Numb toes and diabetes warning sign

It is very important to realize that numb toes are a serious sign of diabetic neuropathy. This clearly means that the nerves of the feet are being damaged. This is a serious warning that must not be ignored. If this is not treated you can lose your feet. Many have had their feet cut off due to this problem. Numb toes are a warning that the diabetic or person with high blood glucose is losing the fight.

It is important to recognize that time is critical to the diabetic. Those who wait lose the body. The cause of the problem of numb toes is that the blood circulation is being cut off and this is something that you do not want. As the blood vessels and nerves become overtaken by the blood glucose poison the numbness in the feet come in. As the diabetic waits the vessels and nerves are overcome and lose.

Diabetes is a poison hign blood glucose that destroys the body. The typical diabetes diet of sugar free cannot stop the damage to the toes and fingers. Only a specialized diabetes foot diet can reverse the nerve damage. Diabetes is increasing worldwide with millions losing the battle to this illness. There is some good news. There is a diabetes foot diet that has been s topping diabetic feet and toe numbness. See it here. CLICK HERE  DIABETES FOOT PAIN

A diabetic must realize that a common sugar free diet is not enough to reverse the problems of diabetic feet and toes. Never wait to find a reverse diabetes diet.

The Pros and Cons of Office Automation

By definition, office automation is the use of technology in order to create, store and manipulate information within an organization. With that said, you can expect the transfer of information from one department to the other to be more accurate compared to having a human handler. If used in areas where information is extremely important, this system can prove to be very helpful. An example of a critical area for accurate information transfer would be a medical clinic.

In any medical clinic, it is important that only right information be recorded since patient records are unique to a specific person. If the record of one patient is misinterpreted to be that of another patient’s then the wrong medication might be given; thereby worsening an existing medical condition.

From a psychological point of view, patients come to a clinic because they do not feel so well. Hence, they may get cranky and easily irritated. It is important, then, for all staff to be highly efficient in order to provide the best healthcare service to all walk-in and calling patients. A team of highly trained professionals may do the job well but the consistency can be questioned especially when they are placed under great stress. So to resolve this small setback, office automation was introduced.

What Can Office automation Do in a Medical Clinic?

In a medical clinic, automation helps realize the right patient expectations. When chosen correctly, the system used could still extend the same warmth as a human receptionist thereby encouraging more loyal customers. Other benefits of office automation may include, but not limited to:

• Clinic personnel can keep track of outstanding balances that need to be paid and/or collected.

• The automation can set up alarms to remind staff of patients that need to be seen by the doctor on a specific day.

• Your medical staff will not need to manually file paperwork so they will have more time to dedicate to providing patient with the best services possible.

• If you have a huge clinic, the simultaneous distribution of records will allow all practitioners to accept patients at the same time.

• Since patients will be allowed to set their own appointments, they can personalize the experience and therefore be more satisfied of your clinic services.


There are a number of other things that the right software can do. But there should be some things that you need to consider before jumping right in and joining the growing number of automated medical clinics.

First of all, the implementation of an electronic system is something that cannot be done in just a single day. Yes, the system could be in place but your staff still needs to be trained on how to use it and how to interpret the data that has been electronically put in.

Second, it is a system so there are chances for bugs and breakdowns. This is a fact that you must consider prior to choosing a software provider. Choose a provider that provides 24/7 technical support as well as free upgrades and maintenance. Note that only the best in the industry can provide you with these services without affecting your clinic’s operations.

All in all, office automation can be the best thing that could happen to your medical practice.

Kidney Disease Symptom Checklist – Know Your Kidneys

Kidney disease can be a very serious condition. It can, if not detected early, lead to complications that left untreated, can shut down the kidneys and lead to complicated treatments that include dialysis. Is that something that you want to mess with? Of course not; that is why it is so critical you come to recognize the symptoms from the symptoms of many other common illnesses.

Your kidneys are responsible for filtering wastes and other toxins from the blood. When your kidneys do not do this, wastes and other toxins build up in the blood. This can lead to many problems, including chronic illness. Many people fail to consider the health of their kidneys when they are treating other diseases, and yet it is other diseases that often lead to kidney damage. That is why it is so important to know what the most common kidney disease symptom and/or symptoms are.

Here is a checklist of some of the more well-known symptoms of kidney disease:

1.     Change in urination

2.     Difficulty urinating

3.     Pain on urination

4.     Foamy or bubbly urination

5.     Changes in the color of your urine

6.     Blood in the urine, which may be a sign of a urinary tract infection, which can lead to a kidney infection, which can lead to kidney disease (it is a progressive thing)

7.     Fatigue or sleepiness, which may be the result of a drop in red blood cells, so the muscles and the brain become more tired. This typically has a name, called anemia.

8.     Itching or other skin rashes, which may be the result of a buildup of wastes in the blood.

9.     A metallic taste in the mouth, which can cause certain foods to taste differently, or can cause the breath to smell bad. Some patients notice they no longer enjoy eating certain foods especially meat, while others simply lose their interest in eating anything.

10.  Nausea and vomiting, which can result in a buildup in wastes in the blood.

11.  Pain in the legs of pain in the back, especially in the middle of the back. Typically kidney damage can cause cysts in the kidneys, and sometimes these can buildup in the liver too. Sometimes these are painful, and other times not. Some people notice their lower backs are hurting or their sides start hurting and they are not sure why. Other people notice they feel pain at certain times, like at night.

12.  Dizziness – This can result from anemia; it can also result from a buildup of toxins in the blood. Patients can also develop anemia simply from not eating, because they have lost their appetite due to increasingly serious kidney damage. 

What Happens If I Have Symptoms of Kidney Disease

If you have any of the above symptoms, you should seek the care of a qualified health professional. Some people hear “kidney disease” and they immediately think “dialysis” and worry they will die right away. This is certainly not the case! There are many steps you can take to improve the health of your kidneys and your outlook for a long and healthier life. Many people can take steps to slow down the progression of chronic kidney disease.

