Fasd (venesection): introduction, uses

FASD (VENESECTION)

Introduction

Fasd is one of the oldest classical modes of treatment in unani system of medicine. Venesection is a method used for cleansing and evacuation of morbid humors from the body that is one of the important methods adopted by unani physicians since long time. Venesection may be cause diversion of the blood flow from and so indirectly relieving the inflammatory congestion. Hence it is highly effective method against various diseases. The maximum quantity of blood that may be let out should not exceed one pasha i.e. 640 gm at a time. The operated site should be bandaged with a piece of cloth soaked in medicated oil. The art of Venesection (Phlebotomy) or blood letting was flourishing well before Hippocrates in the fifth century B.C the practice reached unbelievable heights in the 18th and early 19th centuries, phlebotomy, also called as fasd in Arabic. Is the act of drawing or removing blood from the circulatory system through a cut (incision) or puncture.

Types- (1) Fasd-e waride

              (2) Fasd-e shirayni

 Anatomy and description of vessels of Venesection

Total blood vessels in body 42, Veins (Warid) 34, Arteries (Shirayn) 08

 Blood vessels of the skull, head about (12)

  1. Warid-e Al-haama (Parital vein) –one
  2. Warid-e Al-jabah (Forontal vein ) –one
  3. Warid-e Moakharas (Pharyngeal vein) –one
  4. Warid-e Khalaf al-ajan (Posterior auriculor vein) – two
  5. Warid-e Khashasha (Inferior occipital vein ) – two
  6. Warid-e Arnbah (Supra orbital vein) – one
  7. Warid-e Maqeen (Maxillary vein) –one
  8. Warid-e Aanfiqaa (Interior labial vein) –one
  9. Warid-e Jahera (Lingual vein) – one
  10. Warid-e Bateen (Anterior jugular vein) – one

Blood vessels of the hand about (6+6 = 12)

  1. Warid-e Qeefal (Cephalic vein )
  2. Warid-e Bazleeq (Basilic vein)
  3. Warid-e Akhal (Median cubital vein)
  4. Warid-e Habl-uz-zirra (Median vein)
  5. Warid-e Ibti / Syringe  (Axillary vein / Medial ferarm vein)
  6. Warid-e Usailim (Palmar metacarpal / Salvatella / 3rd dorso metacarpal)

Blood vessels of the leg about (4+4 = 8)

  1. 1.      Warid-e Mabij rkbah (Poplitial vein)
  2. Warid-e Shafin (Great saphenous vein)
  3. Warid-e Arqun nisha (Sciatic vein)
  4. Warid-e Mustkadam (Tendocalcanum vein)

 Instruments used in Venesection

 Antiseptic lotion, tourniquet, cotton swab, scalpel with 11 No. blade, sponge, bandage and kidney tray

Investigation

Hb, BT, CT, HIV, LFT, ECG, KFT, HBSAG

 Procedure and precautions

Period for fasd-

1) Autumn season – day on which climate is not cloudy and its. Neither too hot nor too cold, 2) Rainy season – on the day which is freefrom cloud, 3) Summer season – in morning or evening time.

Following points are to be kept in view-

1)      Status of disease, 2) Status of blood, 3) Condition of the patien.

Indication

  • Amraz-e Jild (Skin disorders) e.g. leucoderma, scabies, alopecia areata
  • Cardio-respiratory disorders
  • Nervous system disorders
  • Gynecological disorders
  • Opthalmic disorder
  • Locomotor disorders- i.e. arthritis, sciatica, hip pain, gout.
  • Inflammation of anus, rectum, penis
  • Disorders of spleen
  • Bawaseer (Haemorrhoids)
  • Eruption
  • Throat disease
  • Abscess

Sites of Venesection

 

SN

Blood vessels

Drains part of body

Prevent of disease

1.

Qeefal (Cephalic vein)

Head, Neck, upper part of liver

Meningitis, otolagia

2.

Bazleeq (Basilic vein)

Abdominal pain, Hepato-spleenomegaly

3.

Akhal (Median vein)

Abdomen

Headache, pneumothorax

4

Habl-ul-zirra(Median vein)

5.

Usailim (Salvatella)

Liver and Spleen

Diseases of liver, heart, spleen,

6

Arqun-nisha (Sciatic vein)

Leg

Sciatica, Elephantiasis, Varicose

7

 Mabij-rkbah (Popliteal vein)

Lower abdomen

Menstruation, Obstructed piles

8

Frontal vein

Head

Headache, Conjunctivitis, Eye

9

Parietal vein

Head

Migraine, Eczema of Scalp

 

10

Temporal vein

Head

Leukoma, Trachoma, Cataract,                                                                         Night blindness, Chronic conjunctivitis

 

11

Jugular vein

Chest

Asthma, Bronchitis, Pneumonia                                                                        Angina, Pleurisy, Pleuraitis,                                                                       Dyspnoea, Diseases of the spleen

 

12.

Labial vein

Mouth

Mouth ulcers, stomatitis

13.

Inferior lingual

Chin, throat

Angina, tonsillitis

14.

Temporal artery

Eye’s

Eye’s diseases

15.

Post auricular

Eye’s

Glaucoma, leukoma

 Indication

(1)Amraz-e Jild (Skin disorders) e.g. leucoderma, scabies, alopecia areata (2) Cardio-respiratory disorders (3) Nervous system disorders (4) Gynecological disorders (5) Opthalmic disorder (6) Locomotor disorders- i.e. arthritis, sciatica, hip pain and gout (7) Inflammation of anus, rectum, penis (8) Disorders of spleen (9) Bawaseer (Haemorrhoids) (10) Eruption (11) Throat disease (12) Abscess

Contraindication

Venesection is not advisable during pregnancy, menstruation, extremly cold temperament, extremly cold climate, severe pain, after resolving baths, after coitus, in children under fourteen years of age, in elderly person, unduly thin or obese persons, pale puffy complexion, oedema (general / local), weakness, anaemia, irritable bowel syndrome, jaundice, just after emesis / enema, infertility & impotence, dyspnoea / asthma, fever / palsy, thirsty / unconscious, inflammation of eyes and excessive dryness in the body.

Complications

Gangrene, severe haemorrage, severe haemorrage, shock hypovolumic and constipation.