Liver Cancer Treatment – Know the Facts

On the day of treatment, the patient is given a mild sedative and pain medication. The radiologist makes a tiny incision in the groin—no larger than the tip of a pencil—to gain access to the femoral artery. Using moving X-ray images (fluoroscopy) as a visual guide, the physician directs a thin, flexible tube (catheter) through the artery and into the main blood vessel feeding the liver tumor. The radioactive beads are injected and carried in the bloodstream up to the tumor, where they embed and slowly kill the cancerous cells.

Hepatocellular cancer is more likely to develop in people with chronic cirrhosis. Your specialist may suggest a liver transplant if you have cirrhosis of the liver because of previous liver disease, infection with a hepatitis virus or from drinking alcohol. You will only benefit from a liver transplant if you have a single liver tumour that is less than 5cm across, or up to 3 tumours all less than 3cm across. There is an added difficulty of having to wait for a suitable donor. This can take months. During this delay, the cancer will continue to grow and you have other treatment to try to control it.

Radiofrequency ablation procedure, electric current in the radiofrequency range is used to destroy malignant cells. Using an ultrasound or CT scan as a guide, your surgeon inserts several thin needles into small incisions in your abdomen. When the needles reach the tumor, they’re heated with an electric current, destroying the malignant cells. Radiofrequency ablation is an option for people with small, unresectable hepatocellular tumors and for some types of metastatic liver cancers. Although the procedure has a somewhat higher risk of serious complications than alcohol injection does, it appears to provide better outcomes.

A natural home remedy is one way to help you heal. It is a form of self-help. This is what the focus of my site is. First let me congratulate you on taking control of your own health. Not an easy task for some considering all the focus on modern medicine and the negative information on natural health.

Treatment of liver cancer may involve surgery, interventional radiological procedures, and chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Individual treatment depends largely on the type and extent of disease.

Alcohol injection. In this procedure, pure alcohol is injected directly into tumors, either through the skin or during an operation. Alcohol dries out the cells of the tumor and eventually the cells die. Each treatment consists of one injection, although you may need a series of injections for the best results. Alcohol injection has been shown to improve survival in people with small hepatocellular tumors. It may also be used to help reduce symptoms in cases of metastatic liver cancer. The most common side effect is leaking of alcohol onto the liver or into the abdominal cavity.

Surgery is increasingly being used for patients with secondary liver cancer. This can sometimes involve removing a segment of liver. Alternatively, keyhole techniques can be used to apply extreme cold or heat to localized areas of the liver.

Ten Anti Social Phobias

Phobia is normally related to AvPD or Avoidant Personality Disorder and not with anti social personality disorder or APD. “Anti social means that someone has no respect for social norms or the feelings of others.” It is the exact opposite of the social phobia. Thus when it comes to considering ten anti-social phobias, prominent among the phobias, there is nothing to do with social phobias. Having a look at them could convince one about this.

1. Abusive Behavior to Children

Sadistic behavior where a person gets pleasure by abusing the child is perhaps the greatest among the anti-social phobias. There is hardly an object more pious and lovable than a child and abusing it in any manner only shows the most deranged mental state. Unfortunately there are people who derive all the pleasure by abusing, hurting, and even sexually exploiting children, the worst type of social behavior that could be thought of and are constant threat to humanity and civilization. While many people have some background for development of such phobia in them, the trait is still not desirable.

2.Willfully Violating Women

Another very unpleasant and dangerous anti social phobia is the attitude in people dealing sadistically with women. Willful violence against women and indulging in torturing women by way of rape, molestation, and abuse of any kind is one of the worst kinds of behavior expected from a civilized man. However such behavior are found in quite a few and these persons are suffering from a phobia that views women as an object of misuse. One of the results of such phobia is domestic violence that is unwarranted in any form.

3.Failure to Conform to Social Norms Relating to Lawful Behaviors

People suffering from such phobias indulge in such actions that deviate from lawful behavior conforming to social norms. In result they often come on the wrong side of the law courting arrest and similar other fates. Yet they derive a form of sadistic pleasure by indulging in actions that are looked upon with disdain by others. Perhaps the person committing such actions feel that by doing this they are paying back some of what the world have paid them. It does not necessarily mean that the feelings have any sound basis. On most occasions these conditions are hallucinations resulting out of the thinking of the negative mind of the person suffering from phobia.


One of the most negative and anti-social behaviors are deceitfulness. Persons suffering from it usually indulge in the habit of repeatedly lying with people they come across and using aliases, or even conning others for the sake of personal profit or pleasure. Such people do not look to the well being of others and they only consider everything from their own pursuit. Despicable in nature, these traits often make the person suffering from the anti-social phobia undesirable company for many. Yet at the same time the person concerned gets pleasure out of their evil designs smiling at the back of their mind when some poor victims are subjected to their deceit.

5.Undesirable Aggressiveness

Aggressiveness for doing something good could be socially desirable but not aggressiveness when it works against hapless innocent victims. More often than not people suffering from such phobia display unwarranted aggressiveness and most of the times young, old and infirm, and women are at the receiving ends. These people consider the whole world to be their enemy and they tend to take out their vengeance on anyone who comes across. Usually this syndrome is the result of feeling of insecurity in the person suffering from the phobia. It is also seen that people who do not have a happy family life or had some bad experiences in their childhood and aggressiveness is not singular to the men alone. Women could be as aggressive as their male counterparts.

6.Irritability and Violent Behavior

Very often people suffering from this type of phobia get involved in fights and assaulting others. And when not involved in direct fights they tend to express irritation at everyone around and often does not bother in physically torturing others. Tending to become irritated at the slightest provocation and even without any provocation, they cause embarrassment to others around and are also a constant source of danger for the society. At the same time they could even be dangerous for the environment around since venting their anger on plants, trees, and small animals around would be as harmful and despicable as any of the worst actions taken by anyone.

7.Reckless Disregards for Safety of Others

Every alternative day one comes across news on the print and electronic media about reckless driving, riding, or running some machine, or even indulging in actions without taking care of safety of others. These people have no regards for the safety of others. They do not give a dime about loss of human lives or hazards to fellow people. Numerous accidents that have taken tolls of hundreds of lives have been the result of such people who have little regards for safety considerations. A good number of such people are often found intoxicated or under the influence of drugs, those are often the main reasons for recklessness in many people. Uniqueness of the phobia in such people is that they do not have any care for even their own safety.

8.Inconsistent Behavior

People who fail to sustain consistent behavior in respect of works or honor financial commitments and obligations suffer from this type of anti social phobia. Disdainful behavior can create problems for people around and similar inconsistencies in one’s behavior at workplace can cause problems for the coworkers. At the same time not keeping the commitments financially is one of the major problems that have given rise to many sad incidents on the earth. Behavioral patterns found in these people are completely different from normal people and the worst part of it is that the miscreant does not consider it wrong.

9.Unwarranted Feats of Anger

Having feats of sudden anger, most of the times without any reason, is another form of anti social phobia. Such people do not have any reason for the anger. It is only the expression of their inner feelings that indicates their insecurity. People often feel disdained or perturbed with their fellows suffering sudden surges of anger. Ordinarily people who are frustrated in their life or who have not been able to fulfill their wishes are the victims of this phobia. All the same it is socially most dangerous and could result in various ugly incidents that could be otherwise avoidable.

10.Lack of Remorse for Others

Man is a social animal and one of the traits is feeling remorse for bad fate and sufferings of others. Lack of remorse for others is one of the biggest anti-social phobias that are there. Man has feeling and a good man feels for others or at least his or her friend, family, and loved ones. That feeling is exactly not found in people suffering from this type of phobia. Such people lack all feeling and only their own interest is supreme in their mind. Remaining oblivious to suffering of others, they show a marked indifference after even hurting, mistreating, or making others suffer towards the hurt feelings.


