportier” model with a one-fourth fairing, double front disc brakes, stiffer suspension and different carburettors that added 5 hp (4 kW). A short stroke version of the R65, the 450 cc R45 appeared in some markets.[citation needed]


1986 BMW K100RS

BMW R1200C cruiser

1993 BMW K1100RS with aftermarket Hagon rear shock

1996-2004 BMW K1200RS


In early 1983, BMW introduced a 1,000 cc, in-line four-cylinder, water-cooled engine to the European market, the K100. The K series comes with a simplified and distinctive rear suspension, a single-sided swingarm. (In 1985 the traditionally powered boxer R80RT touring bike received this monolever rear suspension system and in 1987 the R100RT got it).

In 1985, BMW came a 750 cc three-cylinder version, this one smoothed with another first, a counterbalance shaft.

In 1986, BMW introduced an electrically adjustable windshield on the K100LT.

In 1988, BMW introduced ABS on its motorcycles. ABS became standard on all BMW K models. In 1993 ABS was first introduced on BMW’s boxer line on the R1100RS. It has since become available as an option on the rest of BMW’s motorcycle range.

In 1989, BMW introduced its version of a full-fairing sport bike, the K1. It was based upon the K100 engine, but now with four valves per cylinder. Output was near 100 hp (75 kW).

In 1995, BMW ceased production of airhead 2-valve engines and moved its boxer engined line completely over to the 4-valve oilhead system first introduced in 1993.

During this period, BMW introduced a number of motorcycles including:

R Series (airheads) – R65GS, R80GS, R100GS,

R Series (oilheads) – R850R/GS/C, R1100R/RS/RT/GS/S, R1150R/RS/RT/GS/S, R1200C

F Series – F650 Funduro, F650ST Strada, F650GS, F650GS Dakar, F650CS Scarver

K Series – K1, K100, K100RS, K100RT, K75, K75C, K75S, K75RT, K1100RS, K1100LT, K1200RS, K1200LT, K1200GT.

The R1200C, produced from 1997 to 2004, was BMW Motorcycles only entry into the Cruiser market.

Since 2004

K series

On 25 September 2004, BMW globally launched a radically redesigned K Series motorcycle, the K1200S, containing an all new in-line four-cylinder, liquid-cooled engine featuring 123 kW (165 hp). The K1200S was primarily designed as a Super Sport motorcycle, albeit larger and heavier than the closest Japanese competitors. Shortly after the launch of the K1200S, problems were discovered with the new power plant leading to a recall until the beginning of 2005, when corrective changes were put in place. Recently, a K1200S set a land speed record for production bikes in its class at the Bonneville Salt Flats, exceeding 174 mph (280 km/h).

In the years after the launch of K1200S, BMW has also launched the K1200R naked roadster, and the K1200GT sport tourer, which started to appear in dealer showrooms in spring (March-June) 2006. All three new K-Series motorcycles are based on the new in-line four-cylinder engine, with slightly varying degrees of power. In 2007, BMW added the K1200R Sport, a semi-faired sport touring version of the K1200R.

In October 2008, BMW launched three new 1,300 cc K-series models: the K1300R, K1300S and K1300GT. The K1300 models feature increased in engine capacity of 136 cc, an increase in power to 175 hp (130 kW) and a new exhaust system.

Two BMW R1200GS

R series

In 2004, bikes with the opposed-twin cylinder “boxer” engine were also revamped. The new boxer displacement is just under 1,200 cc, and is affectionately referred to a “hexhead” because of the shape of the cylinder cover. The motor itself is more powerful, and all of the motorcycles that use it are lighter.

The first motorcycle to be launched with this updated engine was the R1200GS dual-purpose motorcycle. The R1200RT tourer and R1200ST sports tourer followed shortly behind. BMW then introduced the 175 kg (390 lb), 105 kW (141 hp) HP2 Enduro, and the 223 kg (490 lb), 100 hp (75 kW) R1200GS Adventure, each specifically targeting the off-road and adventure-touring motorcycle segment, respectively. In 2007, the HP2 Enduro was joined by the road-biased HP2 Megamoto fitted with smaller alloy wheels and street tyres.

In 2006, BMW launched the R1200S, which is rated at 90 kW (121 hp) @ 8,250 rpm.

F 800S

F series

BMW has also paid attention to the F Series in 2006. It lowered the price on the existing F650&GS; and F650GS Dakar, and eliminated the F650CS to make room in the lineup for the all-new F800 Series. The new motorcycles are powered by a parallel twin engine, built by Rotax. They feature either a belt drive system, similar to the belt drive found on the now defunct F650CS, or chain drive. Initially, BMW launched two models of the new F800 Series, the F800S sport bike and the F800ST sport tourer; these were followed by F650GS and F800GS dual-purpose motorcycles, both of which use the 798 cc engine despite the different names.

G650 Xchallenge enduro

G series

In October 2006, BMW announced the G series of offroad style motorcycles co-developed with Aprilia. These are equipped with an uprated single cylinder water cooled 652 cc fuel injected engine producing 53 hp (40 kW), similar to the one fitted to the single-cylinder F650GS, and are equipped with chain drive. There are three models in the series, all produced for BMW by Aprilia in their North Italian Scorz Plant, each focused on a slightly different market:

G650 Xchallenge hard enduro featuring 21 inch front and 18 inch rear spoked wheels

G650 Xcountry scrambler / adventure sports featuring 19 inch front and 17 inch rear spoked wheels

G650 Xmoto street moto / supermoto featuring 17 inch cast alloy wheels

In some markets the single cylinder F650GS has been rebranded as the G650GS.

HP2 Series

First was the the 175 kg (390 lb), 105 kW (141 hp) HP2 Enduro, followed by the road-biased HP2 Megamoto fitted with smaller alloy wheels and street tyres in 2007.

In April 2007, BMW announced its return to competitive road racing, entering a factory team with a “Sport Boxer” version of the R1200S to four 24-hour endurance races.. In 2008 they released this as the HP2 Sport.


Main article: BMW S1000RR

The S1000RR is a super bike launched to compete in the 2009 Superbike World Championship. It is powered by a 999 cc (61 cu in) inline-four engine producing 193 bhp (144 kW).

Husqvarna acquisition

In July 2007, it was announced that BMW had signed a contract to acquire Husqvarna Motorcycles, including its production facilities and staff, from Italian manufacturer MV Agusta.

Engine types

There are currently four lines of BMW motorcycles:

F & G series singles

F series twins

R series

K series

The series differ primarily in the class of engine that each uses.

F and G series singles

The F Series of single cylinder BMW motorcycles was first launched in 1994, as the F650, and was built by Aprilia around a carbureted 650 cc four-stroke, four valve, single piston engine, and chain drive. The mission for the F 650 was to provide an entry level BMW motorcycle. In 2000, the F650 was redesigned, now with fuel injection, and labeled the F650GS. An off-road focused F650 Dakar model was also launched that year. 2002 saw the addition of the F650CS ‘Scarver’ motorcycle to the line up. The Scarver was different from the F650GS variants in that it utilized a belt drive system opposed to a chain, had a much lower seat height, and was intended for on-road use. All F650 motorcycles produced from 2000 to 2007 used a 652 cc engine built in Austria by Rotax and were built by BMW in Berlin.

In late 2006, the G series of offroad biased bikes motorcycles was launched using the same 652 cc engine fitted to the F650GS, although that engine is no longer manufactured by Rotax.

In November 2007, the G450X sport enduro motorcycle was launched using a 450 cc single cylinder engine. The G450X contained several technological improvements over the Japanese off road racing motorcycles but the most unique and significant was the use of a single pivot point for the drive sprocket and the swing arm. This unusual configuration allowed for a very tense drive chain with no slop and eliminated acceleration squat. The former benefit saves on chain and sprocket wear and the later allows for a more consistent drive geometry and fully available rear suspension travel during heavy acceleration.

