Hypertension Clinical Features – Symptoms and Forms


Hypertension is often asymptomatic or cause only proceeds uncharacteristic complaints. It is typically occurring in the morning as a headache, which can be reduced by increasing the bed head end. Other possible symptoms include dizziness, nausea, nosebleeds (epistaxis), fatigue and insomnia. At high blood pressure, shortness of breath can occur (dyspnea) with exertion, angina pectoris, and visual disturbances. Arterial hypertension may also long asymptomatic (without symptoms). They often make themselves felt only by the damage, which is why it is sometimes referred to as “silent killers or silent killer”.


In an unstable and the load-hypertensive blood pressure values are increased only temporarily or under stress, whereas long-term stable hypertension in the case. Malignant or accelerated hypertension is defined as a severe form with a diastolic pressure above 130 mmHg, which usually goes hand in hand with clear symptoms. In the literature there are indications, however, different to the definition of malignant hypertension. In addition to nausea and vomiting symptoms such as headache, impaired vision and impaired consciousness, seizures and other neurological deficits in the foreground. Partially occurred changes of higher degree, transcended the day-night rhythm in long-term blood pressure and the development of renal impairment are included in the definition.

The hypertensive crisis is a sudden dysregulation of blood pressure in the systemic circulation with a critical increase in blood pressure, usually over 230/130 mm Hg. There is a risk of acute organ damage, such as a brain injury (high-pressure encephalopathy), of acute heart failure, a pulmonary edema, a rarity of a heart attack or Aorteneinrisses (aortic dissection). The occurrence of such damage is known as a hypertensive emergency that requires prompt reduction in blood pressure medication is necessary.

Complications Consequences


Hypertension is recognized as a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Come to the risk factor hypertension or obesity (severe overweight) and another risk factor – such as diabetes mellitus (diabetes) or dyslipidemia (elevated cholesterol — or LDL values) — added, there is a significantly increased risk later in life to a heart — to suffer cardiovascular disease.

According to the German Hypertension League, 45% of male deaths, 50% of female deaths from cardiovascular diseases are caused, which are associated with arterial hypertension, such as coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction, heart failure, kidney failure, stroke, and arterial occlusive disease.

The incidence of CHD-related deaths is approximately linearly from the blood, it increases from 10/10.000 person-years (normal blood pressure) up to 60/10.000 person-years (systolic pressure> 180 mmHg). As light and medium blood pressure increases are much more common than extreme pressures of more than 180 mmHg suffer a total of significantly more people with average blood pressure values cardiovascular events. This also means that the very people must also be recognized and treated with only slightly elevated blood pressure to lower the high number of cardiovascular deaths significantly.

Arterial hypertension is the second most important after cigarette smoking, while the most common risk factor for the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Nowadays, every second (51% died) one German and Austrians suffer from cardiovascular disease. Only 16,000 Austrians die each year in a heart attack.