Chemoprevention is the use of standard and artificial compounds to impede in the early times of tumor growth in the attempt to evade the cells to develop malignancy. Chemoprevention should not be taken aback with chemotherapy, a treatment for cancer which uses chemical elements in killing malignant cells to evade advanced growth of cancer.
The following are examples of efficient chemoprevention agents:
Nuclear-receptor ligands – receptors are proteins found primarily in the cell surface which are configured in such a manner that they receive a particular particle called ligand. The fastening of ligands to nuclear receptors instigates chain of events, as an outcome of encouraging cell differentiation and development.
Estrogen receptors – Tamoxifen was utilized for several years in the cure of breast tumor. Nowadays it was proven to be extremely effective as chemo preventive means. Raloxifene is another receptor which has been developed in the cure of osteoporosis is likewise an effective chemoprevention agent for breast cancer.
Retinoid receptors – Retinoid is a mixture of either ordinary or artificial elements, which have physiological actions coupled with Vitamin A. Scientists have recognized long ago the role responsibility of Vitamin A in cell segregation and that elevated levels of vitamins can have defensive result against stimulation of cancer. Studies have proven that retinoids are predominately showing potentials in the prevention of lung cancer. The human body gets vitamin A from plants converting the originator, beta-carotene into a dynamic vitamin.
Since epidemiological researches pointed out that foods having Vitamin A came out to contain protective result against cancer of the lungs, researchers undergone medical study on beta-carotene, a principal source of Vitamin A in food. Opposite to something expected, beta-carotene added the occurrence of lung tumors in smokers. These outcomes indicate the complexity in segregating the effects of particular cancer protecting ingredients in foods.
Vitamin D receptors – Deltanoids are artificial compounds which similar to Vitamin D. The compound appears to contain similar anti-proliferating effect of Vitamin D against colon, breast and prostate tumors, without causing hazardous increase in the calcium levels in the blood coupled with elevated use of Vitamin D. Clinical trials are being planned regarding this.
Celecoxib is an example of anti-inflammatory agent – it is widely known as COX-2 inhibitor. This drug relieves the symptoms of swelling and pain sufferers of arthritis, without causing problems of ulcer in the stomach and hemorrhage. Luckily, it was revealed that COX-2 inhibitors are also efficacious in avoiding colon cancer. This drug is now suggested for persons who have hereditary edematous polyposis, a situation that has great potential to become cancerous.
Several new generation tumor treatments entail the utilization of drugs that hinder the signal transduction way like tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Signal transduction is:
Many new generation cancer treatments involve the use of drugs that inhibit signal transduction pathway, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Signal transduction is a biochemical fall of particles from initiator or signal, into the nucleus, wherein it may harness the performance of the cell as well as the cell cycle.