Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Diabetes is a disease in which the body doesn’t produce or properly use insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas, an organ near the stomach. Insulin is needed to turn sugar and other food into energy. Three main forms of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes (occurring during pregnancy), which have similar signs, symptoms, and consequences, but different causes and population distributions. Ultimately, all forms are due to the beta cells of the pancreas being unable to produce sufficient insulin to prevent hyperglycemia. Type 1 is usually due to autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells which produce insulin. Type 2 is characterized by tissue-wide insulin resistance and varies widely; it sometimes progresses to loss of beta cell function. Gestational diabetes is similar to type 2 diabetes, in that it involves insulin resistance; the hormones of pregnancy cause insulin resistance in those women genetically predisposed to developing this condition.
People with pre-diabetes are at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease and stroke. Gestational diabetes also involves a combination of inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness, resembling type 2 diabetes in several respects. It develops during pregnancy and may improve or disappear after delivery. Insulin is called the “hunger hormone .
Causes of Diabetes Mellitus
Glucose into most cells from the blood (primarily muscle and fat cells, but not central nervous system cells), deficiency of insulin or the insensitivity of its receptors plays a central role in all forms of diabetes mellitus. Much of the carbohydrate in food is converted within a few hours to the monosaccharide glucose, the principal carbohydrate found in blood. Type 1 diabetes mellitus—formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM), childhood diabetes or also known as juvenile diabetes, is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas leading to a deficiency of insulin. The main cause of beta cell loss leading to type 1 diabetes is a T-cell mediated autoimmune attack. Type 2 diabetes mellitus—previously known as adult-onset diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes.
Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus
3.Decreased endurance during exercise
Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus
Person with diabetes keeps blood sugar levels tightly controlled, complications are less likely to develop. People with diabetes should always carry or wear a medical identification bracelet or tag to alert health care professionals to the presence of diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes who are able to maintain a healthy weight may be able to avoid the need for large doses of insulin. People with diabetes also tend to have high levels of cholesterol in the blood, so limiting the amount of saturated fat in the diet is important. Drugs may also be needed to help control the level of cholesterol in the blood. Diet management is very important in people with both types of diabetes. Doctors recommend a healthy, balanced diet and efforts to maintain a healthy weight. Some people benefit from meeting with a dietitian to develop an optimal eating plan. Diabetic ketoacidosis is also a medical emergency, because it can cause coma and death. Oral medications are available to lower blood glucose in Type II diabetics include tolbutamide, tolazamide, acetohexamide, and chlorpropamide.