Effect of Smoking Tobacco on Reproduction and Fertility
Comparing to males, smoking may adversely affect the reproductive organisms in females and a woman's ability to conceive.
Smoking may also create complexities during pregnancy, which can hurt both mother and a baby. Women smokers also possess higher risk of growing the placenta too close to the opening of the uterus. Premature membrane ruptures and plaqueas may also separate from uterus before actual time. All these problems may in turn lead to bleeding, premature delivery and even emergency Caesarean.
It has been found that women who smoke and use oral contraceptives like birth control pills are more likely to develop severe cardiovascular side effects like blood clots and may suffer heart attack or stroke.
Women smokers may have problems in conceiving whereas women who smoke during pregnancy are more likely to have miscarriage or premature birth comparing to non-smokers pregnant women.
Beside this, smoking may affect menstruation in women irrespective of age. Supply of eggs reportedly may decrease even in young women due to smoking. Also women smokers are likely to face menopause early, so their ability to conceive may terminate at an earlier age.
Causes of Impairment
Researches have yet not been completely successful in finding out the mechanism by which smoking affects reproductive capacity of a woman. However, it may be any; from a temporary general disruption of uterine function to mutagenic damage of the egg. According to the medical experts, all these factors clearly indicate long-term damage to fetuses from smoking even before conceiving.
Like Lupron, smoking has also been considered as a cause to increase the risk for osteoporosis in women.
Impact of Smoking Tobacco on Fertility Treatments
Women smokers often require about twice IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) attempts to conceive than nonsmokers. It has been reported by the studies of IVF that higher doses of gonadotropins are needed by the women smokers to stimulate their ovaries. Beside these, women reportedly have lower peak estardiol levels, more ankle implanted rates and also they need to go more cycles with failed utilization than nonsmokers do.
However, it may not be possible to overcome the reduction in natural fertility caused by smoking by assisted reproductive technologies. Thus, smoking tobacco must be discouraged by women. Both male and female partners in couples, who have a history of infertility or miscarriage, must avoid smoking. Smoking cessation may result in the improved natural fertility and may assist in infertility treatment.