Korean Body Type Acupuncture – 8 Constitution Medicine

Eight Constitution Medicine is a completely new medical paradigm and has cured intractable and previously incurable diseases. It was first presented to the world in 1965 by Dowon Kuon, a world renowned acupuncturist that is currently treating cancer patients and conducting research at Jesun Acupuncture Clinic and Dawnting Cancer Research Institute in South Korea. His findings have stayed true after 47 years and 1 million plus clinical cases: all human beings regardless of gender or race can be classified into eight different human individualities or constitutions.

Each constitution has dynamic associations between internal organs. Some people are born with lungs that are strong but with a weaker liver. Others entered this world with weak lungs yet have strong functioning livers. Additional weak/strong pairs are: kidneys and pancreas, stomach and bladder, large intestine and gallbladder. Dr. Kuon refers to this state as ‘suitably unbalanced’. Maintaining this state optimizes the immune function of the human body. So when a person’s strong internal organ becomes overly strong or a weak one deteriorates, his body can succumb to illness.

If this person sought treatment in Eight Constitution Medicine for his illness, the state of their internal organs at birth would dictate their treatment. It would be completely personalized from someone else who may have the same illness because their constitutions would be totally different. By identifying the weaker internal organs at birth, it is also that much easier to understand the cause of an illness.

The idea is currently gaining ground of focusing on the cause of a disease rather than just treating the symptoms. While Oriental Medicine has operated under such theories for thousands of years, Eight Constitution Medicine elegantly connects the physiology and pathology of each constitution and its twelve internal organs (Liver, Lungs, Kidney, Large intestine, Small Intestine, Gallbladder, Stomach, Heart, Urinary Bladder, Pancreas, Pericardium, San Jiao). It is also complete in addressing what elements outside of the body such as the consumption of foods would optimize each constitution.

One easy to understand application of these findings is in the treatment high cholesterol. The typical one size fits all approach is reducing red meat consumption and increasing the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, over 90% of cholesterol is generated in the liver and so the impact of foods eaten is actually minimal. With Eight Constitution Medicine, the focus is in balancing the internal organ functions so that they are at optimal levels and performing appropriately for the body.

Inverted Nipple Repair – Are Inverted Nipples Ugly?

Inverted nipples are quite simply a nipple that points in instead of out. Although naturally occurring in about 10 percent of the population, most people consider it unattractive and tend to demonstrate a strong desire to have it corrected.

Inverted nipples are found in both men and women and not always to the same degree. Some people will have an erect nipple when stimulated, others will not. You can have one nipple that is normal and the other that is inverted. Inverted nipples do self correct during pregnancy on occasion or with changes in weight and breast size ( the opposite can happen as well).

One major concern for women with this condition is the issue of breastfeeding. Common concerns like, what will the baby suckle, or latch onto are common and valid questions. The good news is this fear is totally unwarranted except that mothers with this condition tend to give up on breastfeeding easier and revert to formula, a less natural option.

The truth about breastfeeding with an inverted nipple is that babys do not actually attach themselves to the nipple, but to the areola, the larger surrounding area. If the baby were to just feed on the nipple itself it would be a very painful experience. Rest assured that with proper feeding techniques the baby will get the milk exactly the same as latching onto a regular nipple.

Some mothers will use a breast pump to help draw out the nipple prior to breastfeeding. Nipple stimulation like sucking by the partner during sex may also help to pull the nipple into the regular position.

What causes inverted nipples?

This list will detail the most common causes

  • Hereditary, you are born with it
  • Scaring during a surgery (breast augmentation etc)
  • Breasts which droop or sag noticeably may cause it
  • Pregnancy can cause nipples to invert.
  • Sudden weight gain or loss

How are inverted nipples corrected?

This list will detail the most common nipple repair options

  • Plastic Surgery, this is the most common nipple repair method
  • Piercing, the nipple is pierced and a wide hoop or stud is used to hold the nipple in an out position.
  • Excessive stimulation. the nipple is coaxed out into the out position several times daily.
  • Home nipple protraction, basically a syringe that is used to pull the nipple out.

In short if you have inverted nipples you have several options and none are necessary expect if you feel this is an undesirable condition. The majority of nipple repair surgeries are just considered as vanity surgeries and are not covered by insurance companies.

If you plan to breastfeed in the future, it is best to avoid the plastic surgery repair option until you have had your children as it can have an affect on your ability to breastfeed.

MRI of Thoracic Spine

Thoracic spine is the region of the spinal column which is located in the upper back. It stretches all the way from the end of the neck to the bottom of the rib cage. MRI of the thoracic spine may be recommended when patients complain of unrelenting back pain. The results obtained from the scan would allow the physician to make an in-depth evaluation of the region and suggest proper treatment.

MRI – Evaluates the Structure of the Spine

Magnetic resonance imaging can be performed using open or closed MRI diagnostic systems. These days, open MRI modalities are gaining more prominence as they are more patient friendly and convenient. Moreover, they are far clearer and render precise images of the spine which is not possible with traditional X-ray and CT scan. Radiofrequency pulses are emitted during the scan that allows the powerful magnetic field to render a high resolution and detailed picture. There is no radiation or side effects arising from the scan that could adversely affect the health of the patient. MRI of the thoracic spine can prove quite useful in:

  • Determining anatomical variations or diseased tissue
  • Planning surgery on the spine
  • Monitoring changes in the spine after operation
  • Ruling out possibilities of bulging, degenerated or herniated disk
  • Evaluating the condition of nerves
  • Ascertaining other possible causes of pain such as fracture
  • Determining the extent of spinal infection or tumor

The procedure may take up to 45 minutes during which multiple sets of images are taken. Upon completion, the physician or radiologist can examine the images either on the monitor or in the form of printed copies.

MRI for Complete Assessment

All that a patient needs to do for MRI of thoracic spine is to lie still and do as instructed by the radiologist. The scan would give a complete assessment of the condition of the disc, soft tissue, nerves, connective tissues, muscles and spinal segment. As the scan is non-invasive, patients feel no pain or discomfort. Patients can return home soon after the scan and benefit from accurate diagnosis and proper treatment for their spinal condition.

How Lasers Are Used in Medicine?

One common and incorrect belief is that basic high power green lasers can be used to heal or treat small cuts and nicks. If a laser is powerful enough, it will not heal a wound it will just burn it and in the process cauterize it. Cauterizing a wound with a laser may reduce the likelihood of infection but the burn will do much more damage.

Infrared laser pointers are commonly used to treat soft tissue injuries such as bruises and strains. Using a process known as bio-stimulation, infrared lasers can penetrate below the skin and vitalize cells. This in turn improves microcirculation, immune response, inflammation and reduces pain

Laser acupuncture: Is basically a non invasive method that uses infrared lasers to stimulate acupuncture pressure points and is ideal for people who have a fear or needles or can’t tolerate the sensation of needles entering their body. Laser acupuncture is an ideal method for treating soft tissue injuries and giving pain relief for both acute and chronic illnesses. Lasers of 500mW or more are likely to cause skin burns.