F series twins

In mid 2006, The F Series added two new motorcycles to the lineup, the F800S sports bike and F800ST sports tourer, both which use an 798 cc parallel-twin engine built by Rotax. Both motorcycles also feature a belt drive system similar to what was in use on the F650S. In 2007 the single cylinder F650GS was replaced with the twin cylinder F800GS and F650GS models. The latter uses a de-tuned version of the 798 cc engine fitted to the F800GS, marking a departure from BMW’s naming convention.

R series

Four different BMW valve covers.

1954 R68’s two-fin valve cover

The R series are built around a horizontally opposed flat-twin boxer engine. As the engine is mounted with a longitudinal crankshaft, the cylinder heads protrude well beyond the sides of the frame, making the R series motorcycles visually distinctive. Originally, R series bikes had air-cooled heads (“air heads”), but are now produced only with oil-cooled heads (“oilheads” and “hexheads”).

Photo of Four different BMW “heads”: How do you tell the different BMW valve covers (“heads”) since 1970 apart? The “airhead” cover on a 1973 R75/5 is upper left. The first “oilhead” cover, introduced in model year 1993 in Europe and 1994 in the US, is upper right. The “oilhead” cover on an R1150RT, with two spark plugs per cylinder, is lower left. The latest “hexhead” cover, with an optional valve cover protector, on an R1200RT, is lower right.

Photo of Pre-1970 valve cover: A common valve cover from 19521969 on models R50, R60, R50/2, R60/2, R51/3, R67, R67/2, R67/3 had six fins. The R50S, R68, R69, and R69S of this period had two-fin valve covers.

K series

The K series BMW’s have water cooled engines of three (K75) or four (K100, K1100, K1200, K1300) cylinders. Until 2005, although currently in use on the K1200LT, the engine was longitudinal, laid out on its left side with the cylinder heads on the left and the crankshaft on the right. It is called the “Flying Brick” because of the appearance of this layout. Sales did not meet BMW’s expectations, and production ceased with the 1993 model. By the end of the K series’ run, 6,921 units had been produced. In 2004, BMW introduced a new 4-cylinder water cooled engine that transverses the chasis and is tilted forward 55 degrees. The BMW K75, three-cylinder, models were produced from 1985 to 1996.

BMW K100 motorcycle engine circa 1986

BMW 2004 K 1200GT, style produced only two years

The first K-series production bike was the K100, which was introduced in the 1983. It was followed by the K100RS in 1983, the K100RT in 1984, and the K100LT in 1986. In 1987, the K100 (Mark II) was introduced with ABS brakes, the first ever on a motorcycle. In 1988 and until 1993, BMW produced the K1, a full faring version of the K 100 with the new paralever style rear suspension. It had the Bosch Motronic fuel injection system. Initially it cost 20,200 DM. Only 6,900 were produced.

In 1985, the K75, three cylinder, was introduced. The K75C was the first model with this new engine. It was followed by the K75S, the K75, and the touring version K75RT. The last year of production of the K75 motorcycles was 1996.

In 1991 BMW increased the displacement of the K 100 from 987 cc, and the model designation became the K1100 (1097 cc). The K1100LT was the first with the new engine displacement. In 1992, the K1100RS was introduced, ending the 8 year of production of the K100 models. In 1998 BMW increased the size again to 1170 cc. This upgraded flat four engine appeared in the K1200RS. In 2003, the fully-faired K1200GT, equipped with hard side cases and larger screen with electric height adjustment. The chasis of the K1200RS was extended and strengthened for BMW’s luxury touring model the K1200LT, which is still in production in 2009.

The later K1200 engine is a 1157 cc transverse inline four, announced in 2003 and first seen in the 2005 K1200S. The new engine generates a healthy 123 kW (165 hp) but the most striking detail, both visually, and on paper, is its 55 degree forward tilt and 43 cm (17 in) width, giving the bikes a very low center of mass without reducing maximum lean angles. The transverse K1200 engine is used in K1200S, R, R Sport and GT.

In October 2008, BMW announced the new K1300GT, K1300S and K1300R models, all of which feature a larger capacity 1293 cc engine producing up to 175 hp (130 kW). The new engine produces maximum power output 1,000 RPM lower than the previous engine, produces more torque due in part butterfly flap fitted in the exhaust.

Model designation

BMW motorcycles are named according to a three-part code made up of the engine type, approximate engine volume, and styling information (e.g., sport, sport touring, luxury touring, etc.). The three parts are separated by blanks.

Engine type

R – boxer engine, horizontally opposed flat twin cylinder

K – in-line 3 or 4 cylinder water-cooled engine

F & G – single or twin vertical cylinder water-cooled engine

Engine displacement in cc

Current models: 1300, 1200, 900, 800, 650 and 450. Previous models included 850, 1100, and 1150.

Older model BMWs divide the approximate engine displacement by ten for the model number. For example, K75 = approx 750 cc.

R1200RT-P police “motor”

Styling suffix designations:

C – Cruiser

CS – Classic Sport

G/S – Gelnde/Strasse Off-road/Street

GS – Gelnde Sport Off-road Sport (Enduro)

GT – Gran Turismo or Grand Touring

LT – Luxus Tourer (Luxury Tourer)

R – Road or Roadster – typically naked

RS – Reise Sport (Travel Sport)

RT – Reise Tourer (Travel Tourer)

S – Sport

ST – Strasse (Street) or Sport Tourer

T – Touring

Additionally, a bike may have the following modifiers in its name:


L – luxury

P – police

C – custom

PD – Paris Dakar

Examples: K1200S, R1200RT, F650GS, R1150RSL, K1200LT, K1200LT-C, R1200RT-P, R1200RSA.

Prior to the introduction of the K100 series and the R1100 series motorcycles, the letter prefix was always the same, and the numbers were either based on displacement, as mentioned above, or were just model numbers.


BMW is a world leader in successfully innovating motorcycle suspension technologies.

Single-sided rear suspension

The first BMW monolever suspensions appeared in 1980 on the then-new R80G/S range. It had a single universal joint immediately behind the engine/gear-box unit. This system was later included on updated versions of the K & R Series.


Paralever is a further advance in BMW’s single-sided rear suspension technology (photo right). It decouples torque reaction as the suspension compresses and extends, avoiding the tendency to squat under braking and reducing tyre chatter on the road surface. It was introduced in 1988 R80GS and R100GS motorcycles.

BMW’s revised, inverted Paralever on an R1200GS Adventure.

In 2005, along with the introduction of the “hexhead”, BMW inverted the Paralever and moved the torque arm from the bottom to the top of the drive shaft housing (photo right). This reduces underhang of components and tends to increase ground clearance in right lean.

It is believed[by whom?] that the term Paralever was developed due to the appearance of a parallelogram shape between the four items making up the rear suspension (rear drive, drive shaft, transmission, and lower or upper brace). Other motorcycle manufacturers have patented versions of this system, including Arturo Magni for MV Agusta and Moto Guzzi’s Compact Reactive Shaft Drive.

Telescopic front fork

In 1935, BMW became the first manufacturer to fit a hydraulically damped telescopic fork to its motorcycles.[citation needed] Nimbus of Denmark had been fitting telescopic forks since 1934, but its version was undamped until 1939.[citation needed] BMW still uses telescopic forks today on its F-series, G-series and HP motorcycles. The R-series and K-series use the Telelever and the Duolever front suspensions.

Earles front fork

Englishman Ernest Earles designed a unique triangulated fork that resists the side-forces introduced by sidecars (unlike telescopic forks). BMW fitted the Earles fork to all its models for 14 years from 1955. In the event, this was the year that use of sidecars peaked and quickly fell off in most European markets (eg the UK) but the Earles fork system was well-liked by solo riders too. It causes the front end of the motorcycle to rise under braking the reverse of the action of a telescopic fork. The mechanical strength of this design sometimes proved to be a weakness to the rest of the motorcycle, since it transfers impact pressure to the frame where damage is more difficult and expensive to correct.

Telelever front fork

BMW’s Telelever front suspension on a R1150R.