For example, the first step you can take is to simply start following the guidance provided to you by your health care professional. Many people will benefit by getting physical activity and by lowering their blood pressure. It also helps to drink plenty of water, filtered water if possible, and getting rest when appropriate. For some, other changes in lifestyle are necessary as directed by a qualified health care professional.

consumerinjurylawyers : Fosamax Femur Fractures

Studies Link Fosamax to Femur Fractures:

Fosamax (bisphosphonate) is used to treat post-menopausal women who are at risk of osteoporosis.  Clinical trials performed by Merck (the manufacturer of Fosamax) have reported the following in patients taking Fosamax: bone turnover rates came back to normal, bone mineral density increased, and spine, wrist and hip fractures decreased. Nevertheless, reported cases of Fosamax femur fractures are increasing as time goes on post-marketing.  Merck has been plagued with Fosamax side effects since it went on the market.

Studies done by the Hospital for Special Surgery and Columbia University Medical Center have demonstrated that Fosamax changes bone remodeling in an unknown manner and may contribute to femur fractures.  They reported these fractures to be spontaneous and without any trauma present at the time of the break.  Physicians in hospitals and private practice published more reports in the New England Journal as well as individual reports.  All have reported unusual transverse femur fractures with a break projection of cortical bone with irregular bone thickening along the femoral shaft as seen through X-ray film.  This type of break is rare but would normally be seen in a car accident victim or someone who had fallen down a flight of stairs where you would have some great horizontal force pushing on the femur.  Keep in mind that the strongest bone in the body is the femur and requires great force to break.

Merck’s patent for Fosamax ran out in 2008 and at that time, the FDA approved generic versions that include Boniva, Actonel, and Reclast.  All of these generics have demonstrated Fosamax femur fractures so caution should be used when switching over.

Clearly there is a difference between bone quantity and bone quality with long term use of Fosamax.  It has been reported that patients who had been treated with bisphosphonates showed a reduction in tissue heterogeneity, specifically with mineral content (higher calcium concentration) and crystal size as compared to control groups.  This indicates that Fosamax is generating a more brittle bone that is easier to break.  This generates a difference in bone quality and this may contribute to these unusual Fosamax femur fractures.

As a result of Fosamax side effects involving femur fractures, Merck is faced with numerous Fosamax lawsuits.  If you have experienced Fosamax femur fractures or any other bone related illness while on Fosamax, you may be entitled to financial compensation. You may want to contact a Fosamax attorney to see if you qualify for a Fosamax Lawsuit.

The Simple Facts About the Amazing Hoki Fish That Produces Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Hoki is a type of fish which lives in the crystal-clear deep waters of southern New Zealand. The fish is also known by a number of other names, including blue grenadiers, blue hake, whiptails, whiptail hake, and New Zealand whiting. Its scientific name is Macruronus novaezelandiae.

The long silver fish has very tiny scales and looks similar in appearance to Gem fish. Hoki have a long wedge shaped body that is narrower at the tail, with slim fins and a blue-green to silver color pattern. They have huge eyes and a large protruding jaw that is a feature associated with cod and hake. The large eyes make the fish look like they are perpetually startled.

Hoki is usually sold in fillets and the thick flesh is rich in omega-3 fatty acid, making it a very healthy food. The fresh fish is creamy pink to off-white, firm, lustrous, moist flesh and without any brown markings. One of the key indicators to determine if the flesh is fresh is its pleasant smell. The flesh can be deep fried, pan fried, baked, grilled, barbecued, steamed or smoked.

New Zealand hoki is commonly used for fish and chips, minced for fish burgers and can be found in seafood extender. The fish is one of the varieties used in the McDonald’s Filet-O-Fish and McFish sandwiches. It is also favored by reputable restaurants as the dense flesh holds up very well to being sautéd. The flavor is mild and slightly sweet, and the fish pairs well with a wide assortment of sauces and vegetables.

Hoki fish are one of the best sources of omega-3 fish oil supplements. Omega 3 fatty acids are nutrients that our body needs but cannot produce. The fatty acids are good for preventing breast, colon and prostate cancer. It is also possible to reduce prostate tumor growth. Cardiovacular disease is minimized when the nutrient is taken regularly.

Omega 3 fish oil supplements can also help improve heart rhythm problems that can cause sudden death. It is also known to prevent psychotic disorders in children and adolescents. Most scientists and health professionals believe that it is the anti-inflammatory properties of the fish oil that enable it to provide so many health benefits.

In New Zealand, hoki comprise the largest commercial fish species. Because of the high volume of catch, fishing is closely monitored to ensure that the fish are not being excessively exploited.

From an Alternative to a Preference: Growth of Ayurvedic Treatment in India

With the United Nations declaring June 21 as International Yoga Day and celebrations across the country in full swing, the impact of India’s traditional science and culture is vivid. Yoga, Ayurveda and other natural therapies are few such practices that pose far reaching effects on physical health and mental peace.

Ayurveda, in particular, affects the cell-mediated immunity! The medicinal techniques used, take the remedies to the cell interiors, thereby facilitating healing. More than 5,000 years old and in constant practice since then, Ayurveda is rapidly spreading from the rural community to urban population. A 2014 survey in Uttar Pradesh’s state Ayurvedic hospital revealed that more and more patients are opting for Ayurveda in order to:

• protect themselves from the side effects of allopathic medicines

• bring down cost incurred on medicine

• get benefits that modern medicine doesn’t offer

Similar surveys conducted in other parts of the country showcase an increasing shift towards Ayurveda, especially because it heals diseases from the root. Diabetes, gastrointestinal issues, arthritis, and various other chronic ailments have been cured in a large set of patients.