Tattoo removal: Pulsed lasers are used that fire short and intense burst of light through the skin into the tattoo pigment. The pigment is broken down and then naturally removed over time by the body’s immune system. Gone are the days when tattoo removal involved scaring and the loss of skin. Now using laser tattoo removal, a tattoo can be completely removed leaving the skin healthy, intact and completely tattoo free.

Surgery: For many types of surgery, the traditional scalpel has now been replaced by lasers. The advantages of laser surgery are is it is comparatively bloodless and the heat of the laser keeps the wound germ free and reduces the risk of infection. Laser surgery is also faster and therefore cheaper.

Sperm mobility: Research indicates that low level laser therapy improves sperm motility when applied in doses. The laser frees up chemical pathways in the sperm which releases energy from the mitochondria, causing the mitochondria to work better and faster.

Acne: Roughly 30% of acne consists of fat so the removal of fat will reduce acne. The fat in acne contains specific chemical bonds that are broken down by lasers, allowing the body to absorb the fat.

Cancer: This is one area where there is a lot of controversy and the benefits of lasers are unproven. Many doctors claim that they have used lasers to make significant progress in the treatment of cancer where conventional methods failed. Currently there is not enough research to prove the benefits of lasers in cancer and at least one prominent doctor has been taken too caught for fraud, charged with false claims in the use of lasers to treat cancer.

Click here for Laser Safety Glasses

You’re Excellent Jesus, You’re Excellent


Jesus asked the disciples a question: Who do people say the Son of Man is? That question has different answers for different people. To the Jehovah Witnesses, Jesus is a created being, the son of God, but not God Himself. To Hindus, Jesus is just one of the many gods that exist. To Muslims, Jesus is a good man, an esteemed prophet but not God. The book of Revelation is the revelation of Jesus Christ (not just the revelation from Jesus Christ). Jesus is revealed as the Alpha and the Omega. He is the One who was and is and is to come. He is the King of kings and the Lord of lords. It is imperative that we understand who Jesus is. A defective view of Jesus will affect our Christianity. A right view of Jesus will transform us. Let’s take a look at Hebrews 1:1 – 14.

Jesus is Creator

Jesus is not a created being: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God (John 1:1). It was the divine Jesus that created the heavens and the earth (John 1:3; Colossians 1:16). Creation is fascinating: there are so many animals and birds; there are beautiful flowers and breathtaking landscapes. I still remember New England autumns where the leaves would change from green into resplendent colors before dropping off to signal the coming of winter. Scripture indicates that God created ex nihilo (out of nothing); He created without pre-existing materials. If I give an artist some materials to work with, he would be able to create something, but to ask him to create something out of nothing would be impossible. Even the theory of evolution requires the pre-existence of matter.

The world was created by the spoken word. Jesus just spoke and the world came into existence. He created both what is visible and what is invisible: the visible refers to everything that we can see including the various celestial bodies; the invisible refers to the spiritual world of angelic beings. As God finalized His creation, He created man in His image: “So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him, male and female he created them” (Genesis 1:27). The earth was created for the benefit of man. God provided everything that was needed before placing mankind in the earth. Creation is for God’s glory and man exists to worship God.

Creation demonstrates God’s omnipotence, wisdom, love and sovereignty. The Bible says that the earth is the Lord’s, and everything in it, the world, and all who live in it; for he founded it upon the seas and established it upon the waters (Psalm 24:1, 2). God provided everything that man needed. Because He is the omnipotent God, He is able to intervene in the situations of your life. There is absolutely nothing that God cannot do for you that is in perfect conformity to His will. God will provide for you even in supernatural ways. The story is told of a minister who spoke on the importance of generosity. A little girl took that message to heart and began putting aside money to give to God’s work. One day, she gave the minister $1, the total that she had managed to accumulate; she also gave him a letter that explained what the money was for. The minister accepted it gratefully; he had been trying to get $5,000,000 to purchase a property for ministry purposes. Sometime after, the little girl died, and the minister still only had the dollar. He spoke to the owners of the property and showed them the little girl’s letter. They accepted the $1 as full payment for the property. God is no respecter of persons. If we trust Him, He will meet our needs and at times He will do so in supernatural ways.

Just as Jesus demonstrated wisdom in creation, He will give you strategic wisdom to deal with any situation. Much is being made of the economic recession. Pharaoh, in the time of Joseph, was given a dream, the interpretation of which was that seven years of famine will follow seven years of plenty. Those seven years of famine are equivalent to our recession, yet God gave Joseph strategic wisdom to know exactly what to do. Similarly, God will give His people the solutions that are needed not only to weather this crisis, but to come out victoriously. If everything belongs to God, then we can be assured that there is no lack in His kingdom.

Jesus sustains creation: He did not create it, then like an absentee landlord, leave it to function on its own. The same God who created is the same God who maintains His creation. It was Jesus who said that He will build His church and that the gates of hell will not be able to prevail against it. He will guard and keep what we commit to Him – our salvation and soul. Some of you are familiar with the story of Nicki Cruz. Nicki was a gang leader in New York City. When David Wilkerson shared the gospel with him, Nicki slapped him and threatened to kill him. Undaunted, David continued to preach the love of Christ. In spite of his threat, Nicki could not resist the conviction of the gospel message and eventually he and some of the other gang members accepted Jesus Christ as their personal Lord and Savior. Nicki eventually went on to become a powerful evangelist, ministering all over the world. Scripture tells us that He who began a good work in you will carry it on to completion until the day of Christ Jesus. Glory is ascribed to Him who is able to keep you from falling and to present you before His glorious presence without fault and with great joy.

Jesus is God

Jesus is fully God: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. In John 5:18 and 10:33, the Jews wanted to kill Jesus because He equated Himself with God. Further, in John 8:58, Jesus referred to Himself as “I Am,” identifying Himself with Jehovah in the Old Testament. Jesus is Immanuel – God with us. Romans 9:5 refers to Jesus as God. Jesus is also called Lord: verses in the Old Testament that are attributed to the Lord are attributed to Him in the New Testament. When Saul had His miraculous encounter on the road to Damascus, he immediately recognized that the person speaking to him, Jesus, was the Lord, Yahweh of the Old Testament who alone spoke to people from heaven.

Also, Jesus demonstrates the qualities of God: omnipotence, omnipresence, omniscience, eternality and immutability. He is sovereign: He is the King of kings and the Lord of lords. He will rule forever; His throne is an everlasting throne. History has shown that no earthly government has lasted indefinitely. There have been various earthly kingdoms and rulers – Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Medes and Persians, Greece, Rome, Pharaoh, Sennacherib, Nebuchadnezzar, Darius, Alexander, Caesar, Napoleon, Hitler and others, but all of their kingdoms have been destroyed. However, Jesus’ kingdom will be established. His kingdom will be a kingdom of righteousness. There will be no sin, sickness, corruption, death, nor devils in this kingdom. There will be life, joy, peace, perfection. As God, Jesus is superior to angels and He is worthy of worship.