Difference in the people suffering from anti social phobia is how they feel about other people. An anti social would feel angry at other though he or she may or may not express the feeling. An anti social phobic will make others feel bad. In any case it is one of the mental diseases that are required to be corrected with the help of therapist. Otherwise if the phobia reaches its zenith, it could be dangerous for all human being and the entire mankind.

Treatment Regarding Kidney Stones

Kidney stones form when there is a decrease in urine volume or an excess of stone-forming substances in the urine. The most common type of kidney stone contains calcium in combination with either oxalate or phosphate. Other chemical compounds that can form stones in the urinary tract include uric acid and the amino acid cystine.

Kidney stones, also known as renal calculi, are rock like structures formed in the kidney. The stones are made out of certain substances that are found in the urine and can block the flow of urine and cause bladder inflammation. The kidney stones can appear in the kidney and the ureters and cause pain during urination. It is possible to reduce the kidney stones by drinking lots of water.

Drinking more fluids. You need to drink enough water to keep your urine clear, about 8 to 10 glasses a day. Try to drink 2 glasses of water every 2 hours while you are awake. If you have kidney, heart, or liver disease and are on fluid restrictions, talk with your doctor before increasing your fluid intake.

The formation of stones in the kidneys or urinary tract is not an uncommon disorder. The stones are formed from the chemicals usually found in the urine such as uric acid, phosphorus, calcium, and oxalic acid. They may vary in consistency from grit, sand, and gravel-like obstructions the size of a bird’s egg. Stones may form and grow because the concentration of a particular substance in the urine exceeds its solubility. Most kidney stones are composed either of calcium oxalate or phosphate, the latter being most common in the presence of infection. About ninety per cent of all stones contain calcium as the chief constituent. More than half of these are mixtures of calcium, ammonium and magnesium, phosphates and carbonates, while the remainder contains oxalate.

Keep a cap on your calcium. “Of all the stones we see, 92 percent are made of calcium or calcium products,” says Dr. Fugelso. If your doctor says your last stone was calcium-based, you should be concerned about your intake of calcium. If you’re taking supplements, the first thing to do is check with your doctor to see if they are really necessary. The next thing to do is check the amount of calcium-rich foods—milk, cheese, butter, and other dairy foods—you eat on a daily basis. The idea is to limit—not eliminate—calcium-rich food in your diet.

Chief among these is acid to quickly dissolve those jagged edges and thus reduce that agonizing pain. Don’t be alarmed at the prospect of drinking acid, because many of the beneficial foods we eat contain acid. For example, that freshly squeezed Florida orange juice — a great way to start your breakfast — contains citric acid. And cranberries, prunes and plums are among some of the best health-giving foods, yet are rich in benzoic acid. Even that old favorite for keeping the doctor at bay: the apple has high levels of malic acid, which give the fruit its clean, sharp taste.

Your doctor may ask you to catch the kidney stone by passing your urine through filter paper or a tea strainer. The stone can then be analysed to find out what type it is to help guide your treatment.

Types of Pain Dogs can Experience

Dogs can experience many different kinds of pain.  As an owner you should be aware of these so you can quickly take steps to relieve your dog’s pain. Here are five areas where dog’s often experience pain and what symptoms to look out for.


The stomach is a common source of pain in dogs.  Dog’s with upset stomachs often act painful and often vomit.  Other conditions include a twisted stomach and bloat which are especially painful conditions seen commonly in larger breed dogs, like Great Danes.  One sign of this is retching, which is non-productive vomiting.

Skin Inflammation

Inflammed skin is often very painful.  One of the most common manifestations of this in dogs is called a “hotspot.”  This is an area of intense inflammation that is often so irritated that dogs want to chew it, causing more self trauma to the area.  These lesions are often located on the front leg or rear.  Dogs that have hotspots will chew the area very intensively.


Orthopedic pain can come in many forms but the two most common ones are knee and back pain.  Torn knee ligaments will often make a dog limp.  Similarly, a back problem, like a spinal disc issue can be so severe that the dog does not even want to walk.  Orthopedic problems are often the easiest to recognize because they affect how well your canine is able to ambulate.

Urinary Tract

An infection or inflammation of the urinary tract can so intensely painful, most dogs are very reluctant to urinate at all.  Dogs with urinary tract problems often appear to strain when they go to urinate, urinate in small amounts, and urinate more frequently.


Dental problems like broken teeth and inflamed gums, can cause pain so severe that the dog does not even want to eat.  Dogs with dental problems may appear reluctant to eat and might even drop food out of their mouths.

These are just some of the areas that your dog experience pain in.  If your dog is currently experiencing any of these symptoms, you should contact your veterinarian right away.

Your Child’s Tummy Ache

Tummy aches are one of the most frequently complained about problems in children. There are many causes attributed with it, and it is a challenge for the parent or the physician to find out the exact problem. Sometimes the pain requires immediate attention and can also be a case of emergency. The causes can be related to food, infections, poisoning, insect bites, etc.

Bacteria and viruses are responsible in case of abdominal pain due to infections. Gastroenteritis and stomach flu are some of the examples of infections that can cause stomach aches. Gastroenteritis is the inflammation and irritation of stomach and the gastrointestinal passage. Extra care must be taken by travelers, as the food and drinks can be contaminated at new locations and can lead to traveler’s getting diarrhea. Stomach pain due to viral infections ward off quickly, but bacterial infections demand the intake of antibiotics. In both the cases, some children recover very fast by vomiting and excreting. In case of diarrhea, excess drinking fluids should be given to the kid to avoid dehydration.

Food related stomach aches can be caused because of food poisoning, gas production, excess food ingestion and food allergies. Problems because of food poisoning are temporary and can cause bloating. Symptoms of food poisoning are vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and nausea. Usually these symptoms surface within two days of consumption of contaminated food. Depending on the severity chill, fever, bloody stools, or damage to the nervous system can follow. In case of a group of people who consumed the contaminated food, this situation is known as an outbreak. Over two hundred diseases are known to be transmitted via food. Food can be poisoned because of toxic agents or infective agents. Infective agents are parasites, bacteria, and viruses. Toxic agents are uncooked food, exotic foods, and poisonous mushrooms. Food can get contaminated because of handling by unclean workers at the local restaurant, too. Parents should check out the cleanliness and should visit a trusted restaurant.

Particular foods can cause the irritation, such as diary products can cause lactose intolerance. If this is the case, the child is allergic to certain food or drinks and swallowing even a small amount can cause vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, cramping, and skin rash. Since these items are harmless otherwise, such kind of allergic reactions are known as hypersensitivity reaction. Sometimes the symptoms can be life threatening and are known as anaphylactic shock or anaphylaxis.     

Poisoning can also be due to overdose of medicines and even due to eating non-food stuffs. Insect bites such as black widow spider bite can also lead to pain in the abdomen. It can be accompanied with muscle cramps, weakness, nausea, tremor, vomiting and in severe case it can cause dizziness, faintness, respiratory problems, and chest pain. Also, the heart rate and blood pressure increases.

In very rare cases, abdominal pain can be due to appendicitis. This is a result of blockage and inflammation of tissues. Young kids have a higher rate if complications are considered and should be immediately rushed to the hospital. The pain starts slowly in the abdomen, specifically near the belly button. The pain shifts slowly to the right side of the lower abdomen within a time period of over twenty four hours.  Clear symptoms are abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, fever and loss of appetite. Diabetes can also be a reason of abdominal pain. Small children usually curl up, cry and express pain through facial expression. Some kids will be reluctant to talk, but the parent should try to get clear explanation of the problem. Along with close monitoring of the symptoms, studying the location of pain, pain duration, nature of vomiting, and urinary problems will help. After that a pediatric should be consulted who can further refer to a gastroenterologist. Until help is reached, the child should be made to relax.

Often, lying with face in downward direction can relieve pain due to gas. Incase of vomiting and diarrhea, fluids should be given constantly. Solid food should only be given when the child is comfortable about eating it.