Growth of Ayurveda

When we say there is a growth in Ayurvedic treatment in India, it also largely means that the preference is more public now. Prime Minister Narendra Modi, promoting traditional medicines; and the election of Shripad Naik as the minister for yoga and traditional medicine, are apt examples of the boom Ayurveda is experiencing. In consequence to the ongoing governmental push, India aims to expand its presence in the $100 billion global market for alternative medicine; of which Ayurveda is a big part. In real sense, this is the growth of Ayurveda!

Why the shift?

One of the primary causes behind Ayurveda’s wide acceptability is the adversity of modern drug reactions and economic burden patients need to helplessly bear with. The All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) has also joined the bandwagon, with one of its studies confirming that certain Ayurvedic formulations are effective in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which causes irreversible joint damage.

Ayurveda market is growing at a rate of 10 to 15 percent annually. Stressing on the impact, Dr. VM Kumar, president of the Central Council of Indian Medicine, at a press conference this month, said that Ayurveda-based Amritadi Guggulu will replace antibiotics in India. The $20 billion global stake of herbal health care products is estimated to reach 5 trillion dollars in the future. In the light of such scope, Experts at the National Arogya Expo 2015 advocated that Ayurveda should not be considered an alternative and its reach must be expanded beyond India. The need of giving more importance to Ayurveda in the state’s public health system also came up. A small but significant step in this direction was seen when the Chief Minister of Goa announced the inclusion of Ayurvedic treatment in the universal medical scheme, Deen Dayal Swasthya Seva (DDSS).

The Facilitators

Talking about the promoters, Jiva Ayurveda is one influential example. With the aim of ‘taking Ayurveda to every household’, Jiva plans to add 25 more centers across India, including Mumbai, Bhopal, Indore and Mujafarnagar. The health care provider also has the world’s largest telemedicine center, which is offering Ayurvedic consultancy and treatment services to patients in 1500 towns and cities of India.

With increasing consumer awareness in terms of health services and proven benefits of Ayurveda, it is quintessential that the focus on traditional sciences is amplified so that the benefits can be availed by the masses.

Roux-en-y or Gastric Bypass Surgery in India: Life-altering Experience

Travel to India for roux-en-y or gastric bypass surgery and your expensive medical needs and save up 94%! Indian healthcare industry is undergoing phenomenal expansion. The combination of high quality services and low cost facilities is attracting thousands of international patients every year. This is hardly surprising considering the cost of advanced surgeries in India is 10 -15 times lower than anywhere else in the world. Added to this a growing number of hospitals in India have formed alliances with the US and European hospitals in an effort to improve overall care and stand on par with the best hospitals in the world. When compared to other popular medical tourism countries, India has the advantage of hospital facilities, experienced doctors and cost. Compared to Thailand, India on average is 50% cheaper for roux-en-y or gastric bypass surgery and when compared to South Africa a sixth the cost.

Undergoing a gastric bypass procedure is a life-altering experience that will affect your health and well-being. Having bariatric surgery is major life decision ad it is important to understand the procedure. The most common gastric bypass surgery is the Roux-en-Y bypass. It is traditionally performed with one long incision, but is also now being done laparoscopically with less scaring and faster recovery. This procedure reduces the stomach size through either stapling or banding, leaving a smaller stomach pouch intact. The stomach pouch is then attached to a Y-shaped portion of the small intestine, bypassing both the upper portion and part of the middle portion of the small intestine. Gastric bypass surgery both limits the amount of food a person can eat and the absorption of calories and nutrients from the food through the intestinal bypass. In a biliopancreatic diversion bypass surgery, a portion of the stomach is surgically removed and the remaining portion of the stomach is attached o the ileum, or lower portion of the small intestine. This gastric bypass procedure circumvents both the duodenum and the jejunum, the upper and mid sections of the small intestine. Because this surgery is more invasive it has a longer recovery time and is less commonly used. When most of the small intestine is bypassed, there is a greater risk for nutritional deficiencies as absorption of both calories and nutrients occurs in the small intestine. Patients are hospitalized for two to three days after a bariatric procedure. Most people need two to five weeks of recovery time before they can return to normal activities. There can be significant discomfort, swelling and soreness in the abdomen following surgery, which can be treated with prescription medication. An after-care treatment consists of a dietary plan, vitamin supplements, regular exercise and behavior-modification therapy that can include support groups, a dietician or even a psychologist.

India has a talent pool of qualified surgeons for roux-en-y or gastric bypass surgery, a lot of whom have been trained in the US and UK, in specialized areas of obesity surgery. With the recent development of the healthcare infrastructure in India, the best of facilities and equipment are also available with these surgeons. This coupled with the extremely low cost of the surgeries makes India the ideal destination for your surgery needs.

To know more about roux-en-y or gastric bypass surgery in India:

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What Your Spa Or Hot Tub is Trying to Tell You

You walk out to use your spa or hot tub and immediately you know something is wrong. Either the water is cold, which makes for a less than enjoyable soak or nothing is working at all. The spa appears dead.

If you have a digital system in your spa or hot tub with a digital upper control, you first look at the upper control display to see if it will tell you what is going on. Looking at your upper control, you see abbreviations like SN1 or FLO or even “—-“. What do these symbols and abbreviations mean?

The symbols and abbreviations displayed on your spas upper control are called error codes. They tell you that the spa has detected a situation for which it then tries to identify. Different equipment manufacturers use different codes to identify certain conditions found by the spa self diagnostic system.

We will look at the two spa systems I receive most questions about. Balboa controls and Sundance Spas controls.

Balboa, one of the most common spa controls manufacturers, uses the following codes.

pd = Power supply, unit running on battery backup

OH = Sensors reading 112-118 Degrees

Flo = Improper flow or pressure switch malfunction

Cool = Water temp 20 degrees below set point

ICE = Potential freeze condition has been detected

Sn1 = Hi-limit sensor malfunction

Sn3 = Temp sensor malfunction

LOC = Interlock failure – possible pump or ozone spike

(—-) = Unknown water temperature. (Displays when Spa is first powered up after refill).

