Neuralgia is defined as a condition of a sudden and heavy attacks of pain that follows the path of a nerve or nerves as a result of a change in neurological structure or function due to irritation or damage to the nerves without stimulating pain receptor (nociceptor) cells. the disease affects about 2%–3% of the population.
D. Phytochemicals against neuralgia
1. Rosemarinol, is a phytochemical monophenols, found in essential oil of labiate herbs like Rosemary and also in variety of other plants.
a. Drug-resistant infections, Anti-bacterial and fungal activities
In the investigation of the antimicrobial activity potential of the essential oil of rosemary and its drug-resistant mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis effect found that characterization and isolation of the active compound(s) from the rosemary oil may be useful in counteracting gram-positive bacterial, fungal, and drug-resistant infections., according to “Potential of rosemary oil to be used in drug-resistant infections” by Luqman S, Dwivedi GR, Darokar MP, Kalra A, Khanuja SP.
b. Antimicrobial activity
In the observation of the essential oils from clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and their anti,icrobial effects found that The antimicrobial activity of combinations of the two essential oils indicated their additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects against individual microorganism tests. The time-kill curves of clove and rosemary essential oils towards three strains showed clearly bactericidal and fungicidal processes of (1)/(2) x MIC, MIC, MBC and 2 x MIC, according to “Antimicrobial activity of clove and rosemary essential oils alone and in combination” by Fu Y, Zu Y, Chen L, Shi X, Wang Z, Sun S, Efferth T.(43)
c. Anti-inflammatory effects
In the research of the extract of rosemary leaves from supercritical fluid extraction and its anti inflammatory effects found that the yield of 3.92% and total phenolics of 213.5 mg/g extract obtained from the most effective extraction conditions showed a high inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation (IC(50) 33.4 μg/mL). Both the SC-CO(2) extract and CA markedly suppressed the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), phosphorylated inhibitor-kappaB (P-IκB), and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB)/p65 in a dose-dependent manner, according to the study of “Anti-inflammatory effects of supercritical carbon dioxide extract and its isolated carnosic acid from Rosmarinus officinalis leaves” by Kuo CF, Su JD, Chiu CH, Peng CC, Chang CH, Sung TY, Huang SH, Lee WC, Chyau CC.(44)
2. Silybin is aslo known as Silibinin (INN), the major active ingredient of silymarin, a flavanone, found in the milk thistle seeds.
a. Antioxidants in vascular calcification
In the identification of natural antioxidants in the process of vascular calcification found that
Curcumin and silybin were the more effective, inhibiting both reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase and muscle cells (VSMCs) mineralization, according to “Natural antioxidants and vascular calcification: a possible benefit” by Roman-Garcia P, Barrio-Vazquez S, Fernandez-Martin JL, Ruiz-Torres MP, Cannata-Andia JB.(45)
b. Anti-inflammatory effects
In the evaluation of Silymarin, derived from milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Milk thistle and its anti inflammatory effect in chronic hepatitis C patient found that Silymarin exerts anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects, and suggest that complementary and alternative medicine-based approaches may assist in the management of patients with chronic hepatitis C, according to “Inhibition of T-cell inflammatory cytokines, hepatocyte NF-kappaB signaling, and HCV infection by standardized Silymarin” by Polyak SJ, Morishima C, Shuhart MC, Wang CC, Liu Y, Lee DY.(46)
3. Tangeritin, one of the flavones, is found in tangerine and many citrus peels
In the comparison of hand-pressed juice of polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) and flavanone glycosides (FGs) and the peeled fruit of ‘Sainampueng’ tangerines ( Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng) antioxidant effects found that hand-pressed juice of C. reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng serves as a rich source of PMFs, FGs, carotenoids, and antioxidants: 4-5 tangerine fruits ( approximately 80 g of each fruit) giving one glass of 200 mL hand-pressed juice would provide more than 5 mg of nobiletin and tangeretin and 36 mg of hesperidin, narirutin, and didymin, as well as 30 mg of ascorbic acid, >1 mg of provitamin A active beta-cryptoxanthin, and 200 microg of alpha-tocopherol, according to “Polymethoxylated flavones, flavanone glycosides, carotenoids, and antioxidants in different cultivation types of tangerines ( Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng) from Northern Thailand” by Stuetz W, Prapamontol T, Hongsibsong S, Biesalski HK.(47)
