Hernia is an outwandering bodies from a cavity in norm them borrowed through properly existing or pathologically generated aperture with conservation of an integrity of envelopes, their covering, or availability of conditions for this purpose.
Let’s consider a hernia of a forward belly wall of a stomach. It is the most widespread surgical pathologies at children. An original cause of progress of hernias – defect of progress of a belly wall. However there are some features which we shall consider separately.
Umbilical hernia. For 4-5 day after a birth of the child the umbilical cord disappears. The umbilical ring consists of two parts. The bottom part where pass umbilical arteries and a uric channel, are well reduced and form a dense cicatricial fabric. In the top part there passes a umbilical vein. Its walls thin, have no muscular environment, are badly reduced in the further. Quite often at weak peritoneal band and patent to a umbilical vein the umbilical hernia is formed. Except for it the major factor promoting occurrence of this pathology, frequent increase of intrabelly pressure is. It can be caused, for example, frequent we cry the child.
The aperture in the top part of a umbilical ring can be wide, and not trouble the child. But in case of small defect with firm edges concern of the child probably. As a rule, a umbilical hernia always can be reduced. The restrained umbilical hernia to meet in an adult practice more often. However we quite often should operate children with unreducible hernias (when hernial contents are attached to an internal wall of a leather of a forward belly wall by solderings).
Experience of out-patient supervision of children with the umbilical hernias diagnosed at early age, allows to tell with confidence, that to 5-7 years age often there comes self-healing. Liquidation of a hernia is assisted with strengthening a belly wall. It certainly massage, laying of children on a tummy, gymnastics. Surgical treatment it is begun not earlier than 5 years age. Properly and accurately lead operation, allows to eliminate a hernia with good cosmetic effect. As a rule, relapses does not happen.
Hernia of “a white line” stomach (anteperitoneal adipoma). If to lead a line between omphalus and ensiform shoot of a brest is and there is “a white line” stomach. At a direct muscle of the stomach, shaping given area, is from 3-6 tendinous crosspieces. In seat of intersection of these crosspieces and “a white line” stomach sometimes there are small defects. In them it is often stuck out anteperitoneal fat. If they settle down in immediate proximity from a umbilical ring, them name paraumbilical (periomphalic) hernias. Unfortunately, these hernias are not inclined to spontaneous closing. Treatment only operative, similar to operation at a umbilical hernia.
An inguinal hernia. Very frequent surgical disease at children. As a rule, all hernias at children of early age congenital. What reasons of occurrence of this pathology? It is a lot of opinions in this occasion at children’s surgeons. It and weakness of a forward belly wall and feature of a structure inguinal areas and nonclosure vaginal a shoot abdominal membrane and a heredity. We shall try under the order, on an example of an congenital inguinal at the boy.
About from 6-th month of intra-uterine progress of the boy orchis fall from a belly cavity in marsupium on inguinal to the channel. Therefore these hernias name slanting. For presentation present itself, that on a tube (vaginal to a shoot abdominal membrane) as on the lift, orchis, conducted by the lowering mechanism from a belly cavity goes down in marsupium. Then under the plan there is a closing a pipe (vaginal shoot abdominal membrane) and by that the termination of the message between belly completely and marsupium. If it does not occur, at increase of intrabelly pressure in the nonclosure vaginal shoot of abdominal membrane leaves contents of a belly cavity. It is an inguinal hernia.
What for to an organism to strain and stretch a stomach when there is an opportunity to dump a superfluous pressure in “hernial contents”. And frequently the child grows and … increases hernial bulge. Treatment of the given pathology only operative. Technically to carry out it at the child easier is more senior 1 year. However quite often operation is shown to the child at once at statement of the diagnosis. To wait dangerously. Occurrence of terrible complication – infringement inguinal hernias is possible. Hernial bulge in inguinal areas earlier that arising disappearing suddenly became firm, the child has begun to worry and has begun to cry, there was a vomiting, refusal of meal. At touch up to firm “bulla” in a groin to the child it is very painfull!!!
Most likely, there was an infringement inguinal hernias. To not give food, not give water and it is urgent to bring the child to the hospital. Muscles of a stomach have restrained contents of a hernial bag. It can be a site of a gut, a bladder or ootheca at girls. If urgently to not help the child after a while the site, deprived blood supplies, can be sphacelous, i.e. become lifeless. In that case treatment very heavy and long. In my practice there were 2 cases, hernial contents at the restrained hernia were a site of a blind gut with again changed an appendicular shoot. It was necessary to lead simultaneously with celotomy.
Believe, it is better to not lead up to infringement. To operate the child with a hernia it is necessary healthy, with good analyses and in the daytime. And it is possible only at scheduled operation. Every year in our branch, about to 500 children with the given pathology, scheduled operative interventions are spent. Operations last about 15-20 minutes, pass under a mask narcosis and the control of skilled anaesthesiologists. And here, after the small period of rehabilitation – your child is completely healthy. We have made all in time and properly.