Sundance Spa, one of the largest spa manufacturers, uses the following error codes.

ILOC = Interlock failure – possible pump or ozone spike

FLO = Pressure switch malfunction or Flow switch malfunction (system specific).

Hold = Flow Switch (heater is deactivated. Pump may also be deactivated).

Hold = Panel buttons pressed to many times to quickly.

HOT = PCB temperature above acceptable limit – air blower on.

ICE = Potential freeze condition.

PnL = Communication between the panel and circuit board is faulty.

(—-) = “WATCHDOG” (spa is deactivated) A problem has been detected. (system can not identify)

Sn1 = OPEN SENSOR (heater is deactivated) or SHORTED SENSOR (spa is deactivated).

Sn3 = OPEN SENSOR OR SHORTED SENSOR ( heater disabled).

(This is not a complete list and your spa error codes may vary depending on year and model.)

Notice the similarities and differences in the codes. Both use FLO,SN1,SN3 and ICE and so forth, Differences include, (—-). Meaning totally different things between the two systems. You must use the error codes for your control system to accurately diagnose the problem with your spa.

Lets take a quick look at the FLO error code. Both manufacturers state FLO is caused when a pressure switch malfunctions or a flow switch malfunctions. This can be the case in many situations, however, it is my experience that the number one cause of a spa displaying the error code “FLO” is due to a dirty or worn out filter.

(Some manufacturers attempt to narrow down the FLO error with different displays of the code, i.e., a solid FLO or a flashing FLO (FLO error blinks off and on).

Blinking FLO = Heater has been deactivated, pump is on and Flow / Pressure switch are open. (This means the system detects the spa has called for heat, the PC board has applied power to the pump, but it has not detected water flow. It deactivates the heater to avoid damage to the heater).

Solid FLO = Pump is off, flow or pressure switch is closed. (Meaning, the system should not be detecting water flow because the PC Board has not applied power to the pump, but the flow pressure switch is saying there is water flow. The flow or pressure switch is stuck in the closed position or shorted.)

A dirty or worn out filter can cause several error codes to be displayed. “OH” (over heat) because water is not moving quickly enough through the heater vessel and the high limit detects too hot of water temperature. “FLO” because the filter will not allow enough water through the heater vessel to activate the flow or pressure switch. Filters should be replaced approximately annually or bi-annually if you use two different filters. Filters should be rinsed thoroughly every month, and cleaned properly every 3 months or so.

For more information on error codes for your spa, visit Spa Parts Supply or contact your spa manufacturer for a list of codes that pertain to your spa. When in doubt, call a spa service technician for troubleshooting help and repair.

MPJE Exam Preparation

Proper preparation is the key to passing the MPJE Pharmacy Law Exam. The first steps towards your preparation are to familiarize yourself the basic structure of the test and to review some important study tips.

The MPJE Exam consists of 90 questions, although only 60 of these will actually count towards your final score. The remaining 30 questions are evaluation questions which are being considered for future versions of the test. There is no way to know which questions will count and which ones are evaluation questions, so it is critical to treat every question seriously. The questions will cover federal pharmacy laws and regulations as well as state laws specific to the state in which you are applying for licensure. Federal and state laws are intermingled throughout the test, and it is important to be familiar with both.

A score of 75 is required to pass the test, which is not easy to obtain since the questions are fairly challenging. There are 3 major areas covered: pharmacy practice, licensure, and regulatory structure. The vast majority of the questions will be on pharmacy practice, so this is the area that you should focus your efforts on.

When studying for the MPJE, you will want to split your time evenly between federal and state laws. Print out and review all major statutes, and get a good study guide that highlights the most important pharmacy regulations. When you begin to feel that you have a strong grasp on the material it is time to try some practice tests. Finding an MPJE free practice exam is simple with an online search. These are a great resource and you should spend several hours working through these free practice questions. Whenever you get a question wrong, make sure you review the applicable laws and regulations in order to understand exactly why your answer was incorrect. After you are comfortable with the questions on your practice exams, then you know you are prepared for the actual test.

Keep in mind that the MPJE Exam is a computerized test. After each question appears on the screen, you will only have one chance to carefully review the question and the answers. You will not be permitted to skip a question and come back to it later, and you will not be permitted to change an answer. The key is to relax, take a deep breath, and try your best to pick the right answer. If you have no idea what the answer is, just make an educated guess and move on. Getting stressed out about difficult questions will only cause you to worry and will almost certainly hurt your performance.

With proper preparation you will have no trouble passing the MPJE on your first try. So make sure you study hard, try plenty of practice questions, and stay relaxed during the exam. Your passing score will put you one step closer to a great career in pharmacy.

A Substantive Due Process Challenge to the War on Drugs

Substantive Due Process Analysis of the Incarceration of Drug Offenders

A. Framework

In Washington v. Glucksberg, Chief Justice Rehnquist described the framework for substantive due process analysis:

Our established method of substantive-due-process analysis has two primary features: First, we have regularly observed that the Due Process Clause specially protects those fundamental rights and liberties which are, objectively, “deeply rooted in this Nation’s history and tradition,” and “implicit in the concept of ordered liberty,” such that “neither liberty nor justice would exist if they were sacrificed.” Second, we have required in substantive-due-process cases a “careful description” of the asserted fundamental liberty interest. Our Nation’s history, legal traditions, and practices thus provide the crucial “guideposts for responsible decisionmaking,” that direct and restrain our exposition of the Due Process Clause. As we stated recently in Flores, the Fourteenth Amendment “forbids the government to infringe . . . ‘fundamental’ liberty interests at all, no matter what process is provided, unless the infringement is narrowly tailored to serve a compelling state interest.”