When to Use Ice Versus Heat After an Injury

Ice Verses Heat

Key points:

1. You can never go wrong with ice.

2. Always ice for the first 72 hours.

3. If you use heat and within a half hour to an hour you feel stiffer and more sore then you should be icing.

4. Use moist heat over dry heat.

5. Use a wet towel between the heat / ice and your skin.

Have you ever been in a situation where you sprained your ankle or your shoulders are feeling tight and you have no idea whether you should use ice or heat? I got asked about this often. This is what I tell my patients; With a little extra detail.


First and foremost, ice is your best friend. You can not go wrong with ice. In every typical condition ice will not harm you. Ice decrees the inflammatory process which causes swelling. If there is less swelling there will be less disadvantage after the inflammation has stopped. Ice also decrees the sensation of pain. If there is no pain then the muscles that are in spasm and protecting the body are allowed to relax.

I recommend icing when there is:

1. Less than 72 hours after injury, for example, after an ankle sprain.

2. A chronic injury that has recently become more aggravated.

3. Warmth and swelling of the area.

For small areas take an ice cube and massage it for 7 minutes or until it is numb. For moderately sized areas, use a therapeutic ice pack or a bag of frozen peas so it can wrap around the area. Do not apply directly to the skin. A wet towel should be between the body and the ice. For larger areas, such as a leg or arm, use an ice bath. The temperature of the bath should be between 12 and 15 degrees Celsius.

Ice should be applied for 10 – 20 minutes depending on the thickness of the area. The thicker the area the more time is needed but do need exceeded 20 minutes. Icing should be performed every two hours and not just once or twice.

When icing you should expect to first experience cold followed by burning, then achy and finally numbness.

Ice should not be used if you have:

1. Raynaud's Disease

2. Rheumatoid Arthritis

3. Cold Hypersensitivity

4. Cold Allergy

5. Diabetes with vascular disease

6. Peripheral vascular disease.

7. Malignancy

8. Impaired sensation

9. Icing the front of the neck

10. Cryoglobulinemia

11. Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria

12. Elderly with fragile skin


Heat should NEVER be used immediately after an injury. I recommend heat when:

1. There are tight muscles.

2. The condition is chronic.

3. When the injury is no longer inflamed or warm to the touch.

Heat increases blood flow to an area which brings all of the vital nutrients it needs for injury repair. In addition, it has a calming effect to relax muscles so allowing them to be more flexible and allowing you to have increased mobility. Heat will also help to reduce pain as well as muscle spasm.

I recommend using moist heat to my patients. This can be done by soaking the area in a hot bath or heating up a wet towel until it is comfortably hot. Moist heat penetrates deep beyond the skin. I am not a proponent of using the products that you heat up in the microwave or heating pads because these are considered dry heat which only treats superbly and does not reach the muscles that need it. Heating should be performed for 15 to 20 minutes. Check the skin every once in awhile to ensure that the skin is not burning.

Heat should not be used if:

1. malignancy

2. impaired sensation

3. Infections

4. Impaired blood flow

5. Multiple sclerosis

6. pregnancy

7. Deep vein thrombosis

The Gray Area

The gray area is that time where the patient is beyond 36 hours after the injury. This is a time where we are not completely sure whether heat or cold is required. This is a typical situation. The patient uses heat and they will feel good immediately after using it but then within a half hour or hour they experience feeling more stiff and tight. This is likely an indication that there is still an inflammatory process occurring therefore the patient should use ice.


1. Klein, MJ Superficial Heat and Cold. Available at: . Accessed February 9, 2009.

Disclaimer – The information found here is for general information only and should not be treated as a substitute for medical advice from your own Doctor of Chiropractic, Medical Doctor or any other health care professional. Dr. Notley is not liable or liable for any injuries occurred by performing any of the exercises given, information provided or diagnosed made by a user based on the information shown here. Always consult your own Doctor of Chiropractic, Medical Doctor or any other health care professional, if you're in any way concerned about your health or anything associated with.

Muscle Loss, Joints And Bones – How Does It Happen?

Many times this is a combination where all three of them can develop over time, and we wonder why. Is it because of aging or are there other things at play? Yes, there could be several reasons for this but our modern lifestyle should get first priority being looked at.

Each of the joints in the human body has synovial fluid. This fluid is a form of thick liquid that lubricates the joints and allows for ease and painless movements. As our body ages, such commodities as synovial fluid and many minerals are no longer supplied by the body in right quantities. Although there is another reason for this, and that is the diet we choose. Muscle loss comes to the extreme when people start to stoop over as they walk. Another symptom, we become less balanced and weaker when muscle loss occurs. As we age this becomes a natural process from the body unless supported through the right diet and exercise. On average, we have a 30 percent muscles loss from the age of 50 onwards.

Bone Density

Osteopenia is a fancy name for decreased bone density, but not to the extreme of osteoporosis. Many times prescription drugs being recommended, such as fosamax, boniva, evista, actonel, forteo, reclast, protelos is a bisphosphonate which is a common ingredient used in laundry detergent, fertilizers and industrial lubricants. Researchers have found that such medicines can make bones more fragile, actually increase the risk of fractures. People believe drugs are bone builders but evidence shows they are making bones more brittle. Osteoporosis and osteopenia is not a disease but rather where the body is trying to correct an imbalance. This is preventable without taking drugs.

Mineral Deficiency

There is no question about it, calcium plays an important role in bone health. Because we hear a lot about calcium we assume that’s all we need, but calcium on its own would have little effect to solve the problem. What is often overlooked, we need many minerals to solve any of these issues. Experts agree that adequate calcium throughout life as well as other minerals and a balanced diet may lower the risk of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis or even reverse it. Calcium is not the only nutrient you need for bone formation. Besides calcium you need phosphorus as well as magnesium, potassium, copper, manganese, zinc, vitamin D, etc.

Avoid bone supplements until you get the facts first. Taking a calcium or multi- vitamin is not the magic wand for bone health; many people have been lead to believe it is. Taking the supplements you typically find in stores or supermarkets are of little benefit, if any. Most of these supplements are not complete and made from synthetic materials and not from natural ingredients which are the type of minerals the body needs. A healthy diet is more important before taking any supplements; only than, having that combination will give the best result.

Some foods better be excluded such as the worst offenders, sugar and alcohol; these are extremely acidic and inflammatory. A variety of diet is best chosen of the rainbow yellow and orange fruits and vegetables, carrots, cantaloupe and apricots. Add to this non fat dairy foods, organic fresh milk, cheese, Greek yogurt, kiwi fruit, red peppers, and oranges. Best to make your own juice from fresh fruits and vegetables.

Combat Muscle Loss

What can we do to age related muscle loss, what is the answer to this? Should we go to a gym pumping heavy weights and have a weightlifting work out to build muscles? No, we don’t have to go to that extreme; you can increase your lean muscles through stretching. Doing this every day in the shower is a good start without painful weights; as well do some push ups several times during the week. There are different stretches for arms, legs and shoulders.

Regular exercises will strengthen your body, your joints, tendons and ligaments. Over time your body will get stronger, this also means there is less likely an injury or fractures because of this extra strength. With any exercise is best to start gentle at first. By going for daily walks has more benefits than most people realise. It not only strengthens your body, helps blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease and many more. These are many exercises to do without any expensive workout equipment and as well, being out in fresh air.


Are you having trouble losing weight?  You may have Hypothyroidism 

If you would like to increase your thyroid function, increase your metabolism, and support a healthy cholesterol metabolism, order the “Thyroid Helper” now. 

What is the thyroid and how does it work?

Thyroid is actually a type of gland located in the human. Its shape is like a butterfly and the wind pipe wraps around it.  The thyroid gland works just like a small factory that uses iodine to produce thyroid hormones. These hormones help to regulate the body’s metabolism and affect the body’s growth process, development, and mental function among other things.  If it is slow (hypo), it is called hypothyroid.  If it is fast (hyper), it is called hyperthyroid.  Today we will discuss hypothyroid.  If you have hypothyroidism, it can be harmful and should be brought to the attention of a physician because it might lead to some health related problems.