The Telelever system was developed by Saxon-Motodd in Britain in the early 1980s. The Telelever is a unique front fork, where the shock absorber is located between and behind the two primary tubes attached to a telelever arm.

This system both lowers unsprung weight as well as decouples wheel placement function of the forks from the shock absorption function – eliminating brake dive and providing superior traction during hard-braking situations. This system improves comfort and stability considerably while providing excellent and sporty handling.

In the photo to the left you can see the Telelever suspension unit. The two fork tubes provide no damping or suspension. The front of the light gray “A-arm” can be seen reaching forward from the side of the engine to the (hidden) cross brace between the fork tubes.


The top of the Duolever suspension

In 2004, BMW announced the K1200S, incorporating a new front suspension based upon a design by Norman Hossack. BMW recognised this fact but paid Hossack no royalties. BMW named its new front suspension the Duolever. As of 2009, the Duolever is on the K1300S, K1300R and K1300GT.

The official BMW Motorrad explanation of the duolever is:

The Duolever front wheel suspension is kinematically regarded as a square joint, in which two trailing links made of forged steel are attached via rolling bearings to the frame. These trailing links, which visually resemble a conventional fork, guide the extremely torsionally rigid wheel carrier made of aluminium permanent mold casting. A central strut, which adjusts the suspension and damping, is linked to the lower of the two trailing links, and rests against the frame.

A trapezoidal shear joint mounted to the control head and the wheel carrier is coupled with the handlebar. This shear joint transmits the steering movements. Thus, the Duolever design in contrast to the telefork does not need sliding and fixed tubes. At the same time, it decouples the steering as well as the damping more consistently than the proven telelever.

The advantage of this front wheel suspension on the motorcycle market at present is its torsional rigidity. The BMW Motorrad Duolever front wheel suspension is not influenced by negative forces in the same manner as a conventional telefork whose fixed and take-off tubes twist laterally as well as longitudinally during jounce/rebound and steering. Its two trailing links absorb the forces resulting from the jounce/rebound and keep the wheel carrier stable. Thus, any torsioning is excluded and the front wheel suspension is very precise. The steering commands of the rider are converted directly and the feedback from the front wheel is transparent in all driving conditions.

A kinematical anti-dive effect is additionally achieved, just as for the Telelever, due to the arrangement of the trailing link bearings. While a conventional telefork during strong braking manoeuvres jounces heavily or locks, the Duolever still has sufficient spring travel remaining in this situation and therefore the rider can still brake into the corner extremely late yet directionally stable.

The obstacle-avoidance manoeuvre of the front wheel when riding over uneven surfaces can be converted with the Duolever similar to the behaviour of a telefork. In connection with the low unsprung masses and the small breakaway forces of the system, this results in more sensitive and comfortable response characteristics.


This section does not cite any references or sources.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2009)

Admirers of vintage BMW motorcycles are growing rapidly in number. As time marches on, that which BMW enthusiasts consider “vintage” is amended. Pre-war BMWs are the most coveted, as demonstrated during the Gooding & Company auction in California in October 2006, when a 1925 BMW R32 sold for $77,000.[citation needed]

An R60/2 undergoing a frame-up concours restoration

A concours R50/2 goes on the stage at MidAmerica Auctions in Las Vegas in 2007

Plunger-frame models from the 1950s are the next most coveted, and then “Slash-2” variants from 1955 to 1969. In recent years, the “Slash-5” models from the 1970 to the 1973 model years have begun to join that exclusive club. Prices for historic BMW models have been rising quickly, fed in part by motorcycle auctions such as the massive Mid-America Auction held each January in Las Vegas, Nevada.

Opinions as to the treatment of vintage motorcycle varies according to their condition and their owners’ tastes. First preference tends to be for preserving the original machine if it is in reasonably good condition. Second preference is to do limited restoration, maintaining as much of the original fabric as possible. Third, when dealing with a machine in poor condition, is so-called frame-up restoration. In the latter case, the motorcycle is completely disassembled and each individual part is refurbished, and then the motorcycle is reassembled hewing as much as possible to the original design, but sometimes using modern replacement parts, such as stainless steel, or plating parts that were originally not plated. At the extreme end of restoration is the “concours” restoration in which only original parts are used and work is done with an obsession for originality in every minor detail. Unlike many other motorcycle brands, parts for vintage BMWs, though expensive, are obtainable from sources in Germany and the United States.

There are several professional BMW motorcycle restorers at work in North America and Europe. Two American membership organizations, Vintage BMW Motorcycle Owners and the BMW Veteran Motorcycle Club of America are dedicated to the preservation of vintage BMW motorcycles.

BMW C1 scooter

Main article: BMW C1

The BMW C1 is an enclosed scooter produced from 2000 to 2002, with a 124 cc or 176 cc engine.


^ “The Origin of the BMW Logo: Fact and Fiction” (PDF)

^ a b Norbye, Jan P. (1984). “The Origins of BMW: From Flying Machines to Driving Machines”. BMW – Bavaria’s Driving Machines. New York, NY, USA: Beekman House. pp. 1417. ISBN 0-517-42464-9. 

^ BM Bikes BMW R32 specifications

^ Harley XA, The Motorcycle Museum

^ BMW R51/3 boxer twin

^ EMW roundel

^ BMW Boxer Twins 1955-1969

^ BMW R69S

^ BM Bikes BMW R100RS Specifications

^ Sport Rider BMW K1200S specifications

^ K1200R Sport

^ “BMW Motorrad unveils new K-Series models – K Series celebrates 25th anniversary with 3 new models!”. BMW Motorrad UK. 7 October 2008. http://www.bmw-motorrad.co.uk/uk/en/individual/news/index.html?id=77. Retrieved 2008-10-22. 

^ a b Omorogbe, Jane (3 April 2008). “Ridden: BMW F800GS and F650GS”. MSN. http://cars.uk.msn.com/reviews/articles.aspx?cp-documentid=147873780. Retrieved 11 November 2009. 

^ “G650GS 2009”. BMW Motorrad USA. http://www.bmwmotorcycles.com/bikes/bike.jsp?b=2009g650gs&bikeSection=enduro. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 

^ Scoop BMW press release

^ Carroll, Michael (2008-04-16). “BMW officially unveils World Superbike contender”. Motorcycle News. http://www.motorcyclenews.com/MCN/News/newsresults/mcn/2008/april/14-20/apr1608bmwoficiallyunveilsworldsuperbikecontender/. Retrieved 2008-04-17. 

^ “BMW buys Husqvarna”. Motorcycle News. 20 July 2007. http://www.motorcyclenews.com/MCN/News/newsresults/mcn/2007/July/july16-22/jul2007bmwbuyshusqvarna/?&R=EPI-92852. Retrieved 2007-08-27. 

^ “BMW Motorrad acquires Husqvarna Motorcycles”. American Motorcyclist Association. 20 July 2007. http://www.ama-cycle.org/news/2007/bmwhusky.asp. Retrieved 2007-08-27. 

^ Richard Backus (May/June 2009). “1989-1993 BMW K1”. Motorcycle Classics. http://www.motorcycleclassics.com/motorcycle-reviews/1989-1993-BMW-K1.aspx. Retrieved 2009-08-04. 

^ BMW BMW technology site

^ BMW Motorrad Deutschland

^ BMW Motorcycles: Bikes: F 650 GS

^ BMW Motorrad International

^ http://www.bmw-motorrad.co.uk/com/en/services/techniquedetail/lexicon_view/duolever.html

Further reading

Holmstrom, Darwin; Nelson, Brian J. (June 2002). BMW Motorcycles. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. ISBN 9780760310984. 

Ash, Kevin (May 2006). BMW Motorcycles: The Evolution of Excellence. Whitehorse Press. ISBN 9781884313578. 