Applying this method, one must first examine freedom from incarceration to determine if it is a fundamental right. If so, government policies that require the incarceration of offenders, including drug offenders, must serve compelling interests and be narrowly tailored to achieve them. This article assumes for the sake of argument that drug problems give rise to compelling state interests. It then reviews the interests asserted by the government in its pursuit of its drug war policies and the results of those policies to determine whether the policy of incarcerating drug offenders is narrowly tailored to those asserted interests.

B. The Fundamental Liberty Interest: Freedom from Incarceration

Federal and state laws subject drug offenders to incarceration. Incarceration is a tremendous deprivation of liberty that triggers the protections of the Due Process Clause. The Supreme Court has recognized this right on a number of occasions. In DeShaney v. Winnebago County DSS for example, the court held:

[I]t is the State’s affirmative act of restraining the individual’s freedom to act on his own behalf–through incarceration, institutionalization, or other similar restraint of personal liberty–which is the “deprivation of liberty” triggering the protections of the Due Process Clause . . . .

Perhaps the earliest explicit recognition by the Supreme Court of freedom from incarceration as a fundamental right under substantive due process came in Allgeyer:

The ‘liberty’ mentioned in [the fourteenth] amendment means, not only the right of the citizen to be free from the mere physical restraint of his person, as by incarceration, but the term is deemed to embrace the right of the citizen to be free in the enjoyment of all his faculties; to be free to use them in all lawful ways; to live and work where he will; to earn his livelihood by any lawful calling; to pursue any livelihood or avocation; and for that purpose to enter into all contracts which may be proper, necessary, and essential to his carrying out to a successful conclusion the purposes above mentioned.

An 1891 law review article noted that Blackstone described “freedom from restraint of the person” as “perhaps the most important of all civil rights,” and that Lord Coke felt “the liberty of a man’s person is more precious to him than everything else that is mentioned [in the Magna Charta].” Blackstone states that “the rights of all mankind . . . may be reduced to three principal or primary articles; the right of personal security, the right of personal liberty, and the right of private property.” Indeed, the original Latin in the Magna Charta’s “law of the land” clause uses the term “imprisonetur.”

No court has invalidated a criminal statute through the application of substantive due process analysis to the fundamental right of freedom from incarceration. At the same time, no court has ruled to the contrary. The Supreme Court avoided the question in Reno v. Flores:

The “freedom from physical restraint” invoked by respondents is not at issue in this case. Surely not in the sense of shackles, chains, or barred cells, given the Juvenile Care Agreement. Nor even in the sense of a right to come and go at will, since, as we have said elsewhere, “juveniles, unlike adults, are always in some form of custody,” and where the custody of the parent or legal guardian fails, the government may (indeed, we have said must) either exercise custody itself or appoint someone else to do so.

This analysis would not apply to adult drug offenders. The Fourth Circuit also avoided addressing freedom from incarceration as a fundamental right in Hawkins v. Freeman:

Hawkins’s rhetorical reference to the right as being “freedom from unjust incarceration,” and that of amicus, American Civil Liberties Union of North Carolina, as the “right to be free from arbitrary incarceration,” are issue-begging generalizations that cannot serve the inquiry. A properly precise description can, however, be found in the facts and legal authorities relied upon by Hawkins in support of his claim. From these, we deduce that the precise right asserted is that of a prisoner to remain free on erroneously granted parole so long as he did not contribute to or know of the error and has for an appreciable time remained on good behavior to the point that his expectations for continued freedom from incarceration have “crystallized.”

Hawkins is distinguishable because it deals with an inmate whose parole was revoked. In any event, the casual dismissal as an “issue-begging generalization” flies in the face of nearly 800 years of common law tradition and over a century of Supreme Court decisions recognizing freedom from incarceration as a fundamental right. Indeed the language of the Supreme Court’s Ingraham decision supports the application of substantive due process proposed in this paper:

While the contours of this historic liberty interest in the context of our federal system of government have not been defined precisely, they always have been thought to encompass freedom from bodily restraint and punishment. It is fundamental that the state cannot hold and physically punish an individual except in accordance with due process of law.

The Court also stressed this fundamental liberty interest in Foucha v. Louisiana, a case involving the confinement of a person found not guilty by reason of insanity:

Freedom from bodily restraint has always been at the core of the liberty protected by the Due Process Clause from arbitrary governmental action. “It is clear that commitment for any purpose constitutes a significant deprivation of liberty that requires due process protection.” We have always been careful not to “minimize the importance and fundamental nature” of the individual’s right to liberty.

While the Foucha Court indicated that “a State may imprison convicted criminals for the purposes of deterrence and retribution,” the remark was dicta and did not involve any discussion of substantive limits on the police power. In Meachum v. Fano the Court made a similar remark in the context of a case dealing with prison conditions: “[G]iven a valid conviction, the criminal defendant has been constitutionally deprived of his liberty to the extent that the State may confine him.” Again there was no discussion of substantive limits on the police power. Indeed the previous sentence noted: “The Due Process Clause by its own force forbids the State from convicting any person of crime and depriving him of his liberty without complying fully with the requirements of the Clause.”

Recently in Zadvydas v. Davis, the Court noted:

The Fifth Amendment’s Due Process Clause forbids the Government to “depriv[e]” any “person … of … liberty … without due process of law.” Freedom from imprisonment–from government custody, detention, or other forms of physical restraint–lies at the heart of the liberty that Clause protects.

Freedom from incarceration is not just a fundamental right. It is the one of the most fundamental of rights.

C. Identifying the State’s Interests

Governmental drug policy interests identified in federal statutes include “demand reduction,” “supply reduction,” and “reducing drug abuse and the consequences of drug abuse in the United States, by limiting the availability of and reducing the demand for illegal drugs.”

Federal law sets specific goals for the National Drug Control Strategy. These include:

“Reduction of unlawful drug use to 3 percent of the population”;

“Reduction of adolescent unlawful drug use to 3 percent of the adolescent population”;

“Reduction of the availability of cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamine”;

“Reduction of the respective nationwide average street purity levels for cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamine”; and

“Reduction of drug-related crime.”