What are the symptoms?

 Low Metabolic Rate                                          Mental Fogginess

Constipation                                                     Hair Loss

Fatigue                                                             Dropping/Swollen Eyes

Tiredness                                                         Slowing of Bodily Processes

Tinglling Extremeties                                        Yellow Bumps on Eyelids

Swelling in the Lower Extremeties                    Slowed Heart Rate (Bradycardia)

Intolerance To Cold                                          Dry Skin

Yellow-Orange Skin                                          Slugginess

Weight Gain                                                     Forgetfulness

Difficulty Losing Weight                                    Dry, Coarse Hair

Fluid Retention                                                 Cramps

Chronic Drowsiness                                          Depression

Excessive or Prolonged Menstrual Bleeding (Menorrhagia)

Breastmilk Production in Women Who Aren’t Pregnant

Specific Aches and Stiffness in Muscles and Joints

What should I do if I have the symptoms?

Most people will have multiple symptoms.  If you experience these symptoms, contact your doctor and have a thyroid test done.  A key step is to determine if too high or low a Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) level or a lack of T3 hormone is preventing you from feeling well.  You may lack the ability to convert T4 to active T3.  So, be sure that they not only test the TSH but also the T3 and T4 levels.

So, your first step for you is knowing your TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) level, and other key thyroid levels such as T4 (Levothyroxine) and T3 (Liothyronine).  These levels allow you to help gauge where your doctor is in terms of treatment, and give you a common point of discussion.  More doctors are beginning to believe that a TSH of around 1 – 2 (in the low end of the normal range) is optimal for most people to feel well and avoid having hypothyroid or hyperthyroid symptoms.  Some people feel terrible at 4-5, and at .2, but pretty good at 1 – 2.


For some people, you can still have hypothyroidism at a cellular level with the symptoms although your TSH level may be normal.  This may be due to conversion problems, inadequate T3 hormone, or other factors.


They will probably prescribe medication.  Many times they will prescribe Synthroid, Levoxyl, Levothyroid, and Unithroid medications which only deals with the T4.

Request your doctor to provide you with a prescription that is a combination of T3 AND T4


Request that your doctor has the pharmacist to make up a T3/T4 combo as per the doctor’s specs.

What can I do to help myself?

There are different things that you can do to help yourself.  I have experienced issues with my Levoxyl not working.  Although my TSH levels were normal and fluctuated, I still had a major amount of the systems which the doctor failed to related to the hypothyroid and I just didn’t feel well.


I found that it was easier to take matters into my own hand once I understood what the problem was.  So, I ordered “Thyroid Helper”, which is a more natural product to help my thyroid… and… it works.  Also, while the others are made from the glands of pigs or have stimulants in them, this one doesn’t.


If you would like to increase your thyroid function, increase your metabolism, and support a healthy cholesterol metabolism, order the “Thyroid Helper” now.

Join me again at “Living Victoriously” as we go over “Hyperthyroidism”.

You Should Know Facts Before You Decide to Have Pregnancy Terminated

You're sure you're pregnant, and this was not among your plans. Now you feel fear, confusion and offense and are absolutely unaware of what to do further. It's very hard to turn out to face unplanned pregnancy. You deserve to know all facts before you make a decision. Law gives you right to be informed about such important decision. Let's learn about a new life that is developing inside of you and the abortion itself in more details. Remember, there's always positive ways in this situation.



Abortion is not a simple medical procedure. For many women this is an event, causing serious physical, emotional and spiritual changes. Majority of women, suffering from after-effects of past abortions, say that they would like to be told about all facts before they decided to have pregnancy terminated.


Remember that basic burden because of after-effects of abortion will fall on you. If your boyfriend or parents make you having your pregnancy terminated quickly, explain them that you need to think over everything. Try to involve them in the process of learning the situation, to find a positive way. And remember, you have a right to keep this pregnancy.


Probably, you treat this unplanned pregnancy as an obstacle in your life. But you should know that there're always lots of variants to solve problems. Look closer and you will see them. Remember, many women found necessary help in such situation and made positive decision.


During pregnancy your organism passes through many changes. Most popular signs of early pregnancy are insomnia, sickness, heightened susceptibility of breast, frequent urination, tiredness and sudden changes of mood.

You can trust to majority of pregnancy tests, however, you need to visit a doctor, to confirm it.

Your doctor may lead or send you to ultrasound investigation, to confirm pregnancy. This information is important in any case, regardless of whether you think about abortion or keeping pregnancy.

Signs of pregnancy:

Delay of menstruation

Sickness and retching

Increased sensitivity of breast

Frequent urination

Sudden changes of mood



Cervix of the uterus – lower opening in uterus.

Embryo – human life in the initial stage of development.

Fertilization – combination of male sperm with female ovule, forming a new human life as a result.

Fetus – developing prenatal baby with human constitution.

Full-term pregnancy – term, after which prenatal baby is ready for birth (about 40 weeks after last menstruation or 38 weeks after fertilization).

Last menstrual period – a day, when last menstruation began before fertilization. This is a date, since which calculations of pregnancy and age of prenatal baby are made.

Trimester – 3 months interval, which is used for determination of three, following one after another, stages of pregnancy: 1st trimester (1st-3rd months), 2nd trimester (4-6th months) and 3rd trimester (7-9th months).

Uterus – muscle female organ, in which prenatal baby is developing.

Beginning of life – At the moment, when fertilization takes place, the peculiarities of a baby are already present and determined, including sex, hair and eye color.

9 weeks (7 weeks since conception)

During this term a baby's heart is already beating for a whole month

16 weeks

In this age a baby responds to loud sounds

22 weeks (20 weeks since conception)

In this age you can see a baby's eyelashes



This operational abortion is carried out on early stage of pregnancy (up to 7 weeks). Muscles of cervix of the uterus are stretched with the help of metallic rods-dilators until opening is wide enough to allow abortive instruments come in uterus. Doctor attaches a special syringe to a tube (it is inserted in uterus) and a prenatal baby is evacuated.

Vacuum-aspiration with following scraping

During 6-14 weeks after last menstrual period

During this procedure a doctor opens cervix of the uterus with metallic dilators or thin sticks that are inserted hours before the procedure itself. A doctor inserts tube into uterus and attaches in to pump. A pump grinds a baby's body into parts and evacuates them from uterus. Such abortion is called Dilation with following scraping. In this case doctor can use curette (roundish knife), to scrape parts of baby's body from uterus.

Dilation and ablation

During 13-24 weeks after last menstruation

This operational abortion is carried out during second trimester of pregnancy. As a developing baby doubles in size between 11th and 12th weeks, his body is too big to be crushed by pump and pass through tube. In this case cervix of the uterus should be opened wider, than during abortion of 1st trimester. So, sticks are inserted a day or two before abortion itself. After cervix of the uterus is opened, a doctor takes out parts of baby's body with forceps. To take out a baby's skull, it is crushed with forceps beforehand.

Dilation and extraction

Since 20 weeks after last menstrual period

This procedure takes 3 days. During first two days a cervix of the uterus is dilated and a woman is given antispasmodic preparations. On third day a woman takes a medicine, provoking delivery. After delivery began, a doctor carries out ultrasonic investigation to determine the location of baby's legs. Clenching legs with forceps, a doctor takes baby out, leaving only head inside. Then, he makes a hole in a skull and lets contents out. A skull is broken and a baby is taken out from uterus completely.

"Mifegin", "Mifepristone", "RU 486В" during 4-7 weeks after last menstruation

This mediated abortion is carried out during 30-49 days after last menstrual period. As a rule, a woman should visit a doctor three times for this procedure. "Mifegin" is given to women, who return 2 days later, to take second medicine – "Misprostol". A combination of these 2 chemicals provokes to rejection and ejection of a baby from uterus.


As a result of abortion, many complications may appear: pain in lower part of belly, spasms, sickness, vomiting and liquid stool. In spite of the fact that in major cases cases there are no serious after-effects, complications may appear in about one of each 100 abortions on early term. And also in one of each 50 abortions on late term.

