A granuloma is a little area of inflammation in tissue due to injury, such as from an infection. Granulomas most frequently arise in the lungs but can occur in other parts of the body as fit. Typically, a granuloma encompasses only a tiny part of the tissue. For the most part, a person with a granuloma does not experience any signs or symptoms. Granulomas can be caused by a variety of biologic, chemical and physical irritants of tissue. The most common cause of granuloma is histoplasmosis, a fungal infection that primarily affects the lungs. Most people with pulmonary histoplasmosis never suspect that they have the disease.
Granulomas due to histoplasmosis are usually visible on X-rays because they become calcified and have the same density as bone. Other conditions associated with a granuloma formation include berylliosis, syphilis, sarcoidosis, Cohn’s disease, tuberculosis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and Wegener’s granulomatosis. The granuloma that forms as the result of these conditions is generally a calcified granuloma. This type of granuloma contains deposits of calcium and usually takes time to develop. Therefore, most granulomas have been present in the body for a very long time before they are identified.
The other type of granuloma is granuloma inguinale, which is a bacterial infection of the genital area. This type of granuloma is caused by bacteria called Calymmatobacterium granulomatis and mostly affects individuals living in tropical and subtropical regions. This sexually transmitted form of granuloma affects men more frequently than women, particularly homosexual males. An individual with granuloma inguinale develops blisters or lumps in the genital region, which ultimately become open sores. It takes about 80 years after exposure for granuloma inguinale to increase into open sores.
Granulomas themselves characteristically cause no symptoms. The liver may extend slightly, and mild jaundice may grow. Other symptoms, if they develop, effect from the disorder causing the granulomas. Granulomas caused by sarcoidosis may vanish spontaneously or persist for years with out causing any noticeable symptoms. It is necessary for granuloma inguinale to be treated immediately, as it can cause a great contract of damage to the genitals and can spread to other areas of the body. Sometimes corticosteroids are used to treat granuloma, but whether they stop the disorder from progressing is uncertain.