Falloon, Ian (November 2003). The BMW story: production and racing motorcycles from 1923 to the present day. Sparkford, England: Haynes Publishing. ISBN 9781859608548. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: BMW motorcycles

BMW Motorrad worldwide homepage

BMW motorcycles at the Open Directory Project

v  d  e

BMW Motorcycles

F & G Series

F650 & F650GS (single)  F650CS  F650GS (twin) & F800GS  F800R  F800S

K Series

K1  K75  K100  K1200GT  K1200R  K1300R

R Series

R27  R32  R51/3  R60/2  R65  R69S  R75  R50/5, R60/5 & R75/5  R80G/S  R90S  R1100GS  R1150GS  R1200C   R1200GS  R1200R   R1200RT

Other Bikes

S1000RR  GS family  C1


247 engine  BMW Motorcycle Owners of America  History of BMW motorcycles  Husqvarna Motorcycles

Categories: BMWHidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from May 2009 | Articles with unsourced statements from January 2010 | Articles with unsourced statements from June 2009 | Articles with unsourced statements from April 2009 | All articles with specifically-marked weasel-worded phrases | Articles with specifically-marked weasel-worded phrases from March 2009 | Articles with unsourced statements from January 2008 | Articles needing additional references from May 2009 | All articles needing additional references

Little Known Facts About Chiles

You can never know too much about chiles! They are an amazing fruit that promises to make you healthier when you eat them regularly. All chiles have the unique ability to produce the healthful, cancer curing capsaicin. By just knowing that eating chiles 24 out of 30 days according to a Singapore study reported by Jin Y. Kang, MD of the National University of Singapore, you will be healthier and freer of disease. He was reporting on a study on ulcer cures from eating chiles. He speculated that the reason they work as a cure is that probably they stimulate blood flow and nourish the gastric mucosal membrane. He went on to report that “ulcer-free patients ate 2.6 times more chile than those with ulcers. The ulcer-free patients also ate chile more often24 times per month, compared with 8 times per month for those with ulcers.” Chiles reduce pain in sore joints caused by arthritis. Also,the destruction of cartilage that comes as a result of arthritis and aging is stopped as well as the fluid in the joints is retained. Physiologically, capsaicin creams and ointments penetrate to the arthritic joints and stop the destruction of synovial fluid. The capsaicin in chiles when applied topically also controls the pain associated with herpes, shingles and the neuralgia and pain from amputation trauma. Chiles effect on the blood has long been known. For example in Thailand, they have a much lower incidence of blood clotting disease. Research definitely indicates that upon searching the medical records of countries where spicy foods are regularly consumed, there is much less incidence. In sum, chiles reduce hypertension, increase the pulse and help stem off strokes and the health reducing effects of high blood pressure. Chiles were discovered in the new world. They are a product that evolved in the Americas as did all night shadesthe botanical family to which chiles belong. So it becomes quite fascinating to learn how chiles have become such a staple in Asia, India and Africa and not so much in Europe, thus supporting the Bering strait theorythat they were taken back into Asia by early settlers in the Americas. The challenge becomeshow to eat chiles regularly? By placing them on the table in small cellars or shaker bottles makes them easily available for adding to any food. Other thoughts are chile tea, chile vinegar or oilall made by heating a substance and soaking chiles in it. Chiles, red or green can be added to salads, soups, stews, on meats and vegetables and even added to desserts. Chocolate and chile are a marvelous marriage.

Following is a favorite chocolate chile dessert SPICY HOT CHOCOLATE MOUSSE

Yield: 4 servings

½ cup sugar, divided 4 ounces high-quality bittersweet baking chocolate
2 tablespoons unsalted butter, cut into small bits
1 tablespoon red-hot schnapps, or to taste
3 egg whites

1. In a liquid measuring cup, combine ¼ cup water and ¼ cup of the sugar. Microwave for 1 minute on full power to dissolve the sugar, or, on a conventional range, bring to a boil in a small saucepan and cook until dissolved. Set aside.

2. In a heavy saucepan, or a double boiler over medium-low heat, combine chocolate and butter, whisking continuously until melted and of a creamy texture. Whisk or mix in the schnapps and 2 tablespoons of the sugar mixture. Taste and add the remaining sugar mixture, if desired. Set aside for later use.

3. Place the egg whites in a mixing bowl. Using clean beaters for the electric mixer, beat until foamy. Sprinkle the remaining ¼ cup sugar evenly over the top. Beat on high speed to create a soft meringue. Fold the meringue into the chocolate mixture. Serve warm or chilled in footed compotes or wineglasses.

Ping Pong Produces Healthier Kids

I am a people watcher. I especially enjoy observing them at shopping malls and airport terminals. I realize that folks have always come in various shapes and sizes, but over the last couple years I have noticed a rather alarming trend in children: many of them are actually obese. I’ve recently read too that many of these children are being diagnosed with diabetes. The sad part of all this, in my opinion, is that it is preventable!

There are a number of factors that are fostering obesity in our children.

• One huge reason is that they spend many hours a week watching TV, playing video games, using the Internet and talking or texting on cell phones.

• Many schools have shortened or eliminated recess.

• In certain neighborhoods, especially in the big cities, parents are reluctant to let their children play outdoors because they don’t believe it’s safe.

• Play time is losing out to other activities, lessons, and classes-everything from karate to piano lessons, to Girl Scouts or ballet. Expectations are being placed on children to excel in all kinds of extracurricular activities, and they still have to do their school homework assignments.

All of this results in diminished unstructured play time. Children need time to play with other children to get social interaction. Socially inept young people are more likely to suffer from anxiety, depression and attention-deficit disorder in addition to obesity. The American Academy of Pediatrics says that unstructured play fosters innovation and creative thinking. Let’s allow our kids to be kids. Allow them to relax, laugh and play together for their health.

After saying all that, let me offer a specific solution: ping pong! Ping pong is a game that is fun for the whole family. It can be played indoors or outdoors. You can get serious about it or simply play for fun, no matter what the weather is. Table tennis is an aerobic exercise, so it is a good physical activity. You’ll find that your energy level will increase and your feeling of exhaustion will be reduced. If the electricity goes out, are your children bored? Boredom will vanish with ping pong! Table tennis will also foster healthy, friendly competition. I believe it will improve mental health as the blood gets flowing too. Why not start today to improve your health and the health of your children?

How to Get Rid of a Canker Sore

Canker sores can be very painful and persistent. They may appear on your tongue, inside your cheeks or lips, or at the base of your gums. Scientifically, these are called Aphthous Ulcers. But they are popularly known as canker sores. If you don’t find a way on how to get rid of a canker sore, you would end up suffering from the discomfort in your mouth.

On the other hand, canker sores are very different from cold sores. Cold sores are caused by a form of herpes virus, which is extremely infectious. Fortunately, canker sores are not important related and definitely not contagious at all. These sores are more common among females. According to statistics, about 10% of the population has a recurring canker sore problem.

How to Get Rid of Canker a Canker Sore and Causes

Actually, experts have yet to discover the exact canker sores causes. It is likely caused by a reaction of a person’s own immune system. The immune system identifies an invading agent inside the mucous membrane of the mouth that isn’t really there. In the case of the canker sore, the white blood cells attack healthy tissue.

Here are quite a few possible causes of a canker sore:

Toothpaste. Toothpastes may have sodium lauryl sulfate that have a drying effect on the mouth tissues. Thus, it breaks down the surface protection, and cause canker sores.

Nutritional deficiency. Vitamin deficiencies (B1, B2, B6, B12, C) and other nutrients (zinc, folic acid, iron, selenium, calcium) have all been related to the sores.

Allergic reactions.

Hormonal changes and Genetic Dispositions.

Ways on How to Get Rid of a Canker Sore

Generally, canker sores go away on its own within 7 to 10 days. However, there are treatments to provide relief the pain through careful diet or by using over the counter medicines.

Here are other treatments on how to get rid of canker sores:

• Taking 2-4 Acidophilus capsules four times a day with milk has proven to both decrease the pain, and speed up the recovery.

• Aloe juice can be used as a mouth rinse on how to get rid of a canker sore several times daily. • Alum from the spice section of your grocery store can provide cure and promote healing. Do this once or twice a day and rinse your mouth out well afterwards.