b. Antimicrobial activity
In the study of antibacterial and antifungal properties of wax and hexane extracts of Citrus spp. peels found that antimicrobial activity especially against M. canis and T. mentagrophytes: 4′,5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone (tangeritin) and 3′,4′,5,6,7,8-hexamethoxyflavone (nobiletin) from C. reticulata; and 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (also known as escoparone, scoparone or scoparin) from C. limon, according to “Antimicrobial activity of wax and hexane extracts from Citrus spp. peels” by Johann S, Oliveira VL, Pizzolatti MG, Schripsema J, Braz-Filho R, Branco A, Smânia Jr A.(48)
4. Theaflavin with reddish in color, is a phytochemical of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), formed in tea leaves during fermentation.
a. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activities
In the investigation of the role of theaflavin, a polyphenol substance extracted from black tea, in attenuating acute I/R injury in a fatty liver model, found that theaflavin significantly diminished the ROS production of steatotic hepatocytes and TNF-α production by LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and concluded that theaflavin has protective effects against I/R injury in fatty livers by anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic mechanisms, according to “Theaflavin attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury in a mouse fatty liver model” by Luo XY, Takahara T, Hou J, Kawai K, Sugiyama T, Tsukada K, Takemoto M, Takeuchi M, Zhong L, Li XK.(49)
b. HIV-1 infection
In the investigation of the mechanism by which TFmix inhibits HIV-1 infection was investigated using time-of-addition, found that TFmix is an economic natural product preparation containing high content of theaflavins with potent anti-HIV-1 activity by targeting the viral entry step through the disruption of gp41 6-HB core structure. It has a potential to be developed as a safe and affordable topical microbicide for preventing sexual transmission of HIV, according to “A natural theaflavins preparation inhibits HIV-1 infection by targeting the entry step: Potential applications for preventing HIV-1 infection” by Yang J, Li L, Tan S, Jin H, Qiu J, Mao Q, Li R, Xia C, Jiang ZH, Jiang S, Liu S.(50)
5. Genistein is a phytochemical in the Isoflavones, belonging to the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in food of the family of legumes, soy, alfalfa sprouts, red clover, chickpeas, peanuts, etc.
a. Immunomodulation And Anti-Inflammation
In the review of new concepts have emerged in relation to mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of carcinogenesis processes and associated inflammatory effects, found that the effects of polyphenols on the adaptative and innate immune cells that could infiltrate the tumor. Reduction of chronic inflammation or its downstream consequences may represent a key mechanism in the fight of cancer development and polyphenols could reduce various pro-inflammatory substance productions through targeting signal transduction or through antioxidant effects, according to “Immunomodulation And Anti-Inflammatory Roles Of Polyphenols As Anticancer Agents” by Ghiringhelli F, Rébé C, Hichami A, Delmas D.(51)
b. Antioxidant effects
In the testing effects of the soy isoflavone genistein on antioxidant enzymes in DU145 prostate cancer cells, found that Genistein significantly decreased reactive oxygen species levels and induced the expression of the antioxidant enzymes manganese (Mn) superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, which were associated with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) pathways. The induced expression of catalase, MnSOD, and PTEN were attenuated by pretreatment with a pharmacological inhibitor for AMPK. Furthermore, PTEN is essential for genistein activity, as shown by PTEN transfection in PTEN-deficient PC3 cells. Thus, genistein induces antioxidant enzymes through AMPK activation and increased PTEN expression. indicating the effects of genistein primarily depend on AMPK, according to “The antioxidant effects of genistein are associated with AMP-activated protein kinase activation and PTEN induction in prostate cancer cells” by Park CE, Yun H, Lee EB, Min BI, Bae H, Choe W, Kang I, Kim SS, Ha J.(52)
6. Coumestrol, a phytoestrogen in the class of coumestans, belonging to the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols) found abundantly in red clover, alfalfa sprouts, soy, peas, brussels sprouts, etc.
