It is an enclosed, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped, Gram negative, lactose fermenting and non-motile bacterium that lives in the intestines, common flora of the skin and mouth. It is closely related to K oxytoca and clinically approved as a vital member of the Klebsiella genus of Enterobacteriaccae. Normally, Klebsiella pneumoniae occurs in soil and it has been the subject of much study in recent times due to its nitrogen fixation system, as roughly 30% of strains can fix nitrogen in anaerobic condition.
Generally, the members of Klebsiella genus have two types of antigens on the surface, O antigen or lipopolysaccharide with nine varieties and K antigen or a capsular polysaccharide with eighty varieties. Both are equally effective in contributing to pathogenicity and forming the base for the sub type Klebsiella pneumoaniae.
The name Klebsiella is given to it after the name of German microbiologist Edwin Kleb (1834-1913). However, the famous Gram staining technique which is used to distinguish between Streptococcus pneumoniae and K pneumoniae. The technique is called Gram staining because it was first introduced by the Danish scientist Hans Christian Gram (1853-1936).
During laboratory tests, the highly resistant K pneumoniae has been destroyed in vivo through intravenous, intraperitoneal and intranasal administration of phages.
Normally, the Klebsiella infection attacks the people with a poor immune system which can be due to any reason, such as, poor diet, alcoholics and diabetics. Due to certain unhygienic conditions in the hospitals, the hospitalized patients often fell victim of these Klebsiella infections, on most prominent infection in this case is nosocomial infection. It doesn’t mean that the people outside the hospital remain free from the attack of this disease. It is everywhere in the environment and normally the major infection, which is caused to people, is Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Klensiella pneumoniae is constantly developing as new antibiotic resistant strains and is pretty much common in the form of nosocomial infection.
E. coli is one of the major infections of urinary tract in older people and after that the severe urinary tract infection is Klebsiella. Klebsiella is considered as the opportunistic pathogen for the patients of nasal mucosa atrophy, chronic pulmonary disease, rhinosccleroma and pathogenicity. The major reason for the infection is feces and other unhygienic infected surgical instruments, which are used for the treatment of hospitalized patients.
Since the discovery of K pneumoniae, i.e. 100 years ago, it has been considered as a major pulmonary pathogen. The major symptoms of this infection include high fever, hemoptysis and a toxic presentation with sudden onset. Other signs may include chest radiographic abnormalities like cavitary abscesses and bulging interbolar fissure. In past, K pneumoniae was very prominent, but today its intensity has been decreased as only 1% of cases of Klebsiella pneumoniae requiring hospitalization in North America.
Klebsiella pneumoniae, generally, is a disease of older men and debilitated middle-aged people with alcoholism. On the other hand, nosocomial infection normally affects the premature infants, adults and children.
A proper treatment is always necessary to prevent severe conditions of any infection.