• Antacid formulas such as Mylanta and Milk of Magnesia have been reported to be an effective method on remedies on canker sores.

• Baking soda is a great technique on how to get rid of canker sores. It can be used in powder form or made into a paste and applied directly to the sore.

• Copper sulfate is an effective treatment for canker sores. It is hard to find, but should clear the sore in a day or two. Consult your medical doctor before trying this.

• Brush your teeth and rinse your mouth with antibacterial mouthwash often.

• Stay away from salty and acidic foods.

• Use any over-the-counter medicine.

• Drink sage tea taking time to swish it around in your mouth with every sip.

There are other methods on how to get rid of a canker sore but you have to chat with a doctor first before trying anything.

Arthritis Pain Relief Through Herbal Treatment

Arthritis is one of the biggest problem that has been faced by million of people worldwide. Arthritis is a general term that literally means pain and inflammation in joints. Though previously it was believed that only old people suffers from arthritis but now it has been seen that people of younger age group are also being affected by this disease. Arthritis is not a disease in itself. There is a general condition in which the joint becomes inflamed and causes great pain. Arthritis can be of many types but commonly three types are frequently seen. These are: –

(a) Rheumatoid arthritis
(b) Osteoarthritis
(c) Gout

(a) Rheumatoid arthritis – it is a kind of arthritis that is more associated autoimmune disorder that occurs due to attack of our immune system on the joints. It is also associated with the deformity in the body. It is commonly seen in people who are in their mid forties.

(b) Osteoarthritis – it is another form of arthritis that occurs due to age related changes. In this condition there is formation of osteophytes in the joints. The cartilaginous structure gets ossified and gets converted in the bone. This bone formation in the bone leads to the hindered movements and causes extremes pain whenever the joint is made to move.

(c) Gout – it is concerned with the formation of uric acid crystals in the joint. Due to any kind of deformity there is decreased in the serum uric acid metabolism thereby leads to the accumulation of uric acid in the joints. It is commonly called as the riches disease as it is more commonly seen in people who are well off.


· Ageing
· Over use of joints
· Hereditary factors
· Wrong feeding habits
· Infections
· Metabolic disorder


· Pain in joints
· Swellings in joints
· Restricted movements
· Redness over joint
· Deformity of the joint
· Cracking sound on movements.


Though the anatomical changes are very difficult to be reversed but their have been certain ayurvedic preparations that are extremely helpful in suppressing pain and prevent any further damage to the joint. Belo are few ayurvedic herbs that are very effective in curbing arthritis.

· Ashwagandha (withinia somnifera) – it is one of the best herb that has the potential to suppress pain and inflammation. It has certain properties that are very helpful in reducing the vata dosha in the body that is solely responsible for causing all pains and inflammation in the body. Ashwagandha is a medium sized plant that is easily found in areas having warmer climatic conditions. The roots of Ashwagandha are the plant parts that are being used to make medicines. Generally Ashwagandha is taken in as powder form but it is now available in capsules and syrup forms also.

· Guggul (commiphora mukul) – Guggul is one of the most prestigious herbs that has been very popular among ayurvedic physicians. Guggul is vata suppressant and hence is widely used to treat vata related disorders. Guggul not only reduces pain in the body but is also responsible in suppressing any kind of inflammation and edema that occurs in the body. Various preparations like mahayogaraja Guggul, laxadi Guggul, rasnadi Guggul and gokshuradi Guggul that are being widely used to curb any kind of pain in the body.

· Rasna (pluchea lanceolata) – Rasna is an excellent analgesic and has excellent results in suppressing pain in the body. It is a small plant that can be used in preparing various forms of preparations. It is used as powder, decoction and oils. It has the potential to reduce the vata dosha in the body and is very successful in curbing its effect.

· Arthcare oil – arthcare oil is one of the prestigious ayurvedic preparations that have been found extremely helpful in treating various pain disorders like arthritis, musculoskeletal disorders, backache, joint pains, wounds etc. It has been empowered with the wonders of certain ayurvedic herbs like errand (ricinus communis), Rasna (pluchea lanceolata), devdaru (cedrus deodara), shuddha Guggul (commiphora mukul), rasone (garlic), marich (black pepper), nirgundi (vitex negundo), ajwain (trachyspermum) and til tail (seasum). These all herbs are famous for their activities in suppressing and curbing any kind of pain and inflammation that might occur in the body. The oil is gently massaged on the affected part and then hot fomentation is done. This is the simple procedure that is all you have to do to get relief from the pain and arthritis.

How Grapes Help You Achieve Gout Pain Relief

Do you want relief from your terrible gout pain? Grapes can help you ease your painful symptoms when used in conjunction with other more commonly used remedies. They are a great part of an overall plan to improve your health which will in turn reduce the incidents of painful gout attacks.

Grapes contain multiple elements that are effective in controlling your pain. These elements include quercitin, water, potassium, vitamin C, and anthocyanins. How do these individual properties in grapes help ease gout pain?

Quercitin is a potent flavonoid. The great thing about flavonoids are that they contain anti-inflammatory properties. This is essential in giving you gout pain relief since the accumulation of uric acid crystals in the joints during an attack produces swelling. Another great gout treatments food which contains quercitin is cherries. You can purchase quercitin as a supplement if you don’t eat many fruits, although it would be beneficial to eat plenty of fruits in order to help reduce your pain.

Water is an important way to reduce painful symptoms. Grapes are made up of approximately 2/3 water. You can increase your water usage if you eat water dense fruits such as grapes. The water in the grapes will help you flush out your excess uric acid.

Potassium helps to liquefy uric acid making it easier for your body to eliminate it during urination. Grapes possess around 191mg of potassium a serving (100g). One serving will provide you with 5% of your daily allowance so you will need to supplement it with other potassium rich foods such as cantaloupes or peaches. Grapes will at least get you a portion of what you need.

If you choose to eat grapes for relief of your gout pain, part of your help will come in the form of vitamin C. You will get around 10mg per serving. This is almost 20% of the daily intake recommended by the government. If you are suffering from a gout attack, you need to increase your vitamin c intake. Studies have shown from Arthritis and Rheumatism (2005;52:1843-7) that 500mg of Vitamin C taken over a two month period reduced uric acid levels by 10%. This is accomplished by keeping purines from accumulating into excessive amounts of uric acid.

Dark colored grapes are probably more beneficial to eat than lighter colored grapes. This is due to the high anthocyanin content found in red versus lighter colored grapes. Anthocyanin is what gives the dark grapes their color. Like quercitin, anthocyanin is also a flavonoid and is known for it’s anti-inflammatory effects.

As you can see, grapes can help reduce your pain through a few different methods. By themselves, they may not be potent enough, but when used in combination with other remedies, you can find a natural solution for gout pain relief.

Warning Signs of Diabetes Complications

Today’s lifestyle makes many vulnerable to the scourge of diabetes. In healthy people, the rise of glucose is easily transferred to the cells of the body. The pancreas produces the insulin needed to move excess blood sugar out of the bloodstream.

Unfortunately, for the diabetic something goes wrong and the glucose remains in the bloodstream where it begins to do significant damage to many organs of the body including the heart and kidneys.

The reasons why glucose remains in the blood are due either to the lack of insulin production by the pancreas or the cells of the body have become resistant to accepting glucose even when enough insulin is available. Type one diabetics count for 10% of all diabetics. It strikes at a young age. Type two diabetes is more prevalent. It often affects during middle age and strikes many who are overweight and live a sedentary lifestyle.

Either type of diabetes will eventually lead to complications if it is not treated. The three most prevalent complications are:

Nephropathy: Excess glucose damages the functioning of the kidneys. 60% of all people on dialysis are diabetic. The kidneys attempt to flush out excess blood sugar, but in doing so it also flushes out many of the essential vitamins and minerals the body needs to function properly. If nutrients are not replaced, this leads to a downward spiral where death ultimately results. Diabetics need to take in more nutrients than the average non-diabetic. Unfortunately, the diets of the average person today lacks the minimum requirements of essential vitamins and minerals necessary for proper health. This insures that many diabetics are headed for dialysis as their kidneys fail.