Savior, Redeemer, Deliverer

Jesus Christ died to pay the penalty for sin. The Bible makes the following truths clear. All have sinned; man is born in sin and chooses to sin. Sin separated and continues to separate man from God. God is a holy God and we cannot enter into His presence in a sinful condition. Sin will take people to hell, which is eternal separation from God in a place of perpetual torment. Further, good works cannot save me: all of my righteousness is as filthy rags. I can never be good enough in and of myself to approach God. We were enslaved and needed to be liberated since we lacked the capacity to free ourselves. Jesus paid the price; He was the one who died at Calvary. It is through His sacrificial death that humanity can be reconciled to God. Scripture says of believers that we are bought with a price, we are no longer our own.

The blood of Jesus Christ does not only save me, but it continues to wash me of all sin. David, in the Old Testament, knew nothing of the blood of Jesus Christ, but when he committed adultery with Bathsheba and was convicted through the ministry of Nathan the prophet, he repented sincerely. Psalm 51 is a beautiful psalm of repentance. We are under the new covenant and the Bible tells us that if we confess our sins, He is faithful and just and will forgive us our sins and purify us from all unrighteousness (1 John 1:9). It is possible for believers to slip into sin for several reasons: we can be deceived; that’s the spirit of our age, and believers are not immune from deception. We can make mistakes; perhaps we were in an emotionally vulnerable place and succumbed to the influence of the enemy. We can fall short for whatever reason. The great thing to know is that while God does not excuse our sin, He does forgive it when we come to Him in sincere repentance.

Jesus is able to deliver from sickness and disease, various bondages and strongholds. Jesus healed people of leprosy, paralysis, fever, demon possession; He resurrected the dead; He healed a woman of a bleeding disorder, which she had for several years. Jesus is able to deliver you from anything that paralyzes the call of God in your life, that prevents you from being everything that He has called you to be. He can deliver you from drugs, sex, pornography, lying, gossip, greed, pride, rebellion, and disobedience. This is just a representative list, but know that whatever is afflicting you, Jesus has the capacity to deliver you. Don’t be deceived by the devil. Whom the Son sets free is free indeed. The Word declares that you will know the truth and that the truth will set you free. Be free in Jesus’ name!


Isaiah got a vision of God. The Bible records that in the year that King Uzziah died, I [Isaiah] saw the Lord seated on a throne, high and exalted, and the train of his robe filled the temple. [The seraphs cried] “Holy, holy, holy is the LORD Almighty; the whole earth is full of his glory.” That vision had a tremendous effect on the prophet. He declared, “Woe is me! I am ruined! For I am a man of unclean lips, and I live among a people of unclean lips, and my eyes have seen the King, the LORD Almighty.” The second effect was that he made himself available for God’s purpose saying, “Here am I. Send me!”

A vision of Jesus will affect your worship. When you have a vision of the Savior, you will worship with passion; you will worship in spirit and in truth. As part of your worship, you will give liberally and generously to God’s work. You will also pray for God’s kingdom and will to be done. A vision of Jesus will affect your service: you will be faithful and committed to the work of the kingdom and to the local church that God has made you a part of. A vision of Jesus will affect your witness. You will become His witnesses, sharing the good news locally, regionally and internationally. Have you seen Jesus? Have you really encountered Jesus?

Testing and Assessment of Special Population

While psychological testing is aimed at assessing a wide spectrum of clients, special groups require special attention and hence need special instruments. In light of this, there a number of tools that have been developed in order to assess special groups. The following are two main instruments among those that have been developed to assess special groups:

Columbia Mental Maturity Scale – Third Edition (CMMS) – This is an alternative test that is designed to assess special population including those with mental incapacitation. This scale is aimed at addressing sensory and physical limitations that limits the administration of Binet, Wechsler, and other scales (Capuzzi & Stauffer, 2005). This scale is therefore suitable for children who experience physical limitations like cerebral palsy, speech impairment, loss of hearing and others. The scale requires no verbal response or fine motor skills and it measures general reasoning ability. One of the strengths of this test is that it has high internal consistency and high reliability. Major weakness is that the test is complicated and requires highly qualified personnel. Another major weakness is that it is highly vulnerable to random error.

Leiter International Performance Scale – Revised (LIPS-R) – Unlike the Columbia and other tests like Peabody that measures verbal intelligence, LIPS-R measures performance (Capuzzi & Stauffer, 2005). It provides non-verbal alternative to Stanford-Binet scale for individuals between the age of 2 and 18. One of the major strength of this test is that it emphasize on fluid intelligence which is a truest measure of person’s innate ability. It is not influenced by education background, social, and family experience. One of the major weaknesses of this test is that it is difficult to administer and requires highly qualified personnel.

I believe the above two scales would be most useful when dealing with special population because they cover limitations that inhibits on administration of other scales on the special population (APA, 2010). Due to limitations in different cognitive and physical areas, special population requires tests and assessments that cater for these limitations and the above tests have such provisions. Therefore, they are most suitable for testing and assessing that population.

For counselors, it is important to be aware of issues that are involved in testing special populations. Special populations like cerebral palsy children have cognitive and physical limitations from a normal population that should be catered for in counseling. Therefore, as a counselor or psychologist working in a diverse population, it is important to be aware of issues that re involved in testing special populations.

Martial Arts Self Defense Training – Ibuki – A Simple Deep Breathing Karate Martial Arts Technique

Training in martial arts, in this case karate, disciplines the body and mind to react differently than nature intended. During a self-defense encounter, the body’s natural tendency is the fight-or-flight syndrome. An adrenaline rush causes the body to increase breathing to supply the muscles with additional oxygen for flight. The upside of additional oxygen in the blood is increased strength and speed for a short period of time to escape.

The downside of increased oxygen levels is seen if a fight ensues. Too much oxygen in the blood can make one light-headed or possibly faint. Learning and maintaining control of breathing enhances all martial arts skill levels. Training in deep breathing techniques creates the ability to control inhalation and exhalation, making it easier to maintain proper breathing during a self-defense situation. Proper breathing exercises teach control of the abdominal area, and strengthen the diaphragm.

Ibuki Breathing

  • Stand up straight with the feet shoulder width apart, and the arms hanging relaxed at the sides.
  • Take a deep breath in through the nose, raise the arms up and across the chest to shoulder level, keeping the hands open.
  • Cross the arms, clench the fists, and tighten the entire body. Set the breath in the lower abdomen for a moment. Tense the abdominal muscles.
  • Form the hands into fists and slowly bring the arms down to the sides.
  • Repeat the exercise two more times.

Ibuki breathing stresses exhaling through the mouth, not the nose, with force while creating tension in the abdominal muscles. When it seems as though all the air is out of the lungs, tighten the abdominal muscles even more and force more air out. Ibuki breathing is used to restore breathing after strenuous exercise. It is also used to restore breathing after receiving a strike to the abdomen or diaphragm. As always, consult a physician before beginning any physical conditioning, martial art, or self-defense training.

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis – Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

With the mixed results generated from numerous scientific tests performed on different treatments, lumbar spinal stenosis is one of the typical causes of lower back pain that is probably difficult to address. In fact, spinal stenosis is even known as a debilitating condition in the United States Social Security Act.

What is Spinal Stenosis?

A medical illness that occurs once the spinal canal becomes smaller and puts excessive pressure on the spinal cord and its nerve roots.

