One of the most commonly performed surgical procedures is hernia repair. The protrusion of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening is called hernia. The tyre wall separates the inner tube which can seep through the opening. Tissue protrudes occur through the abdominal wall.
As the hernia enlarges it forms a sac. The intestines can fall into this sac creating one of the major hernia symptoms-a bulge. A hernia is most often visible when standing. The bulge temporarily disappears when the tissue from the sac returns to its proper position by lying down. The hernia occur throughout the body in a groin area of 95 % per cent.
The weakness or defect in abdominal wall is called hernia. It may appear from birth or develop over a period of time. When the defect is large enough, abdominal contents such as the bowel, may protrude through the defect causing a lump or bulge felt by the patient. Hernia grows at certain sites which have a natural tendency to be weak; the groin, the ombilicus (belly button) and previous surgical incisions.
Hernia may occur due to the stress and strain of the abdominal wall. It takes time of the hernia sac to enlarge enough for tissue to fall into it. The hernia can be tolerate without surgery. A truss or binder may temporarily alleviate symptoms but will not cure the hernia. The defect in the belly wall corrects by surgery. The repair techniques involve pulling together muscles and ligaments for reinforcement. Muscles are soft and movable, while ligaments remain rigid and stationary.
After a hernia developed it will tend to enlarge and cause discomfort. When a loop of bowel gets caught in the hernia it may become obstructed or its blood supply may be cut off. This could become a life-threatening situation but today hernia is effectively repaired and with minimal risk most surgeons recommend that hernias be repaired when diagnosed unless there are other serious medical problems. A hernia repair involves making an incision in the abdominal wall.
Healthy tissues are cut until the area of weakness is found. The hernia is then repaired with sutures (stitches). A prosthetic material such as nylon is used to strengthen the area of weakness. The skin and other healthy tissues that were cut at the beginning are stitched back together to complete the repair. The defect in the abdominal wall is repaired from the inside of the abdominal cavity. This method used with the laparoscop characterizes the groin hernia. The patch is secured in place from the inside. Thus eliminates the necessity of cutting the skin and normal tissues of the groin to get down and repair the hernia.
The protrusions of soft tissue such as portion of the intestine through weak spot in a muscle usually in the abdominal wall bears the name of inguinal hernia. It occur where the abdomen meats the thigh in the groin region. Hernias are represented by weakness in the wall in the abdomen; sometimes they can cause ruptures. There are two ways of typical hernia: first by wear and tear over time (acquired hernias) and then a weakness in the abdominal wall that is present at birth (congenital hernias). People may “live” with hernias without even knowing. Hernias often get worse due to physical stress or aging. Hernias usually are congenital and are present at birth.
Different symptoms and feelings are produced by hernias. A protrusion appears between the pubis and the top of the leg and produces pain during urination or a bowel movement or when lifting a heavy object. The pain is usually sharp and immediately. Sometimes it feels like a dull aching sensation, a vague feeling of fullness, nausea or constipation; these symptoms may disappear when lying down. The reducible hernia can be pushed back by onto the abdominal cavity. If it cannot be pushed back it is non-reducible. This complication may lead to the obstruction on the flow of the intestinal contents or intestinal blood supply (strangulation) leading to tissue death, intestinal obstruction produces nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and abdominal pain and usually requires immediate surgery.
A strangulated hernia is painful and requires immediate surgery. In the case of inguinal hernias an abnormal opening appears in the large sac containing the internal organs and some of the organs protrude. When this abnormal opening appears on both sides it is called a bilateral inguinal hernia. There are also other hernias that may return and need to be repaired again. They are called recurrent inguinal hernias. They are not an indication of development of recurrent hernias new ways to strengthen the groin under investigation. Generally hernias are caused by congenital (defects at births) or age related weakness in the abdominal wall. An improper closure of the abdominal cavity during the body development in the womb appears at males.
The hernias can be also caused by an increase in pressure within the abdominal cavity due to heavy lifting, straining, violent coughing, obesity or pregnancy. Happily today there are many new techniques and modalities of healing hernias.
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