Obesity and Its Problems

 Obesity  is the ailment of the modern life. It is one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. It is widely spread in the modern Western world, as well as in many parts of Africa. And perceived as a symbol of wealth and fertility.

It increases the risk of many physical and mental conditions, commonly shown as a metabolic dysfunction; a combination of medical disorders which includes: diabetes mellitus type 2, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels. An increase in fat mass increases the risk of inflicting osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnea, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In fact an increase in body fat alters the body’s response to insulin, potentially leading to insulin resistance and also creates a pro-inflammatory state.

Several syndromes, such as Prader-Willi syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Cohen syndrome, and MOMO syndrome are attributed to some extent to  obesity .

For women, the average increase is 335-1,887 calories per day, while for men the average increase is 168-2,618 calories per day.Most of these extra calories come from an increase in carbohydrate consumption rather than fat consumption… The primary source of these extra carbohydrates is sweetened beverages, which now account for almost 25 percent of daily calories in young adults in Consumption of sweetened drinks is indeed contributing to the rise in the rates of  obesity .

The overwhelming advance in agricultural technology in Europe has led to lower food prices.

Also, the governments’ subsidies of agricultural crops e.g. corn, soy, wheat, and rice in the United States. Farm bill, as well as in Europe, have made the main sources of processed food cheap compared to fruits and vegetables. These crops are carbohydrates-rich, which when digested inevitably increases the energy bodily in-put, and hence lead to fat storage.

A cozy lifestyle plays a significant role in  obesity  development, especially less physically less physical or muscular work. Currently at least 60% of the world’s population gets insufficient exercise, This is primarily due to increasing use of mechanized transportation and less manual work at home, In children there appears to be declines in levels of physical activity due to less walking and physical education. In spite of the fact that many schools have assigned strategies for a one-day physical training exercise; this appears to be not sufficient for sustaining a regular physical healthy body. In both children and adults there is an association between television viewing time and the risk of  obesity  it is found that out of 63 of 73 studies (86%) showed an increased rate of childhood  obesity  with increased media exposure? Muscles consume energy derived from both fat and glycogen. Due to the large size of leg muscles, walking, running, and cycling are the most effective means of exercise to reduce body fat. In fact a minimum of 30 minutes of moderate exercise at least 5 days a week is necessary.

The social life and type incurred induce the final format of the main body stature in society. However in developed countries, the wealthy are able to afford more nutritious food, they are under greater social pressure to remain slim, and have more opportunities along with greater expectations for physical fitness, though this is not the common norm. On the other hand, in under developed countries the ability to afford food, high energy expenditure with physical labor contributes to the observed patterns, i.e. slimmer body stature generally. Though again certain cultural values prefer fat or obese statures.

Diets and diet foods are a necessarily to reduce the  obesity  factor. The diets that promote weight loss are generally of low-fat, low-carbohydrate, low-calorie, and very low calorie However; it was found that there is no difference between three types of diet with a 2-4 kilogram (4.4-8.8 lb) weight loss in all studies. The low calorie type diets are not recommended for general use as they are associated with adverse side effects such as loss of lean muscle mass, increased risks of gout, and electrolyte imbalances.