More serious complications are:

Intensive bleeding

Some bleeding after abortion is normal. However, there's a risk of serious bleeding, especially if the uterine artery is broken. When this happens, a woman needs blood transfusion.


During abortion bacterium can come into uterus. Result – infection. Serious infection can lead to stable high temperature during several days, which requires long hospitalization.

Incomplete abortion

Some parts of baby's body can be left in uterus. As a result, bleeding and infection may appear. For example, "RU 486" does not work in one of 20 cases.

Allergic reaction to medicines

Allergic reaction to anesthesia during abortion can lead to convulsions, heart attack and sometimes death.

Laceration of cervix

Cervix of the uterus can be cut or broken by abortive instruments.

Scars on internal membrane of uterus

Tube of suction apparatus, curette and other instruments can leave scars on uterus membrane.

Perforation of uterus

Uterus can be transfixed or broken by instruments. Risk of this complication increases with duration of pregnancy. If this happens, a serious operation, and in some cases hysterectomy (amputation of uterus) are necessary.

Damage of internals

When a hole or gap forms in uterus, this may lead to a damage of adjoining organs, such as bowls and urinary bladder.


In extreme cases complications after abortion may lead to death. Excessive bleeding, damage of organs and walls of uterus and negative reaction to anesthesia are especially dangerous. These complications happen seldom, in general 20 cases per year.



Doctors are still investigating a question about possible connection between abortion and breast cancer. However, here're several important factors:

Bearing pregnancy till childbirth creates protection against breast cancer in organism. This protection is not gained, in you make abortion.
Because of abortion a sudden decay of hormone estrogen takes place. This fact makes breast cells treated to breast cancer.
Majority of researchers indicate to a significant connection between abortion and breast cancer.


Scars and other damages as a result of abortion may lead to sterility or complications while further desired pregnancies. For those who had first pregnancy terminated, a risk of miscarriages increases.

In 1994 a magazine National Cancer Institute determined: "Among women, who become pregnant despite once, a risk of breast cancer increased 50% for those, who had pregnancy terminated".


Some women feel serious emotional stress after abortion. This may begin during first days after abortion, and sometimes many years later. Here're some factors, which passing of symptoms of Post-abortion stress depends on: age of woman, circumstances of abortion, term of pregnancy, and also religious views of woman.


People have different understanding of God. Regardless of your belief now, spiritual side of abortion describes attentiveness. If you have your pregnancy terminated, this may influence not only your mind and organism, but also attitude to God. What does God want for you in this situation? In what way does God see your prenatal baby? These are important questions, which you should think over.


Sense of guilt

Offence and malice



Thoughts of suicide

Worries during anniversaries of abortion

Sexual dysfunction

Problems in relationships

Excess alcohol

Drug addiction

Psychological changes


You have a legal right to choose. You real responsibility is to find out ways for making a positive decision.

Here're several opportunities:


Choice of keeping pregnancy is a difficult choice. But with support of kind people, lessons for parents and other possibilities many women find help for themselves and choose this way.


You can give your baby for adoption. In USA there's about 50,000 of such cases per year. This decision, based on love, often is made by women, who were thinking about abortion before.

"I could not give all the necessary things for my baby. The best decision in my life was to find a loving family for her, which could grow my daughter. She loves her family and she loves me too. Gave her the best. "


Sometimes it looks like turning out facing unplanned pregnancy is insuperably difficult. That is why it is so important to know where to go for help. Try to talk to a person, who you trust: priest, father of a baby, parents or, possible, just with a good friend.

Which Age Group Is Most Severely Affected by Cervical Cancer?

Commonly known as a slow-growing cancer; cervical cancer develops in the tissues between the uterus and the vagina where it usually shows very few signs or symptoms of being there. It is only usually detected through a cervical smear (cervical tissue exam [Pap test]) which has been responsible for reducing the mortality rate of cervical cancer by around 70% since 1955.

Around 90% of all cervical cancer cases are due to the human papilloma virus (HPV) infection; although, it is commonly acknowledged that most women during their life-time will have the virus (having the virus does not mean that it will cause cancer). Two types (strains) of human papilloma virus: 16 and 18 are responsible for around 70% of diagnosed cases. Other factors that may provoke an infection, include: early sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, bearing more than two or three children, and smoking.

HPV is commonly prevalent in women between the ages of 18 – 59 years old; where it is estimated that around 25% of this age group will have HPV, and 15% of this age group will have a high-risk strain. Although this age range can be further narrowed down to the 20 – 24 year olds being at even more risk.

Studies show that the overall average age for a woman to be diagnosed with cervical cancer is 48 years old, with the possibility of developing the disease increasing as age goes on (up to 55 years old [48 – 55 years]). The risks begin to reduce significantly after the age of 55 years old (around 50% of cervical cancer cases are diagnosed in women between the ages of 35 – 54 years old, and 15% in women under the age of 35 years old).

The mortality rate due to cervical cancer is higher between the ages of 45 – 70 years old (black women at the age of 70 years old are 50% more likely to die from cervical cancer than white women of the same age). This is why screening for the disease is important, as between 60% – 80% of American women diagnosed with the disease have not usually been screened in the 5-year period prior to their diagnosis (some women have never been screened).

A HPV vaccine is now available (believed to be 100% effective against two strains of HPV responsible for 70% of diagnosed cases) that is usually aimed at both girls and women between the ages of 9 – 26 years old before sexual activity begins; although, sexual activity has usually begun many years before the age of 26 years old. Information regarding the HPV vaccine can be obtained from most local family health clinics.

What is All This Talk About the Male Enhancement Pill Called Extenze?

What is all this talk about natural male enhancement products? It's a fact that as the baby boomers get older and older there is an increasing need for many men to reach out for products that will help them out in the bedroom.

In the last 10 years, there has been a huge explosion of all types of male enhancement pills that have hit the market to satisfy this need for the active male.
Viagra was one of the first big multi-million dollar selling products that came out to lead the rest of the pack.

However, Viagra is a prescription medication and then it can be expensive and not very accessible for many needy men.

Well, there is really some good news regarding this situation. The same research that has produced natural male enhancement drugs like Viagra, has now produced a groundbreaking herbal male enhancement pill that really steps up the performance of the active male in the bedroom.

It's called Extenze. And this herbal pill is a special blend of herbs and medical grade substances that really gives back the sexual prowess many active males are seeking. Being larger these days does not require painful surgery or any devices or special exercises.

Just take this little tablet and you will see a difference in stamina and size. This is not a promise that you will gain permanent size in that special area. But it is a guarantee you will gain maximize size during arousal. Something many men are missing.

Having a larger, stronger penis is possible. And having a more enjoyable and fulfilling sex life is possible with Extenze.

Male enhancement pills are definitely for real. No snake oil here !! Just groundbreaking research and development that has brought back more hope to millions of men across the World!

The Future of Ophthalmology Therapeutics, Analysis and Market Forecasts to 2016

GBI Research’s report, “The Future of Ophthalmology Therapeutics, Analysis and Market Forecasts to 2016 – Strategies to Counter Generic Erosion in Key Markets”, provides in-depth analysis of the unmet needs, drivers and barriers that impact the global ophthalmology therapeutics market. The report analyzes the ophthalmology markets in the US, the top five countries in Europe (the UK, Germany, France, Italy and Spain) and Japan. Treatment usage patterns, sales, prices and volume are forecast until 2016 for the key geographies as well as the leading therapeutic segments. Further, the report provides competitive benchmarking for the leading companies and analyzes the mergers, acquisitions and licensing agreements that shape the global markets.

This report is built using data and information sourced from proprietary databases, primary and secondary research and in-house analysis by GBI Research’s team of industry experts.