Retinopathy: Many diabetics eventually go blind as glucose starts to damage the fine nerves in the eyes. Diabetics are at greater risk of developing glaucoma, cataracts and other problems associated with the eyes. Seeing an eye care specialist is a necessity. While drugs do help to reduce blood sugar to normal levels, they do nothing if nerves have been significantly damaged.

Neuropathy: Similarly, the delicate nerves in the feet are affected leading to loss of sensation. The diabetic does not feel pain when stepping on a sharp object. Infection can set in leading to gangrene and eventually amputation to save the person’s life. Tingling, pain, numbness are the first symptoms that the nerves are slowly dying. It is important for anyone with diabetes to have their feet checked for nerve damage.

Cardiovascular Disease: Fully 90% of type two diabetics are overweight and obese. Excess fat puts a strain on the heart. It has been shown that losing a few pounds can greatly reduce the chance of becoming diabetic or improve blood sugar control for those who have diabetes. Most diabetics also have high blood pressure, live a stressful life and have poor eating habits. Diabetics age faster, far beyond their years. Heart attack and stroke are common to diabetics. Evidence appears to point out another type of diabetes as excess blood sugar may be the direct cause of Alzheimer’s and Dementia.

Diabetes is a wasting disease. It is estimated that some 20 million Americans are diabetic while an additional 7 million don’t know they have it as symptoms don’t show up. While there is no cure for the diseases, diabetes can be prevented and even reversed with the right approach which must include a proper diet, exercise and cutting out the bad habits developed over the years that lead to the condition. While Type One diabetics must take insulin injections for the rest of their lives, Type Two diabetics can take an active approach to controlling their disease to insure that they extend life for themselves and remain a vital part for their families and friends.

Intensify Sexual Stimulation With Brainwave Entrainment

Brainwave entrainment, a powerful audio and/or visual technology that entrains the brain to a specific state, can and does have the ability to stimulate brainwaves that will increase your experience of sexual stimulation.

Yes it can make you excited.

It can turn you on and up. It will lift your mood. It can give you great pleasure.

Your sexual circuitry is in your right brain, right hemisphere. Directed energy in the form of alpha brainwaves from the occipital to the frontal cortex will build sexual energy throughout the body, before it accumulates in the genitals.

Our life here on plant earth is fast paced and packed with anxiety, all of which clogs and stagnates our sexual energy. These energy blocks manifest as impotence and frigidity. This energy can be reawakened by a consistent, repeated stimulation that only entrainment can provide.

How Brainwave Entrainment Sexually Stimulates

  • Specially designed recordings target the pleasure centers of the brain that awaken your libido.
  • A steady, repetitive stimulus will begin to build energy.
  • Entrainment will stoke the fire sending sexual excitement throughout the body, not just to the genitals.
  • As you listen to the recording, focus on your whole body and the energy will build.
  • Delay your orgasm, keep building – build the endorphins.
  • Dopamine levels will raise.
  • Enjoy the dopamine – it’s your natural morphine. Dopamine is the principal neurochemical that activates your reward circuitry and drives your behaviours. It’s what makes you crave things like chocolate, and sex.
  • Dopamine will drive you towards orgasm. Hold off as long as you can.
  • A rush of your body’s natural opiates will be your reward in the end.

Use Alone

  • Use binaural beats, a sine wave generator that creates two separate frequency waves that are introduced into each ear independently. The brain reacts by creating a third tone, which is the difference between the two. This allows the brain to directly tune into a frequency that the ear cannot hear.
  • It will stimulate your sexual circuitry for a good solo experience.
  • You will need to wear headphones with binaural beats. Everything else is optional.

Or Use With A Friend

  • The most effective brainwave entrainment to use is isochronic tones or pulses.
  • Isochronic tones use equal intensity tones with a fast pulse speed causing the brain to synchronize with its rhythm.
  • The tones keep the frequency pattern from coming in bursts – great consistency.
  • There’s no need to use headphones with the tones, which can free you up – unless you want to use the headphones anyway (looks kind of techie).

Either way, brainwave entrainment can enhance your sexual experience effectively and easily.

Health Issues Caused By Obesity

With the introduction of labor saving equipment and equipment such as TV’s, vehicles, computers, elevators, household electrical goods and other items, applying physical effort to any action has almost become unthinkable. This cutting in calorie expenditure without a matching reduction in calorie intake has spawned an epidemic of obesity. The full tragedy is that not many people comprehend the full health hazards of being overweight.

Type II diabetes is the most widespread type of diabetes that a majority of US citizens suffer from. It is also known as adult-onset diabetes or non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Type II diabetes leads to drastic variations within the blood sugar levels through out the day. This may result in heart as well as kidney diseases, early death, strokes and even blindness. Losing weight, along with appropriate exercise has been established to be the most helpful means of preventing and in a number of cases essentially curing type II diabetes.

Addtional Health Problems Relating to Obesity

Heart disease is one of the most prevalent main health hazards of being obese. Being overweight significantly increases the possibility of heart malfunction and blood circulation problems and may result in congestive heart failure, heart attack, angina (chest pains), unexpected cardiac arrest or irregular heartbeat. Weight loss in this instance may not only avoid the above-mentioned ailments but also assist normalize blood pressure, cholesterol levels and triglyceride and reduce inflammation in the body.

Cancer is one of the primary causes of death in the United States, and is frequently a result of fat cells that affect cell growth and multiply beyond capacity. Colon, esophagus, and the kidney are the most affected components of the body. Being overweight has in addition contributed to uterine as well as postmenopausal breast cancers in women.

Sleep apnea, Osteoarthritis and other Health Issues

In sleep apnea the sufferer experiences short lapses of breaths through nighttime. This in turn makes the person sleepy throughout the daytime, making it hard for him to focus on work. In some cases, heart failure has also been noted in patients suffering from this disease. The lapse of breath occurs due to the increased size of the cells of the neck, obstructing the windpipe at certain intervals. Reducing weight can reduce the size of the neck and diminish the pressure on the windpipe and make breathing easy.

Osteoarthritis is another health peril of being overweight.  In this particular disorder, the joint bone and the tissue that protects joints (cartilage), deterioration away. The joint bone of numerous parts of the body like the hip, knees, plus lower back are the major targets of Osteoarthritis. Being overweight places a lot of force on the joints, which might lead to this disease in the long run. Dropping weight will deflate the body fat and reduce the aches and pains.

Excess fat accumulates inside the liver cells and will cause the organ to inflate, leading to injuries. This results in Fatty Liver disease. This ailment may lead to harsh liver impairment, built-up of scar tissue that blocks the correct blood flow to the liver (cirrhosis), and complete liver malfunction. It is quite comparable to alcoholic liver impairment but does not essentially mean that it can not affect those who do not take alcohol.

Fear of Flying – Advice and Tips

Let's face it, even though you've heard that flying is the safest form of transport, you still fill up with dread at the thought of having to fly. Use this fear of flying advice to help calm your fears.

1. Learn that flying is safe

If your conscious mind starts to panic at the thought of stepping onto a plane, it's time to do some research and quell your fears. The media focus on plane accidents because so many people are involved. Yet they ignore auto accidents which regularly injure more people than flying does. If you're happy to drive then you should be able to rationalize your thoughts to accept that flying is even safer.

2. Find out your other fears

Sometimes the problem that we call flying phobia is actually a different problem in disguise. These could be the loss of control – in a car, you're probably either driving or close enough to the driver to be able to see what is going on. On a plane, the pilot is only a voice over the speaker system. This lack of control can be the root cause of your issues. Or it may be that you do not like being in an enclosed space for hours on end. It could even be a fear of heights that is the root cause of your aerophobia. Whatever the underlying cause is, identify it and then deal with it. There are lots of programs out there to help you with phobias – hypnosis works well and there are so many custom designed MP3s out there that you are bound to be able to find help for your issues.