Goals are also set forth with regard to drug-related crime:

(i) reduction of State and Federal unlawful drug trafficking and distribution; (ii) reduction of State and Federal crimes committed by persons under the influence of unlawful drugs; (iii) reduction of State and Federal crimes committed for the purpose of obtaining unlawful drugs or obtaining property that is intended to be used for the purchase of unlawful drugs; and (iv) reduction of drug-related emergency room incidents . . . .

D. Defining “Narrow Tailoring” in the Context of Substantive Due Process

Assuming that the governmental interests are compelling, we must determine whether the incarceration of drug offenders is narrowly tailored to achieving them. The government must show that its policy passes strict scrutiny. The concept of narrow tailoring is not well defined in the context of substantive due process, but has been fairly well defined in regard to the First Amendment and Equal Protection. Equal Protection cases also arise out of the Fourteenth Amendment. In Wygant v. Jackson Bd. of Education the Supreme Court held: “Under strict scrutiny the means chosen to accomplish the State’s asserted purpose must be specifically and narrowly framed to accomplish that purpose.” In a footnote, the Court described narrow tailoring in even further detail:

The term “narrowly tailored,” so frequently used in our cases, has acquired a secondary meaning. More specifically, as commentators have indicated, the term may be used to require consideration of whether lawful alternative and less restrictive means could have been used. Or, as Professor Ely has noted, the classification at issue must “fit” with greater precision than any alternative means. “[Courts] should give particularly intense scrutiny to whether a nonracial approach or a more narrowly-tailored racial classification could promote the substantial interest about as well and at tolerable administrative expense.”

It is important to note here that a policy that does not advance the government’s interests violates substantive due process regardless of how it compares with the alternatives. If it does not accomplish its purpose, logic dictates it cannot be specifically and narrowly framed to accomplish its purpose.

E. Advancing Governmental Interests

Congress has identified certain tools for assessing the national drug control strategy. The National Household Survey is the measure for “unlawful drug use.” Similarly, “adolescent unlawful drug use” is to be measured “by the Monitoring the Future Survey of the University of Michigan or the National PRIDE Survey conducted by the National Parents’ Resource Institute for Drug Education.” On these measures, the goals are not being reached.

The measure of adolescent drug use that was specifically identified by Congress, illicit drug use in the past 30 days, worsened in 2001. More than 25% of US twelfth graders reported using illicit drugs in the past 30 days. That is nearly double the figure for 1992 and more than eight times the stated goal of 3%. Over 40% of 12th graders tried an illicit drug in the past year.

The PRIDE Survey and National Household Survey show similar results.

The drug war has also failed in its other goals. The Monitoring the Future Survey tracks how twelfth graders perceive the availability of drugs. Reducing availability is an explicit goal of the drug war. The perceived availability of marijuana in 2001 was slightly higher than in 1975. The figures for harder drugs are more disturbing. From 1975 to 1986, roughly 20% of twelfth graders said heroin was easy to get. That number shot up in the late 1980s and has remained consistently higher than 30%. Cocaine remains widely available to our youth, with nearly 50% of twelfth graders saying it is easy to get. The survey began measuring the availability of ecstasy in 1989, when only 22% of twelfth graders felt it was easy to get. In 2001, that number went over 61%, having jumped from 51% the year before.

Drug war policies are not achieving the stated drug war goals. They cannot be “specifically and narrowly framed to accomplish their purpose” because they are not accomplishing their purpose. Drug use has not been reduced in any significant way, and levels of drug use are far above the stated goals. Our children have easy access to drugs. We can’t even keep drugs out of jails. The drug war and the incarceration of drug offenders have also failed to achieve secondary goals regarding supply, demand, purity, drug-related health problems and drug-related crime. The policy of incarcerating drug offenders does not “directly advance[] the governmental interest asserted.” The War on Drugs is not working.

F. Alternative Means

Even if a court is persuaded that incarceration advances the government’s interests, the government must also show that its policy choice fits better than the alternatives. Critics of the drug war encompass a broad spectrum of backgrounds, and the range of “solutions” is just as wide. Libertarians and others favor outright legalization of drugs. The legalization of marijuana is a somewhat popular variation of overall legalization, and there are other variations such as the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes and decriminalization of drugs or marijuana. Another leading approach, known as harm reduction, looks at drugs from a public health perspective.

The effectiveness of some of these alternatives is difficult to assess. Even so, certain comparisons can be made. Advocates of treatment point to studies showing that treatment is much more effective than incarceration. Spencer notes:

The recidivism rate for first time Dade County drug offenders was sixty percent, but for those who successfully completed the Dade County Drug Court treatment programs, the recidivism rate reported by Dade County officials was only seven percent. Drug court treatment programs are also cost effective. It costs Florida only $2,000 to put a drug offender through a drug court program, as compared to $17,000 per drug offender for incarceration. As a result, other drug court programs are being established throughout the country.

Similarly, a Rand study found treatment to be seven times more cost-effective than current supply-control policy in reducing cocaine consumption.

G. The Incarceration of Drug Offenders is Not Narrowly Tailored

Incarceration involves a far greater infringement of fundamental rights than alternatives which are both more effective and less intrusive. The incarceration of offenders is not advancing the state’s asserted interests. The drug war is not narrowly tailored, failing the Supreme Court’s “established method of substantive-due-process analysis” as described by Chief Justice Rehnquist. The laws requiring the incarceration of drug offenders are therefore unconstitutional, if substantive due process analysis is applied.


It is true that the approach suggested in this paper would limit the police power. Constitutional protection of individual rights exists for that very purpose. We face coercive government action, carried out in a corrupt and racist manner, with military and paramilitary assaults on our homes, leading to mass incarceration and innocent deaths. We can never forget the tyranny of a government unrestrained by an independent judiciary. Our courts must end the War on Drugs.