The scope of this report includes:
– Annualized market data for the ophthalmology market from 2001 to 2009, forecast forward to 2016.
– Analysis of the leading therapeutic segments, including glaucoma, macular degeneration, macular edema and allergic conjunctivitis.
– Analysis of the ophthalmology market in the leading geographies of the world, which include the US (United States), the UK (United Kingdom), Germany, France, Italy, Spain and Japan.
– Market characterization of the ophthalmology market including market size, the annual cost of therapy, sales volume and treatment usage patterns.
– Key drivers and barriers that have a significant impact on the market.
– Coverage of pipeline molecules in the various phases of drug development.
– Competitive benchmarking of leading companies such as Pfizer, Allergan, Inc., Alcon, Inc., Novartis AG, Merck & Co Inc and Roche.
– Key M&A activities that have taken place in 2009 and the licensing agreements in the 2008-2009 global ophthalmology market.

Reasons to buy

The report will enhance your decision making capability. It will allow you to:
– Align your product portfolio to the markets with high growth potential.
– Develop market-entry and market expansion strategies by identifying the leading therapeutic segments and geographic markets poised for strong growth.
– Reinforce R&D pipelines by identifying new target mechanisms which can produce first-in-class molecules with more efficiency and better safety.
– Develop key strategic initiatives by understanding the key focus areas of the leading companies.
– Exploit in-licensing and out-licensing opportunities by identifying products that could fill portfolio gaps.

Table of Content

1 Table of Contents 3
1.1 List of Tables 6
1.2 List of Figures 10

2 Global Ophthalmology Therapeutics Market: Introduction 13
2.1 GBI Research Report Guidance 13

3 Global Ophthalmology Therapeutics Market: Market Overview 14
3.1 Introduction 14
3.2 Revenue Forecasts for the Global Ophthalmology Therapeutics Market 14
3.2.1 Sales Value 14
3.2.2 Annual Cost of Therapy 15
3.2.3 Treatment Usage Patterns 17
3.2.4 Generics’ Share in the Global Ophthalmology Therapeutics Market 23
3.2.5 Sales of Leading Drugs 25

4 Global Ophthalmology Therapeutics Market: Therapeutic Landscape 26
4.1 Glaucoma Market 26
4.1.1 Introduction 26
4.1.2 Unmet Needs 27
4.1.3 Sales Value 28
4.1.4 Sales Volume 29
4.1.5 Annual Cost of Therapy 30
4.1.6 Treatment Usage Patterns 32
4.1.7 Geographical Segmentation 39
4.1.8 Drivers of the Glaucoma Market 41
4.1.9 Restraints for Glaucoma Market 41
4.2 Macular Edema 42
4.2.1 Introduction 42
4.2.2 Unmet Needs 42
4.2.3 Sales Value 43
4.2.4 Sales Volume 44
4.2.5 Annual Cost of Therapy 45
4.2.6 Treatment Usage Patterns 46
4.2.7 Geographical Segmentation 52
4.2.8 Drivers of the Macular Edema Market 54
4.2.9 Restraints For Macular Edema Market 54
4.3 Macular Degeneration Market 54
4.3.1 Introduction 54
4.3.2 Unmet Needs 55
4.3.3 Sales Value 55
4.3.4 Sales Volume 56
4.3.5 Annual Cost of Therapy 58
4.3.6 Treatment Usage Patterns 59
4.3.7 Geographical Segmentation 65
4.3.8 Drivers of Macular Degeneration Market 67
4.3.9 Restraints for Macular Degeneration Market 67
4.4 Allergic Conjunctivitis Market 68
4.4.1 Introduction 68
4.4.2 Unmet Needs 68
4.4.3 Sales Value 69
4.4.4 Sales Volume 70
4.4.5 Annual Cost of Therapy 71
4.4.6 Treatment Usage Patterns 72
4.4.7 Geographical Segmentation 78
4.4.8 Drivers of Allergic Conjunctivitis Market 80
4.4.9 Restraints for Allergic Conjunctivitis Market 80

5 Global Ophthalmology Therapeutics Market: Geographical Landscape 81
5.1 Geographical Break-up 81
5.2 The US 82
5.2.1 Sales Value 82
5.2.2 Annual Cost of Therapy 83
5.2.3 Treatment Usage Patterns 84
5.3 Top Five Countries in Europe 90
5.3.1 Sales Value 90
5.3.2 Annual Cost of Therapy 91
5.3.3 Treatment Usage Patterns 92
5.4 Japan 96
5.4.1 Sales Value 96
5.4.2 Annual Cost of Therapy 97
5.4.3 Treatment Usage Patterns 98

6 Global Ophthalmology Therapeutics Market: Pipeline Analysis 104
6.1 Introduction 104
6.2 Research and Development Pipeline by Phase 104
6.2.1 Research and Development Pipeline – Macular Degeneration 105
6.2.2 Research and Development Pipeline – Glaucoma 106
6.2.3 Research and Development Pipeline – Macular Edema 106
6.2.4 Research and Development Pipeline – Allergic Conjunctivitis 107
6.3 R&D Trends 107
6.3.1 New Promising Treatments for Diabetic Retinopathy 107
6.3.2 Combination Drugs Will be a Key Component of Ophthalmology Research and Development 107
6.4 Profiles of Key Drugs in the Glaucoma Pipeline 108
6.4.1 Saflutan (tafluprost) 108
6.4.2 NCX-116 (Formerly PF-03187207) 108
6.4.3 Catioprost 109
6.5 Profiles of Key Drugs in Macular Edema and Diabetic Retinopathy Pipeline 110
6.5.1 Iluvien 110
6.5.2 iCo-007 111
6.6 Profiles of Key Drugs in Macular Degeneration Pipeline 111
6.6.1 ACU-4429 111
6.6.2 AL-8309 112
6.7 Profiles of Key Drugs in Allergic Conjunctivitis Pipeline 112
6.7.1 FOV1101 (Prednisporin) 112

7 Global Ophthalmology Therapeutics Market: Competitive Landscape 113
7.1 Market Share Analysis: Ophthalmology 113
7.2 Competitive Profiling 115
7.2.1 Pfizer 115
7.2.2 Allergan, Inc. 116
7.2.3 Alcon, Inc. 118
7.2.4 Novartis AG 120
7.2.5 Merck & Co Inc 122
7.2.6 Roche 123

8 Global Ophthalmology Therapeutics Market: Strategic Consolidations 125
8.1 Overview 125
8.1.1 Valeant Pharmaceuticals International Agrees to Acquire Aton Pharma Inc 126
8.1.2 Healthcare of Today, Inc. has Acquired MacuCLEAR, Inc. 126
8.1.3 Opko Health, Inc. has Acquired Pharmacos Exakta 126
8.1.4 Sanofi-aventis Acquired Fovea Pharmaceuticals 126
8.1.5 Alcon, Inc Acquired ESBATech AG 126
8.1.6 Aton Pharma, Inc. Acquired Marketing Rights to Ophthalmology Drug 126
8.2 R&D Licensing Agreements 127
8.2.1 General 127
8.2.2 Preclinical and Discovery 127
8.2.3 Phase I 128
8.2.4 Phase II 130
8.2.5 Phase III 130
8.2.6 Approved 131

9 Global Ophthalmology Therapeutics Market: Appendix 133
9.1 Market Definitions 133
9.2 Abbreviations 133
9.3 Research Methodology 134
9.3.1 Coverage 134
9.3.2 Secondary Research 135
9.3.3 Primary Research 135
9.3.4 Forecasts 135
9.3.5 Expert Panel Validation 137
9.4 Contact Us 138
9.5 Disclaimer 138
9.6 Sources 138

Top 5 Mental Math Methods in the World

Today you can define mental math in various different ways. Some would say, memorizing times table and remembering the solutions can form the part of mental mathematics. Some would say ability to perform simple calculations in your head can be mental mathematics.

The web dictionary defines mental mathematics as “Computing an exact answer without using pencil and paper or other physical aids.”

Today there are five methods available to learn and practice mental mathematics.