The three major areas of spine, particularly the cervical, thoracic and lumbar (often misspelled as “lumber”) areas are prone to spinal stenosis. Stinger is a type of cervical spinal stenosis which is typical in American football players which is known by upper back pain, numbness, and weakness in the arms. For some “lucky” few, spinal stenosis may be found on all three areas.

The following are some causes that may bring on lumbar spinal canal stenosis:

  • Spinal disc herniation
  • Spinal degeneration that comes with aging
  • Spondylolisthesis, especially along L4 and L5
  • Anklylosing spondylitis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Tumors

Additional facts on these disease entities can be found in Wiki. Individuals who are at risk of getting lumbar spinal stenosis are…

  • Possessing a slender spinal canal since birth
  • Females
  • More than 50 years of age
  • Earlier spinal injury
  • Operated on for spinal issues
  • Experiencing osteoarthritis and have bone spurs in the spine
  • Prior case of inflammatory spondyloarthritis
  • Record of and/or existence of tumors in the spine
  • Paget’s disease of the bone.

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Indications…

Lumbar spinal stenosis should be entertained when the patient shows with the following indications…

  • Pseudoclaudication, which is known by soreness, numbness, weakness, cramping or tingling of the legs and thighs
  • Pain radiates down to the leg

Extreme discomfort as well as the loss of bladder and/or bowel control, loss of sexual function, decreased sensation in the feet leading to troubles in walking, or partial or full leg paralysis may be felt in intense cases when the lumbar spinal stenosis presses upon the cauda equina in the sacral region. Cauda equina syndrome requires instant medical care.

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Treatment…

Upon verification of lumbar spinal canal stenosis through diagnostic procedures like x-rays, CT scan, and MRI, the physician determines the ideal treatment depending upon the reason of the stenosis.

Spinal decompression therapy, a non-surgical treatment, will be suggested to a patient particularly if the stenosis is prompted by a herniated disc. However, spinal decompression will not be effective if bony spurs are the cause of the stenosis.

Presently, lumbar spinal stenosis surgery is the best treatment to use. The surgery would involve the extracting of the overlying lamina or roof to relieve stress on the spinal cord. This procedure is known as laminectomy. Since instability may occur after the operation, spinal fusion needs to be conducted in addition to the laminectomy.


When it pertains to the effectiveness of spinal stenosis pain alleviation physical exercises, there is still a lot of dispute. A slender spinal canal cannot be adjusted with the application of stretching and yoga exercises though these can assist a lot in reducing discomfort since these help in strengthening the back muscles and support structures that improve the solidity of the spine. For lumbar spinal stenosis, the salmon calcitonin treatments are currently being studied on.

Do What Les Brown Did and You Will Survive Prostate Cancer

If you know the popular American motivational speaker, Les Brown, you will know that he is a prostate cancer conqueror for several years. I like to tell all those who have been diagnosed with the condition – if Les Brown and lots of other people all over the world were able to survive prostate cancer, you can as well. It’s just a matter of first believing that you CAN, then going all out to do all you can to survive it.

You see, when Les Brown was diagnosed and given a limited prognosis, he didn’t just go back home and “anticipate” his death. Nope. He FIRST made up his mind that he was DETERMINED to survive the condition. (That should always be the first step). After that, he decided to go all out to find out all about those that have survived prostate cancer and to find out all they did to survive it – so that he could do the same things.

It’s really that simple. Take the time to find out all about those that have survived such conditions and learn about what they did, what they didn’t do, what they ate, what they didn’t eat, what medication they took, what treatment they took, etc. All these will help you survive prostate cancer… just like Les Brown and lots of other people all over the world.

There are lots of people who wouldn’t have survived conditions like prostate and other types of cancer if they didn’t hear others also surviving it. I am certain the story of Les Brown will also help you survive your condition. Just help yourself too by believing it will and by STAYING OPEN!

Does Your Organization Have a Learning Disability – Disability #1 – "I Am My Position"

Does your organization have a learning disability?

As we progress through life we are required to learn new skills to advance to the next level. Even when we enter the working world we are required to learn new skills. We stop growing and advancing as soon as we believe we have learnt everything we need to know. At that point we begin vegetating.

The same can be said for organizations. Every organization grows with enthusiasm up to a point and then it slows and even stops. An organization needs to learn to grow. When an organization believes it knows everything it needs to know it will stop growing. The problem, in the case of an organization, is that it needs to learn just to stay in one spot let alone advance.

Think about how computers have changed the face of business. By refusing to learn about computers a company today could not hope to compete. Without computers there are very few companies that can survive and thrive.

In 1983 a Royal Dutch/Shell survey found that a third of the firms in the Fortune 500 in 1970 had vanished. They were not just smaller but they ceased to exist. The survey estimated that the average lifespan of a large industrial company is less than forty years. Not long considering all the effort that goes into building a company.

Peter Senge in his book “The Fifth Discipline” identifies 7 learning disabilities found in organizations. Over the next 6 eZines I will cover each of these disabilities. If you can see any of these disabilities in your company then we really suggest you put some effort into solving the problem. We addressed one disability “The Myth of the Management Team” in a previous eZine. Follow this link to read about that disability http://www.aweber.com/z/article/?arcturusadvisor.

The best way we have found to create a learning organization is through Best Year Yet. http://www.arcturusadvisors.com/partners.htm. Everything that is needed in a transformation is addressed within the program.

Learning Disability 1 – “I am my position”

We are so loyal to our jobs that they have begun to define who we are and how we think. Many people can’t see themselves doing anything else and when asked what they do for a living will respond “I am an accountant” or the equivalent. They usually do not see the purpose of the organization they work for or how they contribute to the whole. Most see themselves within an organization over which they have little influence.

A job is seen as that, a job – defined by limits and tasks. Something which we try and cope with and do our time in, according to the job description. Jobs and functions do not overlap. We do not see how our job has any impact on another function within the organization.

The problem with “I am my position” is that we see the organization as a bunch of silos, none interacting with the others. An accountant only does accountant work and a marketing manager only does marketing work. The accountants are not concerned with how their decisions impact any other positions or functions within the company. They make accounting decisions based on accounting impact and not organizational impact.

The other problem associated with this learning disability is that people have little sense of responsibility for the results attained when the different silos interact. They only see their responsibility for their silo and no more. As a result when problems occur it can always be blamed on ‘someone else’. Problems get lost and nothing is learnt from unexpected results.

A learning organization on the other hand ensures systems thinking – the process of seeing the organization as a whole interacting organization. Where each decision is evaluated on how it impacts the whole. Holistic management in Best Year Yet terms.

Do your people interact? Do they understand how their decisions impact the entire organization?

Surgical Coding: Heed These Hernia Bundling Rules

Did you factor in a foreign body removal code by any chance?

Question: During an open hernia repair for a reducible umbilical hernia, the surgeon detects a sizeable gallstone embedded in the omentum extending into the preperitoneal fat and he excises the gallstome granuloma with cautery. Patient history shows cholecystectomy eight years ago. So what are the right ICD-9 and CPT codes?

