Diabetes Type 2, formerly known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes, is the most common type of diabetes occurring in people today. About 90-95% of the population sufferers from this disease. It is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels due to insulin resistance and insulin deficiency.
The development of type 2 diabetes is more or less due to lifestyle factors and genetics. Those who have less physical activity, unhealthy diet and consume alcohol frequently and smoke are said to be more likely to acquire this disease.
People with relatives, especially first degree relatives, with type 2 diabetes have increased risks of also acquiring the disease. Obesity is also said to be a factor in the development of the disease. The increasing rate of childhood obesity is believed to have caused the increased sunset of diabetes in children and adolescents.
Other causes include hypertensive, high cholesterol (combined hyperlipidemia), acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, thyrotoxicosis, pheochromocytoma, chronic pancreatitis, cancer and drugs, and aging.
Symptoms of diabetes type 2 include polyuria or frequent urination, polydipsia or increased thirst, the overload of sugar in the bloodstream pulls out the fluids from the tissues and in turn causes you to drink more and urinate more. Polyphagia or increased hunger, the muscles and organs work overtime to move sugar into your cells because of insulin deficiency and therefore cause you to eat more.
Weight loss, the inability to use glucose leads your body from retaining calories because they get flushed out through urination. Fatigue, this is due to the lack of sugar in the body, energy comes from sugar and the lack of it causes one to become lethargic. Blurry vision, this is due to the high blood sugar levels that pull out fluids from the eyes affecting your ability to focus clearly. Slow-healing sores, diabetes affect your ability to heal and resist infections. Darkened skin, some diabetics could also cause dark patches on the skin.
But the onset of diabetes type 2 can be delayed or even preceded through proper nutrition and regular exercise. The risk can be reduced by making some changes in the diet and including physical activity in your lifestyle. Low-saturated fat diets can reduce the risk of diabetes. Less alcohol consumption and smoking can also lower the incidence of the disease.
If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to nonketonic hyperglycemia and long term complications like increased heart attacks, strokes, amputation and kidney failure. If blood sugar is properly maintained, the dangers for such complications will also be reduced significantly.