For the full article, with endnotes, see:

Retinoblastoma – Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment

Retinoblastoma is a rare form of cancer which affects the eye and especially the retina. This cancer is usually present in children below the age of six years and is usually diagnosed in children aged 1 to 2 years. Symptoms include pain in the eyes, diminished or disturbed vision, an opaque and white appearance of the eyes, and a bulge in the eyes. The tumour can spread through the optic nerve to the brain and other parts of the body, especially the bones. Examination for this condition includes an ophthalmic examination, ultrasound of the eyes, CT or MRI of the orbits, and examination of the cerebro- spinal fluid, and possibly bone marrow examination. Treatment of retinoblastoma includes laser surgery, cryotherapy, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Removal of the eye is believed to prevent a spread of the tumour from the eyes to the brain and other parts of the body such as lungs and bones. The tumour is generally believed to be incurable if it has spread outside the eye, while it is known to cause blindness in the eye itself.

Ayurvedic herbal treatment for retinoblastoma should be instituted at the earliest in order to bring about the maximum possible improvement, prevent the spread of the tumour outside the eye, and maximise chances for survival. Aggressive treatment can also prevent the tumour spreading from the affected eye to the other eye. Ayurvedic herbal medicines which are useful in the management of retinoblastoma are those medicines which have a strong anti- tumour effect as well as have a specific affinity for the eyes. While these medicines form the mainstay of treatment, other medicines which strengthen the nervous system and have a specific action on the nerve cells are also used in the treatment of this condition. Still other medicines are required to prevent the spread of the tumour through the blood and lymphatic circulation.

As with all cancer and tumour treatments, the addition of immunomodulatory herbal agents is a must in the management of retinoblastoma, since a strong immune system helps in the fight against the tumour, reduces treatment time, improves the overall response and maintains the strength of the affected individual. A combination of all the above-mentioned medicines helps to bring about an early remission, significantly improve the chances for survival, and also prevents a recurrence of the condition. Medicines useful in the treatment of retinoblastoma include Triphala (Three Fruits), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Haridra (Curcuma longa), Yashtimadhu (Glycerrhiza glabra), Saptamrut Loh and Panch-Tikta-Ghrut-Guggulu.

In addition to treating the retinoblastoma tumour, efforts also need to be made to preserve vision in the affected individual to the maximum extent possible. Depending upon the presentation of the tumour and the time of commencement of treatment, herbal medicines are added to the treatment so as minimize damage to the retina as well as other inner structures of the eyes. Damage to vision is due to a direct pressure or displacement of the retina and a spread of the tumour through the optic nerve. Hence, it is logical to start aggressive treatment at the earliest in order to contain the tumour and prevent damage to the eye, which can result in disturbed vision or complete blindness.

Most children affected with retinoblastoma require Ayurvedic herbal treatment for about 15 to 18 months in order to get significant remission from this condition. Prompt treatment obviates the necessity of removing the affected eye, helps bring about an early cure, and improves long-term survival. Ayurvedic herbal treatment thus has a significant role to play in the management and treatment of retinoblastoma.

Ovarian Cysts During Pregnancy – How To Handle The Pain

There is probably no good time to develop troublesome ovarian cysts, but to develop a cyst during pregnancy presents a brand new challenge for the woman.

Ovarian cysts are not uncommon.  For the most part, they don’t present a health risk and most will pass naturally.  In the back of every woman’s mind is the fear that the cyst is cancerous and that too really isn’t a problem.  Fewer than 15 women out of 100,000 reporting ovarian cysts actually have a malignant cyst.

However cysts can develop that can become very painful and when that occurs during pregnancy, the treatment options are not as many as if she was not pregnant.

Obviously treating the cyst with birth control pills is pretty much out of the question.  Hormonal therapies, as well as any kind of medication can have serious consequences for the fetus. That leaves doing nothing and simply living with the pain, which is often recommended, or surgery.

Depending on the type of surgery, this may be a viable option.  However surgery always runs the risk of endangering the fetus and in addition, cannot guarantee that the cyst will not return again even before she gives birth.  For this reason, many women will forgo surgery as a solution as well.

Most pregnant women simply live with the pain.  Pain killer medication really isn’t an option either because of the negative effects on the unborn child.

There are several holistic treatments that a woman can try even if she is just looking for temporary relief and not a long term cure of ovarian cysts.  Warm baths, castor oil packs, breathing exercises, herbal teas and a slight change in diet will help relieve the pain and shrink the cysts.  These approaches are safe for the baby, work quickly, are inexpensive and can be done at home.

Every woman who is a mother understands what she will sacrifice for her child.  That sacrifice does not have to mean continuous pain due to ovarian cysts during pregnancy.  If you are faced with this dilemma, you owe it to yourself, and your baby, to learn more about a natural approach to ovarian cyst pain.

Vitamins, The Difference Between Pharmaceutical Grade Vitamins vs Regular

Vitamins are necessary for human life and health. They are required in minute amounts, and with the exception of Vitamin B12, cannot be manufactured in your bodies. These organic compounds need to be obtained from diet, and if deprived of a particular vitamin, you will suffer from disease specific to that vitamin. It is a matter of record that you are not getting enough vitamins. Though we Americans are living longer, our quality of life leaves much to be desired.

The thirteen different vitamins are classified into two main categories:

· Water Soluble Vitamins – They dissolve easily in water. They are Vitamin C and the eight types of Vitamins B, B-1, B-2, B-3, B-5, B-6, B-7, B-9, and B-12.

· Fat Soluble Vitamins – With the help of lipids, they are absorbed through the intestinal tract. These vitamins are Vitamins A. D, E, and K.

The term Vitamin does not mean to include essential nutrients, such as, dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, or essential amino acids; neither does it mean to include other nutrients that just promote health, and may not be essential.

