Medicine on preventions of stroke and blood clot to heart

Clopidogrel is in the class of antiplatelet used to prevent strokes and heart attacks in high-risk patients. This medicine works by helping to prevent harmful blood clot to heart or in the body and maintains the normal blood flow to the heart, brain and other organs. We all know that drugs not only have curative effect, but also have negative effect.  For instance clopidrogrel’s such adverse effects include hemorrhage, severe neutropenia and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Thus medicines should be used under medical supervision.

A stroke is the sudden death of brain cells in a localized area due to inadequate blood flow. Preventions of stroke are important as it is a medical emergency requiring immediate treatment. Prompt treatment improves survival and an increase in degree of recovery can be expected.  It occurs when blood flow is interrupted to part of the brain. Brain cells start dying quickly without enough blood to supply oxygen and nutrients and remove wastes. Depending on the region of the brain affected, stroke can cause paralysis, slurred speech, loss of memory and reasoning, coma or death. A stroke is sometimes called a brain attack or a cerebrovascular accident CVA. Emergency treatment of stroke from a blood clot is aimed at dissolving the clot.

A person who may have suffered a stroke should be taken in an emergency room immediately. Treatment to dissolve a blood clot, the leading cause of stroke, must begin within three hours of the stroke to be effective. A brief neurological examination is performed to determine the extent and location of deficits such as weakness, lack of coordination or loss of vision. Once stroke is suspected, a computed tomography scan (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is performed to determine a stroke caused by blood clot from one caused by hemorrhage, a critical distinction that guides therapy. Blood tests and urine tests are done periodically to check for abnormalities. Other investigations that may be performed to guide treatment include an electrocardiogram, angiography, ultrasound, and electroencephalogram.

Heart attack, also called a myocardial infarction or myocardial infarction, is often the first symptom of coronary artery disease. It is the death, damage, or blood clot to heart or part of the heart muscle because the blood supply to the heart muscle is severely reduced or blocked. It is caused by severe coronary artery disease. The outcome of a heart attack also depends on where the block is. Most heart attacks are caused by blood clots that form on atherosclerotic plaque. This blocks a coronary artery from supplying oxygen-rich blood to part of the heart. A number of major and contributing risk factors increase the risk of developing coronary artery disease. Some of these can be changed and some cannot. People with more risk factors are more likely to develop coronary artery disease.

Heart attacks treated with resuscitation (CPR) if necessary to initiate and maintain the patient’s breathing and his heart.  other therapy may be a close monitoring, electric shock, drug therapy, re-vascularization procedures, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and coronary artery bypass surgery. Drugs to stabilize the patient and limit damage to the heart include thrombolytics, aspirin, anticoagulants, painkillers and tranquilizers, beta-blockers, ace-inhibitors, nitrates, rhythm-stabilizing drugs, and diuretics. Drugs that limit damage to the heart can only be successful if given within hours of a heart attack.  Immediate treatment for suspected acute myocardial infarction includes oxygen, aspirin, and sublingual nitroglycerin. Most of STEMI (ST elevation MI) are treated with thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). NSTEMI (non-ST elevation MI) should be managed with medication, although PCI is often performed during hospital admission.  People who have multiple blockages and who are relatively stable, or those in a few emergency cases, bypass surgery may be an option.