Answer: The right procedure code for this scenario is 49585 (Repair umbilical hernia, age 5 years or older; reducible). If the gallstone resection represents a significant amount of extra time and effort, modifier 22 would be apt.

Watch out: You shouldn’t go for the omentum gallstone resection (49255, Omentectomy, epiploectomy, resection of omentum [separate procedure]) in addition to the 49585 hernia repair. As a designated ‘separate procedure’ code, you should list only 49255 if it is the only procedure the surgeon carries out at the site. As you indicate that the gallstone is imbedded in the omentum and extends only partially into the peritoneum, you shouldn’t code the service as a peritoneal foreign body removal (49402, Removal of peritoneal foreign body from peritoneal cavity).

As far as ICD-9 codes are concerned, the documentation can make a huge difference. If your surgeon points to the fact that he thinks the gallstone was dropped and left in the omentum during the previous surgery, you should think of it as a foreign body left during surgery and report 998.4 (Foreign body accidentally left during a procedure). Or else, the best diagnosis code is 568.9 (Unspecified disorder of peritoneum). Code the umbilical hernia as 553.1 (Umbilical hernia).

Scrap Metal for Cash – What Do You Do When You've Got Scrap Metal That You Want to Get Rid Of?

Are you looking for a way to get rid of your scrap metal for cash, because it's finally become junk that is in your way?

If so then you're not alone. Many people have the same challenge that you have. A lot people who I service on a day to day basis tell me they have had the "old refrigerator, washer, dryer, or whatever, cluttering up their garage for years." While other show me their cars their "husband works on," you know, like for the last 20 years or so. Wink!

In fact, I recently went to someone's house where the wife finally "laid down the law" for her husband who had been tinkering around with two ATM money vaults that a friend dropped off some time ago. These things were not light; They weighed in at a HEFTY 980 POUNDS EACH! When I showed up they were dusty and had been what I refer to as, "garage ornaments" for a couple of years already, the husband advised to me on the phone, when we spoke.

Taking Away Scrap Metal for Cash Simply to Clean Up …

Many people have tons of metal (literally!) And scrap just lying around their yards, or in their garage and old sheds that they just want to get rid of for a number of reasons.

Some people are doing a cleanup and they just need to make room for their "good stuff." Others are just tired of having piles of stuff lying around, getting rusty and ugly, etc.

Others have old appliances … washers, dryers, refrigerators, old A / C units or hot water heaters, that they just can not stand having lying around anymore. In fact if this is something that you also have lying around, you may want to consider the fact that having those types of appliances on your property can be quite dangerous; When you consider little children.

In fact most cities have codes, and code enforcers who drive around just looking for such "offences" so they can write you a little "nastygram." All kidding aside … A refrigerator is a BIG safety hazard when it comes to little children, which I'll discuss further in detail.

Why Getting Rid of Scrap Metal Can Enhance Safety in Your Area …

Kids play, and can be quite mischievous. They play hide and go seek, soldiers, etc. They sometimes get themselves into trouble by crawling into places that they should not be in. This means that when you have an old appliance like a refrigerator, freezer or dryer somewhere near to where the kids play, these can be very inviting places to hide. However this can result serious injury, or worse … death to one of these innocent children.

Taking away the objects as scrap metal for cash is about the best thing that you can do for the safety of your children, or even just the children playing in your yard or property. A lot of times people call me up and really do not care about getting "paid," they're honestly more concerned about the safety issues, and the liability, than the money.

That's not to mention the problem of sharp scrap metal that you often see lying around someone's property. By the way this is VERY common on rural properties, like farms and the like. These sharp metal objects can often cause cuts and lacerations, which can cause the need for stitches, tetanus shots, and at the worst case … death.

Reasons Beyond the Safety Hazards for Getting Rid of Scrap Metal for Cash

You know, many times we will tear down something made of metal that is simply too big to put into the garbage and before we know it; It becomes a staple of our yard. In other words, you see it every day so the eye sore that it really is, is not as apparent to you.

Things like old swing sets, trampolines, metal sheds, and old vehicles are just some of the items that end up cluttering our lives and property. I see this on a daily basis, sometimes I actually ask, "How long has this been here?" I remember not too long ago removing an old rusted swing set frame. The sweet older couple told it had been there for over 50 years!

However, many people do nothing to get rid of them because it's simply such a pain in the butt to do so. Many people have no idea what to do to get rid of these types of things.

Luckily for you, there are services out there that will actually do all of the heavy lifting for you. They'll come, with a big truck and trailer, and take away any scrap metal for cash, so you get the best of both worlds. You get your stuff cleaned up for you, as well as get paid for having it done … It does not get much better than that!

So if you're putting off getting rid of your old piles of metal debris, you have no more reason to worry. You can get rid of scrap metal for cash, and enjoy sitting back and watching it get done on your behalf!

Osteoporosis: a Silent Killer of Bones

Osteoporosis is a bone disease. It is virtually a disease on account of which the bones generally become fragile and weak. Osteoporosis if not taken proper care of lead may to the breakage of the bones thus leading to a fracture. Osteoporosis generally is found to be very much typical in certain parts of the body, say for instance in the hips, wrists, spinal cord and also in the vertebras. Osteoporosis is like a silent killer which attacks an individual without prior symptoms.

Simply a sneezing, a tight hug, stepping, bending down to get something can cause Osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is also known by another name called “porous bone.” There are certain factors which are associated with Osteoporosis. These factors are termed as “Risk Factors.” Some of the factors are as mentioned below:

• Gender: Sex plays a major concern in the occurrence of Osteoporosis. Females have a more probability of being attacked with Osteoporosis than the male generation. Sometimes Osteoporosis is also related with menopause. Osteoporosis is estimated to have been attacking the women folk as and when they reach the stage of menopause. Thus when a woman reaches the age of around 45 years and when she is attacked with menopause that is when she experiences the stoppage of menstruation, the velocity of Osteoporosis is found to be more.
• Age: Age is yet another risk factor of Osteoporosis. The more a person advances in age, the more is the risk of being attacked with Osteoporosis. It is generally during the old age that the bones become very much weak and fragile and thus they are prone to get attacked with Osteoporosis.
• Body dimensions: Women with thin and lean body physique have more the chance of being attacked with Osteoporosis.
• Ethnicity: Ethnicity plays a major role in respect of Osteoporosis. Here we can state that Asian as well as the Caucasian women folk has a high risk of Osteoporosis then when compared to American, African and Latin women.
• Hereditary: Family history is also adversely related with Osteoporosis. Present generation whose fore-fathers suffered from Osteoporosis, has more risk of Osteoporosis.

Besides these, anorexia, certain medications, smoking of cigarette, excessive drinking of alcohol and also maintenance of a low lifetime diet with less amount of vitamin D and calcium also causes Osteoporosis.