a. Anti-inflammatory activities
In the investigation of A new coumestan (solalyratin A, 1) and a novel cyclic eight-membered α,β-unsaturated ketone (solalyratin B, 3), together with three known compounds, puerariafuran (2), coumestrol (4) and 9-hydroxy-2′,2′-dimethylpyrano[5′,6′:2,3]-coumestan (5), isolated from the whole plant of Solanum lyratum, found that in vitro, compounds 1-5 showed anti-inflammatory activities, with IC(50) values in the range 6.3-9.1 μM, according to “Solalyratins A and B, new anti-inflammatory metabolites from Solanum lyratum” by Zhang DW, Yang Y, Yao F, Yu QY, Dai SJ.(53)
b. Antimicrobial activity
in the determination of the effects of the isoflavonoids coumestrol, genistein and daidzein isolated and identified by bioassay-guided fractionation from the acetone extract of Erythrina crista galli young twigs infected with Phomopsis sp, found that these compounds showed antimicrobial activity against Bacillus brevis (MIC values 16.3, 64.8 and 137.8 microM, respectively), according to “Antimicrobial isoflavonoids from Erythrina crista galli infected with Phomopsis sp” by Redko F, Clavin ML, Weber D, Ranea F, Anke T, Martino V.(54)
7. Turmeric, principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice, a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, native to tropical South Asia, according to “Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species” by E.W.C. Chan, Y.Y. Lim, S.K. Wong, K.K. Lim, S.P. Tan, F.S. Lianto and M.Y. Yong, posted in Science Direct. It has been used in traditional herbal medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent and to treat gastrointestinal symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome and other digestive disorders. Curcumin is a phytochemical found abundant in the plant. In acidic solutions (pH <7.4) it turns yellow, whereas in basic (pH > 8.6) solutions it turns bright red.
a. Anti-inflammatory agent
According to the study of evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of curcumin (diferuloyl methane) in patients with postoperative inflammation. by Satoskar RR, Shah SJ, Shenoy SG., poated in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers wrote that In this model of postoperative inflammation, the anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin (diferuloyl methane) was investigated in comparison with phenylbutazone and placebo. Phenylbutazone and curcumin produced a better anti-inflammatory response than placebo.
In a study of `Protective Role of Curcumin Against Oxidative Stress,Immunosuppressive and Cytotoxic Effects of Lead Exposure` by Mahmoud El-sherbiny, Azza Araffa, Mona Mantawy and Hany M. Hassan (Therapeutic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre – Dokki, Giza, Egypt. Immunology Department, Animal Reproduction Research Institute (ARRI), Giza, Egypt), posted in World Applied Sciences Journal 12 (10): 1832-1838, 2011, researchers found that ground, curcumin’s benefits on tumorigenesis are thought to be mediated by its antiinflammatory activity; however, these effects have not been well characterized in a mouse model of colon cancer. Briefly, curcumin is efficacious for chronic nonbacterial prostatitis in rats and the action mechanism may be associated with its decreasing effect on the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-alpha in the blood and tissues. Curcumin has protective effect on DNA of pulmonary cells. There was direct evidence for an involvement of curcumin in reducing arsenic and lead induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice by virtue of its antioxidant potential and trapping of free radicals. The current investigation concluded that curcumin has protective role against cytotoxic, immunosuppressive , oxidative and immunosuppressive profile that perform due to lead acetate exposure.
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