The Different Grades of Vitamins

Vitamin supplements are taken by more than 75% of the world’s population. With the plethora of different brands, it becomes difficult to know what is what. Vitamins and other nutritional supplements are made from three different grades of raw materials:

· Pharmaceutical Grade – It meets pharmaceutical standards

· Food Grade – It meets standards for human consumption

· Feed Grade – It meets standards for animal consumption

The main difference is of quality and purity. Due to the addition of various other substances, no product is 100% pure. Pharmaceutical Grade Vitamins must be in excess of 99% purity containing no binders, fillers, excipients – substances used as diluents for a drug – dyes, or unknown substances. Regular Vitamins of the other two grades are available as Over The Counter (OTC) products, whereas pharmaceutical grade vitamins are only available through prescriptions.

Pharmaceutical grade vitamins are formulated to yield a higher degree of bioavailability – the degree at which the vitamin is absorbed into a living system. As these vitamins can be absorbed into your body quickly, they improve and enhance the quality of your life rapidly.

Of late, the American vitamin industry has gained a lot of bad reputation, and many feel it is rightly deserved. People walk into stores and pharmacies to buy regular vitamins. In some of the cases, the ingredients specified on the label are not in conformity with what they find inside the bottle. A variety of ingredients do not absorb into the body.

More and more people are opting for pharmaceutical grade vitamins, as they are available through prescriptions from doctors and licensed medical practitioners. Pharmaceutical grade vitamins, vis-à-vis regular vitamins, have been tested for their quality and ability to give results. They are tested by third parties to confirm that the bottles contain what they profess to contain.

The Best Hospitals in Surabaya

Surabaya is the capital of the East Java province and is the second largest city in Indonesia. Surabaya is a commercial center with a big seaport – probably one of the largest in the region. The population of this city is approximately 3 million. It is the gateway city to Mount Bromo and to Mount Bali. Though many residents speak the local language Javanese, the national language of Indonesia is Bahasa. Bahasa is the official language and is used in business and education. Recently, English is also used for different purposes such as advertisings and public signs.

There are many views regarding the origin of the name Surabaya. A Javanese myth says that this name comes from two words suro or sura meaning shark and boya meaning crocodile. Some locals are of the belief that two heroes by the name of Sura and Boya clashed with one another in their attempt to become the king of the region.

The Airport in the city is called Juanda Airport and has regular flights to the capital city, Jakarta and to other major cities of Indonesia. This is the second busiest airport in the country after Jakarta. A few direct international flights are also available from this airport. A fixed fare taxi service is available from the airport to the city which is around 18 km away.

There are a few good hospitals in Surabaya offering excellent medical care to all locals and the patients from various other countries. Outlined here are some of the most prominent hospitals of the metropolis.

Siloam Hospitals Surabaya

Siloam Hospital Surabaya is one of the largest hospitals in the city. It offers the highest class of medical care in the region and has 160 operational beds and all different types of modern facilities. It is an initiative of a large private property group called Lippo Karawaci. Their other three International hospitals are located in Jakarta. In Surabaya alone, this hospital has 210 specialist doctors as well as 184 nurses. The hospital also provides 24 hours emergency and ambulance service, both of which are available throughout the week.

Rumah Sakit Surabaya International is located in the calm and quiet area, east of the city. It is another major hospital in the city. It began its operations with a vision to create and uphold a reputation of excellent medical service. This hospital belongs to a branch of Ramsay Health Institute, the largest health care company in Australia. The company as a whole has around 70 health care centers in Australia alone. It started its operation Surabaya in 1998. With 168 bedrooms and the professionalism of the doctors from Australia and Indonesia, this has become a unique center for medical care. Other medical facilities such as a 24 hours emergency unit, ambulance, and number of medical doctors in each department make it a favorable place for patients to visit.

Husada Utama hospital became operational in 1993 with a vision to become a five-star hospital that provides complete satisfaction to its patients and to their families. The infrastructure has 220 beds, emergency care service, and modern facilities in the operating theatre. All of these factors make this medical center an excellent healthcare institute. Husada Utama continues to provide the most outstanding healthcare service with the highest professional standard medical technology.

Menur Psychiatric Hospital is another hospital that provides medical care to mentally disordered patients in the region. They have 30 VIP rooms and other world-class facilities to provide medical care to such patients.

What is The Best Cure For Thrush? The Real Solution To End Thrush Fast!

Thrush also known as yeast infection is a fungal infection which occurs in the mouth. There are many remedies that will help cure thrush fast and provide you with relief to the pain you are experiencing right now.

The first signs of thrush are a thick, white plaque on the tongue and both sides of the mouth and sometimes it can cause a burning sensation in the mouth and throat. You might also get a bad smell in the mouth caused by the infection. Thrush can occur due to a recent course of antibiotics or a weak immune system.

How to Cure Thrush Naturally?

Natural remedies are very effective at treating thrush as they are based on natural ingredients. Because the infection was caused by an overgrowth in yeast, antibiotics might only flare up the infection more and delay the recovery process. So it’s best you stick with a natural based treatment.

So here’s the best method to help bring down the infection and cure thrush fast. 

  1. Maintain proper oral hygiene, brush your teeth regularly and use a mouthwash to kill off the bacteria.
  2. Drink plenty of water to help your body get rid of the toxins and excess yeast.
  3. For a fast thrush home remedy cure – dilute some apple cider vinegar with some water and rinse your mouth with it. Apple cider vinegar will help kill off the excess yeast and will also give you relief from the burning sensation you probably have.
  4. Add natural yogurt to your diet and eat it daily, this will help subside thrush and cure it faster because it contains a type of friendly bacteria called Lactobacillus Acidophilus that helps fight off bacterial infections.
  5. Eat raw garlic every day or add it to daily food. Garlic is a powerful healer and its anti-fungal properties will help kill off yeast and cure thrush faster and boost your overall immune system. </p>

Visit Get Rid Of Yeast Infection for more free tips on cures for trush and how to cure thrush fast.