As it is always said that prevention is better then cure, thus Osteoporosis can also be prevented by undertaking certain precautions in the early stage of one’s development. As the demand of calcium is found to be very high in the growing stage of one’s development, thus a good amount of calcium products should be undertaken from the early developmental stages. Inadequacy of calcium in one’s body has a greater prospect to be affected by Osteoporosis. So it is always advisable to undertake certain calcium products in one’s diet like yogurt, milk, cheese, ice cream, green and leafy vegetables, like broccoli, spinach etc, fish like salmon and sardines, dry fruits like almonds, juices and squash etc. Thus according to the different stages of one’s development right from the stage of infancy to old age, the intake of calcium should be adjusted accordingly in order to prevent Osteoporosis.

Is Hyaluronic Acid an Effective Gout Remedy?

There has been a good deal of attention given to hyaluronic acid for optimum joint health lately, with the question on many peoples lips being whether or not it is an effective gout remedy.

Hyaluronic acid is already commonly used in anti-aging and skin-care treatments, but more recently it has been applied to treating painful joint conditions such as osteoarthritis and gout.

The driver behind this new use of hyaluronic acid is because it’s found naturally within the connective tissue of the joints, which is responsible for cushioning and lubricating them for better function. So by using hyaluronic acid treatments you are adding to the body’s own naturally produced joint defenses.

Hyaluronic acid is a substance that occurs naturally within the glycosaminoglycan of the body (a major structural component of cartilage). It’s found in ample supply in most areas where joint problems can occur such as in the knees, knuckles, shoulders, elbows, hips, and it’s even found in the eyes and the heart valves.

Abnormalities in hyaluronic acid are common throughout many kinds of connective tissue disorders such as varying forms of arthritis, TMJ (temporomandibular joint disorder), and gout.

Hyaluronic acid is now used as a preparation to treat the inflammation that can occur in skeletal joints. It also helps to fight the wearing out of cartilage structures as is typical in many joint diseases.

This therapy is considered more beneficial for many people than other common medication treatments, such as cortisone. Cortisone, though effective in the short-term for relieving gout pain, may accelerate the degenerative process of many joint diseases such as osteoarthritis over time, so may not be the ideal gout remedy in the long run.

As long as the preparation of hyaluronic acid is pure it’s often free of negative side effects, however sufferers who have allergies should avoid this treatment. The most common side effect reported seems to be a ‘chicken pox like’ rash.

Hyaluronic acid works effectively to counteract the inflammation associated with gout and other inflammatory joint conditions. The preparation as a gout remedy can be applied either as an injection into the effected joint, taken as an oral supplement or in the form of a cream that is rubbed into the skin on the affected area(s).

If you choose to use hyaluronic acid in its cream form it can take anywhere from between 10 – 45 minutes to experience relief from gout pain. The cream can be applied daily as required during a gout flare. When hyaluronic acid is taken in supplement form it can be taken daily as a preventative whereas injections would usually only be administered during an actual gout flare.

If you would like to know whether hyaluronic acid will be a good gout remedy choice for you, or if you want to know if there is another form of treatment that will also be helpful, speak to your doctor to discuss your options.

Sunbeam Rapier

Series I

Sunbeam Rapier I



7477 produced.

Body style(s)

2-door saloon


1390 cc overhead valve Straight-4


96 in (2,400 mm)


160 in (4,100 mm)


60 in (1,500 mm)


57 in (1,400 mm)

The Series I Rapier was a pretty car which in general, was well received by the motoring press. Available in a range of attractive two-tone colour schemes typical of the period, it boasted steering column gear change, leather trim and an overdrive as standard fittings. Vinyl trim was an option in the UK and standard in certain export territories. Rapier bodies were built by Pressed Steel, shipped to Thrupp & Maberly in north London where they were painted and trimmed, then shipped again to the Rootes assembly plant at Ryton-on-Dunsmore near Coventry where the engines, transmission and running gear were fitted! This complex situation persisted until late 1963 when the Series IV was introduced.

The Rapier’s 1390 cc engine was essentially the same as that fitted to the Hillman Minx but with a raised compression ratio (8:1 instead of 7:1), a Zenith DIF 36 carburettor and revised inlet and exhaust manifolds. In this form it developed 62.5 bhp (46.6 kW) at 5000 rpm. A column change, four speed transmission with overdrive on third and top was included in the price as a standard feature.

Although the Rapier’s performance was lively by the standards of its time, and its handling was considered to be excellent, it soon became clear that it wasn’t powerful enough. From October 1956, directly as a result of experience gained in international rallying by Rootes’ famous competition department, the Rapier was fitted with the updated R67 engine on which the Stromberg carburettor was replaced by twin Zenith 36 WIP carburettors on a new inlet manifold. This engine produced 67.5 bhp (50.3 kW) at 5000 rpm, the effect of which was to reduce the Rapier’s 0-60 mph time by almost 1 second and increase its top speed by 3 mph (4.8 km/h).

The British The Motor magazine tested a Series I, twin carburettor, saloon in 1957 recording a top speed of 85.7 mph (137.9 km/h) and acceleration from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 20.9 seconds and a fuel consumption of 30.5 miles per imperial gallon (9.26 L/100 km; 25.4 mpg-US). The test car cost 1043 including taxes of 348.

In competition, a Rapier driven by Peter Harper finished in fifth place in the 1958 Monte Carlo Rally.

Only 7477 units were produced of this initial version of the Sunbeam Rapier. It was discontinued in 1958 with the introduction of the Series II version.

Series II

Sunbeam Rapier II



15,151 produced.

Body style(s)

2-door saloon, drophead coup


1494 cc overhead valve Straight-4

The Sunbeam Rapier Series II was announced on 6 February 1958, available in hardtop and convertible forms, it was a great improvement over the Series I. In a move indicative of today’s new vehicle launches, Rootes arranged for nine of the new cars to be in Monte Carlo for the press to try at the end of the Monte Carlo Rally (in which Peter Harper came 5th overall in a works-prepared Series I).

The Sunbeam Rapier Series II introduced the now famous Rapier shape. Although the changes originated in the Rootes styling department, they reinforced the link to the Loewy-designed Studebakers; the Series II looked remarkably like a shortened Studebaker Golden Hawk!

The traditional Sunbeam radiator grille was reintroduced, albeit shortened and widened. It was impossible to disguise the fact that the car had originally been designed with a horizontal grille, so the space left by the adoption of the Sunbeam grille was filled with horizontal side grilles. The two-tone lower body scheme of the Series I was discontinued in favour of a broad full length flash in the same colour as the roof, but the most startling change was the appearance on the rear wings of pronounced fins.

The interior of the Series II was little changed from that of the Series I, except that a floor gear change replaced the unpopular column change. This modification, developed on the works Series I rally cars, was an immediate success. To keep costs down, the leather upholstery, standard on the Series I, was discontinued in favour of vinyl and overdrive became an extra cost option.

The greatest improvement in the Series II though, was its new engine. Referred to for obvious reasons as the Rallymaster, it had an increased capacity of 1494 cc. The capacity increase combined with a higher compression ratio of 8.5:1 and larger inlet and exhaust valves to raise the power output to 73 bhp (54 kW) at 5200 rpm. Autocar quoted the top speed as 91 mph (146 km/h) with a 0-60 mph time of 20.2 seconds. Also as a direct result of competition experience, the Series II was fitted with larger front brakes and a recirculating ball steering box instead of the rather vague worm and nut box of the Series I.