3. Learn to relax

Your phobia could be as simple as not being able to relax. Learning a relaxation process such as yoga or meditation could have been the key to being able to step on board an aircraft without turning into a nervous wreck. Start with a simple breathing exercise: take a long deep breath in, hold it for a couple seconds and slowly exhale. Doing this 4 or 5 times in a row will help you to relax. Maybe not enough to walk up those steps yet, but it's a start.

4. Use your imagination

If you're happy taking a roller coaster ride, use your mind to turn the flight into a theme park ride. Of course, if the thought of roller coasters fills you with dread as well then you'll need to decide on some other analogy. Whatever you decide to model your flight on, fill it with a sense of safety and adventure. If you were OK with flying as a child, go back into your memory and think about the eager anticipation you felt when your parents first broke the news that you were going to fly in the sky!

5. Use a hypnosis MP3

Hypnosis works really well for all sorts of things including overcoming your phobias. It's easy to do and works at such a deep level that you'll be "fixed" forever with just a few sessions. Get hold of a download or haul out your Yellow Pages for a personal session.

Natural Remedies To Prevent Scabies Rash

Scabies rash

Scabies rash are not hard to get rid of but the itching is so unbearable. If we used the medication as Premethrin 5% and we shouldn’t have a pet that might be harboring further infestation and always took care of bedding, sofa, etc. then we have gotten rid of the infestation. We also shall make sure everyone with who are intimate with was treated. Now the itching is a whole other story that can last six months even after the parasite has died. It actually is the feces that make us itching. Some of typical anti-inflammatory agents can be helpful such as anti-histamines (oral and topical) and steroids (oral and topical).

Some facts, the Oil of Oregano effective in killing Scabies rash, we can find it at herbal companies, the North American Herbal Company is the best.

Also some people use a product called PureWorks. This company also produces medicines for Scabies rash. It can kills scabies, bacteria and viruses for hours. So it will stop any rashes, infection, anything caused by bacteria if we have it on the skin. It is also incredible at improving skin.

Self-Care at Home

Although you cannot cure a case of scabies rash without prescription medication from a doctor, there are certain things you can do at home to prevent re-infecting yourself or your family.

  • Wash all clothing, towels, and bed linens in hot water. Do not allow air drying. You should use the dryer.
  • Use the medication as prescribed and instructed. Do not use it more than instructed because you risk causing chemical irritation of your skin.We can also treat itching with antihistamine medications such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl).
  • Cut your nails and clean under them thoroughly to remove any mites or eggs that may be present.
  • Vacuum your rugs, furniture, and bedding and throw the vacuum cleaner bag away when finished.

Visit Scabies Rash for more information about Scabies Rash Infestation and Treatment.

Scabies rash

The Holistic Approach to Viruses, Bacteria, Parasites and Fungus

The holistic approach to viruses, bacteria and parasites is to use natural means to boost the immune system and energy level and detoxify the body of ingested toxins that are stored in the body's cells. The body's immune system will then kill the inviting microbes. At the same time, detoxification will sweep out toxins from the body's cells. This will boost the body's immune system and energy level.

It is believed that the holistic approach can destroy viral clusters with respect to any viruses including Ebola, HIV, Herpes and STDs along with the common cold virus and, in many cases, eradicate these viruses completely.

Holistic research indicates the benefits of the following to boost the immune system: cat's claw, banderol, samento, pinella, asparagus root extract supplements, sulphur and the detoxification and immune system boosting supplements discussed above along with turmeric or curcumin, modified citrus pectin and zinc .

Holistic research indicates the benefits of the following supplements to help boost your energy level and immune system: Co-Q 10 or Ubiquinol, Asian mushroom supplements (reishi, chaga, shataki, miataki, cordyceps and others), echineica, astragalus, resveratrol, alpha Lipoic acid, American, Korean, Asian and Siberian gensing, eleuthero, rhodiolo, ashwghanda, grape seed extract, DHEA, NADH, quercetin, probiotics and digestive enzymes supplements, cat's claw, bee propolis, colloidal gold and silver, vitamins C, D3, B complex vitamins, vitamin E, B 17, vitamins, curcumin and green tea extract supplements along with probiotics and digestive enzymes,

A combination of colloidal silver, chlorpohyll, oregano oil, olive leaf extract, Vitamin C, coconut oil, paw paw and Asian mushroom supplements destroy viruseses, bacteira and parasites and B 17 destroys fungus. Also, bee propolis and modified citrus pectin destroys microbes. For HIV, Ebola, STDs and Lyme Disease you may need to take these supplements a few times per day for two to three months. Check with your naturopath doctor.

Some of the best natural ways to detoxify the body include: warm water with fresh lemon (drink this plain a couple of times each day and add one or two teaspoons of Himalayan salt to one of the warm water drinks or a cold drink of water and Lemon), fresh cilantro and parsely, a tea made with fresh cilantro and parsley, Himalayan salt (a fully mineralized salt), green tea, a drink made with one or two teaspoons of bentonite clay or diotomaceous earth, activated charcoal supplements, pectin, Chlorella, psyllium husk / corn silk, wheat grass, turmeric / curcumin, garlic, avocado, beets, brocoli, iodine, probiotic and digestive enzymes supplements, milk thistle, dandelion root supplements, apple cider vinegar, kidney flush supplements and colloidal trace minerals, Colloidal silver and gold and oregano essential oil along with ionic foot baths.

Lavender and frankincense essential oils have great anti inflammatory properties and clove and oregano essential oils have great antioxidant properties. They will help boost your immune system and destroy the microbes too.

Then take supplements that will specifically target viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungus including candida. These include colloidal silver, oregano oil, olive leaf extract and bee propolis taken on a daily basis. Depending on your condition, it may take a few weeks to a few months to rid the body of these viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungus. Also, B17, wormwood and balck walnut destroyos fungus.

Holistic research indicates the benefits of ozone / oxygen therapy combined with the other holistic techniques.

Also, do the following with respect to detoxification: Drink at least eight, eight ounce glasses of pure spring or filtered water daily. Drink at least one glass of water with fresh lemon or lime in it. Eat primarily fresh raw organic vegetables in salads and juices. Eat lot of greens along with super foods such as avocado, chia seeds, flaxseeds, chlorella, spirulina and wheat grass. Do not eat processed, refined, packaged or junk foods. Avoid refined sugar, transfats and dairy. Avoid or greatly reduce meat. If you eat red meat for protein and iron, eat only organic, grass fed beef. If you need extra protein and iron as a result of this diet, take protein powder and iron supplements.

Alkalize the body through a whole food plant based organic diet and a drink of filtered water with baking soda (without aluminum in it) and fresh lemon. Greatly reduce stress and do daily heart centered prayer and meditation.

Exercise daily. Do cardio and light weights. At the very least, walk two to three miles per day. Stretch daily or do yoga. Get plenty of sun. To boost the immune system it is important to get adequate rest and sleep and to engage in deep breathing (for oxygen) and spiritual practices such as daily meditation and prayer. To reduce stressful thoughts, center yourself in your body and middle of your forehead and practice mindfulness. Throughout mindfulness you stay focused with full awareness and attention on the moment. Also, boost your energy through visualization. Sit comfortably and close your eyes. Visualize a bright white sun in the middle of your solar plexus.Now, imagine that light fill your torso with bright white, expansive light. Hold that visualization for a few minutes until you feel re-energized.Get plenty of rest and sleep, avoid stress and enjoy life.

This article is for information purposes only. It is not intended to be used to diagnose or treat disease. It is not intended to be medical advice. For medical advice and to diagnose and treat disease, consult a licensed medical doctor.

Swollen Eyelid Symptoms

One of the most common eye problems in older adults is a skin condition called blepharitis . In severe cases, it may also cause styes , irritation and inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva. Inflammation happens when the body tries to fight an injury or infection and the specific area tends to look swollen and sore. Some patients have no symptoms at all. Blepharitis usually affects both eyes on the edge of the eyelids and although rarely serious, it can be an uncomfortable, persistent and irritating problem.