Let’s begin with the first one called ‘Learning by Heart’ or better known as the rote memorizing method where your teachers ask you to mug up boring multiplication tables. It not only kills the interest of the child in mathematics but also makes sure that he develops hatred towards the subject for the rest of the years he studies it. This system gives its ardent devotee some degree of success initially as he is able to answer easy problems but then when the supposedly bigger application problems come the steam is almost over.

The second one gives you a good degree of success and I would highly recommend it to the younger lot out there. It hails from China and is popular by the name of The Abacus (also known as the Soroban in Japan). An abacus is a calculating tool, often constructed as a wooden frame with beads sliding on wires. With the use of this tool one can perform calculations relating to addition, subtraction, multiplication and division with ease. Gradually one practices with the tool in one’s hand and later on when experienced he learns to do it without the tool. This tool is then fitted into the mind mentally and he can then add, subtract multiply and divide in seconds. This tool also enhances a child’s concentration levels.

The main drawback of this system is that it focuses only on the 4 mathematical operations. Concepts beyond these operations such as Algebra, Square Roots, Cubes, Squares, Calculus, and Geometry etc cannot be solved using it at all. Also one needs a longer time to be able to fully get a grasp of the system hence you see courses in the abacus stretching to over 2 years which leads the child to boredom and then quitting from the course.

Another Chinese system mainly collected from the book The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art lays out an approach to mathematics that centers on finding the most general methods of solving problems. Entries in the book usually take the form of a statement of a problem, followed by the statement of the solution, and an explanation of the procedure that led to the solution.

The methods explained in this system can hardly be termed mental and they lack speed to top it all. The Chinese were definitely the most advanced of the civilization thanks to the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers but if I were to choose out of the two methods given by this culture It would be the abacus.

If wars have a 99.99% downside, sometimes they can have an upside too for they give birth to stories of hope and creativity. The next mental math system was developed during the Second World War in the Nazi Concentration Camp by a Ukrainian Mathematician Jakow Trachtenberg to keep his mind occupied. What resulted is now known as the Trachtenberg Speed System of Mathematics and consists of Rapid Mental Methods of doing Mathematics.

The system consists of a number of readily memorized patterns that allow one to perform arithmetic computations very quickly. It has wider applications than the Abacus and apart from the four basic operation methods it covers Squares and Square Roots.

The method focuses mostly on Multiplication and it even gives patterns for multiplication by particular number say 5,6,7 and even 11 and 12. It then gives a general method for rapid multiplication and a special two finger method. After practicing the method myself I realized that the multiplication was a very applicable mental method but the other methods covered to solve division and square roots were not very friendly and were impossible to be done mentally. I was in search of a much better wholesome method where I could easily perform other operations also. Another drawback of this system was that it too like the abacus failed to have a wider scope i.e to encompass other fields like Algebra, Calculus, Trignometry, Cube Roots etc

A Recommendation by a friend of mine from America introduced me to what is known as the Kumon Math Method. It was founded by a Japanese educator Toru Kumon in 1950s and as of 2007 over 4 million children were studying under the Kumon Method in over 43 different countries.

Students do not work together as a class but progress through the curriculum at their own pace, moving on to the next level when they have achieved mastery of the previous level. This sometimes involves repeating the same set of worksheets until the student achieves a satisfactory score within a specified time limit. In North American Kumon Centers, the mathematics program starts with very basic skills, such as pattern recognition and counting, and progresses to increasingly challenging subjects, such as calculus, probability and statistics. The Kumon Method does not cover geometry as a separate topic but provides sufficient geometry practice to meet the prerequisites for trigonometry, which is covered within the Kumon math program.

I was much impressed with the glamour around Kumon but a glimpse of its curriculum deeply disappointed me. It is not mental at all. It does not offer any special methods to do mathematics and one does not improve one’s speed by doing Kumon Math. There is a set curriculum of worksheets which one does till one achieves mastery in the subject. So say for example a sheet on Divison- one would continue to do division by the conventional method till he gets a satisfactory score and then he moves on to a higher level. This certainly doesn’t make division any faster and the process is certainly not mental.

A deep thought on the reason of its tremendous popularity in America led me to conclude was the lack of a franchisee business model of the abacus and the Trachtenberg speed system in the 1950s. The franchisee model was essential in taking the course from country to country. This is where Toru Kumon thrived.

Dissapointed with other cultures in the world, my search made me look in my own Indian culture. What I found astonished and amazed me so much that I fell in love with the system and started coaching neighbourhood students in it.

This is easily the World’s Fastest Mental Mathematics System called High Speed Vedic Mathematics. It has its roots in Ancient Indian Scriptures called the Vedas meaning ‘the fountain head of knowledge’. With it not only you can add, subtract, multiply or divide which is the limiting factor of the abacus but you can also solve complex mathematics such as algebra, geometry, Calculus, and Trigonometry. Some of the most advanced, complex and arduous problems can be solved using the Vedic Maths method with extreme ease.

And all this with just 16 word formulas written in Sanskrit.

High Speed Vedic Mathematics was founded by Swami Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji Maharaja who was the Sankaracharya (Monk of the Highest Order) of Govardhan Matha in Puri between 1911 and 1918. They are called “Vedic” as because the sutras are contained in the Atharva Veda – a branch of mathematics and engineering in the Ancient Indian Scriptures.

High Speed Vedic Mathematics is far more systematic, simplified and unified than the conventional system. It is a mental tool for calculation that encourages the development and use of intuition and innovation, while giving the student a lot of flexibility, fun and satisfaction . For your child, it means giving them a competitive edge, a way to optimize their performance and gives them an edge in mathematics and logic that will help them to shine in the classroom and beyond.

Therefore it’s direct and easy to implement in schools – a reason behind its enormous popularity among academicians and students. It complements the Mathematics curriculum conventionally taught in schools by acting as a powerful checking tool and goes to save precious time in examinations.

The Trachtenberg Method is often compared to Vedic Mathematics. Infact even some of the multiplication methods are strikingly similar. The Trachtenberg system comes the closest to the Vedic System in comparison and ease of the methods. But the ease and mental solvability of the other method especially division, square roots, cube roots, Algebraic Equations, Trigonometry, Calculus etc clearly gives the Vedic System an edge. Even NASA is said to be using some of this methods applications in the field of artificial intelligence.

There are just 16 Vedic Math sutras or word formulas which one needs to practice in order to be efficient in Vedic Math system. Sutras or Word Math Formulas such as the Vertically and Crosswise, All from Nine and Last from ten helps to solve complex problems with ease and also a single formula can be applied in two or more fields at the same time. The Vertically and Crosswise formula is one such gem by which one can multiply, find squares, solve simultaneous equations and find the determinant of a matrix all at the same time.

If either of these methods is learned at an early age, a student aged 14 can perform lightening fast calculations easily during his examinations and ace through them.

Vedic Mathematics is fast gaining popularity in this millennium. It is being considered as the only mental math system suited for a child as it helps to develop his numerical as well as mental abilities. The methods are new and practical and teach only Mental Rapid Mathematics.

The system does not focus on learning by repetition as in the Kumon Method. The system focuses on improving intelligence by teaching fundamentals and alternate methods. The purpose is not limited to improving performance in the school or tests, but on providing a broader outlook resulting in improved mathematical intelligence and mental sharpness.

To know more about the Vedic Mathematics Sutras – The World’s Fastest Mental Math System you can visit

This Article is by Gaurav Tekriwal,, The President of the Vedic Maths Forum India who has been conducting High Speed Vedic Math Workshops for the last five years and has trained over seven thousand students across the world in the field. He is the author of the best selling DVD on the subject which contains over 10 hours on the subject. He is an expert in the field and revolutionizes the way children learn math.

Infectious Diarrhea

Clinical Presentation: Every year throughout the world more than 5 million people-most of them kids younger than 1 year-die of acute infectious looseness of the bowels. Although death is really a uncommon output of infectious diarrhea within the United States, morbidity is fundamental.