The Series II was discontinued in favour of the Series III in 1959 after 15151 units (hardtop and convertible) had been built.

Series III

Sunbeam Rapier III



15,368 produced.

Body style(s)

2-door saloon, drophead coup


1494 cc overhead valve Straight-4

Regarded by many as the definitive Sunbeam Rapier, the Series III was introduced in September 1959. Rootes made subtle changes to the car’s body which individually were insignificant but when combined, considerably altered its appearance.

For example, the number of horizontal bars in each of the side grilles was increased from three to four. The boot lid acquired an oblong number plate recess and surround in place of the square one of the earlier cars. The most striking change was the redesigned side flash, now narrower and lower down the side of the car with the Rapier script on its rear end. The most subtle change, however, was a reduction in thickness of the windscreen pillars and a lowering of the scuttle line to give a 20% increase in windscreen area.

Inside the Series III the changes were striking. Rootes stylists completely redesigned the seats and interior panels and specified that they be trimmed in single colour, high quality vinyl with contrasting piping. For the first time, deep pile carpets were fitted as standard in the foot-wells (previous versions had rubber mats). The steering wheel, control knobs and switches were in black plastic instead of beige. The most striking change, however, was the dashboard. Instead of padded metal and plastic as in the earlier cars, the dash was covered in burr walnut veneer surmounted by a padded crash roll, and held a full complement of black-faced British Jaeger instruments.

Mechanically, the Series III benefited from the design of the Sunbeam Alpine sports car with which it shared its engine. Although the engine’s displacement was still 1494 cc, it was fitted with a new eight-port aluminium cylinder head with an increased compression ratio and redesigned valves, and used a new, sportier camshaft. The twin Zenith carburettors from the Series II remained but were mounted on a new water heated inlet manifold. The result of these changes was a power increase of 5 bhp (4 kW) to 78 bhp (58 kW) at 5400 rpm.

Gearbox changes included higher second, third and top gear ratios, and a reduced angle of gear lever movement to make for shorter lever travel and snappier changes. New front disc brakes significantly improved the Rapier’s braking capability and widened its front track to give greater stability and improved road-holding.

A saloon with overdrive was tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1960 and had a top speed of 91.7 mph (147.6 km/h) and could accelerate from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 16.6 seconds. A fuel consumption of 29.5 miles per imperial gallon (9.58 L/100 km; 24.6 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost 1045 including taxes.

The Series III, of which 15,368 units were built (hardtop and convertible) gave way to the Series IIIA in April 1961.

Series IIIA

Sunbeam Rapier IIIA



17,354 produced.

Body style(s)

2-door saloon, drophead coup


1592 cc overhead valve Straight-4

It was inevitable that when the Series II Sunbeam Alpine was announced with a 1592 cc engine, it wouldn’t be long before a similarly powered Rapier appeared. Sure enough, on 20 April 1961 the Series IIIA was announced.

Externally and internally the Series IIIA was identical to the Series III. The improvements were directed solely at improving the durability of the car. To this end, engine capacity was increased to 1592 cc and a stiffer crankshaft fitted. To increase reliability, the crankshaft incorporated larger diameter connecting rod bearings which called for modifications to the connecting rods and gudgeon pins. Modified oil and water pumps completed the engine changes. As a result, power output increased from 78 bhp (58 kW) to 80.25 bhp (59.84 kW) at 5100 rpm and torque increased from 84 lbft (114 Nm) at 3500 rpm to 88.2 ftlbf (119.6 Nm) at 3900 rpm.

In addition, the Series IIIA included many detail changes such as an increased diameter front anti-roll bar which greatly improved roadholding, a redesigned clutch bell housing, a revised clutch assembly with 9 pressure springs instead of 6 and a redesigned air cleaner assembly. Inside the car a fresh-air heater, hitherto available only at extra cost, became a standard fitting. All of these changes combined to make the Series IIIA subtly different from its predecessor and to give the Sunbeam Rapier a new lease of life in the showroom.

Maximum speed for the Series IIIA was lower than the Series III at 90 mph (140 km/h). It also took longer than the Series III to get to 60 mph (19.3 seconds) but its engine was far more durable.

In mid 1963, the Series IIIA convertible was discontinued but the hardtop soldiered on until October 1963 when it was replaced by the Series IV. When production of the Series IIIA ceased, 17,354 units had been built.

Series IV

Sunbeam Rapier IV



9700 produced.

Body style(s)

2-door saloon


1592 cc overhead valve Straight-4

Late in 1963, Rootes were set to drop the Rapier. It was no longer the mainstay of the competitions department because Rootes had directed its competitive effort towards the Hillman Imp and the Sunbeam Tiger. In fact a totally new Series IV Rapier had been designed, prototypes built and testing completed, and then the Rootes Group changed its mind! The new Series IV Rapier became the Mark I Humber Sceptre and the old Series IIIA Rapier was redesigned, hopefully to give it a new lease of life as a touring saloon rather than a sports coup.

The most obvious difference was the change to 13-inch (330 mm) road wheels in common with the rest of Rootes’ Light Car range. This meant that the magnificent but wayward stainless steel wheel trims of earlier Rapiers were replaced by Rootes corporate hub caps and rim finishers. At the front, the car was completely and cleverly redesigned to make it look more up-to-date. A new bonnet made the front look lower and flatter and the front wings were modified to accept extensions housing alloy side grilles and sidelights with amber turn indicators. The traditional Sunbeam grille, already heavily stylised for the Series II, was further modified to give a lower, more square shape with a pronounced convex profile. New headlamp rims were fitted, in fact Sunbeam Alpine items but chromed for the Rapier, and a new front bumper using the same shape and profile as the rest of the Light Car range. At the back, a new full width number plate plinth appeared with a new Light Car range bumper. To give a more open look from the side, the frames were removed from the side windows. Finally, small badges fitted at the bottom of each front wing and on the boot lid proclaimed each car to be a “Series IV”.

Inside, a new dash, still in walnut veneer, but with the glove box raised into the dash itself allowed the inclusion of a proper storage shelf on each side of the car. Instrumentation and controls were much as before except that the heater switches and ashtray were now housed in a console in front of the gear lever. To aid driver comfort, an adjustable steering column was fitted along with new front seats which allowed more fore and aft adjustment and for the first time, included backrest adjustment.

In common with the rest of the Light Car range, the Rapier’s front suspension was re-engineered to replace the half king pin on each side of the car with a sealed for life ball joint. All other suspension joints became either sealed for life or were rubber bushed thereby eliminating every grease point on the car. Gearing was adjusted overall to compensate for the smaller wheels and the front brake discs were reduced in size so that they would fit inside the wheels. A brake servo became standard and the spring and damper settings were adjusted to give a softer ride. A new diaphragm clutch and new clutch master cylinder brought lighter and more progressive clutch operation.

The 1592 cc engine from the Series IIIA was unchanged but the twin Zenith carburettors finally gave way to a single twin-choke Solex 32PAIA in the interests of serviceability. The effect of the new carburettor was to increase power to 84 bhp (63 kW) and torque to 91 lbft (123 Nm) at 3500 rpm.

