The body can withstand a lot of stresses such as heavy exercise or extreme physical activity in work, however when these stresses are continued for moderately prolonged periods, they may be dangerous to the body.
What really determine endurance in exercise are the muscles. Muscle strength is dependent on size and muscle contractility force. Endurance is another measure of muscle performance, which depends more on the nutritive support of the muscle—on the amount of glycogen that has been stored in the muscle before the period of exercise. A high carbohydrate diet stores more glycogen than a high fat diet or a mixed diet.
There are three metabolic systems involved in exercise—the phosphocreatine-creatine system, the glycogen-lactic acid system and the aerobic system. In all these systems, free radicals are created.
By definition, a free radical is any atom (e.g. oxygen, nitrogen) with at least one unpaired electron in the outermost shell, and is capable of independent existence. A free radical is easily formed when a covalent bond between entities is broken and one electron remains with each newly formed atom. Free radicals are highly reactive due to the presence of unpaired electron(s).
Anywhere from 2 to 5% of the total oxygen intake during both rest and exercise have the ability to form the highly damaging superoxide radicals via electron escape. During exercise, our oxygen consumption increases 10 to 20 fold to 35-70 ml/kg/min. In turn, electron escape from the electron chain transfer is further enhanced. Thus, when calculated, .6 to 3.5 ml/kg/min of the total oxygen intake during exercise have the ability to form free radicals.
Oxygen consumption greatly increases during exercise, which leads to increased free radical formation. The body reacts to the increase in free radical production through its antioxidant defense system. When free radical production exceeds clearance, oxidative damage occurs. Free radicals formed during prolonged exercise may exceed the protective capacity of the antioxidant defense system, thereby making the body more immune to disease and injury. Therefore the need for antioxidant supplementation is needed.
A free radical attack on a membrane usually damages a cell to the point that it must be removed by the immune system. If free radical formation and attack are not controlled within the muscle during exercise, a large quantity of muscle could easily be damaged. Damaged muscle could in turn inhibit performance by the induction of fatigue. As a result, our performance during exercise, work and daily activities becomes poor.
Antioxidant means “against oxidation.” Antioxidants work to protect fats from peroxidation by radicals. Antioxidants are effective because they are willing to give up their own electrons to free radicals. When a free radical gains the electron from an antioxidant, it no longer needs to attack the cell and the chain reaction of oxidation is broken. After donating an electron, an antioxidant becomes a free radical by definition. Antioxidants in this state are not harmful because they have the ability to accommodate the change in electrons without becoming reactive.
Thus athletes need some form of nutritional supplementation. Not only athletes need this but all persons experiencing physical and mental fatigue. PSC Plant stem Cells Nutrition, based on its numerous studies done, have formulated Daily Endurance Complex. Daily Endurance Complex is being distributed by PSC Distribution LLC in the US and Canada in their website http://plantstemcells.net.
Daily Endurance Complex is for the nutritional support of any type of physical workout. It improves performance endurance and the time to recover from such workout by eliminating free radicals though its potent plant stem cell extracts constituents.
Daily Endurance Complex contains Malus Sylvestris (Crab Apple) which contains antioxidants. A study done by Seeram et al (2003) showed that there are cyclooxygenase-inhibitory and antioxidant compounds from Crabapple.
Daily Endurance Complex also has Abies Pectinata (Silver Fir) young shoots. A study done by Yang et al (2009) showed that Abies Alba essential oils have free radical scavenging activity and also anti-microbial activity.
This nutritional supplement also contains Rosa Canina (Dog Rose) young shoots. Fecka (2009) has isolated tannins and polyphenols from Rosa Canina; these two substances are anti-oxidants in their own right.
Quercus (Oak) buds present in this supplement also contain antioxidants. Barbehenn et al (2006) has reported that tannin isolated from Quercus is the one responsible for the delay in aging of tree leaves.
Ilex Aquifolium (Holly) young shoots, according to a study by Nahar et al (2005) have phenylacetic acid derivatives such as quercetin, which also act as antioxidants that eliminate free radicals.
Fraxinus Excelsior (Ash) buds was reported by El Ghazaly et al (1992) to reduce inflammation and edema which is associated with arthritis. The results showed that Fraxinus Excelsior is comparable to Diclofenac in anti-inflammatory activity.
In addition, Daily Endurance Complex contains Ribes Nigrum (Black Currant) which contains plant steroids which lessens inflammation and contains 1,000mg of Vitamin C per 10 drops, which is also an antioxidant. It also contains Pinus Montana which boosts production of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate for connective tissues.
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- Navindra P. Seeram, Robert H. Cichewicz, Amitabh Chandra, and Muraleedharan G. Nair. (2003) Cyclooxygenase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Compounds from Crabapple Fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003, 51 (7), pp 1948–1951
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- Yang SA, Jeon SK, Lee EJ, Im NK, Jhee KH, Lee SP, Lee IS. (2009) Radical Scavenging Activity of the Essential Oil of Silver Fir (Abies alba). J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2009 May;44(3):253-9. Epub 2009 Apr 25.