It is estimated that you will find more than 200 million episodes each year, resulting in 1.8 million hospitalizations at a price of $ 6 billion per year. The morbidity and mortality attributable to diarrhea are significantly due to loss of intravascular volume and electrolytes, with resultant cardiovascular failure. For example, adults with cholera can excrete a lot more than 1 L of fluid per hour.

Contrast this with the typical volume of fluid lost daily within the stools (150 mL), and it is clear why massive fluid losses connected with infectious diarrhea can lead to dehydration, cardiovascular collapse, and death. Gastrointestinal (GI) tract infections can present with primarily upper tract symptoms (nausea, vomiting, crampy epigastric pain), small intestine symptoms (profuse watery diarrhea), or large intestine signs or symptoms (tenesmus, fecal urgency, bloody looseness of the bowels) .

Sources of infection consist of person-to-person transmission (fecal-oral spread of Shigella), water-borne transmission (Cryptosporidium), food-borne transmission (Salmonella or S aureus foods poisoning), and overgrowth following antibiotic administration (Clostridium difficile) .

Etiology: A wide range of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa can infect the GI tract. However, in the majority of instances, symptoms are self-limited, and diagnostic evaluation is not performed. Individuals presenting to medical attention are biased towards the subset with more signs or symptoms (eg, high fevers or hypotension), immunocompromise (eg, HIV or neutropenia), or prolonged duration (eg, chronic diarrhea defined as lasting 14 days). An exception is large outbreaks of food-borne sickness, in which epidemiologic investigations may detect individuals with milder variants of illness.

Pathogenesis: A comprehensive approach to GI tract infections starts using the classic host-agent-environment interaction model. A quantity of host elements influence GI tract infections. Individuals at extremes of age and with comorbid conditions (eg, HIV infection) are at higher risk for symptomatic infection.

Medications that alter the GI microenvironment or destroy typical bacterial flora (eg, antacids or antibiotics) also predispose individuals to infection. Microbial agents responsible for GI sickness could be categorized according to kind of organism (bacterial, viral, protozoal), propensity to attach to various anatomic sites (stomach, little bowel, colon), and pathogenesis (enterotoxigenic, cytotoxigenic, enteroinvasive).

Environmental elements can be divided into three broad categories based on mode of transmission: (1) water borne, (2) foods borne, and (three) individual to person. GI tract infections can involve the stomach, leading to nausea and vomiting, or affect the small and large bowel, with looseness of the bowels as the predominant symptom.

The term "gastroenteritis" classically denotes inflammation of the stomach and proximal little bowel. Organisms causing this disorder consist of Bacillus cereus, S aureus, and a quantity of viruses (rotavirus, norovirus). B cereus and S aureus produce a preformed neurotoxin that, even in the absence of viable bacteria, is capable of causing disease, and these toxins represent major leads to of foods poisoning.

Although the exact mechanisms are poorly understood, it's thought that neurotoxins act locally, through stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system having a resultant improve in peristaltic activity, and centrally, through activation of epic centers within the brain. The spectrum of diarrheal infections is typified by the diverse clinical manifestations and mechanisms through which E coli can trigger diarrhea.

Colonization from the human GI tract by E coli is universal, usually occurring within hours following birth. Neverheless, when the host organism is exposed to pathogenic strains of E coli not normally present in the bowel flora, localized GI illness or even systemic sickness may occur.

You will find five major classes of diarrheogenic E coli: enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC), and enteroinvasive (EIEC). Functions typical to all pathogenic E coli are evasion of host defenses, colonization of intestinal mucosa, and multiplication with host cell injury.

This organism, like all GI pathogens, should survive transit through the acidic gastric environment and be able to persist within the GI tract despite the mechanical force of peristalsis and competition for scarce nutrients from existing bacterial flora. Adherence can be nonspecific (at any part from the intestinal tract) or, a lot more commonly, particular, with attachment occurring at well-defined anatomic areas.

Once colonization and multiplication happens, the stage is set for host injury. Infectious diarrhea is clinically differentiated into secretory, inflammatory, and hemorrhagic types, with different pathophysiological mechanisms accounting for these diverse presentations. Secretory (watery) diarrhea is caused by a quantity of bacteria (eg, Vibrio cholerae, ETEC, EAGgEC), viruses (rotavirus, norovirus), and protozoa (Giardia, Cryptosporidium).

These organisms attach particularly to enterocytes in the lumen of the small bowl. Stool examination is notable for the absence of fecal leukocytes, even though in uncommon instances there's occult blood in the stools. Some of these pathogens elaborate enterotoxins, proteins that improve intestinal cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production, primary to net fluid secretion. The classic example is cholera.

The bacterium V cholerae creates cholera toxin, which leads to prolonged activation of epithelial adenylyl cyclase within the small bowel, primary to secretion of massive amounts of fluid and electrolytes into the intestinal lumen. Clinically, the patient presents with copious diarrhea ("rice-water stools"), progressing to dehydration and vascular collapse without having magnitude volume resuscitation.

ETEC, a common trigger of acute diarrheal sickness in young kids and the most typical trigger of looseness of the bowels in travelers returning to the United States from developing countries, creates two enterotoxins. The heat-labile toxin (LT) activates adenylyl cyclase in a manner analogous to cholera toxin, where the heat-stable toxin (ST) activates guanylyl cyclase activity.

Inflammatory diarrhea is really a result of bacterial invasion of the mucosal lumen, with resultant cell death. Patients with this syndrome are usually febrile, with complaints of crampy lower abdominal discomfort as nicely as diarrhea, which may contain visible mucous. The term dysentery is utilized when there are substantial numbers of fecal leukocytes and gross blood.

Pathogens connected with inflammatory looseness of the bowels consist of EIEC, Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Entamoeba histolytica. Shigella, the prototypical trigger of bacillary dysentery, invades the enterocyte through formation of an endoplasmic vacuole, which is lysed intracellularly. Bacteria then proliferate within the cytoplasm and invade adjunct epithelial cells.

Production of a cytotoxin, the Shiga toxin, leads to local cell destruction and death. EIEC weaknesses Shigella both clinically and with respect towards the mechanism of invasion of the enterocyte wall; However, the specific cytotoxin associated with EIEC has not yet been identified. Hemorrhagic diarrhea, a variant of inflammatory diarrhea, is primarily triggered by EHEC.

Infection with E coli O157: H7 has been connected with a quantity of deaths from the hemolytic-uremic syndrome, with a number of well-publicized outbreaks related to contaminated foods. EHEC leads to a broad spectrum of clinical disease, with manifestations including (1) asymptomatic infection, (2) watery (nonbloody) looseness of the bowels, (three) hemorrhagic colitis (bloody, noninflammatory diarrhea), and (4) hemolytic-uremic Syndrome (an acute illness, primarily of children, characterized by anemia and renal failure). EHEC does not invade enterocytes; Neverless, it does create two Shiga-like toxins (Stx1 and Stx2) that clearly resemble the Shiga toxin in structure and function. After binding of EHEC towards the cell surface receptor, the A subunit of the Shiga toxin catalyzes the destructive cleavage of ribosomal RNA and halts protein synthesis, leading to cell death.

Clinical Manifestations: Clinical manifestations of GI infections vary depending on the website of involvement For instance, in staphylococcal foods poisoning, symptoms develop several hours after ingestion of foods contaminated with neurotoxin-producing S aureus. The symptoms of staphylococcal food poisoning are profuse vomiting, nausea, and abdominal cramps.

Diarrhea is variably present with agents leading to gastroenteritis. Profuse watery (noninflammatory, nonbloody) diarrhea is connected with bacteria that have infected the small intestine and elaborated an enterotoxin (eg, Clostridium perfringens, V cholerae). In contrast, colitis-like symptoms (lower abdominal pain, tenesmus, fecal urgency) and an inflammatory or bloody diarrhea occur with bacteria that more generally infect the large intestine.

The incubation period is usually longer (> 3 days) for bacteria that localize towards the large intestine, and colonic mucosal invasion can occur, causing fever, bacteremia, and systemic symptoms.