In October 1964, along with the rest of the Light Car range, the Series IV received the new Rootes all synchromesh gearbox, a change which coincided with the introduction of a new computerised chassis numbering system.

The Motor road test of April 1964 gave the Series IV Rapier’s maximum speed as 91 mph (146 km/h) and its 0-60 mph time as 17 seconds.

When production of the Series IV ceased in 1965, 9700 units had been built.

Series V

Sunbeam Rapier V



3759 produced.

Body style(s)

2-door saloon


1725 cc overhead valve Straight-4

Pending completion of the new Fastback Rapier, Rootes decided to have one more go at updating the well-liked old Sunbeam Rapier. In September 1965 they introduced the Series V version which looked exactly like the Series IV inside and out except for badges on wings and boot which now said “1725”, revealing the presence of an important new engine.

Rootes had extensively redesigned their famous old four cylinder engine to increase its capacity to 1725 cc. Along the way it had acquired a new crankshaft with five main bearings, making the unit stronger and smoother. This was the strong engine that would power the Series V Rapier and be developed for many subsequent models.

To further update the car, they changed its polarity from positive to negative earth and fitted an alternator in place of the dynamo. They also devised a new twin pipe exhaust system so that the new engine could breathe more easily.

The effect of these changes was to increase the Rapier’s maximum speed to 95 mph (153 km/h) and reduce its time from rest to 60 mph (97 km/h) to 14.1 seconds. Unfortunately, for all its good features, the Series V just didn’t sell. By the time it was discontinued in June 1967, only 3759 units had been built, making it the rarest of all the “Series” Sunbeam Rapiers.

Sunbeam Rapier Fastback coup

Main article: Rootes Arrow

Sunbeam Rapier Fastback



46,204 produced including Alpine and H120.

Body style(s)

2-door saloon


1725 cc overhead valve Straight-4

By 1967 Rootes’s “Arrow” range was ready. Famous for the Hillman Hunter, the range also included a new generation of Sunbeam Rapiers, with fastback coup bodies and a sporty image. Like the series models, it was a stylish pillarless hardtop.

The Arrow Rapier or Fastback, as it came to be known launched in October 1967, was a smart four-seat coup based on the chassis of the Hillman Hunter Estate. It was said to bear a resemblance to the contemporary Plymouth Barracuda, a product from Chrysler who by now had a considerable stake in Rootes. However, Rapier stylist Roy Axe insisted that this was not the case. Although the Rapier used the tail lamps and rear valance from the Hunter Estate, the rest of its superstructure was unique.

The Rapier used the Rootes four cylinder, 5-bearing 1725 cc engine, which was tilted slightly to the right to enable a lower bonnet line, in common with the other Arrow models. With its twin Stromberg 150CD carburettors the engine produced 88 bhp (net) at 5200 rpm. Overdrive was standard with the manual gearbox, and Borg-Warner automatic transmission was an optional extra.

The Fastback Rapier continued almost unchanged until 1976, when it was discontinued without replacement. During its lifetime it formed the basis for the more powerful Sunbeam Rapier H120, introduced in October 1968 and identifiable by its boot-lid spoiler and polished sill covers: it shared its Holbay Engineering-tuned 110 bhp engine (with twin Weber carburettors) with the Hillman Hunter GLS. The Rapier was also the basis for the slightly cheaper but similarly bodied, single-carburettor Sunbeam Alpine Fastback introduced in October 1969. Rapier running gear (though not the estate chassis) was also used in the Humber Sceptre, Hillman GT and Hillman Hunter GT models from the Arrow range.

Between 1967 and 1969, the Rapier was built at Ryton-on-Dunsmore, but from 1969 until its demise in 1976, it was built at the Imp factory at Linwood in Scotland. In all, 46,204 units were built (including Rapier, H120 and Alpine versions).

Maximum speed of the Rapier was 103 mph (166 km/h) and it could reach 60 mph (97 km/h) from rest in 12.8 seconds. In the United States, it was marketed as the Sunbeam Alpine GT.

Sunbeam Alpine Fastback coup

Sunbeam Alpine Fastback coup

The Sunbeam Alpine Fastback, introduced for 1970, was essentially a Rapier with a simplified specification, developed to plug a gap in the Arrow range above the Singer Vogue. It used the same 1725 cc engine as the Hillman Hunter which, fitted with a single Stromberg 150CD carburettor, developed 74 bhp (net) at 5500 rpm. Overdrive was an option on cars with a manual gearbox or you could have Borg-Warner automatic transmission.

The Alpine, though well equipped, was less sporty in style than the Rapier. It had a wooden dashboard with fewer instruments, instead of the Rapier’s cowled plastic one, and wood instead of metal on the transmission tunnel; subjectively looking more luxurious rather than less sporty. There were also different wheel trims, no aluminium sill finishers (nor the polished ones of the H120) and no vinyl trim on its C pillars. Above all, it was significantly cheaper than the Rapier.

Maximum speed of the Alpine was 94 mph (151 km/h) and it could reach 60 mph (97 km/h) from rest in 14.6 seconds.

The Fastback Alpine was discontinued in 1975, before the Rapier and H120.

Sunbeam Rapier H120

Sunbeam Rapier H120 Fastback coup

To produce an even faster car than the Fastback Rapier, Rootes developed the H120. Based on the Rapier, the H120 had a more powerful version of the 1725 cc engine specially developed by Holbay Racing Engines. It produced 108 bhp (gross) at 5200 rpm and was fitted with a special cylinder head, high lift camshaft, tuned length four-branch exhaust manifold, special distributor and twin Weber 40DCOE carburetters. To enhance the driving experience, the H120 had a close ratio gearbox, a heavy duty overdrive and a high ratio rear axle. Automatic transmission was not an option.

To add to its sporty image, the H120 was given wider Rostyle wheels, broad side flashes, polished sill covers, a matt black radiator grille and a new boot lid incorporating a faired-in spoiler. To complete the package, H120 badges appeared on the front wings and in the centre of the grille.

Maximum speed of the H120 was 109 mph (175 km/h) and it could reach 60 mph (97 km/h) from standstill in a shade over 10 seconds.

The H120 was discontinued with the Fastback Rapier in 1976.

External links

Sunbeam Rapier Owners’ Club

Association of Rootes Car Clubs

Rootes Archive Centre Trust


^ a b c “Used Cars on test: 1962 Sunbeam Rapier IIIA”. Autocar vol 126 (nbr 3700): pages 66 – 67. date 12 January 1967. 

^ a b c d e f g Robson, G. (2006). A-Z of British Cars 1945-1980. Devon, UK: Herridge Books. ISBN 1-9541063-9-3. 

^ a b c d e “The Sunbeam Rapier”. The Motor. March 20 1957. 

^ “The Sunbeam Rapier III”. The Motor. February 16 1960. 

^ a b c “Buying secondhand: Sunbeam Rapier/Alpine”. Autocar vol 144 (nbr 4127): pages 70 – 72. date 13 December 1975. 

Categories: Sunbeam vehicles | Rear wheel drive vehicles | Vehicles introduced in 1955