Hernia – Causes, Symptoms , Treatment, Diagnosis

Hernia occurs when a part of an organ protrudes through the muscular fiber that has the role of keeping that organ in its place. This usually happens due to a weakness that appears in the muscles that are around the organ, and causes them to tear and let a part of it come out through the small opening that is created. That part of the organ that protudes will create a proeminent bulge that can usually be seen.

Hernia is a problem that is caused by the weakening of muscles of the abdominal wall. It is a painful disease that can be seen both in children and adults. The causes that may lead to hernia are genetic ones or poor lifting techniques.Because of the weakness of the abdominal wall some internal organs especially intestines bulge into the peritoneum. This type of hernia is an uncomplicated case because the organs can be manipulated back into the body. Even so no one can guarantee that these organs will stay in place without surgical help. This type of hernia is termed a reducible hernia.
Causes

Paraesophageal hernia may cause some incarcerations or more acute epigastric pain, because of a strangulation. This type of hernia is rare but it is dangerous, life threatening maybe. Sometimes complications like stomach strangulation appear but in most cases this does not happen.

Symptoms

Hernia symptoms are usually related to the bulge that hernia causes. In The early phases you only notice that small lump that does not hurt when it is touched. As the illness advances the bulge, or herniation as some specialists call it becomes painful and keeps swallowing. The lump becomes more visible when you cough or sneeze and in most cases it can be pushed back with your hand, but it will come out again in a couple of minutes. If it cannot be pushed back then it is possible that you are suffering from a strangulated hernia.

Hiatal hernia doesn’t cause any symptoms or trouble in the body, so in most cases people have it and they don’t even know about it, but they aren’t exposed to any risks. The only time when treatment is required is when strangulation occurs. In this case the patient needs surgery to put the stomach back in its normal position. Hiatal hernia surgery can be done with the help of the laparoscope, an instrument used in many types of surgeries, that enables the doctor to operate without making a large incision in the chest, but through a very small one.

Diagnosis

Hiatus hernia is a condition usually diagnosed in later stages due to the lack of symptoms and the initial symptoms very assembling to other digestive diseases. Hiatal hernia is most common in persons of 55 years and more but can theoretically occur at any age. It is caused by a weakening of the diaphragm hiatus (esophageal opening) allowing the upper part of he stomach to turn up into the chest cavity. This condition is known as hiatus hernia and is responsible for the occurrence of gastric reflux.

Treatment

Umbilical hernia is not surgically repaired in the small children’s case because usually until the child reaches the age of 3 the hernia shrinks and heals by itself. Some mothers try to increase the speed of the healing by tapping a coin to the bulge and forcing it to stay there and push it back, but this method is not medically tested or recommended. However, in some special cases umbilical hernia does require surgical intervention.

Femoral hernias can show no actual symptoms and may cause severe complications if left untreated. The actual surgical maneuver is pushing the hernial content back into the abdomen and repair the problem causing the weakening of the abdominal wall. If the hernia consists out of an intestinal fragment, it must return to its proper place to avoid complications such as a bowel obstruction.

The best treatment for primary inguinal hernias is considered to be the Lichtenstein repair. Not being a hard to do procedure this type of treatment may be used by non-specialist surgeons too. The results of this intervention are less pain and a smaller period of recovering. For bilateral hernias a laparoscopic repair is not only recommended, but necessary. There are some factors that influence the choice. One of them and one of the most important factors are the pores size. The mesh should not contain pores smaller than 10 um in diameter because these may develop bacteria that makes the pores inaccessible to leukocytes.