Aneurismale beencyste are a benign leg tumour, meaning that it not to other areas of the body uitzaaiing. It occurs typically in the second decade of living and can come in nearly no matter which leg in the poor, the legs, trunk or skull. The vertebrae and knee are the most common sites of occurrence. It can however be quite destructive locally and has a high propensity for recurrence. The cause of these tumors is unknown. However, they are believed to emerge in response to a disturbance of the rich capillary network in the host bone. Controversy exists as to whether or not aneurysmal bone cysts emerge secondary to a pre-existing tumor. It commonly involves the proximal humerus, femur, tibia, and pelvis.
Aneurysmal bone cysts are more common in females than males. In about half of all cases, a preexisting tumor, such as fibrous dysplasia, nonossifying fibroma, solitary bone cyst or osteosarcoma can be identified. Recently, abnormalities in the chromosomes of the tumor cells have been described, but the significance of these findings is unclear. The most common problem that an aneurysmal bone cyst will cause is weakening of the bone. This may lead to increased susceptibility to fracture at that location. Because of this, the bone cyst may need to be treated in the operating room to prevent a fracture. Due to the impedance of venous flow, the intracystic pressure increases and the small veins become dilated causing formation of aneurysmal slits.
The lesion is a component of, or occurs, already exist leg tumour in approximately one third case, this discovery further confirms the fact that aneurysmal bone cyst occurs in an unusual bone as a result of the associated blood dynamics change. An aneurysmal bone cyst can arise from a preexisting chondroblastoma, a chondromyxoid fibroma, an osteoblastoma, a giant cell tumor, or fibrous dysplasia. Spinal lesions may cause neurologic radiculopathy or quadriplegia, and patients with skull lesions may have moderate to severe headaches. Aneurysmal bone cysts may be intraosseous, staying inside of the bone marrow. Or they may be extraosseous, developing on the surface of the bone, and extending into the marrow. The symptoms of an aneurysmal bone cyst resemble symptoms of other conditions or medical problems.
Sometimes the beencyste be found to after a crack have happened, this will be called a pathological crack. In this case, the treatment of the crack will include also treatment of the beencyste to prevent a recurrence of this problem. The treatment approach will vary depending of the location and aggressiveness of the lesion. Most lesions can be treated with currettage and application of a high-speed burr. Selective embolectomy of nutrient vessels and percutaneous injection of a fibrosing agent are newer treatment modalities. Once the precise diagnosis is known, local recurrences may be retreated by appropriate methods. Wide resection and limb-sparing reconstructions are necessary to prevent progressively destructive recurrence. Radiation has been used in some cases where operative treatment is not possible, but this adds the additional risk of malignancy.