Pink eye usually lasts about a week, and infects more people during the cold and flu season. Many people come in contact with the pink eye virus and don’t notice the symptoms until 24 – 72 hours later! Even though it takes a while for the signs of conjunctivitis to show, it’s wise to treat the cause and symptoms at the very first sign.

Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea – Probably the most popular type. It is characterized by flushing and persistent redness, and may also include visible blood vessels. When people ask what is rosacea, this is what they typically think of. It is important to realize that the condition can worsen without proper treatment.

Sinuses are small air cavities located around the nose, known as Para nasal sinuses, situated inside the head bones. The frontal sinus lies right up the eyes in the brow area, the maxillary sinuses are inside the cheekbones, the ethmoid sinus is localized between the eyes and behind it, and the sphenoid sinus lies behind the eyes in the upper region.

Another cause for chronic conjunctivitis is the environment. Air pollution, smoke and contact lens that are worn incorrectly can all be the causes of this eye issue. Under such circumstances, we can change the working environment by keeping it clean and stopping smoking. When the eyes feel dry, eye lube can be used to clean the conjunctivae sac.

A stye can be secondary, caused by blepharitis. A blocked oil gland near the eye, a chalazion, is often mistaken for a stye. Styes are not harmful to vision, and they can occur at any age. A stye initially brings pain, redness, tenderness and swelling in the area, then a small pimple appears. Sometimes just the immediate area is swollen; other times the entire eyelid swells.

Eye problems reported with CPAP therapy include dry eyes, red eyes, swollen eyes (skin around the eyes), and redness of the eyelids and face around the eyes. Any of these symptoms should be discussed with your Doctor who prescribed CPAP therapy and if needed you can request further help from your Optometrist.

One of the things that some doctors believe is good for blepharitis is too keep the eyelids clean, but it is important to make sure that the things that you use for cleaning are appropriate and are also very clean. If it cannot be treated like this then other treatments such as anti-inflammatory drops are used. Sometimes it is also treated by the use of antibiotics but this is a treatment that needs to be recommended by your doctor. If you think that you might have blepharitis it is a good idea to see your doctor so that they can recommend a treatment.

Exercise and Workouts – Four Tips To Make The Most Of Your Stretching Routine

Stretching is a vital part of any fitness program but sadly something many people tend to turn their nose up at. People often figure since stretching does not offer direct benefits like cardio training does, it is something they can just do without.

But, is this the case? Can you make do without your stretching routine? The answer is no. Stretching will help you…

  • relieve muscle soreness,
  • increase your range of motion, and contribute
  • to improving your overall performance

as well. Simply put, it is an absolute must.

Let us look at four points you need to think about to help make the most of your stretching routine…

1. Never Stretch Cold. The first thing you need to know is stretching cold is a “big no-no.” When you stretch cold, the muscles are tight and tense and more likely to suffer from a tear or sprain. Stretch cold, and you may do more harm than good.

A light warm-up of at least five minutes is a wise idea to help get your body prepared for stretching. Often it is ideal to do this right after your workout is completed.

If you are stretching on a non-workout day, a light warm-up beforehand can help get your body prepared.

2. Ease Into The Stretch. Next, make sure you ease into your stretch. As you go about your stretching routine, do not rush in jerking your muscle into position. Jerking the muscle will only increase your risk factor of an injury.

Go slow. Breathe as you lower yourself down and pause when it becomes uncomfortable. Take another deep breath in, pause again and then move lower into the stretch. Repeat this process until you cannot extend any longer.

3. Go For Multiple Rounds. Another tip to help you get more out of your stretching routine is to ensure you are going for multiple rounds of stretching. It is not wise to just stretch once and be done with it. Usually, on your second time, you can extend further so this is where you will make the most progress.

Try performing each stretch for two or even three repetitions for optimal success.

4. Stretch Every Day. Consider stretching every day if you can. The fact is stretching is something needing to be done on an ongoing rate if you are going to see the results you are looking for. Skip a few days here and there, and your muscles will tighten up, and you will notice you are not making progress.

If you can aim to stretch at least on five days each week, this is what will give you the best results.

There you have the facts you need to know regarding your stretching routine. Don’t overlook this critical element of your workout program.

Moisturizer Treatments For Psoriasis

Why Should I Use Moisturizers For Treating Psoriasis?

Although there is little scientific research into the effects of moisturizers on psoriasis, our own experience shows that:

  • moisturizers make the skin much more comfortable – they decrease the dryness, scaling, cracking and soreness, and itching;
  • moisturizers allow the other active treatments that you use (e.g. tar or vitamin D) to work more effectively.

Which moisturizer is best to use?

There are so many to choose from that it is sometimes difficult to know which to choose. There are, however, two golden rules:

  • Moisturizing is absolutely vital for anyone with psoriasis. Although it does not get rid of the psoriasis, it makes it less scaly and much more comfortable.
  • The best moisturizer or psoriasis cream is the one that you feel happiest with and that you feel you can use easily on a regular basis.

Discuss this with your doctor and ask her or him to prescribe one that you like and will use. You may find that you need two or three different moisturizers for different parts of your body or different times of day, so don’t be afraid to ask to try several varieties. If you’re also using some home remedies for psoriasis, make sure you let your doctor know about those as well, just to make sure there are no contraindications between them,

Below are some other things to think about when you are choosing a moisturizer.


Lotions are water based and tend to be very runny and easy to apply (e.g. E45 lotion). They are quite cooling but not very good at moisturizing, particularly dry skin. They are useful for maintaining good skin once the psoriasis has gone.

Creams are thicker and a bit greasier than lotions but are still easy to use (e.g. Diprobase). They are less runny and tend to come in pots or pump dispensers. They are usually the best option for day-to-day use.

Ointments are very greasy and thick, and are oil rather than water based (e.g. Epaderm or 50/50 white soft paraffin/liquid paraffin mix). They are the best moisturizers but are less pleasant to use because they are greasy and quite sticky. If, however, your skin is very dry, they are the best option.

Doublebase is a relatively new gel-based emollient that many people find smoothes into the skin very easily.


You should use your moisturizer at least twice a day and more often if possible. Try to make your treatment fit in with your lifestyle as best you can. Some suggestions are to use a lighter cream moisturizer in the morning before going to work or school and then use a greasier ointment before going to bed. Try taking a small pot of cream to work with you and applying it if a patch gets particularly dry, itchy or uncomfortable. If you are applying a moisturizer all over, it is very easy to get through a 500 g pot in a week or so, so make sure that your doctor prescribes enough.

Method of Application

When you apply the moisturizer, you should do this by gently stroking the cream/ointment on in a way that follows the lie of the little hairs on the skin. Try not to rub too aggressively as this will only serve to aggravate the plaques – a gentle repeated motion is best. A pump dispenser is best as it saves you having to keep putting your hand into the pot. If you have a moisturizer that does not come with a pump dispenser, scoop out what you need with a clean spoon – this stops dirt and skin scale getting into the pot.

In The Bath Or Shower

Moisturizing is not just about putting cream or ointments on: it starts in the bath or shower. As indicated in the answer to a later question, in the section ‘Practical aspects’, it is wise to wash with a soap substitute that does not dry your skin. If you choose to bathe, put a bath oil in the water; this helps to create a layer of oil over the skin, which prevents water being lost from the skin. Beware of the risk of slipping, though, when you get in and out of the bath or shower!

To summaries, moisturizing should involve:

  • using a soap substitute;
  • putting an oil (e.g. Balneum, Oilatum or Diprobath) in the bath;
  • using lots of cream or ointment moisturizers at least twice a day;
  • choosing the moisturizers that suit you and your lifestyle best.

The final thing to remember is that moisturizers do not actually add water to the skin: they stop it being lost by evaporation from the skin. Make sure you have enough water in your body to help them do their job – don’t let yourself become dehydrated.